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Sample records for balanced salt solution

  1. In vitro corrosion of ZEK100 plates in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution

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    Waizy Hazibullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years magnesium alloys have been intensively investigated as potential resorbable materials with appropriate mechanical and corrosion properties. Particularly in orthopedic research magnesium is interesting because of its mechanical properties close to those of natural bone, the prevention of both stress shielding and removal of the implant after surgery. Methods ZEK100 plates were examined in this in vitro study with Hank's Balanced Salt Solution under physiological conditions with a constant laminar flow rate. After 14, 28 and 42 days of immersion the ZEK100 plates were mechanically tested via four point bending test. The surfaces of the immersed specimens were characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD. Results The four point bending test displayed an increased bending strength after 6 weeks immersion compared to the 2 week group and 4 week group. The characterization of the surface revealed the presence of high amounts of O, P and Ca on the surface and small Mg content. This indicates the precipitation of calcium phosphates with low solubility on the surface of the ZEK100 plates. Conclusions The results of the present in vitro study indicate that ZEK100 is a potential candidate for degradable orthopedic implants. Further investigations are needed to examine the degradation behavior.

  2. Hank?s balanced salt solution: an alternative resuspension medium to label autologous leukocytes. Experience in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Martin-Comin Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS has been used, as resuspension medium, instead of leukocyte poor plasma (LPP to label autologous white blood cells in 28 patients with suspicion af active inflammatory bowel disease.Labelled cells were reinjected and anterior and caudo-craneal views were obtained at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h p.i. Regions of interest were outlined on liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow (spine, background and lesions and the organ/background activity ratios were calculated in all scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups: Group 1: LPP, 30 patients and Groups 2: HBSS, 28 patients. Labelling efficiency was higher in HBBS group (89.0 ± 3.2 % than in the LPP group (6.5 ± 6.3%. Organ/background activity ratios were similar in both groups. Concerning diagnostic accuracy was similar at 30 min and 2 h but the false positive rate increased at 6 h p.i. in the HBSS group. HBSS seems to be a valid alternative as resuspension medium in the labeling of autologous leukocytes but leukocyte poor plasma seem to induce less leukocyte damage. Based on these results, in our center HBSS is the currently used medium to label leukocytes.

  3. Hank's balanced salt solution: an alternative resuspension medium to label autologous leukocytes. Experience in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Comin, Joseph; Plaza, Pedro; Roca, Manoel [Hospital de Bellvitge (Spain). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: jmartincomin@csub.scs.es; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2002-09-01

    In this work Hank balanced salt solution (HBSS) has been used as resuspension medium, instead of leukocyte poor plasma (LPP) to label autologous white blood cells in 28 patients with suspicion of active inflammatory bowel disease. Labelled cells were reinjected and anterior and caudo-cranial views were obtained at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h p.i. Regions of interest were outlined on liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow (spine), background and lesions and the organ/background activity ratios were calculated in all scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups: Group 1: LPP, 30 patients and Groups 2: HBSS, 28 patients. labelling efficiency was higher in HBSS group (89.0 +- 3.2%) than in the LPP group (6.5 +- 6.3%). Organ/background activity ratios were similar in both groups. Concerning diagnostic accuracy was similar at 30 min and 2 h but the false positive rate increased at 6 h p.i. in the HBSS group. HBSS seems to be a valid alternative as resuspension medium in the labeling of autologous leukocytes but leukocyte poor plasma seem to induce less leukocyte damage. Based on these results, in our center HBSS is the currently used medium to label leukocytes. (author)

  4. THE ADDITION OF CAFFEINE IN EARLE’S BALANCED SALT SOLUTION MEDIA WITH WASHING UP METHOD INCREASE MEMBRANE INTEGRITY AND ACROSOMAL SPERM

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    B. K. Satriyasa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: caffeine, a methylxanthine derivate, appears to inhibit phosphodiesterase, thereby inhibiting the break down of cAMP and increasing its concentration inside cell. This study aims to assess the effect of caffeine addition in Earles’s Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS on the increase in membrane integrity and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa using swim up method. Methods: This study was carried out at the Clinic of Sexology and Andrology, Sanglah Public Hospital at Denpasar Bali-Indonesia. This study was an experimental study using the design of pre and post test paired control group design. The samples were sperm specimens of eighteen infertile couple male or volunteers who were infertile with age ranged between 20-40 years old. The samples   were divided into two groups: treatment group (caffeine + EBSS and control group (EBSS. The data were analysed statistically by normality test (Kolmogorov - Smirnov Goodness of Fit Test, Homogeneity test, and Paired Student’s t test.  Results: The results showed that the caffeine addition in EBSS medium could increase significantly (p<0.05.  The integrity of the sperm membrane obtained were from 81.30 % to 86.60 % and acrosomal reaction from 82.60% to 89.60% evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS. The conclusion of this study is that addition of caffeine in EBSS medium increases significantly membrane integrity and acrosomal reaction of the human sperm.

  5. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F

    2016-01-01

    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed.

  6. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  7. Scorpion toxins prefer salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikouee, Azadeh; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2015-11-01

    There is a wide variety of ion channel types with various types of blockers, making research in this field very complicated. To reduce this complexity, it is essential to study ion channels and their blockers independently. Scorpion toxins, a major class of blockers, are charged short peptides with high affinities for potassium channels. Their high selectivity and inhibitory properties make them an important pharmacological tool for treating autoimmune or nervous system disorders. Scorpion toxins typically have highly charged surfaces and-like other proteins-an intrinsic ability to bind ions (Friedman J Phys Chem B 115(29):9213-9223, 1996; Baldwin Biophys J 71(4):2056-2063, 1996; Vrbka et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(42):15440-15444, 2006a; Vrbka et al. J Phys Chem B 110(13):7036-43, 2006b). Thus, their effects on potassium channels are usually investigated in various ionic solutions. In this work, computer simulations of protein structures were performed to analyze the structural properties of the key residues (i.e., those that are presumably involved in contact with the surfaces of the ion channels) of 12 scorpion toxins. The presence of the two most physiologically abundant cations, Na(+) and K(+), was considered. The results indicated that the ion-binding properties of the toxin residues vary. Overall, all of the investigated toxins had more stable structures in ionic solutions than in water. We found that both the number and length of elements in the secondary structure varied depending on the ionic solution used (i.e., in the presence of NaCl or KCl). This study revealed that the ionic solution should be chosen carefully before performing experiments on these toxins. Similarly, the influence of these ions should be taken into consideration in the design of toxin-based pharmaceuticals.

  8. 双氢青蒿素在Hank's平衡盐溶液中的溶解性和稳定性变化%Solubility and Stability of Dihydroartemisinin in Hanks Balanced Salt Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宝; 吴安国; 王春玲; 黄孟秋; 陈建南; 赖小平

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察双氢青蒿素在不同pH、温度、光照环境下,在Hank's;平衡盐溶液(Hank's Balanced Salt Solution,HBSS)中的溶解性和稳定性,为其体外吸收与代谢研究提供依据.方法 采用反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)测定含量.结果 双氢青蒿素在4%甲醇HBSS中有较高的溶解浓度,37℃下,在pH 1,3,5,7.4的HBSS中的溶解浓度大于400 μmol/L,pH 1,3,5的样品,2h之内稳定,pH 7.4的样品4h之内稳定;在碱性HBSS中的稳定性差,容易降解;-20℃下,30 d稳定;避光可以提高其稳定性.结论 实验制备的双氢青蒿素HBSS酸性或中性溶液,它们的溶解性和稳定性可以满足体外吸收与代谢研究要求.

  9. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

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    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  10. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  11. SOLUTIONS TO ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SALT LANDS

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    Elena Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents improvement solutions for the ecological reconstruction of salt land according to the characteristicsof their natural conditions. Agroameliorative, agrobiological, agrochemical and hydroameliorative methods may beused. Effectiveness of ecological restoration increases by applying complex ameliorative works. The main role of suchan undreground drainage facility is to collect the salt-loaded, leaching water. Drain distance is calculated for nonpermanentflow conditions, establishing a distance L that allows the lowering grounwater level from its highesthydraulic load to its best value, ht, withing a given time length. The sewer canals should have a depth of min. 1.2 if theland is not equipped with underground drains, and between 1.5 and 1.6 if underground drainage exists.The distancebetween the antenna and the sewer canal should be about 200 m or the length of the watering installation. Verticaldrainage consists in the use of wells with a depth of 25 m, equipped with selected gravel filter (Ø 2-7 mm and adecanter (1.5 m in length.

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We

  13. Toxicidade retiniana do gás hexafluoreto de enxofre, líquido perfluorocarbono, ar e solução salina balanceada em olhos de coelhos Sulfur hexafluoride gas, perfluorocarbon liquid, air and balanced salt solution retinal toxicity in rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vieira de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a toxicidade retiniana do gás hexafluoreto de enxofre, líquido perfluorocarbono e solução salina balanceada em olhos de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 22 olhos de 16 coelhos albinos da raça Nova Zelândia divididos em grupos: solução salina balanceada (7 olhos; hexafluoreto de enxofre (4 olhos, líquido perfluorocarbono (5 olhos e controle (6 olhos. Após aspiração de 0,3 ml de humor vítreo, foi injetado a mesma quantidade de solução salina balanceada ou hexafluoreto de enxofre a 100% ou líquido perfluorocarbono na cavidade vítrea. O grupo controle não foi submetido a nenhum procedimento. Três semanas depois o humor vítreo foi coletado para análise bioquímica e o olho enucleado para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Os olhos dos animais que receberam injeção de hexafluoreto de enxofre e líquido perfluorocarbono mostraram significativo aumento da concentração vítrea de glutamato quando comparado aos grupos solução salina balanceada e controle (pPURPOSE: To determine retinal toxicity after intravitreous balanced salt solution, sulfur hexafluoride gas, and perfluorocarbon liquid injection in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of sixteen New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into groups: balanced salt solution (7 eyes; sulfur hexafluoride gas (4 eyes; and perfluorocarbon liquid (5 eyes. After the introduction of a needle through the sclera the vitreous was aspirated (0.3 ml, balanced salt solution, sulfur hexafluoride gas 100% and perfluorocarbon liquid (0.3 ml were injected into rabbit vitreous cavity. The control group (6 eyes was not submitted to any procedure. After three weeks the vitreous was aspirated and submitted to biochemical analysis and the eyes prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The eyes submitted to perfluorocarbon liquid and sulfur hexafluoride gas injection showed a greater L-glutamate increase in the vitreous compared to balanced salt solution and control groups

  14. The solubility of toluene in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, S; Harrington, R; Drever, J

    1999-03-01

    The solubility of toluene has been measured in distilled water, and in various inorganic salt solutions. Values of the Setschenow constant, K(S), which quantify toluene solubility versus salt concentration, have been determined for each salt. Values of K(S) are compared to the activity of water for the salt solutions. Data from this study, consistent with earlier data, suggests that the effects of salts upon toluene solubility are non-additive. This contrasts the additive behavior of inorganic salts upon the solubility of nonpolar organic compounds, such as benzene and naphthalene, reported in the literature. Specific interaction between slightly polar toluene and ions in solution is suggested as a possible explanation for the non-additive effect of salts on the solubility of toluene.

  15. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

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    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  16. Forces between Hydrophobic Solids in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mastropietro, Dean J; Ducker, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Much research has focused on the discovery and description of long-ranged forces between hydrophobic solids immersed in water. Here we show that the force between high contact-angle solids in concentrated salt solution (1 M KCl) agrees very well with van der Waals forces calculated from Lifshitz theory for separations greater than 5 nm. The hydrophobic solids are octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated glass, with an advancing contact angle of 108 degrees. Thus, in 1 M salt solution, it is unnecessar...

  17. Molecular Thermodynamic Model for Polyelectrolyte Solutions with Added Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBo; CAIJun; 等

    2002-01-01

    A molecular thermodynamic model of polyelectrolyte developed previously was extended to polyelectrolyte solutions with added salts.Thermodynamic properties,such as activity coefficients of polyelectrolytes or added salts and osmotic coefficients of solvent, of a number of aqueous mixtures of polyelectrolytes and salts are analyzed with the proposed model.Successful correlation is obtained in the range of moderate or higher polyion concentration.For the same sample,thermodynamic properties of polyelectrolytes with and without simple electrolytes can be predicted mutually using parameters from regression data.

  18. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Bhowmik, Pradip K., E-mail: pradip.bhowmik@unlv.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property.

  19. Forces between hydrophobic solids in concentrated aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, Dean J; Ducker, William A

    2012-03-09

    Much research has focused on the discovery and description of long-ranged forces between hydrophobic solids immersed in water. Here we show that the force between high contact-angle solids in concentrated salt solution (1 M KCl) agrees very well with van der Waals forces calculated from Lifshitz theory for separations greater than 5 nm. The hydrophobic solids are octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated glass, with an advancing contact angle of 108°. Thus, in 1 M salt solution, it is unnecessary to invoke the presence of a hydrophobic force at separations greater than 5 nm. Through measurement in salt solution, we avoid the necessity of accounting for large electrostatic forces that frequently occur in pure water and may obscure resolution of other forces.

  20. SWELLING EQUILIBRIUM OF NONIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of nonionic polyacrylamide hydrogels, using acrylamide as monomer and N,N’-methylene diacrylamide as crosslinking agent, were prepared by the free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. Swelling equilibria for the gels were carried out in aqueous solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4 with concentration ranging from 10-3 to 5mol/kgH2O at 25℃. Experimental results revealed that the chlorides and phosphates cause a different behavior at higher salt concentration. The swelling ratio increases with increasing concentration of chlorides salts, while decreases with the increased phosphates salt concentration. The phenomena seem to be related to the different interactions of chloride and hydrogen phosphate ions with the network groups. Furthermore, the effects of different concentration of crosslinking agent and total monomers on gel swelling performance were also investigated.

  1. Scattering of light by charged colloidal particles in salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1962-01-01

    In the interpretation of light scattering by colloidal electrolytes in salt solutions the interaction between the colloidal particles and the low molecular weight ions has to be taken into account. When fluctuation theory is applied for the derivation of a light-scattering equation, nonelectroneutra

  2. Modification of FGD gypsum in hydrothermal mixed salt solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qin; WU Zhong-biao

    2006-01-01

    A novel utilization way of the sludge from wet calcium-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes has been developed in this paper. This study focused on the conversion of the FGD gypsum into α-hemihydrate calcium sulfate by a hydrothermal salt solution method at atmospheric pressure. Experimental study has been carried out in a batch reactor. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made by DSC/TG thermal analysis, SEM, XRD, metalloscope and chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that the modification of FGD gypsum was controlled by the dissolution and recrystallization mechanisms. With the introduction of FGD gypsum the salt solution was supersaturated, then crystal nucleus of α-hemihydrate calcium sulfate were produced in the solution. With the submicroscopic structure of FGD gypsum crystal changed, the crystal nucleus grew up into α-hemihydrate calcium sulfate crystals. Thus, the modification of FGD gypsum was fulfilled.

  3. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:V.Salt Balance in Soil Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1995-01-01

    Salt balance in simulated soil coulumns was calculated on the basis of a large amount of long term observation data.The results showed that under the climate conditions of semi-arid region of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain,the soils in the columns were under salt accumulation conditions when the groundwater depth was controlled at less than 2.0m,and under desalinization conditions when at larger than 2.5m.In the soil columns with clay soil and silty loam soil intercalated with a clay layer,the amount of salt accumulated was far less than that in the soil column with silty loam soil throughout the whole profile.Under no irriagtion conditions crop planting may increase groundwater evaporation and hence salt accumulation in soil,making the soil columns under desalinization be under salt accumulation conditions.

  4. Effects of ion exchange on stream solute fluxes in a basin receiving highway deicing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    At Fever Brook, a 1260-ha forested basin in central Massachusetts, highway deicing salt application increased the solute flux in streamflow by 120% above background flux (equivalent basis) during a 2-yr period. Attempts to isolate the nonsalt component of stream solute fluxes have commonly subtracted salt contributions based on the net Cl flux (Cl output in streamflow minus Cl input in precipitation). In these studies, any net Na flux in excess of the amount needed to balance the net Cl flux has been attributed to weathering. At Fever Brook, however, the net output of Na was less than the net output of Cl, suggesting a loss of Na within the basin. The Na sink was inferred to be cation exchange of Na for Ca and Mg in the soil. A method was developed to quantify the exchange based on a Na budget, which included an independent estimate of the Na flux from weathering. The amount of exchange was apportioned to Ca and Mg based on their relative concentrations in the stream. The background fluxes of Ca and Mg (i.e., those that would occur in the absence of deicing salts) were calculated by subtracting the amounts from ion exchange plus the much smaller direct contributions in deicing salts from the observed fluxes. Ion exchange and direct salt contributions increased the net output fluxes of Ca and Mg, each by 44% above background. In basins that receive deicing salts, failure to account for cation exchange thus may result in an underestimate of the flux of Na from weathering and overestimates of the fluxes of Ca and Mg from weathering.

  5. Electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions of aluminum salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, J.; Rilo, E.; Segade, L.; Cabeza, O.; Varela, L. M.

    2005-03-01

    We present experimental measurements of the specific electrical conductivity (σ) in aqueous solutions of aluminum salts at different temperatures, covering all salt concentrations from saturation to infinite dilution. The salts employed were AlCl3 , AlBr3 , AlI3 , and Al(NO3)3 , which present a 1:3 relationship between the electrical charges of anion and cation. In addition, we have measured the density in all ranges of concentrations of the four aqueous electrolyte solutions at 298.15K . The measured densities show an almost linear behavior with concentration, and we have fitted it to a second order polynomial with very high degree of approximation. The measurement of the specific conductivity at constant temperature reveals the existence of maxima in the conductivity vs concentration curves at molar concentrations around 1.5M for the three halide solutions studied, and at approximately 2M for the nitrate. We present a theoretical foundation for the existence of these maxima, based on the classical Debye-Hückel-Onsager hydrodynamic mean-field framework for electrical transport and its high concentration extensions, and also a brief consideration of ionic frictional coefficients using mode-coupling theory. We also found that the calculated values of the equivalent conductance vary in an approximately linear way with the square root of the concentration at concentrations as high as those where the maximum of σ appears. Finally, and for completeness, we have measured the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity at selected concentrations from 283to353K , and performed a fit to an exponential equation of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman type. The values of the calculated temperatures of null mobility of the four salts are reported.

  6. Model studies on salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasulu, A.; Sujani Rao, C.; Lakshmi, G.V.; Satyanarayana, T.V.; Boonstra, J.

    2004-01-01

    The salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area in Nagarjunasagar project right canal command in Andhra Pradesh State of India were analysed using SALTMOD. The model was calibrated by using two-year data collected in the pilot area. From the calibration, the leaching efficiencies of the root and t

  7. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Mehra; Aditi Soni

    2002-02-01

    The changes with time in the corrosion rate and corrosion current density on a cast iron electrode in various aqueous salt solutions have been carried out using total immersion test and potentiostatic polarization curves. The concentration of salts taken is expected to be present in potable water. The relative behaviour of these salts towards corrosion has also been studied, which is found to be different from previous studies. The total immersion test parameters viz. weight loss, corrosion rate as well as potentiostatic parameters, open circuit potential, corr, Tafel slopes, corrosion rate, have been calculated by standard methods. Besides these the relative increase in corrosion rate with time as well as the percentage to which corrosion rate should be decreased so as to provide protection towards corrosion have also been calculated. It was found that KCl and NaCl are major contributors than MnSO4, Pb(NO3)2, KI and KBr. The relative increase in corrosion is high in KBr, KI, NaNO3, CaCl2, and less in Pb(NO3)2, NaHCO3 and CaCO3 test solutions. For the reliability of results the data has been statistically analysed.

  8. 21 CFR 864.2875 - Balanced salt solutions or formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2875... of most cell culture systems. This media component controls for pH, osmotic pressure, energy...

  9. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  10. Is Perioperative Fluid and Salt Balance a Contributing Factor in Postoperative Worsening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Thach; Singh, Mandeep; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Chung, Frances

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying recurrent upper airway collapse may help anesthesiologists better manage patients in the postoperative period. There is convincing evidence in the sleep medicine literature to suggest that a positive fluid and salt balance can worsen upper airway collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea through the redistribution of fluid from the legs into the neck and upper airway while supine, in a process known as "rostral fluid shift." According to this theory, during the day the volume from a fluid bolus or from fluid overload states (i.e., heart failure and chronic kidney disease) accumulates in the legs due to gravity, and when a person lies supine at night, the fluid shifts rostrally to the neck, also owing to gravity. The fluid in the neck can increase the extraluminal pressure around the upper airways, causing the upper airways to narrow and predisposing to upper airway collapse. Similarly, surgical patients also incur large fluid and salt balance shifts, and when recovered supine, this may promote fluid redistribution to the neck and upper airways. In this commentary, we summarize the sleep medicine literature on the impact of fluid and salt balance on obstructive sleep apnea severity and discuss the potential anesthetic implications of excessive fluid and salt volume on worsening sleep apnea.

  11. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  12. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  13. Optical Sensor for Characterizing the Phase Transition in Salted Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D.; Duričković, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O – H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327

  14. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  15. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  16. The springs of Lake Patzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcantara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks III, Wayne C

    2004-11-01

    Lake Patzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and {delta}{sup 18}O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO{sub 3}. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a.

  17. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A daily salt balance model for stream salinity generation processes following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a coupled salt and water balance model to represent the stream salinity generation process following land use changes. The conceptual model consists of three main components with five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores, (ii a saturated Groundwater Store and (iii a transient Stream zone Store. The Dry and Wet Stores represent the salt and water movement in the unsaturated zone and also the near-stream dynamic saturated areas, responsible for the generation of salt flux associated with surface runoff and interflow. The unsaturated Subsurface Store represents the salt bulge and the salt fluxes. The Groundwater Store comes into play when the groundwater level is at or above the stream invert and quantifies the salt fluxes to the Stream zone Store. In the stream zone module, we consider a 'free mixing' between the salt brought about by surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. Salt accumulation on the surface due to evaporation and its flushing by initial winter flow is also incorporated in the Stream zone Store. The salt balance model was calibrated sequentially following successful application of the water balance model. Initial salt stores were estimated from measured salt profile data. We incorporated two lumped parameters to represent the complex chemical processes like diffusion-dilution-dispersion and salt fluxes due to preferential flow. The model has performed very well in simulating stream salinity generation processes observed at Ernies and Lemon experimental catchments in south west of Western Australia. The simulated and observed stream salinity and salt loads compare very well throughout the study period with NSE of 0.7 and 0.4 for Ernies and Lemon catchment respectively. The model slightly over predicted annual stream salt load by 6.2% and 6.8%.

  19. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  20. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  1. Effect of salt solutions on chain structure of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 周吉生; 翟永爱; 刘凤岐; 高歌

    2008-01-01

    The effect of salt solutions(NaCl,Na2SO4 and CaCl2) on the conformational properties of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide(HPAM) was investigated by using static laser light scattering(SLLS).The special interaction between CaCl2 solution and HPAM was also researched.Experimental results show that the chain structure of HPAM is interrelated with the charge density,the kind and the concentration of salt solutions.The mean-square radius of gyration(Rz) and the second virial coefficient(A2) of HPAM decrease with increasing concentration of salt solutions,and the salt effect tends towards the maximum when the concentration of salt solution is increased to some amount.

  2. Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.

    1996-06-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

  3. Influence of Salts on Electrospinning of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Polymer Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yalcinkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roller electrospinning system was used to produce nanofibres by using different solution systems. Although the process of electrospinning has been known for over half a century, knowledge about spinning behaviour is still lacking. In this work, we investigated the effects of salt for two solution systems on spinning performance, fibre diameter, and web structure. Polyurethane (PU and polyethylene oxide (PEO were used as polymer, and tetraethylammonium bromide and lithium chloride were used as salt. Both polymer and salt concentrations had a noteworthy influence on the spinning performance, morphology, and diameter of the nanofibres. Results indicated that adding salt increased the spinnability of PU. Salt created complex bonding with dimethylformamide solvent and PU polymer. Salt added to PEO solution decreased the spinning performance of fibres while creating thin nanofibres, as explained by the leaky dielectric model.

  4. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  5. ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronikowski, M

    2006-02-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar

  6. ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

    2008-07-31

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping

  7. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  8. Prediction of solid solution formation in a family of diastereomeric salts. A molecular modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervais, C.; Grimbergen, R.F.P.; Markovits, I.; Ariaans, G.J.A.; Kaptein, B.; Bruggink, A.; Broxterman, Q.B.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of solid solution behavior of diastereomeric salts, containing multiple resolving agents of the same family (Dutch Resolution), is predicted by molecular modeling. Super-cells containing different ratios of resolving agents in the diastereomeric salt are constructed and optimized, an

  9. Location of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinscher, J.; Bernard, P.; Contrucci, I.; Mangeney, A.; Piguet, J. P.; Bigarre, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ground failures, caving processes and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities can produce significant socio-economic damages and represent a serious risk envisaged by the mine managements and municipalities. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing such a geohazard and to test the potential of geophysical methods to prevent them, the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity was monitored in the Lorraine basin in northeastern France. During the experiment, a huge microseismic data set (˜50 000 event files) was recorded by a local microseismic network. 80 per cent of the data comprised unusual swarming sequences with complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events which could not be processed through standard automatic detection and location routines. Here, we present two probabilistic methods which provide a powerful tool to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of these swarming sequences in an automatic manner. Both methods take advantage of strong attenuation effects and significantly polarized P-wave energies at higher frequencies (>100 Hz). The first location approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates for different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain the hypocentre locations. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P-wave energies and the associated polarization angles which provide very valuable information on the hypocentre location. Both methods are applied to a microseismic data set recorded during an important step of the development of the cavity, that is, before its collapse. From our results, systematic spatio-temporal epicentre migration trends are observed in the order of seconds to minutes and several tens of meters which are partially associated with cyclic behaviours. In addition, from spatio-temporal distribution of epicentre clusters we observed similar epicentre migration in the order of hours and days. All together, we

  10. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperature...

  11. Structure of a model salt bridge in solution investigated with 2D-IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Salt bridges are known to be important for the stability of protein conformation, but up to now it has been difficult to study their geometry in solution. Here we characterize the spatial structure of a model salt bridge between guanidinium (Gdm+) and acetate (Ac-) using two-dimensional vibrational (2D-IR) spectroscopy. We find that as a result of salt bridging the infrared response of Gdm+ and Ac- change significantly, and in the 2D-IR spectrum, salt bridging of the molecules appears as cross peaks. From the 2D-IR spectrum we determine the relative orientation of the transition-dipole moments of the vibrational modes involved in the salt bridge, as well as the coupling between them. In this manner we reconstruct the geometry of the solvated salt bridge.

  12. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  13. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause....../or amino acid salt concentrations. The formation of solids poses challenges, but it also holds the promise for improving the efficiency of the capture process. This project focuses on phase equilibrium experiments of five systems CO2 + amino acid salt + H2O, at conditions relevant for the CO2 capture...... process. Also, attention is given to the chemical compositions of the precipitations, which forms as a result of CO2 absorption into the five amino acid salt solutions. Phase equilibrium data are needed to develop safe and economically viable capture processes. Two different experimental apparatuses were...

  14. First-principles molecular dynamics modeling of the molten fluoride salt with Cr solute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H.O.; Bengtson, A.; Vörtler, K.; Saha, S.; Sakidja, R.; Morgan, D., E-mail: ddmorgan@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    Fluoride salts and their interactions with metals are of wide interest for the nuclear community. In this work, first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) was employed to study both pure molten fluoride salt and fluoride salt with dissolved solute Cr ions (a common corrosion product) at high temperature (823–1423 K). Two types of molten fluoride salts, namely flibe (LiF–BeF{sub 2}) and flinak (LiF–NaF–KF), with the Cr{sup 0}, Cr{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} ions were chosen as a target system for the FPMD modeling. The prediction of thermo-kinetic properties of pure fluoride salt, such as the equilibrium volume, density, bulk modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and self-diffusion coefficient, provide useful extensions of existing data and verify the accuracy of the FPMD simulation in modeling of fluoride salts. The FPMD modeling of solute Cr in fluoride salt shows the effect of Cr valence on diffusivity and local structure in the salt.

  15. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik (CNRS-UMR); (NIH); (ILL)

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  16. Influence of adding salt on ultrasonic atomization in an ethanol-water solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Koumei; Takenaka, Norimichi; Nanzai, Ben; Okitsu, Kenji; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol was enriched by ultrasonic atomization. Enrichment ratios were increased by adding salt to the ethanol solution. Different enrichment ratios were observed for different types of salts in a range of low ethanol concentrations. The enrichment ratio was significantly improved by adding K(2)CO(3) or (NH(4))(2)SO(4). It is concluded that this is due to enhanced interfacial adsorption of the ethanol. Addition of Na(2)CO(3) to the ethanol solution also enhanced the interfacial adsorption of the ethanol, but the effect was relatively small. Addition of NaCl to the ethanol solution did not enhance the interfacial adsorption of the ethanol.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide regulates salt tolerance in rice by maintaining Na+/K+ balance, mineral homeostasis and oxidative metabolism under excessive salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Mostofa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of salt stress tolerance in rice. We show that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, decreased uptake of Na+, decreased Na+/K+ ratio and balanced mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitter like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Salt Tolerance in Rice by Maintaining Na+/K+ Balance, Mineral Homeostasis and Oxidative Metabolism Under Excessive Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Mohammad G.; Saegusa, Daisuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of rice salt stress tolerance. We showed that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS) clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, the ability to decrease the uptake of Na+ and the Na+/K+ ratio, as well as to balance mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitters like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes. PMID:26734015

  19. Lanthanide salts solutions: representation of osmotic coefficients within the binding mean spherical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Moisy, Philippe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Olivier; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Turq, Pierre

    2005-03-24

    Osmotic coefficients of aqueous solutions of lanthanide salts are described using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) model based on the Wertheim formalism for association. The lanthanide(III) cation and the co-ion are allowed to form a 1-1 ion pair. Hydration is taken into account by introducing concentration-dependent cation size and solution permittivity. An expression for the osmotic coefficient, derived within the BIMSA, is used to fit data for a wide variety of lanthanide pure salt aqueous solutions at 25 degrees C. A total of 38 lanthanide salts have been treated, including perchlorates, nitrates, and chlorides. For most solutions, good fits could be obtained up to high ionic strengths. The relevance of the fitted parameters has been discussed, and a comparison with literature values has been made (especially the association constants) when available.

  20. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... loading capacity of aqueous solutions of the potassium salts of selected amino-acids (glycine, taurine, lysine proline, and glutamic acid) were examined, and the relation between the initial amino acid salt concentration and precipitation ability of each solution were determined. Experiments were...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  1. Homogenous Balance Method and Exact Analytical Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup Equations in Shallow Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAZhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the homogenous balance method and with the help of mathematica, the Backlund transformation and the transfer heat equation are derived. Analyzing the heat-transfer equation, the multiple soliton solutions and other exact analytical solution for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations(WBK) are derived. These solutions contain Fan's, Xie's and Yan's results and other new types of analytical solutions, such as rational function solutions and periodic solutions. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear differential equations.

  2. [Solubilization of nitrobenzene in micellar solutions of Tween 80 and inorganic salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Xu, Wei; Dai, Ning

    2008-04-01

    The solubilization of nitrobenzene by a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 was investigated at 10 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the solubility of nitrobenzene in water was greatly enhanced by Tween 80 at surfactant concentration above CMC(critical micelle concentration) and a linear relationship was obtained between surfactant concentration and nitrobenzene concentration from the solubility curve. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) value was 5.093 and IgKm was 3.499. The solubilization was attributed to the ethoxylation group in Tween 80 micellar. Effect of four inorganic salts such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 , MgCl2 on water solubilities of nitrobenzene in Tween 80 micellar solutions was also investigated by a matrix of batch experiments. Mix the Tween 80-inorganic salts at the total mass ratios of 2:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The results show that the inorganic salts at a high concentration( > or = 500 mg x L(-1)) can enhance the solubilization capacities of Tween 80 micellar solution and increase the value of MSR and IgKm . Because of the salting-out effect between the micellar of Tween 80 and inorganic salts, the volume of micelle turns bigger, which may provide larger solubility volume for nitrobenzene. The mixture of nonionic surfactant and inorganic salts can be used in subsurface remediation as a flushing solution.

  3. The rejection of anionic dyes and salt from water solutions using a polypropylene microfilter

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Porter, John Jefferson

    2010-01-01

    Previous work reported by this laboratory showed that inorganic membranes such as stainless steel and ceramic microfilters were capable of rejecting anionic dyes and sodium nitrate from water solutions. It was of interest of see if this were possible with organic membranes such as propylene micrifilters. Experimental data are presented showing that propylene microfilter will reject both salt and Direct Red 2 from aqueous solutions when the conductivity of the solution is below 500 microS. The...

  4. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as hem......Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  5. Balanced Combinations of Solutions in Multi-Objective Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Glaßer, Christian; Witek, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    For every list of integers x_1, ..., x_m there is some j such that x_1 + ... + x_j - x_{j+1} - ... - x_m \\approx 0. So the list can be nearly balanced and for this we only need one alternation between addition and subtraction. But what if the x_i are k-dimensional integer vectors? Using results from topological degree theory we show that balancing is still possible, now with k alternations. This result is useful in multi-objective optimization, as it allows a polynomial-time computable balance of two alternatives with conflicting costs. The application to two multi-objective optimization problems yields the following results: - A randomized 1/2-approximation for multi-objective maximum asymmetric traveling salesman, which improves and simplifies the best known approximation for this problem. - A deterministic 1/2-approximation for multi-objective maximum weighted satisfiability.

  6. Continuous electrolytic decarbonation and recovery of a carbonate salt solution from a metal-contaminated carbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Lee, Se-Yoon; Lee, Eil-Hee; Song, Kyusuk; Song, Kee-Chan

    2009-11-15

    This work studied the characteristic changes of a continuous electrolytic decarbonation and recovery of a carbonate salt solution from a metal-contaminated carbonate solution with changes of operational variables in an electrolytic system which consisted of a cell-stacked electrolyzer equipped with a cation exchange membrane and a gas absorber. The system could completely recover the carbonate salt solution from a uranyl carbonato complex solution in a continuous operation. The cathodic feed rate could control the carbonate concentration of the recovered solution and it affected the most transient pH drop phenomenon of a well type within the gas absorber before a steady state was reached, which caused the possibility of a CO(2) gas slip from the gas absorber. The pH drop problem could be overcome by temporarily increasing the OH(-) concentration of the cathodic solution flowing down within the gas absorber only during the time required for a steady state to be obtained in the case without the addition of outside NaOH. An overshooting peak of the carbonate concentration in the recovered solution before a steady state was observed, which was ascribed to the decarbonation of the initial solution filled within the stacked cells by a redundant current leftover from the complete decarbonation of the feeding carbonate solution.

  7. Research of measurement errors caused by salt solution temperature drift in surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingcai Wu; Zhengtian Gu; YifangYuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Influence of temperature on measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was investigated.Samples with various concentrations of NaCI were tested at different temperatures. It was shown that if the affection of temperature could be neglected, measurement precision of salt solution was 0.028 wt.-%.But measurement error of salinity caused by temperature was 0.53 wt.-% in average when the temperature drift was 1 ℃. To reduce the error, a double-cell SPR sensor with salt solution and distilled water flowing respectively and at the same temperature was implemented.

  8. Ant colony Optimization: A Solution of Load balancing in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Mishra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As the cloud computing is a new style of computing over internet. It has many advantages along with some crucial issues to be resolved in order to improve reliability of cloud environment. These issues are related with the load management, fault tolerance and different security issues in cloud environment. In this paper the main concern is load balancing in cloud computing. The load can be CPU load, memory capacity, delay or network load. Load balancing is the process of distributing the load among various nodes of adistributed system to improve both resource utilization and job response time while also avoiding a situation where some of the nodes are heavily loaded while other nodes are idle or doing very little work. Load balancing ensures that all the processor in the system or every node in the network does approximately the equal amount of work at any instant of time. Many methods to resolve this problem has been came into existence like Particle Swarm Optimization, hash method, genetic algorithms and severalscheduling based algorithms are there. In this paper we are proposing a method based on Ant Colony optimization to resolve the problem of load balancing in cloud environment.

  9. Temperature and concentration effects on the solvophobic solvation of methane in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Jörg; Ludwig, Ralf; Geiger, Alfons; Paschek, Dietmar

    2008-12-22

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of aqueous salt (NaCl) solutions using the TIP4P-Ew water model (Horn et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 120, 9665) covering broad temperature and concentration ranges extending deeply into the supercooled region. In particular we study the effect of temperature and salt concentration on the solvation of methane at infinite dilution. The salt effect on methane's solvation free energy, solvation enthalpy and entropy, as well as their temperature dependence is found to be semi-quantitatively in accordance with the data of Ben-Naim and Yaacobi (J. Phys. Chem. 1974, 78, 170). To distinguish the influence of local (in close proximity to ions) and global effects, we partition the salt solutions into ion influenced hydration shell regions and bulk water. The chemical potential of methane is systematically affected by the presence of salt in both sub volumes, emphasizing the importance of the global volume contraction due to electrostriction effects. This observation is correlated with systematic structural alterations similar to water under pressure. The observed electrostriction effects are found to become increasingly pronounced under cold (supercooled) conditions. We find that the influence of temperature and salt induced global density changes on the solvation properties of methane is well recovered by simple scaling relation based on predictions of the information theory model of Garde et al. (Phys. Rev. Let. 1999, 77, 4966).

  10. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  11. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. VI. Spectral graph analysis of chaotropic ion aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-11-01

    Carrying out molecular dynamics simulations and graph theoretical analyses of high salt solutions, and comparing numerically calculated vibrational spectroscopic properties of water with femtosecond IR pump-probe experimental data, we have recently found that ions in high salt solutions can form two morphologically different ion aggregate structures. In the cases of NaCl solutions, Na+ and Cl- tend to form compact cluster-like ion aggregate in high NaCl solutions. In contrast, K+ and SCN- form spatially extended network-like ion aggregates that also exhibit a percolating network behavior. Interestingly, a variety of graph theoretical properties of ion network in high KSCN solutions were found to be very similar to those of water H-bonding network. It was shown that spatially extended ion networks in high KSCN solutions are completely intertwined with water H-bonding networks, which might be the key to understand the high solubility of thiocyanate salts in water. Here, we further consider two salts that have been extensively studied experimentally by using femtosecond IR pump-probe technique, which are NaClO4 and NaBF4. Note that ClO4 - and BF4 - are well-known chaotropic ions that have been believed to behave as water structure breaker. To understand how such chaotropic ions affect water H-bonding structure, we carried out spectral graph analyses of molecular dynamics simulation data of these aqueous solutions. Graph spectra and degree distribution of ion aggregates formed in high NaBF4 and NaClO4 solutions show that these chaotropic anions also have a strong propensity to form ion networks. The fact that salts containing chaotropic ions like SCN-, BF4 - , and ClO4 - have very high solubility limits in water could then be related to our observation that these chaotropic anions with counter cations in high salt solutions are capable of forming intricate ion networks intertwined with water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the present graph theoretical analysis

  13. Effects of salt stress on ion balance and nitrogen metabolism of old and young leaves in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that salt stress has different effects on old and young tissues. However, it remains largely unexplored whether old and young tissues have different regulatory mechanism during adaptation of plants to salt stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether salt stress has different effects on the ion balance and nitrogen metabolism in the old and young leaves of rice, and to compare functions of both organs in rice salt tolerance. Results Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 might contribute to accumulation of Na+ in old leaves under salt stress. In addition, lower expression of OsHKT1;5 and OsSOS1 in old leaves may decrease frequency of retrieving Na+ from old leaf cells. Under salt stress, old leaves showed higher concentration of NO3− content than young leaves. Up-regulation of OsNRT1;2, a gene coding nitrate transporter, might contribute to the accumulation of NO3− in the old leaves of salt stressed-rice. Salt stress clearly up-regulated the expression of OsGDH2 and OsGDH3 in old leaves, while strongly down-regulated expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves. Conclusions The down-regulation of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves might be a harmful response to excesses of Na+ and Cl−. Under salt stress, rice might accumulate Na+ and Cl− to toxic levels in old leaves. This might influence photorespiration process, reduce NH4+ production from photorespiration, and immediately down-regulate the expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves of salt stressed rice. Excesses of Na+ and Cl− also might change the pathway of NH4+ assimilation in old leaves of salt stressed rice plants, weaken GOGAT/GS pathway and elevate GDH pathway.

  14. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  15. A new class of draw solutions for minimizing reverse salt flux to improve forward osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hau Thi; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Li, Chi-Wang

    2015-12-15

    The applications of forward osmosis (FO) have been hindered because of the lack of an optimal draw solution. The reverse salt flux from the draw solution not only reduces the water flux but also increases the cost of draw solute replenishment. Therefore, in this study, Tergitol NP7 and NP9 with a long straight carbon chain and low critical micelle concentration (CMC) were coupled with highly charged ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an innovative draw solution to minimize reverse salt diffusion in FO for the first time. The results showed that the lowest reverse salt flux of 0.067 GMH was observed when 0.1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 was used as a draw solution and deionized water was used as a feed solution in FO mode (active layer facing with the feed solution). This is due to the hydrophobic interaction between the tails of NP7 and the FO membrane, thus creating layers on the membrane surface and constricting the FO membrane pores. Moreover, 1M EDTA-2Na coupled with 15mM NP7 is promising as an optimal draw solution for brackish water and sea water desalination. Average water fluxes of 7.68, 6.78, and 5.95 LMH were achieved when brackish water was used as a feed solution (5, 10, and 20g/L NaCl), and an average water flux of 3.81 LMH was achieved when sea water was used as a feed solution (35g/L NaCl). The diluted draw solution was recovered using a nanofiltration (NF-TS80) membrane with a high efficiency of 95% because of the high charge and large size of the draw solution.

  16. Rheological properties of salt-tolerant HPAM solutions with ultrahigh molecular weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏革; 张吕鸿; 姜斌; 李鑫钢

    2008-01-01

    The rheological properties of salt-tolerant partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide(HPAM)solutions with molecular of 2.5×107 g/mol at different concentrations were measured in steady-state shear flow mode by Haake Rheostress 150 rheometer.Three constitutive equations(Oldroyd four constant model,Guesekus model and FENE-P model) were used for describing the apparent viscosity and first normal stress difference.The apparent viscosity of salt-tolerant HPAM solutions appears a first Newtonian zone when the shear rate is approximately lower than 0.2 s-1.At high shear rate,the HPAM solutions show shear-thinning and elasticity.The results show that the FENE-P model has the best agreement between theoretical and experimental data within the available shear rate range.The material parameters are useful for numerical analysis of polymer solution flow fields.

  17. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. van der Waal; C.A.M. Oonk; S.H. Nieman; P.R. Wesselink; J.J. de Soet; W. Crielaard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Methods Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite

  18. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF NONAQUEOUS SINGLE SALT SOLUTIONS USING THE Q-ELECTROLATTICE EQUATION OF STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, A; R. F. Checoni; M. Castier

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe correlation of thermodynamic properties of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions is relevant to design and operation of many chemical processes, as in fertilizer production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, the Q-electrolattice equation of state (EOS) is used to model vapor pressure, mean ionic activity coefficient, osmotic coefficient, and liquid density of sixteen methanol and ten ethanol solutions containing single strong 1:1 and 2:1 salts. The Q-electrolattice comprise...

  19. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Moonis R.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  20. Asymptotic Stability and Balanced Growth Solution of the Singular Dynamic Input-Output System*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChonghuiGuo; HuanwenTang

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic input-output system is well known in economic theory and practice. In this paper the asymptotic stability and balanced growth solution of the dynamic input-output system are considered. Under three natural assumptions, we obtain four theorems about asymptotic stability and balanced growth solution of the dynamic input-output system and bring together in a unified manner some contributions scattered in the literature.

  1. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Bec...

  2. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  3. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  4. Solution behavior and activity of a halophilic esterase under high salt concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2-16, with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45 degrees C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD, dynamic light scattering (DLS and small angle neutron scattering (SANS were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the alpha-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The solution alpha-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers

  5. Effect of perfusion of bile salts solutions into the oesophagus of hiatal hernia patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, G S; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    Tests of the response to perfusion of the oesophagus were made in 54 patients divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients with symptomatic hiatal hernia, group II hiatal hernia patients with peptic stricture, and group III normal individuals. Each individual oesophagus was perfused at a rate of 45-65 drops per minute over 25 minutes with six solutions: normal saline, N/10 HCl, taurine conjugates of bile salts in normal saline, taurine conjugates of bile salts in N/10 HCl, glycine conjugates of bile salts in normal saline, and taurine and glycine conjugates in a ratio of 1 to 2 in normal saline. It was found that acidified taurine solutions were more irritating than acid alone. With a 2mM/l solution of taurine in acid, symptoms are produced even in controls. With a 1 mM/l solution of the same conjugates, the majority of normal people feel slight heartburn or nothing, and therefore perfusion into the oesophagus of such a solution could be used as a test for oesophagitis. PMID:941112

  6. Fourteen-year survival of Pseudomonas cepacia in a salts solution preserved with benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geftic, S G; Heymann, H; Adair, F W

    1979-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia that survived for 14 years (1963 to 1977) as a contaminant in an inorganic salt solution which contained commercial 0.05% benzalkonium chloride (CBC) as an antimicrobial preservative, was compared to a recent clinical isolate of P. cepacia. Ammonium acetate was present in the concentrated stock CBC solution, and served as a carbon and nitrogen source for growth when carried over into the salts solution with the CBC. The isolate's resistance to pure benzalkonium chloride was increased step-wise to a concentration of 16%. Plate counts showed 4 x 10(3) colony-forming units per ml in the salts solution. Comparison of growth rates, mouse virulence, antibiotics resistance spectra, and substrate requirements disclosed no differences between the contaminant and a recently isolated clinical strain of P. cepacia. The results indicate that it is critical that pharmaceutical solutions containing benzalkonium chloride as an antimicrobial preservative be formulated without extraneous carbon and nitrogen sources or be preserved with additional antimicrobial agents. PMID:453827

  7. Impact of co-digestion on existing salt and nutrient mass balances for a full-scale dairy energy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Spier, Chelsea L; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Domen, Jeremy K

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and other agricultural waste streams with subsequent energy production can result in more sustainable dairy operations; however, importation of digester feedstocks onto dairy farms alters previously established carbon, nutrient, and salinity mass balances. Salt and nutrient mass balance must be maintained to avoid groundwater contamination and salination. To better understand salt and nutrient contributions of imported methane-producing substrates, a mass balance for a full-scale dairy biomass energy project was developed for solids, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chloride, and potassium. Digester feedstocks, consisting of thickened manure flush-water slurry, screened manure solids, sudan grass silage, and feed-waste, were tracked separately in the mass balance. The error in mass balance closure for most elements was less than 5%. Manure contributed 69.2% of influent dry matter while contributing 77.7% of nitrogen, 90.9% of sulfur, and 73.4% of phosphorus. Sudan grass silage contributed high quantities of chloride and potassium, 33.3% and 43.4%, respectively, relative to the dry matter contribution of 22.3%. Five potential off-site co-digestates (egg waste, grape pomace, milk waste, pasta waste, whey wastewater) were evaluated for anaerobic digestion based on salt and nutrient content in addition to bio-methane potential. Egg waste and wine grape pomace appeared the most promising co-digestates due to their high methane potentials relative to bulk volume. Increasing power production from the current rate of 369 kW to the design value of 710 kW would require co-digestion with either 26800 L d(-1) egg waste or 60900 kg d(-1) grape pomace. However, importation of egg waste would more than double nitrogen loading, resulting in an increase of 172% above the baseline while co-digestion with grape pomace would increase potassium by 279%. Careful selection of imported co-digestates and management of digester effluent is required to

  8. The solubility and properties of a purified ichthyocol in salt solutions of neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALLOP, P M; SEIFTER, S; MEILMAN, E

    1957-07-25

    1. Purified citrate-extracted ichthyocol obtained from carp swim bladders has been further characterized with respect to its content of certain amino acids and carbohydrate substances. 2. The degree of solubilization or dispersion of ichthyocol by solutions of certain salts maintained in the range of neutral pH and at a temperature of 0-2 degrees C. has been determined. 3. While a number of salts of monovalent cations had no significant solubilizing effects on ichthyocol, ammonium chloride in a concentration of 1 M did cause solution of the protein. 4. Sodium thiosulfate in a range of concentrations caused the solubilization of ichthyocol but was most effective in an intermediate concentration of 0.25 M. 5. Several salts of divalent cations, in particular the chlorides of calcium, magnesium, and barium, and magnesium thiosulfate in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1 M caused the immediate and complete solubilization of the ichthyocol. 6. Solutions of ichthyocol in calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and sodium thiosulfate buffered or adjusted to pH 7.0, were studied with respect to intrinsic viscosity of the protein, optical rotation, ultracentrifugal sedimentation, and reconstitution into fibers. It was found in each case that the original characteristics of the collagen, as determined previously in acid solution, were maintained when the protein was dissolved in salt solutions of neutral pH. No evidence of denaturation or gelatinization could be found when ichthyocol was solubilized under the stated conditions. 7. Collagen in neutral solution with sodium thiosulfate, calcium chloride, or magnesium chloride was not attacked by trypsin as determined viscometrically at 20.0 degrees C., but was rapidly degraded by a purified bacterial collagenase.

  9. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of frozen aqueous solutions of Fe3+ salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Knudsen, J. E.; Nielsen, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Frozen aqueous solutions (FAS) of Fe3+ salts have been investigated by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to study the conditions for formation of glasses. A general discussion of spin–spin relaxation in glasses is given, and we discuss how changes in the spin–spin relaxation time can...... concentration of the solution increases. At low temperatures the crystallization terminates and the remaining liquid solidifies into a glass. During exposure at 200 K, the dilute samples change irreversibly. This is discussed in terms of a metastable phase diagram. The properties of frozen solutions with other...

  10. Iron salts in solid state and in frozen solutions as dosimeters for low irradiation temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Lartigue, J. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mosqueira, G.F. [Direccion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia de la UNAM, A.P. 70-487, C:P, D.F. Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: negron@nuclecu.unam.mx

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the irradiation of iron salts in solid state (heptahydrated ferrous sulfate) and in frozen acid solutions. The study is focused on finding their possible use as dosimeters for low temperature irradiations and high doses. The analysis of the samples was made by UV-visible and Moessbauer spectroscopies. The output signal was linear from 0 to 10 MGy for the solid samples, and 0-600 Gy for the frozen solutions. The obtained data is reproducible and easy to handle. For these reasons, heptahydrate iron sulfate is a suitable dosimeter for low temperature and high irradiation doses, in solid state, and in frozen solution.

  11. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response.

  12. Uniqueness of stochastic entropy solutions for stochastic balance laws with Lipschitz fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jinlong; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a stochastic balance law with a Lipschitz flux and gain the uniqueness for stochastic entropy solutions. The argument is supported by the stochastic kinetic formulation, the It\\^{o} formula and the regularization techniques. Furthermore, as an application, we derive the uniqueness of stochastic entropy solutions for stochastic porous media type equations.

  13. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  14. Polyelectrolyte properties of biopolymers: conductivity and secondary structure of polyriboadenylic acid and its salts in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I A; Vorontsova, O V; Kozlov, A G

    1991-01-01

    Polyriboadenylates of alkali metals were obtained from (1) K(+)-poly(A) (salts 1) and (2) H(+)-poly(A) (salts II) by the ion-exchange method. The conductivity of these salts as well as of H(+)-poly(A) were studied. Salts I and II of the same counterion were shown to have significantly different conductivity coefficients (f) and polyion conductances (lambda 0p). the charge density parameter (xi) was 1.3 and 2.5, respectively, with lambda 0p equal to 44 and 83 ohm-1 cm2 mole-1 for poly(A)-I and poly(A)-II salts, respectively. This is credited to the difference in the conformations of corresponding polyions. The linear dependence of equivalent conductivity on the square root of polymer concentration (Kohlrausch coordinates), earlier obtained for DNA, is also satisfied for the studied polynucleotides. A comparison of the slopes of straight lines in Kohlrausch coordinates for poly(A), simple electrolytes, and for earlier studied polyribouridylic acid salts lends credence to the concepts, developed by a number of authors, that DNA can act as a "buffer" against the ion-ion interaction in concentrated electrolyte solutions. Using the approximation that the polyion conductance is independent of the counterion nature, parameter f (agreeing in this case with Eisenberg parameter phi) has been shown to decrease as the polynucleotide concentration is increased; the decrease is caused by the relaxation effect. The transference numbers of counterions, which have negative values in poly (A)-II solutions, grow with the increase in polymer concentration; the higher the xi, the more apparent is this increase. This is explained by the increase in the fraction of conductivity along the polyion chains ("surface" conductivity) with the growth of polyelectrolyte concentration.

  15. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-11-18

    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  16. Molecular thermodynamics for swelling of a mesoscopic ionomer gel in 1 : 1 salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorov, A; Radke, C; Prausnitz, J

    2006-01-14

    For a microphase-separated diblock copolymer ionic gel swollen in salt solution, a molecular-thermodynamic model is based on the self-consistent field theory in the limit of strongly segregated copolymer subchains. The geometry of microdomains is described using the Milner generic wedge construction neglecting the packing frustration. A geometry-dependent generalized analytical solution for the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is obtained. This generalized solution not only reduces to those known previously for planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries, but is also applicable to saddle-like structures. Thermodynamic functions are expressed analytically for gels of lamellar, bicontinuous, cylindrical and spherical morphologies. Molecules are characterized by chain composition, length, rigidity, degree of ionization, and by effective polymer-polymer and polymer-solvent interaction parameters. The model predicts equilibrium solvent uptakes and the equilibrium microdomain spacing for gels swollen in salt solutions. Results are given for details of the gel structure: distribution of mobile ions and polymer segments, and the electric potential across microdomains. Apart from effects obtained by coupling the classical Flory-Rehner theory with Donnan equilibria, viz. increased swelling with polyelectrolyte charge and shrinking of gel upon addition of salt, the model predicts the effects of microphase morphology on swelling.

  17. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving aggregation and breakage in terms of auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zehra Pinar; Abhishek Dutta; Guido Bény; Turgut Öziş

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use of appropriate solution(s) of associated complementary equation via auxiliary equation method (AEM). Travelling wave solutions of the complementary equation of a nonlinear PBE with appropriately chosen parameters is taken to be analogous to the description of the dynamic behaviour of the particulate processes. For an initial proof-of-concept, a general case when the number of particles varies with respect to time is chosen. Three cases, i.e. (1) balanced aggregation and breakage, (2) when aggregation can dominate and (3) breakage can dominate, are selected and solved for their corresponding analytical solutions. The results are then compared with the available analytical solution, based on Laplace transform obtained from literature. In this communication, it is shown that the solution approach proposed via AEM is flexible and therefore more efficient than the analytical approach used in the literature.

  18. Solution-derived sodalite made with Si- and Ge-ethoxide precursors for immobilizing electrorefiner salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Lepry, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorosodalite has the general form of Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 and this paper describes experiments conducted to synthesize sodalite to immobilize a mixed chloride salt using solution-based techniques. Sodalites were made using different Group IV contributions from either Si(OC2H5)4 or Ge(OC2H5)4, NaAlO2, and a simulated spent electrorefiner salt solution containing a mixture of alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides. Additionally, 6 glass binders at low loadings of 5 mass% were evaluated as sintering aids for the consolidation process. The approach of using the organic Group IV additives can be used to produce large quantities of sodalite at room temperature and shows promise over a method where colloidal silica is used as the silica source. However, the small particle sizes inhibited densification during pressure-less sintering.

  19. External application of hypertonic salt solution for treatment of posttraumatic oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Hakan; Yavuz, Osman Y; Uras, Ismail; Selek, Hakan; Erakar, Aziz; Sayli, Ugur

    2005-08-01

    In 20 New Zealand rabbits (two groups of 10 rabbits each), hind limb circumference and anterior compartment pressure were measured following ketamin anaesthesia (time zero). During the same anaesthesia, closed transverse proximal tibial shaft fractures were created in both groups. Twenty-four hours after the fractures, during a second anaesthesia, limb circumference and compartment pressure were measured as before, and fractured limbs were fixed to the rabbits' bodies. At the same time, treatment was started: one group received external application of saturated salt solution and the other group received intermittent ice application. During 48 hours of treatment (from 24 to 72 hours) in the saturated salt solution group, the mean limb circumference decreased from 125.70 +/- 9.93 mm to 115.70 +/- 8.78 mm (p = 0.005) and the mean compartment pressure decreased from 18.30 +/- 1.70 mmHg to 12.40 +/- 1.77 mmHg (p = 0.005). In the control group, the mean limb circumference decreased from 127.85 +/- 7.47 mm to 122.00 +/- 6.83 mm (not significant) and the mean compartment pressure decreased from 19.57 +/- 1.27 mmHg to 17.85 +/- 2.67 mmHg (not significant). In short, differences in compartment pressure and limb circumference before and after treatment were statistically significant in the saturated salt solution group (p = 0.005) but not in the control group.

  20. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  1. Periodic wave solutions of coupled integrable dispersionless equations by residue harmonic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Yang, H. X.; Guo, Z. J.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce the residue harmonic balance method to generate periodic solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. A PDE is firstly transformed into an associated ODE by a wave transformation. The higher-order approximations to the angular frequency and periodic solution of the ODE are obtained analytically. To improve the accuracy of approximate solutions, the unbalanced residues appearing in harmonic balance procedure are iteratively considered by introducing an order parameter to keep track of the various orders of approximations and by solving linear equations. Finally, the periodic solutions of PDEs result. The proposed method has the advantage that the periodic solutions are represented by Fourier functions rather than the sophisticated implicit functions as appearing in most methods.

  2. Rheological properties and thickening mechanism of aqueous diutan gum solution: Effects of temperature and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Gong, Houjian; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2015-11-05

    Rheological properties of a new microbial polysaccharide, diutan gum in aqueous solution have been systematically investigated. It is found that molecular aggregates of diutan gum can be formed at a very low concentration (0.12 g/L), and the mechanism of thickening by diutan gum is proposed. The viscosity retention rate of diutan gum changes little when increasing the temperature from 298 K to 348 K or in a high salinity solution (55.5 g L(-1)). Gel structure can be formed in the diutan gum solution, owing to the finding that the dynamic modulus has an exponential relationship with the concentration. The gel properties of diutan gum are not sensitive to temperature, and are virtually independent of cationic environment (Na(+) and Ca(2+)). The temperature/salt tolerance of the diutan gum solution is mainly attributed to its perfect double helix molecular conformation, the location of the side chains of its molecules, and its water retention capacity.

  3. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana, E-mail: r.pasquino@unina.it; Grizzuti, Nino [DICMaPI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  4. Analytical Results from Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) Samples HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-23

    Two samples from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) were analyzed by SRNL, HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40. Multiple analyses of these samples indicate a general composition almost identical to that of the Salt Batch 8-B feed and the Tank 21H sample results.

  5. Molecular Thermodynamics for Swelling of a Mesoscopic Ionomer Gelin 1:1 Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorov, Alexey; Radke, Clayton; Prausnitz,John

    2005-06-15

    For a microphase-separated diblock copolymer ionic gel swollen in salt solution, a molecular-thermodynamic model is based on the self-consistent field theory in the limit of strongly segregated copolymer subchains. The geometry of microdomains is described using the Milner generic wedge construction neglecting the packing frustration. Thermodynamic functions are expressed analytically for gels of lamellar, bicontinuous, cylindrical and spherical morphologies. Molecules are characterized by chain composition, length, rigidity, degree of ionization, and by effective polymer-polymer and polymer-solvent interaction parameters. The model predicts equilibrium solvent uptakes and the equilibrium microdomain spacing for gels swollen in salt solutions. Results are given for details of the gel structure: distribution of mobile ions and polymer segments, and the electric potential across microdomains. Apart from effects obtained by coupling classical Flory-Rehner theory with Donnan equilibria, viz., increased swelling with polyelectrolyte charge and shrinking of gel upon addition of salt, the model predicts the effects of microphase morphology on swelling.

  6. Viscosity-Reducing Bulky-Salt Excipients Prevent Gelation of Protein, but Not Carbohydrate, Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awanish; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2017-01-23

    The problem of gelation of concentrated protein solutions, which poses challenges for both downstream protein processing and liquid formulations of pharmaceutical proteins, is addressed herein by employing previously discovered viscosity-lowering bulky salts. Procainamide-HCl and the salt of camphor-10-sulfonic acid with L-arginine (CSA-Arg) greatly retard gelation upon heating and subsequent cooling of the model proteins gelatin and casein in water: Whereas in the absence of additives the proteins form aqueous gels within several hours at room temperature, procainamide-HCl for both proteins and also CSA-Arg for casein prevent gel formation for months under the same conditions. The inhibition of gelation by CSA-Arg stems exclusively from the CSA moiety: CSA-Na was as effective as CSA-Arg, while Arg-HCl was marginally or not effective. The tested bulky salts did not inhibit (and indeed accelerated) temperature-induced gel formation in aqueous solutions of all examined carbohydrates-starch, agarose, alginate, gellan gum, and carrageenan.

  7. Behavior of gellan in aqueous-salt solutions and oilfield saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Nurakhmetova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage time and temperature on the behavior of low acyl gellan (LAG was studied by viscometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy without salt addition. The viscometric results revealed that the effectiveness of salts to enhance gelation of gellan changes in the following order: BaСl2>CaCl2»MgCl2>KCl>NaCl. The sol-gel and liquid-solid phase transitions of gellan solutions were observed upon addition of oilfield water containing 73 g L-1 of alkaline and alkaline earth metal ions. The effectiveness of salts to induce the separation of liquid and solid phases changes in the sequence: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2»CaCl2»BaСl2. The hydrodynamic behavior of 0.5 wt.% gellan solution injected into the sand pack model with high (20 Darcy and lower (2 Darcy permeability is useful to model the oil reservoirs in the process of enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Study on Properties of Microemulsion AEO-9/Butanol/Cyclohexane/Salt Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Guanming; Chen Yongjie; Tian Yiguang; Fang Li; Xiao Linjiu; Sun Yanbin

    2004-01-01

    The microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution (or ammonium salt aqueous solution) was studied, which was used as 'micro-reactor' in preparing long afterglow phosphor materials SrAl2O4: Eu2+ ,Dy3+. The phase behavior of microemulsion was investigated. The radius of inner water droplet Rw and the change of standard free energy ΔG*o→i were obtained by means of dilution method and theoretical calculation. The result shows that with the increase of W/S, the area of microemulsion region decreases, Rw and ΔG*o→i increase and the microemulsion stability decreases. The structure change and formation area of microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution ( or ammonium salt aqueous solution) were offered for the adoption of a synthesis method with newly high efficiency and utility. The particular size and its distribution theory gist, fluorescence life-span, and quenching concentration parameter data were expected. A new approach was explored for finding a new preparation method of rare earths afterglow materials and increasing luminescence intensity without crashing.

  9. Doubly Exponential Solution for Randomized Load Balancing Models with Markovian Arrival Processes and PH Service Times

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Quan-Lin; Lui, John C. S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a novel matrix-analytic approach for studying doubly exponential solutions of randomized load balancing models (also known as supermarket models) with Markovian arrival processes (MAPs) and phase-type (PH) service times. We describe the supermarket model as a system of differential vector equations by means of density dependent jump Markov processes, and obtain a closed-form solution with a doubly exponential structure to the fixed point of the system of differential...

  10. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity.

  11. Phase behavior of concentrated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution in the presence of mono and divalent salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nalinda; Rakesh, Leela; Zhao, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Thermo reversible sol-gel transitions of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) are critical for many pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications. This study examined the effects of salt (NaCl and CaCl₂) on the viscoelastic properties of concentrated low molecular weight HPMC solutions and found that the gelation temperature decreased linearly as a function of salt concentrations, independent of valency of cations and the mole concentration of anions. Thermal analysis showed that the depression of melting temperature can be fitted for both NaCl and CaCl₂ as a function of the total number of ions by a single linear curve, which was consistent with the melting point depression of pure water by NaCl and CaCl₂, but with a higher linear slope.

  12. Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations using homogeneous balance method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjit Kumar; R S Kaushal; Awadhesh Prasad

    2010-10-01

    An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlinear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences.

  13. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Li, X.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation.

  15. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  16. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR CMSMPR CRYSTALLIZER WITH QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN FLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A. Ring; Kumar M. Dhanasekharan; Jayanta Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    Fluent version 6.2 computational fluid dynamics environment has been enhanced with a population balance capability that operates in conjunction with its multiphase calculations to predict the particle size distribution within the flow field. The population balance is solved by the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). Fluent's prediction capabilities are tested by using a 2-dimensional analogy of a constantly stirred tank reactor with a fluid flow compartment that mixes the fluid quickly and efficiently using wall movement and has a feed stream and a product stream. The results of these Fluent simulations using QMOM population balance solver are compared to steady state analytical solutions for the population balance in a stirred tank where 1) growth, 2) aggregation, and 3) breakage, take place separately and 4)combined nucleation and growth and 5) combined nucleation, growth and aggregation take place. The results of these comparisons show that the moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage when the flow field is turbulent. With laminar flow the mixing is not ideal and as a result the steady state well mixed solutions are not accurately simulated.

  17. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86×106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  18. The sealing of excavation damaged zones in salt formations using sodium silicate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Schmidt, Holger; Borstel, Lieselotte von [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany). Dept. of Repository Safety

    2015-07-01

    Since many decades, pressure grouting is an effective technique of civil engineering for sealing and stabilization purposes. Due to the potential contamination of fluids, grouting is of particular importance in repositories of radioactive waste. Traditional grouts for the sealing of fine fractures are sodium silicate solutions. Laboratory and field investigations prove that the particle-free solutions can be used to permanently seal excavation damaged zones (EDZ) in salt formations, because the solid reaction products are inert or almost insoluble. EDZ permeabilities of 10{sup -17} m{sup 2} can be achieved and were determined on the basis of the injection pressures and flow rates. High grouting pressures were realized as local test loadings. Laboratory tests show the fixation of Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+} and illustrate that sodium silicates may act additionally as a chemical barrier.

  19. Determination of Stoichiometry of Solutes in Molten Salt Solvents by Correlations of Relative Raman Band Intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Berg, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry of solute complexes in molten salts at high temperatures under static equilibrium conditions, A simple formalism is derived for correlating relative Raman band intensities with stoichiometric coefficients. The experimental procedures......); (2) Nb2O5 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Y2n- (1); (3) MoO3 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Z(2n)- (1). It is shown that the solute complex species formed in the studied reactions have, respectively, the following stoichiometries: (1) n = 2, (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-); (2) n = 3, NbO(SO4)(3)(3-); (3) n = 1, MoO(SO4)(2)(2-)....

  20. Oxygen effect in bacteriophages irradiated in different media. 1. Irradiation in salt solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korystov, Yu.N.; Veksler, F.B. (AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki)

    1983-09-14

    The oxygen effect (OE) on bacteriophage T4 in a salt solution was studied. It is shown that the sign and magnitude of OE depend on the conditions of the postirradiation incubation of the phage in irradiated medium. The direct OE is due to postirradiation lesion of the phage by hydrogen peroxide which is formed in greater amounts after irradiation in oxygen than in anoxia. The addition of catalase is shown to eliminate the postirradiation inactivation of the phage. In this case an opposite OE is observed. The mechanism of this effect is a scavenge of hydrogen atoms which damage the phage by oxygen. In the presence of catalase the OE depends also on pH of the solution. It is suggested that the hydroxyl radical arising from the reaction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ with Fe/sup 2 +/ is responsible for the damaging effect of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  1. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF NONAQUEOUS SINGLE SALT SOLUTIONS USING THE Q-ELECTROLATTICE EQUATION OF STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe correlation of thermodynamic properties of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions is relevant to design and operation of many chemical processes, as in fertilizer production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, the Q-electrolattice equation of state (EOS is used to model vapor pressure, mean ionic activity coefficient, osmotic coefficient, and liquid density of sixteen methanol and ten ethanol solutions containing single strong 1:1 and 2:1 salts. The Q-electrolattice comprises the lattice-based Mattedi-Tavares-Castier (MTC EOS, the Born term and the explicit MSA term. The model requires two adjustable parameters per ion, namely the ionic diameter and the solvent-ion interaction energy. Predictions of osmotic coefficient at 298.15 K and liquid density at different temperatures are also presented.

  2. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  3. Determining the Enthalpy of Vaporization of Salt Solutions Using the Cooling Effect of a Bubble Column Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Pashley, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization (?H[subscript vap]) of salt solutions is not easily measured, as a certain quantity of pure water has to be evaporated from a solution, at constant composition, and at a fixed temperature and pressure; then the corresponding heat input has to be measured. However, a simple bubble column evaporator (BCE) was used as a…

  4. [Electric conductivity changes in salt-free solutions in connection with the formation of polyriboadenylic and polyribouridylic acid complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S M; Vorontsova, O V; Kuznetsov, I A

    1984-01-01

    Conductometric and spectrophotometric investigations of concentrated salt-free solutions of poly(A) -- poly(U) demonstrated the 1:1 complex formation. It was accomplished by the increase of solution conductivity in contrast to the situation when DNA redenaturation takes place.

  5. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND.: Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Because no preclinical control for solute concentrations is available so far using this new process, we employed routine clinical chemistry analytics. METHODS.: We report the controls of solute concentrations created by these methods for 746 samples of concentrates and 151 dissolution processes. For analysis, absolute and relative deviations from prescriptions and associations between the solute concentrations and the density controls of the concentrates were computed. RESULTS.: A total of 98% of all the concentrates were found to be within a 10% margin of error from the prescriptions. The mean relative deviation of the solute concentrations from the prescriptions was -0.635 ± 3.83%. Among particular solutes, sodium had the highest maximum deviation of 26 mmol/L from the prescription. Calcium and magnesium (small concentration solutes) exhibited small systematic errors of 1.37 and 1.22%, respectively. Other solute concentrations showed random errors only and no associations with the mean relative deviations of all the solutes within a production batch or with the density controls. CONCLUSIONS.: Single solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry after dry salt production of concentrates is a valuable additional tool for monitoring clinical risk with dialysate concentrates. The analytical random error of clinical chemistry exceeds the weight tolerance of production; therefore, such analytics cannot be used for precision production and control of dry salt containers.

  6. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: In Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of protein-sodium interactions on the availability of sodium in the aqueous phase of liquid samples and consequently on the perception of saltiness was investigated. The aqueous effluents of casein and casein emulsion-salt solutions were monitored for sodium availability from a tongue column system. In the aqueous protein-salt solutions, increasing the protein/salt ratio from 1:1 to 5:1 or 10:1 significantly decreased the initial salt concentration in the effluent and resulted in a higher salt concentration in the effluent over time. Sensory analysis was in agreement. Samples with increased protein were rated as having significantly lower initial saltiness and a higher salty aftertaste. However, when casein was formulated as an emulsion, the initial release of sodium in the effluent was enhanced (compared to nonemulsified protein). Increasing the emulsion interfacial area (more hydrophilic segments of the protein were structured into the aqueous phase) resulted in a higher salt concentration in the aqueous phase and greater perceived saltiness intensity. In summary, protein interactions, specifically ionic, were reported as food interactions that influence salt perception and provide a basis to develop higher flavor quality low-sodium food products.

  7. Conductivity and Viscosity Measurements for Binary Lysozyme Chloride Aqueous Solution and Ternary Lysozyme-Salt-Water Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, D; Buzatu, F D

    2004-01-01

    We use the conductimetric method, adequate to electrolytes, to determine the lysozyme charge in lys-water and ternary lys-salt-water systems. We measured also the viscosities for the above binary and ternary systems in the same conditions at pH$=4.5$ and T$=298$ K, measurements that allow us to see any effect of viscosity on cations mobilities and implicitly on the lysozyme charge. The method is illustrated for the lysozyme chloride aqueous solution system at 25$^o$ C, using the data reported here for pH$=4.5$ at 0.15, 0.6, 0.8, 1., 1.5, 2., 2.5, 3., 3.5 mM (mg/mL) lysozyme chloride concentrations. The method was also applied to ternary lys-salt-water systems in the same conditions at pH$=4.5$ and T$=25^o$ C. Ternary conductivities are reported for a mean concentration 0.6 mM of lysozyme chloride in all systems and a mean concentration 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 M for NaCl; 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 M for KCl; 0.005, 0.01,...

  8. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-11

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  9. Hydrogen generation in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes.

  10. Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m3 H2/m3·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H2/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Salt Solution on the Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Farnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical interaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2 and cementitious binder may alter the transport properties of concrete which are important in predicting the service life of infrastructure elements. This paper presents a series of fluid and gas transport measurements made on cementitious mortars before and after exposure to various solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 29.8% CaCl2 by mass. Fluid absorption, oxygen diffusivity, and oxygen permeability were measured on mortar samples prepared using Type I and Type V cements. Three primary factors influence the transport properties of mortar exposed to CaCl2: (1 changes in the degree of saturation, (2 calcium hydroxide leaching, and (3 formation of chemical reaction products (i.e., Friedel’s salt, Kuzel’s salt, and calcium oxychloride. It is shown that an increase in the degree of saturation decreases oxygen permeability. At lower concentrations (~12%, the formation of chemical reaction products (mainly calcium oxychloride is a dominant factor decreasing the fluid and gas transport in concrete.

  12. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  13. Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-01

    An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G. sulfurreducens PCA and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290 ± 29 A m−3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200 mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189 ± 44 A m−3) or the type strains (Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  14. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  15. Characteristics and quantitative of negative ion in salt aqueous solution by Raman spectroscopy at -170℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The results from Raman spectroscopy analysis of salt aqueous solutions at -170℃ demonstrate that for those clearly sharp iron peaks whose Raman wavenumber is close to each other such as and , their original shape could be restorable by the stripping technique, and that ice's sharp characteristic peak (3090-3109 cm-1) is steady, while the spectrum band of the complex compound (nCl--[H+-OH-]n) chlorine ion combined chemically with water molecule is 3401-3413 cm-1. On the other hand, the research shows that the higher the negative iron concentration, the stronger its Raman characteristic peak intensity and the smaller the ice's. Based on the number of data and theoretical work, the strong correlation of the molar concentration of negative ion with the band area ratio is built up. Moreover, the developed Raman method is successfully used in the component analysis of the field fluid inclusions from Silurian sandstone in Tarim basin.

  16. Modeling of Dielectric Properties of Aqueous Salt Solutions with an Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The static permittivity is the most important physical property for thermodynamic models that account for the electrostatic interactions between ions. The measured static permittivity in mixtures containing electrolytes is reduced due to kinetic depolarization and reorientation of the dipoles...... in the electrical field surrounding ions. Kinetic depolarization may explain 25–75% of the observed decrease in the permittivity of solutions containing salts, but since this is a dynamic property, this effect should not be included in the thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes. Kinetic depolarization has, however...... to associating mixtures. Wertheim’s association model as formulated in the statistical associating fluid theory is used to account for hydrogen-bonding molecules and ion–solvent association. Finally, we compare the Debye–Hückel Helmholtz energy obtained using an empirical model with the new physical model...

  17. Preferring balanced vs. advantageous peace agreements: A study of Israeli attitudes towards a two state solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Malhotra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends research on fixed-pie perceptions by suggesting that disputants may prefer proposals that are perceived to be equally attractive to both parties (i.e., balanced rather than one-sided, because balanced agreements are seen as more likely to be successfully implemented. We test our predictions using data on Israeli support for the Geneva Accords, an agreement for a two state solution negotiated by unofficial delegations of Israel and the Palestinian Authority in 2003. The results demonstrate that Israelis are more likely to support agreements that are seen favorably by other Israelis, but --- contrary to fixed-pie predictions --- Israeli support for the accords does not diminish simply because a majority of Palestinians favors (rather than opposes the accords. We show that implementation concerns create a demand among Israelis for balance in the degree to which each side favors (or opposes the agreement. The effect of balance is noteworthy in that it creates considerable support for proposals even when a majority of Israelis and Palestinians OPPOSE the deal.

  18. Doubly Exponential Solution for Randomized Load Balancing Models with Markovian Arrival Processes and PH Service Times

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a novel matrix-analytic approach for studying doubly exponential solution of randomized load balancing models (also known as the supermarket models) with Markovian arrival processes (MAPs) and PH service times. We describe the supermarket model as a system of differential vector equations, and obtain a close-form solution: doubly exponential structure, for the fixed point of the system of differential vector equations. Based on this, we show that the fixed point is decomposited into two groups of information under a product form: the arrival information and the service information, and indicate that the doubly exponential solution to the fixed point is not always unique for more general supermarket models. Furthermore, we analyze the exponential convergence of the current location of the supermarket model to its fixed point, and study the Lipschitz condition in the Kurtz Theorem under MAP arrivals and PH service times. This paper gains a new understanding how the workload probing can...

  19. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Raatikainen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts: 4-IPhNH3Cl (1, 4-IPhNH3Br (5, 4-IPhNH3H2PO4 (6, 4-ClPhNH3H2PO4 (8, 3-IPyBnCl (9, 3-IPyHCl (10 and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13, where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH3Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL, 4-ClPhNH3Cl (3, CURGOL, 4-FPhNH3Cl (4, ANLCLA, 4-BrPhNH3H2PO4, (7, UGISEI, 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C–X···A− (X = I, Br or Cl and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C–X···A− : D–H···A−] varied across the series.

  20. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatikainen, Kari; Cametti, Massimo; Rissanen, Kari

    2010-01-15

    THE SERIES OF HALOANILINIUM AND HALOPYRIDINIUM SALTS: 4-IPhNH₃Cl (1), 4-IPhNH₃Br (5), 4-IPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (6), 4-ClPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (8), 3-IPyBnCl (9), 3-IPyHCl (10) and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13), where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH₃Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL), 4-ClPhNH₃Cl (3, CURGOL), 4-FPhNH₃Cl (4, ANLCLA), 4-BrPhNH₃H₂PO₄, (7, UGISEI), 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX) and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ) from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C-X...A⁻ (X = I, Br or Cl) and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C-X...A⁻ : D-H...A⁻] varied across the series.

  1. Complex electronic waste treatment - An effective process to selectively recover copper with solutions containing different ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2016-11-01

    Recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste has been highlighted by the EU directives. The difficulties for recycling are induced by the high complexity of such waste. In this research, copper could be selectively recovered using an ammonia-based process, from industrially processed information and communication technology (ICT) waste with high complexity. A detailed understanding on the role of ammonium salt was focused during both stages of leaching copper into a solution and the subsequent step for copper recovery from the solution. By comparing the reactivity of the leaching solution with different ammonium salts, their physiochemical behaviour as well as the leaching efficiency could be identified. The copper recovery rate could reach 95% with ammonium carbonate as the leaching salt. In the stage of copper recovery from the solution, electrodeposition was introduced without an additional solvent extraction step and the electrochemical behaviour of the solution was figured out. With a careful control of the electrodeposition conditions, the current efficiency could be improved to be 80-90% depending on the ammonia salts and high purity copper (99.9wt.%). This research provides basis for improving the recyclability and efficiency of copper recovery from such electronic waste and the whole process design for copper recycling.

  2. Excellent dynamic stability under saturated salt solution for aqueous quantum dots capped by multi-branched ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingkun; Xu, Shuhong; Lv, Changgui; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2016-09-01

    Preparing quantum dots (QDs) with strong stability against salts is extremely important in some environments with ultrahigh salts concentration, such as the oil exploitation, wastewater treatment and biological markers. In this paper, we reported a simple new method to prepared highly stable QDs by using multi-branched ligands. Our results suggested that multi-branched ligands-capped QDs have extremely good dynamic stability even in salt-saturated solution. Unlike to traditional dynamic stability theory, which considers the electrostatic repulsion of QDs dominant QD stability, the current work found a new determined factor: the steric hindrance of ligand structure. The high steric hindrance effect of multi-branched ligands can maintain the single dispersity of QDs even at extremely low electrostatic repulsion. As a result, QDs with ultrahigh stability against salts can be realized.

  3. Can mothers safely prepare labon-gur salt-sugar solution after demonstration in a diarrhoeal hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M A; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Begum, S

    1992-01-01

    and the attendants at ICDDR, Bangladesh. To evaluate performances, 150 mothers were asked to measure labon and gur by finger pinch and first method and 100 mothers measured half a seer of water to prepare labon-gur SSS, shortly after the demonstration sessions. 4.0% of the samples exceeded the upper safety limit......Home-based salt-sugar solution (SSS) prepared with labon (locally produced sea salt) and gur (unrefined brown sugar) has been recommended as a cheap, locally available and a simple tool to prevent and treat diarrhoeal dehydration. Preparation of labon-gur SSS is demonstrated to the patients...... while 1.3% exceeded the upper danger limit for salt and 98.7% samples of gur were within safe and effective range. Mothers' performances were not different with regard to their educational status and prior practice at home. 80% knew about the solution before coming to the hospital and 45% had utilized...

  4. Line emissions from sonoluminescence in aqueous solutions of halide salts without noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jinfu, E-mail: liang.shi2007@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Chen, Weizhong, E-mail: wzchen@nju.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhou, Chao; Cui, Weicheng; Chen, Zhan [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Line emissions of trivalent terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) ion were observed from single-bubble sonoluminescence (SL) in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl{sub 3}) that contained no noble gas. In addition, sodium (Na) lines were observed in multi-bubble SL in aqueous solutions of various halide salts that contained no noble gas. These observations show that the halide ions, such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}, help for line emissions as the noble gases. The intensity of a line emission depends on both the chemical species produced by cavitation bubbles and the temperature of SL bubble that responds to the driving ultrasound pressure. With the increase of driving pressure, some line emissions attached to the continuous spectrum may become increasingly clear, while other line emissions gradually become indistinct. - Highlights: • Line emissions of Tb(III) ions were observed without the presence of noble gases. • The halide ions help to generate a line emission during sonoluminescence. • The intensity of a line emission mainly depends on the bubble's temperature. • The definition of a line emission is related to the temperature of caviation bubble and the kind of host liquid.

  5. Surface-induced liquid-gas transition in salt-free solutions of model charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkov, Yu A; Frolov, A I; Kiselev, M G; Brilliantov, N V

    2013-11-21

    We report a novel phenomenon of a surface-induced phase transition in salt-free solutions of charged colloids. We develop a theory of this effect and confirm it by Molecular Dynamics simulations. To describe the colloidal solution we apply a primitive model of electrolyte with a strong asymmetry of charge and size of the constituent particles - macroions and counterions. To quantify interactions of the colloidal particles with the neutral substrate we use a short-range potential which models dispersion van der Waals forces. These forces cause the attraction of colloids to the surface. We show that for high temperatures and weak attraction, only gradual increase of the macroion concentration in the near-surface layer is observed with increase of interaction strength. If however temperature drops below some threshold value, a new dense (liquid) phase is formed in the near-surface layer. It can be interpreted as a surface-induced first-order phase transition with a critical point. Using an appropriately adopted Maxwell construction, we find the binodal. Interestingly, the observed near-surface phase transition can occur at the absence of the bulk phase transition and may be seemingly classified as prewetting transition. The reported effect could be important for various technological applications where formation of colloidal particle layers with the desired properties is needed.

  6. A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, C.R.; Chadwick, O.A.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Khomo, L.M.; Chorover, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of weathering and pedogenesis have long used calculations based upon low solubility index elements to determine mass gains and losses in open systems. One of the questions currently unanswered in these settings is the degree to which mass is transferred in solution (solutes) versus suspension (colloids). Here we show that differential mobility of the low solubility, high field strength (HFS) elements Ti and Zr can trace colloidal redistribution, and we present a model for distinguishing between mass transfer in suspension and solution. The model is tested on a well-differentiated granitic catena located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ti and Zr ratios from parent material, soil and colloidal material are substituted into a mixing equation to quantify colloidal movement. The results show zones of both colloid removal and augmentation along the catena. Colloidal losses of 110kgm-2 (-5% relative to parent material) are calculated for one eluviated soil profile. A downslope illuviated profile has gained 169kgm-2 (10%) colloidal material. Elemental losses by mobilization in true solution are ubiquitous across the catena, even in zones of colloidal accumulation, and range from 1418kgm-2 (-46%) for an eluviated profile to 195kgm-2 (-23%) at the bottom of the catena. Quantification of simultaneous mass transfers in solution and suspension provide greater specificity on processes within soils and across hillslopes. Additionally, because colloids include both HFS and other elements, the ability to quantify their redistribution has implications for standard calculations of soil mass balances using such index elements. ?? 2011.

  7. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...

  8. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1997-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  9. A new method for preparation of magnetite from iron oxyhydroxide or iron oxide and ferrous salt in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahani, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Kahani@kashanu.ac.ir; Jafari, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In this study, a new method is proposed for the preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and ferrihydrite) or iron oxide (hematite) and ferrous salt in aqueous solution. The product is magnetite with various particle sizes. Products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectra and vibrating sample magnetometery.

  10. On the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, A A; Marini, F; Tsuchisaka, Y; De Luca, S; Bevilacqua, M; O'Donnell, C; Downey, G; Tsenkova, R

    2015-01-01

    This research work evaluates the feasibility of NIRS to detect contaminants in water using single salt solutions as model systems. Previous research has indicated the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detecting solutes in water; however, a comprehensive investigation of the limit of detection of this technique has not been carried out. Near infrared transmittance spectra of aqueous salt solutions in the concentration range 0.002-0.1 mol L(-1) (equivalent to 117-13,334 ppm or 0.0001-0.01% mass/mass) were investigated. The first overtone region of the near infrared spectrum (1300-1600 nm) was found to be the most effective wavelength range for prediction of salt concentration in aqueous solutions. Calibration models built using this wavelength range and employing the extended multiplicative scatter spectral pre-treatment resulted in root mean squared error of prediction values ranging from 0.004 to 0.01 mol L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be of the order of 0.1% (mass/mass) or 1000 ppm. Within the framework of Aquaphotomics, it was possible to examine the effect of different salts on the NIR spectra of water in the first overtone range. Our results were confirmed through test experiments at various geographical locations employing dispersive and Fourier transform type NIRS instruments.

  11. Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  13. Global Classical Solutions for Partially Dissipative Hyperbolic System of Balance Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Kawashima, Shuichi

    2014-02-01

    The basic existence theory of Kato and Majda enables us to obtain local-in-time classical solutions to generally quasilinear hyperbolic systems in the framework of Sobolev spaces (in x) with higher regularity. However, it remains a challenging open problem whether classical solutions still preserve well-posedness in the case of critical regularity. This paper is concerned with partially dissipative hyperbolic system of balance laws. Under the entropy dissipative assumption, we establish the local well-posedness and blow-up criterion of classical solutions in the framework of Besov spaces with critical regularity with the aid of the standard iteration argument and Friedrichs' regularization method. Then we explore the theory of function spaces and develop an elementary fact that indicates the relation between homogeneous and inhomogeneous Chemin-Lerner spaces (mixed space-time Besov spaces). This fact allows us to capture the dissipation rates generated from the partial dissipative source term and further obtain the global well-posedness and stability by assuming at all times the Shizuta-Kawashima algebraic condition. As a direct application, the corresponding well-posedness and stability of classical solutions to the compressible Euler equations with damping are also obtained.

  14. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavallari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA, diethylamine (DEtA, triethylamine (TEtA, monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA, triethanolamine (TEA, pyrrolidine (Py, piperidine (Pp, morpholine (M, piperazine (Pz and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; a saturated solution (5 mL of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane.

  15. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  16. The structure and terahertz dynamics of water confined in nanoscale pools in salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, David A; Corsaro, Carmelo; Candelaresi, Marco; Brownlie, Angela; Seddon, Ken R; Mallamace, Francesco; Wynne, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of liquid water below its melting point is of great interest as it may hold clues to the properties of normal liquid water and of water in and on the surfaces of biomolecules. A second critical point, giving rise to a polyamorphic transition between high and low density water, may be hidden in the supercooled region but cannot be observed directly. Here it is shown that water can be locked up in nano-pools or worm-like structures using aqueous LiCl salt solutions and can be studied with terahertz spectroscopies. Very high dynamic range ultrafast femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy is used to study the temperature-dependent behaviour of water in these nano-pools on timescales from 10 fs to 4 ns. These experiments are complemented by temperature-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements, concentration-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements, and temperature-dependent rheology. It is found that liquid water in the nanoscale pools undergoes a fragile-to-strong transition at about 220 K associated with a sharp increase in the inhomogeneity of translational dynamics.

  17. Cations extraction of sandy-clay soils from cavado valley, portugal, using sodium salts solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva João Eudes da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of contamination by metals in the water wells of the Cavado Valley in north-west Portugal can be attributed to the heavy leaching of clay soils due to an excess of nitrogen resulting from the intensive use of fertilisers in agricultural areas. This work focuses on the natural weathering characteristics of soils, particularly the clay material, through the study of samples collected near the River Cavado. Samples taken from various sites, after physico-chemical characterisation, were subjected to clay dissolution tests, using sodium salts of different ionic forces, to detect the relationship between certain physico-chemical parameters of water, such as pH, nitrate, chloride and sulphate content, in the dissolution of clay and the subsequent extraction of such cations as Al, Fe and K. In acidic sandy clay soils, the mineralogical composition of which was characterised by a predominance of quartz, micas, kaolinite and K-feldspars, decreases of the clay material/water pH ratio increases dissolution of the micaceous and K-feldspars phases. The presence of nitrates in the aqueous solution apparently advanced the extraction of all three cations Al, Fe and K. The specific surface area of the clay material showed a significant correlation with the main kinetic parameters of cation extraction.

  18. Salting-Out of Methane in the Aqueous Solutions of Urea and Glycine-Betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Mayank Kumar; Siddique, Asrar A; Tembe, B L

    2015-08-27

    We have studied the hydrophobic association and solvation of methane molecules in aqueous solutions of urea and glycine betaine (GB). We have calculated the potentials of mean force (PMFs) between methane molecules in water, aqueous GB, aqueous urea and aqueous urea-GB mixtures. The PMFs and equilibrium constants indicate that both urea and GB increase the hydrophobic association of methane. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the association of methane is stabilized by entropy whereas solvation is favored by enthalpy. In the case of the water-urea-GB mixture, both hydrophobic association and solvation are stabilized by entropy. From the investigation of radial distribution functions, running coordination numbers and excess coordination numbers, we infer that both urea and GB are preferentially excluded from methane surface in the mixtures of osmolytes and methane is preferentially solvated by water molecules in all the mixtures. The favorable exclusion of both urea and GB from the methane surface suggests that both urea and GB increase the interaction between methane molecules, i.e., salting-out of methane. We observe that addition of both urea and GB to water enhances local water structure. The calculated values of diffusion constants of water also suggest enhanced water-water interactions in the presence of urea and GB. The calculated free energies of methane in these mixtures show that methane is less soluble in the mixtures of urea and GB than in water. The data on solvation free energies support the observations obtained from the PMFs of methane molecules.

  19. Salting-out of methane in the aqueous solutions of urea and sarcosine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Dixit; Anupam Chatterjee; B L Tembe

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic association and solvation of methane molecules in aqueous solutions of urea and sarcosine (sa) have been studied using MD simulations. The potentials of mean force (PMFs) between methane molecules in water, water-sa, water-urea and water-urea-sa mixtures show an enhancement of methane association on the addition of these osmolytes. These observations are well supported by calculation of equilibrium constants. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the association of methane is stabilized by entropy and favored by enthalpy. The hydrophobic solvation of methane is stabilized by enthalpy and destabilized by entropy. The calculated solvation free energies of methane in these mixtures show that methane is less soluble in the mixtures of urea and sarcosine than in water. The solubility is the least in the water-urea-sa mixture. Analysis of distributions of solvent and co-solvent around methane suggests that the local densities of both urea and sarcosine are diminished around the methane in the mixtures of these osmolytes. The selective reduction of both urea and sarcosine from methane surface suggests that both urea and sarcosine push methane molecules towards water and increase the interaction between methane molecules i.e., salting-out of methane.

  20. SANS from Salt-Free Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophilic and Highly Charged Star-Branched Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boué

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scattering functions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (NaPSS star-branched polyelectrolytes with high sulfonation degrees were measured from their salt-free aqueous solutions, using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS technique. Whatever the concentration c, they display two maxima. The first, of abscissa q1*, is related to a position order between star cores and scales as q1* ∝ c1/3. The second, of abscissa q2*, is also observed in the scattering function of a semi-dilute solution of NaPSS linear polyelectrolytes. In the dilute regime (c < c*, non-overlapping stars, peak abscissa does not depend on concentration c and is just an intramolecular characteristic associated with the electrostatic repulsion between arms of the same star. In the semi-dilute regime, due to the star interpenetration, the scattering function – through the peak position, reflects repulsion between arms of the same star or of different stars. The c threshold between these distinct c-dependencies of q2* in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes is estimated as c*. Just as simple is the measurement of the geometrical radius R of the star obtained from the q1* value at c* through the relation 2R = 2π/q1*. By considering NaPSS stars of the same functionality with different degrees of polymerization per arm Na, we find R scaling linearly with Na, suggesting an elongated average conformation of the arms. This is in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulations. Meanwhile the value of q2* measured in the dilute regime does not allow any inhomogeneous counterion distribution inside the stars to be revealed.

  1. Self-assembly of micelles in organic solutions of lecithin and bile salt: Mesoscale computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, A.; Ivanov, V.; Komarov, P.; Khokhlov, A.; Tung, S.-H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a coarse-grained model for studying the effects of adding bile salt to lecithin organosols by means of computer simulation. This model allows us to reveal the mechanisms of experimentally observed increasing of viscosity upon increasing the bile salt concentration. We show that increasing the bile salt to lecithin molar ratio induces the growth of elongated micelles of ellipsoidal and cylindrical shape due to incorporation of disklike bile salt molecules. These wormlike micelles can entangle into transient network displaying perceptible viscoelastic properties.

  2. Different sodium salts cause different solute accumulation in the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, A; Bertazza, G; Palacio, G; Luna, V

    2013-01-01

    The success of Prosopis strombulifera in growing under high NaCl concentrations involves a carefully controlled balance among different processes, including compartmentation of Cl(-) and Na(+) in leaf vacuoles, exclusion of Na(+) in roots, osmotic adjustment and low transpiration. In contrast, Na(2) SO(4) causes growth inhibition and toxicity. We propose that protection of the cytoplasm can be achieved through production of high endogenous levels of specific compatible solutes. To test our hypothesis, we examined endogenous levels of compatible solutes in roots and leaves of 29-, 40- and 48-day-old P. strombulifera plants grown in media containing various concentrations of NaCl, Na(2) SO(4) or in mixtures of both, with osmotic potentials of -1.0,-1.9 and -2.6 MPa, as correlated with changes in hydric parameters. At 24 h after the last pulse plants grown in high NaCl concentrations had higher relative water content and relatively higher osmotic potential than plants grown in Na(2) SO(4) (at 49 days). These plants also had increased synthesis of proline, pinitol and mannitol in the cytoplasm, accompanied by normal carbon metabolism. When the sulphate anion is present in the medium, the capacities for ion compartmentalisation and osmotic adjustment are reduced, resulting in water imbalance and symptoms of toxicity due to altered carbon metabolism, e.g. synthesis of sorbitol instead of mannitol, reduced sucrose production and protein content. This inhibition was partially mitigated when both anions were present together in the solution, demonstrating a detrimental effect of the sulphate ion on plant growth.

  3. Balancing Osmotic Pressure of Electrolytes for Nanoporous Membrane Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with a Draw Solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ligen; Li, Dan; Li, Shuaiqiang; Xu, Zhi; Dong, Junhang; Jing, Wenheng; Xing, Weihong

    2016-12-28

    Vanadium redox flow batteries with nanoporous membranes (VRFBNM) have been demonstrated to be good energy storage devices. Yet the capacity decay due to permeation of vanadium and water makes their commercialization very difficult. Inspired by the forward osmosis (FO) mechanism, the VRFBNM battery capacity decrease was alleviated by adding a soluble draw solute (e.g., 2-methylimidazole) into the catholyte, which can counterbalance the osmotic pressure between the positive and negative half-cell. No change of the electrolyte volume has been observed after VRFBNM being operated for 55 h, revealing that the permeation of water and vanadium ions was effectively limited. Consequently, the Coulombic efficiency (CE) of nanoporous TiO2 vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was enhanced from 93.5% to 95.3%, meanwhile, its capacity decay was significantly suppressed from 60.7% to 27.5% upon the addition of soluble draw solute. Moreover, the energy capacity of the VRFBNM was noticeably improved from 297.0 to 406.4 mAh remarkably. These results indicate balancing the osmotic pressure via the addition of draw solute can restrict pressure-dependent vanadium permeation and it can be established as a promising method for up-scaling VRFBNM application.

  4. Characterization and precipitation mechanism of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate growing out of FGD gypsum in salt solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG LiuChun; GUAN BaoHong; WU ZhongBiao

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (α-HH) has been prepared from flue gas desulfurization (FGD)gypsum with salt solution method under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogra-vimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), optical micrograph, X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed to characterize the α-HH crystals, based on which the formation and growth mecha-nisms of the a-HH crystals have been discussed. The results show that FGD gypsum can be success-fully transformed into high purity α-HH in salt solution under mild conditions, and that a dissolu-tion-recrystallization route is most probably adopted by this transition. The growth of a-HH crystals in salt solution demonstrates a preferred direction along [001] and results in a bundle-of-sheets or bun-dle-of-raphide texture. The characteristics revealed in this study can help to understand and control the growth of the α-HH crystal from solution.

  5. Characterization and precipitation mechanism of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate growing out of FGD gypsum in salt solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (α-HH) has been prepared from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum with salt solution method under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogra-vimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC),optical micrograph,X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS),energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS),and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed to characterize the α-HH crystals,based on which the formation and growth mecha-nisms of the α-HH crystals have been discussed. The results show that FGD gypsum can be success-fully transformed into high purity α-HH in salt solution under mild conditions,and that a dissolu-tion-recrystallization route is most probably adopted by this transition. The growth of α-HH crystals in salt solution demonstrates a preferred direction along [001] and results in a bundle-of-sheets or bun-dle-of-raphide texture. The characteristics revealed in this study can help to understand and control the growth of the α-HH crystal from solution.

  6. Electronic Tongue for Qualitative Analysis of Aqueous Solutions of Salts Using Thick-film Technology and Metal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Soto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue for the qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions of salts hasbeen developed. The following set of electrodes was used: RuO2, Ag, and Cu in thick-filmtechnology and Au, Pb, Zn and Ni as small bars of the corresponding metal. The response ofthe designed “electronic tongue” was tested on a family of samples containing pure salt andcomplex mixtures. The electrodes were used as potentiometric un-specific sensors and thee.m.f. of each electrode in contact with a certain aqueous solution was used as input signalfor a PCA analysis. The study showed that the set of electrodes were capable to discriminatebetween aqueous solutions of salts basically by their different content in anions and cations(the anions SO42-, Cl-, PO4H2-, CO3H-, NO3- and cations Na+ and K+ were studied. In orderto better analyze the basis for the discrimination power shown by the electronic tongue, aquantitative analysis was also envisaged. A fair estimation of the concentrations of thedifferent ions in the solutions studied appeared to be possible using this electronic tonguedesign.Keywords:

  7. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  8. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  9. Development of tropine-salt aqueous two-phase systems and removal of hydrophilic ionic liquids from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Song, Hang

    2016-08-26

    A novel aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) composed of a small molecule organic compound tropine and an organic or inorganic salt aqueous solution has been developed for the first time. The phase behavior of tropine-salt ATPS was systemically investigated and the phase equilibrium data were measured in different temperatures and concentrations and correlated by the Merchuk equation with satisfactory results. The detection of the conductivity and particle size proved the formation of micelle in the process of forming tropine-salt ATPS. The separation application of the ATPS was assessed with the removal of hydrophilic benzothiazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) from aqueous solution. The result showed that ILs were effectively extracted into the top tropine-rich phase. Finally, ILs in the top tropine-rich phase were further separated by the means of adsorption-desorption with DM301 macroporous resin and ethanol. The method of novel tropine-salt ATPS combined with adsorption-desorption is demonstrated a promising alternative thought and approach for the removal or recovery of hydrophilic compounds from aqueous media and also could provide a potential application for bio-separation.

  10. VERIFICATION OF SMOM AND QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN CFD CODE USING ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR BATCH PARTICULATE PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A.Ring

    2006-01-01

    For many processes of industrial significance, due to the strong coupling between particle interactions and fluid dynamics, the population balance must be solved as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In this work, a CFD based population balance model is tested using a batch crystallization reactor. In this CFD model, the population balance is solved by the standard method of moments (SMOM) and the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). The results of these simulations are compared to analytical solutions for the population balance in a batch tank where 1) nucleation, 2) growth, 3) aggregation, and 4) breakage are taking place separately. The results of these comparisons show that the first 6 moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage at all times.

  11. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets.2 Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  12. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours, and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  13. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions: Formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-10-01

    The hydroxides of Mg, Ni, Cu and Zn transform into layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of formation of LDH minerals in the earth’s crust.

  14. Advances in numerical methods for the solution of population balance equations for disperse phase systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the evolution of particle size distribution is critical to determining the dynamic flow structure of a disperse phase system.A population balance equation(PBE),a non-linear hyperbolic equation of the number density function,is usually employed to describe the micro-behavior(aggregation,breakage,growth,etc.) of a disperse phase and its effect on particle size distribution.Numerical solution is the only choice in most cases.In this paper,three different numerical methods(direct discretization methods,Monte Carlo methods,and moment methods) for the solution of a PBE are evaluated with regard to their ease of implementation,computational load and numerical accuracy.Special attention is paid to the relatively new and superior moment methods including quadrature method of moments(QMOM),direct quadrature method of moments(DQMOM),modified quadrature method of moments(M-QMOM),adaptive direct quadrature method of moments(ADQMOM),fixed pivot quadrature method of moments(FPQMOM),moving particle ensemble method(MPEM) and local fixed pivot quadrature method of moments(LFPQMOM).The prospects of these methods are discussed in the final section,based on their individual merits and current state of development of the field.

  15. Advances in numerical methods for the solution of population balance equations for disperse phase systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU JunWei; GU ZhaoLin; XU X.Yun

    2009-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the evolution of particle size distribution is critical to determining the dynamic flow structure of a disperse phase system.A population balance equation(PBE),a non-linear hyperbolic equation of the number density function,is usually employed to describe the micro-behavior(aggregation,breakage,growth,etc.)of a disperse phase and its effect on particle size distribution.Numerical solution is the only choice in most cases.In this paper,three different numerical methods(direct discretization methods,Monte Carlo methods,and moment methods)for the solution of a PBE are evaluated with regard to their ease of implementation,computational load and numerical accuracy.Special attention is paid to the relatively new and superior moment methods including quadrature method of moments(QMOM),direct quadrature method of moments(DQMOM),modified quadrature method of moments(M-QMOM),adaptive direct quadrature method of moments(ADOMOM),fixed pivot quadrature method of moments(FPQMOM),moving particle ensemble method(MPEM)and local fixed pivot quadrature method of moments(LFPQMOM).The prospects of these methods ere discussed in the final section,based on their individual merits and current state of development of the field.

  16. Soft X-ray absorption spectra of aqueous salt solutions with highly charged cations in liquid microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-03-11

    X-ray absorption spectra of 1M aqueous solutions of indium (III) chloride, yttrium (III) bromide, lanthanum (III) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and chromium (III) chloride have been measured at the oxygen K-edge. Relatively minor changes are observed in the spectra compared to that of pure water. SnCl{sub 4} and CrCl{sub 3} exhibit a new onset feature which is attributed to formation of hydroxide or other complex molecules in the solution. At higher energy, only relatively minor, but salt-specific changes in the spectra occur. The small magnitude of the observed spectral changes is ascribed to offsetting perturbations by the cations and anions.

  17. [Aqueous and salt solutions of quinine of low concentrations: self-organization, physicochemical properties and actions on the electrical characteristics of neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, L I; Ryzhkina, I S; Mishina, O A; Andrianov, V V; Bogodvid, T Kh; Gaĭnutdinov, Kh L; Muranova, L N; Konovalov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Self-organization, the physicochemical properties of aqueous and salt solutions of quinine and the effects of salt quinine solutions in a wide range of concentrations (1 x 10(-22) - 1 x 10(-3) M) on the electrical characteristics of the edible snail's identified neurons were studied. Similar non-monotonic concentration dependencies of physicochemical properties of aqueous and salt quinine solutions at low concentrations are obtained. This allows of predicting the occurrence of biological effects at low concentrations of quinine solutions. Intrinsic (within 5% of the interval) changes in membrane potential, the amplitude and duration of the neuron action potential under the influence of quinine salt solutions at concentrations of quinine of 1 x 10(-20), 1 x 10(-18), 1 x 10(-10) M are found. For these concentrations the extreme values of specific conductivity and pH are shown.

  18. Molecular Thermodynamic Model for Polyelectrolyte Solutions with Added Salts%含盐聚电解质溶液的分子热力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 蔡钧; 刘洪来; 胡英

    2002-01-01

    A molecular thermodynamic model of polyelectrolyte developed previously was extended to polyelectrolyte solutions with added salts. Thermodynamic properties, such as activity coefficients of polyelectrolytes or added salts and osmotic coefficients of solvent, of a number of aqueous mixtures of polyelectrolytes and salts are analyzed with the proposed model. Successful correlation is obtained in the range of moderate or higher polyion concentration. For the same sample, thermodynamic properties of polyelectrolytes with and without simple electrolytes can be predicted mutually using parameters from regression data.

  19. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a method of deducing the chemical compounds found in deep polar ice cores by analyzing the balance between six major ions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). The method is demonstrated for the Holocene and last glacial maximum regions of the Dome Fuji and GRIP ice cores...... on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental...

  20. Analytical Solutions to the Near-Neutral Atmospheric Surface Energy Balance with and without Heat Storage for Urban Climatological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, C. P.; Chan, B. K.; Hashim, M. A.

    1991-04-01

    Analytical solutions are presented to the near-neutral atmospheric surface energy balance with the new approach of including the participation of heat storage in the building substrate. Analytical solutions are also presented for the first time for the case without heat storage effect. By a linearization process, the governing equations are simplified to a set of time-dependent, linear, first-order equations from which explicit solutions are readily obtainable. The results compare well with those obtained by numerical solutions upon the set without linearization when applied to the tropical city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  1. On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mütze, Annekathrin, E-mail: muetzea@ethz.ch; Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter [ETH Zürich, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.

  2. Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, Ehrhardt; Nissen, Hans-Peter; Bremgartner, Markus; Urquhart, Colin

    2005-02-01

    Magnesium salts, the prevalent minerals in Dead Sea water, are known to exhibit favorable effects in inflammatory diseases. We examined the efficacy of bathing atopic subjects in a salt rich in magnesium chloride from deep layers of the Dead Sea (Mavena(R) Dermaline Mg(46) Dead Sea salt, Mavena AG, Belp, Switzerland). Volunteers with atopic dry skin submerged one forearm for 15 min in a bath solution containing 5% Dead Sea salt. The second arm was submerged in tap water as control. Before the study and at weeks 1-6, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin roughness, and skin redness were determined. We found one subgroup with a normal and one subgroup with an elevated TEWL before the study. Bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution significantly improved skin barrier function compared with the tap water-treated control forearm in the subgroup with elevated basal TEWL. Skin hydration was enhanced on the forearm treated with the Dead Sea salt in each group, which means the treatment moisturized the skin. Skin roughness and redness of the skin as a marker for inflammation were significantly reduced after bathing in the salt solution. This demonstrates that bathing in the salt solution was well tolerated, improved skin barrier function, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, and reduced skin roughness and inflammation. We suggest that the favorable effects of bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution are most likely related to the high magnesium content. Magnesium salts are known to bind water, influence epidermal proliferation and differentiation, and enhance permeability barrier repair.

  3. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal Setschenow salting constants in sulfate, nitrate, and chloride solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waxman, Eleanor M.; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo;

    2015-01-01

    . We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.......06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na......(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3...

  4. Bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids: aqueous solubility and release characteristics from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan W; Parshad, Henrik; Larsen, Claus

    2005-11-01

    In the search for poorly soluble bupivacaine salts potentially enabling prolonged postoperative pain relief after local joint administration in the form of suspensions the solubility of bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids were investigated together with the release characteristics of selected 1:1 salts from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model. The poorest soluble bupivacaine salts were obtained from the aromatic ortho-hydroxycarboxylic acids diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and salicylic acid (aqueous solubilities: 0.6-1.9 mM at 37 degrees C). Diffusant appearance rates in the acceptor phase upon instillation of solutions of various salts in the donor cell applied to first-order kinetics. Calculated permeability coefficients for bupivacaine and the counterions diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and mandelic acid were found to be correlated with the molecular size of the diffusants. Release experiments at physiological pH involving suspensions of the bupivacaine-diflunisal salt revealed that at each sampling point the diflunisal concentration exceeded that of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase. However, after an initial lag period, a steady state situation was attained resulting in equal and constant fluxes of the two diffusants controlled by the permeability coefficients in combination with the solubility product of the salt. Due to the fact that the saturation solubility of the bupivacaine-salicylic acid salt in water exceeded that of bupivacaine at pH 7.4, suspensions of the latter salt were unable to provide simultaneous release of the cationic and anionic species at pH 7.4. The release profiles were characterised by a rapid release of salicylate accompanied by a much slower appearance of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase caused by precipitation of bupivacaine base from the solution upon dissolution of the salt in the donor cell.

  5. Performance evaluation of ant colony optimization-based solution strategies on the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Sener; Mirac Bayhan, G.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the performances of iterative ant colony optimization (ACO)-based solution strategies on a mixed-model assembly line balancing problem of type II (MMALBP-II) by addressing some particular features of real-world assembly line balancing problems such as parallel workstations and zoning constraints. To solve the problem, where the objective is to minimize the cycle time (i.e. maximize the production rate) for a predefined number of workstations in an existing assembly line, two ACO-based approaches which differ in the mission assigned to artificial ants are used. Furthermore, each ACO-based approach is conducted with two different pheromone release strategies: global and local pheromone updating rules. The four ACO-based approaches are used for solving 20 representative MMALBP-II to compare their performance in terms of computational time and solution quality. Detailed comparison results are presented.

  6. Fluidized-bed reactor model with generalized particle balances. Part 1. Formulation and solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overturf, B.W.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-09-01

    In this first part, a particle balance model is developed for a fluidized-bed gas-solid reactor which accommodates particle distributions dependent on both size and density, as well as populations consisting of multiple solids.

  7. Non-trivial solution chemistry between amido-pyridylcalix[4]arenes and some metal salts

    OpenAIRE

    Colleran, John; Creaven, Bernadette; Donlon, Denise; McGinley, John

    2010-01-01

    Mercury ion complexation reactions were carried out between 3 and various mercury(II) salts. 1H NMR studies showed that the role of solvent, the anion chosen and the initial reaction conditions were critical and that the formation of a “simple” mercury(II) complex was non-trivial. The mercury(II) ion can cause either (i) the formation of an ion-pair system, which have a characteristic doubling of all signals in the 1H NMR spectrum, (ii) a cleavage reaction to occur resulting in the reformatio...

  8. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  9. Density, Viscosity, Solubility, and Diffusivity of N2O in Aqueous Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Solubility and diffusivity of N2O in aqueous solutions of potassium taurate are reported over a wide range of concentration and temperature. Also, the solubility of N2O in aqueous potassium glycinate solution is reported at 295 K. The ion specific constants are reported for taurate and glycinate ani

  10. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate.

  11. Effects of salt concentrations of the aqueous peptide-amphiphile solutions on the sol-gel transitions, the gelation speed, and the gel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takahiro; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-10-02

    Hydrogels made of peptide amphiphiles (PA) have attracted a lot of interest in biomedical fields. Considering the applications of PA hydrogels, the control of the gelation speed and the gel characteristics is essential to predominantly determine the usefulness and practicability of the hydrogels. In this work, the effects of the salt concentrations using sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate (NaH2PO4) on the sol-gel transition behaviors, especially the gelation speed and the gel characteristics of the designed PA (C16-W3K) hydrogels in aqueous solution were discussed. It was found that the original solution state before rheological testing was independent of the salt concentration, which was confirmed by observing the self-assembly structures and the peptide secondary structures of PA through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The PA solutions with different salt concentrations, however, presented a profound difference in the gelation speed and the gel characteristics: the solution exhibited higher gelation speeds and higher mechanical properties at higher salt concentrations. Concurrently, the density, the length of wormlike micelles, and the conformational ratio of β-sheets to α-helices in the equilibrium PA solutions all increased with the increase in the salt concentrations.

  12. Non-monotonic course of protein solubility in aqueous polymer-salt solutions can be modeled using the sol-mxDLVO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Protein purification is often performed using cost-intensive chromatographic steps. To discover economic alternatives (e.g., crystallization), knowledge on protein solubility as a function of temperature, pH, and additives in solution as well as their concentration is required. State-of-the-art models for predicting protein solubility almost exclusively consider aqueous salt systems, whereas "salting-in" and "salting-out" effects induced by the presence of an additional polymer are not considered. Thus, we developed the sol-mxDLVO model. Using this newly developed model, protein solubility in the presence of one salt and one polymer, especially the non-monotonic course of protein solubility, could be predicted. Systems considered included salts (NaCl, Na-p-Ts, (NH(4))(2) SO(4)) and the polymer polyethylene glycol (MW: 2000 g/mol, 12000 g/mol) and proteins lysozyme from chicken egg white (pH 4 to 5.5) and D-xylose ketol-isomerase (pH 7) at 298.15 K. The results show that by using the sol-mxDLVO model, protein solubility in polymer-salt solutions can be modeled in good agreement with the experimental data for both proteins considered. The sol-mxDLVO model can describe the non-monotonic course of protein solubility as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration, previously not covered by state-of-the-art models.

  13. Molten-salt synthesis and composition-dependent luminescent properties of barium tungsto-molybdate-based solid solution phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Hong, He; Zhao-Lian, Ye; Ming-Yun, Guan; Ning, Lian; Jian-Hua, Sun

    2016-02-01

    Pr3+-activated barium tungsto-molybdate solid solution phosphor Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ is successfully fabricated via a facile molten-salt approach. The as-synthesized microcrystal is of truncated octahedron and exhibits deep-red-emitting upon blue light excitation. Powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques are utilized to investigate the formation of solid solution phosphor. The luminescence behaviors depend on the resulting composition of the microcrystals with fixed Pr3+-doping concentration, while the host lattices remain in a scheelite structure. The forming solid solution via the substitution of [WO4] for [MoO4] can significantly enhance its luminescence, which may be due to the fact that Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ owns well-defined facets and uniform morphologies. Owing to its properties of high phase purity, well-defined facets, highly uniform morphologies, exceptional chemical and thermal stabilities, and stronger emission intensity, the resulting solid solution phosphor is expected to find potential applications in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Project supported by the Construction Fund for Science and Technology Innovation Group from Jiangsu University of Technology, China, the Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, China (Grant No. KHK1409), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21373103).

  14. Use of alkali metal salts to prepare high purity single-walled carbon nanotube solutions and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) display interesting electronic and optical properties desired for many advanced thin film applications, such as transparent conductive electrodes or thin-film transistors. Large-scale production of SWCNTs generally results in polydispersed mixtures of nanotube structures. Since SWCNT electronic character (conducting or semiconducting nature) depends on the nanotube structure, application performance is being held back by this inability to discretely control SWCNT synthesis. Although a number of post-production techniques are able to separate SWCNTs based on electronic character, diameter, or chirality, most still suffer from the disadvantage of high costs of materials, equipment, or labor intensity to be relevant for large-scale production. On the other hand, chromatographic separation has emerged as a method that is compatible with large scale separation of metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs. In this work, SWCNTs, in an aqueous surfactant suspension of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are separated by their electronic character using a gel chromatography process. Metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) are collected as initial fractions since they show minimum interaction with the gel medium, whereas, semiconducting SWCNTs (sc- SWCNTs) remain adsorbed to the gel. The process of sc-SWCNT retention in the gel is found to be driven by the packing density of SDS around the SWCNTs. Through a series of separation experiments, it is shown that sc-SWCNTs can be eluted from the gel simply by disturbing the configuration of the SDS/SWCNT micellar structure. This is achieved by either introducing a solution containing a co-surfactant, such as sodium cholate (SC), or solutions of alkali metal ionic salts. Analysis of SWCNT suspensions by optical absorption provides insights into the effect of changing the metal ion (M+ = Li+, Na+, and K+) in the eluting solution. Salts with smaller metal ions (e.g. Li+) require higher concentrations to achieve

  15. Effect of ammonium-salt solutions on the surface properties of carbon fibers in electrochemical anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xin, E-mail: qx3023@nimte.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang Xuefei; Ouyang Qin; Chen Yousi; Yan Qing [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative reaction happened. - Abstract: The surfaces of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were treated by an electrochemical anodic method. Three different kinds of ammonium-salt solutions namely NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} were respectively chosen as the electrolytes. The effect of these electrolytes on the surface structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment, and the root mean square roughness (RMS) of carbon fiber surface increased from 4.6 nm for untreated fibers to 13.5 nm for treated fibers in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes. The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen atomic on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. The tensile strength of oxidized fibers had an obvious decrease, whereas the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) value of corresponding carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) increased in a large extent. The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions and electrochemical oxidation in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolyte was of the most violence. The corresponding mechanism was also discussed and the result showed that the higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative

  16. Salt-induced vesicle formation from single anionic surfactant SDBS and its mixture with LSB in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Limin; Zhao, Mei; Sun, Dejun; Hao, Jingcheng; Zhang, Lungjun

    2005-03-31

    Vesicles can be formed spontaneously in aqueous solution of a single anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) just under the inducement of salt, which makes the formation of vesicle much easier and simpler. The existence of vesicles was demonstrated by TEM image using the negative-staining method. The mechanism of the formation may be attributed to the compression of salt on the electric bilayer of the surfactant headgroups, which alters the packing parameter of the surfactant. The addition of the zwitterionic surfactant lauryl sulfonate betaine (LSB) makes the vesicles more stable, expands the range of formation and vesicle size, and reduces the polydispersity of the vesicles. The vesicle region was presented in a pseudoternary diagram of SDBS/LSB/brine. The variations of vesicle size with the salinity and mixing ratios, as well as the surfactant concentration, were determined using the dynamic light scattering method. It is found that the vesicle size is independent of the surfactant concentration but subject to the salinity and the mixing ratio of the two surfactants.

  17. Results of Hg speciation testing on MCU strip effluent hold tank (SEHT) and decontaminated salt solution hold tank (DSSHT) materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The tenth shipment of samples was designated to include Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and MCU Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) materials from processing Salt Batch 7b. The MCU SEHT (MCU-15-722) and DSSHT (MCU-15-709) samples were pulled on June 15, 2015. All MCU samples were received at SRNL on June 16, 2015. The DSSHT sample was moved the same day to refrigeration, while the SEHT sample was placed in the Shielded Cells. On July 9, 2015 it was opened and an aliquot diluted 1:100 with Eurofins deionized water and a portion of the diluted sample transferred to a Teflon® bottle prior to moving it to refrigeration that same day. All samples were kept in the dark and refrigerated until final dilutions were prepared for shipment to Eurofins.

  18. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew S; Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) to drink during practices decreased fluid intake or affected other hydration and (or) sweat measures. All testing was conducted on elite players of an Ontario Hockey League team (+/-SE; mean age, 17.6 +/- 0.3 years; mean height, 182.9 +/- 1.4 cm; mean body mass, 83.0 +/- 1.7 kg). Players were studied 3 times over the course of 6 weekly on-ice practices (+/-SE; mean playing time, 1.58 +/- 0.07 h; mean temperature, 11.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C; mean relative humidity, 52% +/- 3%). There was strong repeatability of the measured hydration and sweat parameters between 2 similar on-ice practices when players drank only water. Limiting the players to drinking only a CES (as opposed to water) did not decrease fluid intake during practice (+/-SE; mean CES intake, 0.72 +/- 0.07 L.h-1 vs. mean water intake, 0.82 +/- 0.08 L.h-1) or affect sweat rate (1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1), sweat sodium concentration (72.4 +/- 5.6 mmol.L-1 vs. 73.0 +/- 4.4 mmol.L-1), or percent body mass loss (1.1% +/- 0.2% vs. 0.9% +/- 0.2%). Drinking a CES also improved sodium balance (-2.1 +/- 0.2 g.h-1 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 g.h-1) and provided the players with a significant carbohydrate (43 +/- 4 g.h-1 vs. 0 +/- 0 g.h-1) during practice. In summary, a single field sweat test during similar on-ice hockey practices in male junior hockey players is sufficient to evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance. Also, a CES does not affect voluntary fluid intake during practice, compared with water, in these players. The CES provided some salt to offset the salt lost in sweat, and carbohydrate, which may help maintain physical and mental performance in the later stages of practice.

  19. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  20. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globularprotein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-02-22

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish the potential of mean force between two globular proteins in an aqueous electrolyte solution. This potential includes nonelectrostatic contributions arising from dispersion forces first, between the globular proteins, and second, between ions in solution and between each ion and the globular protein. These latter contributions are missing from standard models. The potential of mean force, obtained from simulation, is fitted to an analytic equation. Using our analytic potential of mean force and Barker-Henderson perturbation theory, we obtain phase diagrams for lysozyme solutions that include stable and metastable fluid-fluid and solid-fluid phases when the electrolyte is 0.2 M NaSCN or NaI or NaCl. The nature of the electrolyte has a significant effect on the phase diagram.

  1. Numerical simulation of solidification in a horizontal cylindrical annulus charged with an aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, D. G.; Incropera, F. D.; Bennon, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    A computational study of solidification of a binary Na2CO3 solution in a horizontal cylindrical annulus is performed using a continuum formulation with a control-volume based, finite-difference scheme. The initial conditions were selected to facilitate the study of counter thermal and solutal convection, accompanied by extensive mushy region growth. Numerical results are compared with experimental data with mixed success. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the overall solidification process and associated physical phenomena. However, the plume thickness calculated for the solutally-driven convective upflow is substantially smaller than the observed value. Evolution of double-diffusive layers is predicted, but over a time scale much smaller than that observed experimentally. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and measured results for solid growth, but the mushy region thickness is significantly overpredicted.

  2. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J

    2013-09-01

    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage.

  3. Effect of plasticizer on surface of free films prepared from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers with different plasticizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdik, János; Fehér, Máté; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2007-06-01

    Acquisition of a more detailed understanding of all technological processes is currently a relevant tendency in pharmaceutical technology and hence in industry. A knowledge of film formation from dispersion of polymers is very important during the coating of solid dosage forms. This process and the structure of the film can be influenced by different additives. In the present study, taste-masking films were prepared from aqueous citric acid solutions of a cationic polymer (Eudragit ® E PO) with various hydrophilic plasticizers (glycerol, propylene glycol and different poly(ethylene glycols)). The mechanical properties, film thickness, wetting properties and surface free energy of the free films were studied. The aim was to evaluate the properties of surface of free films to predict the arrangement of macromolecules in films formed from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers. A high molecular weight of the plasticizer decreased the work of deformation. The surface free energy and the polarity were highest for the film without plasticizer; the hydrophilic additives decreased these parameters. The direction of the change in polarity (a hydrophilic component caused a decrease in the polarity) was unexpected. It can be explained by the change in orientation of the macromolecules, a hydrophobic surface being formed. Examination of the mechanical properties and film thickness can furnish additional results towards a knowledge of film formation by this not frequently applied type of polymer from aqueous solution.

  4. Current-voltage behaviour of bipolar membranes in concentrated salt solutions investigated with chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Vegt, van der N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chronopotentiometry is used as a tool to obtain detailed information on the transport behaviour of the bipolar membrane BP-1 in solutions of high sodium chloride concentration above the limiting current density. We discuss critically the interpretation of the observed transition times. The occurrenc

  5. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on organic solutes in maize leaves under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2011-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae, on plant biomass and organic solute accumulation in maize leaves. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with three NaCl levels (0, 0.5, and 1.0 g kg(-1) dry substrate) for 55 days, after 15 days of establishment under non-saline conditions. At all salinity levels, mycorrhizal plants had higher biomass and higher accumulation of organic solutes in leaves, which were dominated by soluble sugars, reducing sugars, soluble protein, and organic acids in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The relative abundance of free amino acids and proline in total organic solutes was lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants, while that of reducing sugars was higher. In addition, the AM symbiosis raised the concentrations of soluble sugars, reducing sugars, soluble protein, total organic acids, oxalic acid, fumaric acid, acetic acid, malic acid, and citric acid and decreased the concentrations of total free amino acids, proline, formic acid, and succinic acid in maize leaves. In mycorrhizal plants, the dominant organic acid was oxalic acid, while in non-mycorrhizal plants, the dominant organic acid was succinic acid. All the results presented here indicate that the accumulation of organic solutes in leaves is a specific physiological response of maize plants to the AM symbiosis, which could mitigate the negative impact of soil salinity on plant productivity.

  6. Resuscitation from Hypovolemia in Swine with Intraosseous Infusion of a Saturated Salt-Dextran Solution (SSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    weeks to ensure a good state of health, and fasted overnight before experimentation. Pre-anesthesia was induced with ketamine HCI (2 mg/kg), xylazine ...infusions of either isotonic or hypertonic solutions do not appear to be more dangerous than intravenous or intramuscular infusions. The use of the

  7. Influence of pH, temperature, and concentration on stabilization of aqueous hornet silk solution and fabrication of salt-free materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2015-01-01

    We found that an aqueous solution of silk from cocoons produced by hornet larvae (hornet silk) can be obtained when the solution is adjusted to basic conditions of pH > 9.2. It is known that native hornet cocoons can be dissolved in concentrated aqueous solution of salts, such as lithium bromide (LiBr) and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Upon the removal of these salts from solution by dialysis, solidification, gelation, or sedimentation of hornet silk is known to occur. In the present study, under basic conditions, however, no such solidification occurred, even after salt removal. In this study, ammonia was used for alkalization of solution because it is volatilized during the casting process and pure hornet silk materials can be obtained after drying. The effects of the concentrations of hornet silk and ammonia, as well as dialysis temperature, on preventing gelation during dialysis were investigated. Dialysis conditions that limit the degradation of hornet silk by hydrolysis in alkali solution were identified. Moreover, casting conditions to prepare flexible and transparent hornet silk film from aqueous ammonia solution were optimized. Molecular structural analysis of hornet silk in aqueous ammonia solution and cast film indicated the formation of α-helix conformations.

  8. Balancing assembly lines with variable parallel workplaces: Problem definition, model and exact solution procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Becker; Armin Scholl

    2008-01-01

    Assembly line balancing problems (ALBP) arise whenever an assembly line is con- figured, redesigned or adjusted. An ALBP consists of distributing the total workload for manu- facturing any unit of the products to be assembled among the work stations along the line sub- ject to a strict or average cycle time. Traditionally, stations are considered to be manned by one operator, respectively, or duplicated in form of identical parallel stations, each also manned by a single operator. In practice...

  9. Harmonic balance approach to the periodic solutions of the (an)harmonic relativistic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es; Pascual, Carolina [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2007-11-19

    The first-order harmonic balance method via the first Fourier coefficient is used to construct two approximate frequency-amplitude relations for the relativistic oscillator for which the nonlinearity (anharmonicity) is a relativistic effect due to the time line dilation along the world line. Making a change of variable, a new nonlinear differential equation is obtained and two procedures are used to approximately solve this differential equation. In the first the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain a square-root expression, while in the second the differential equation is solved directly. The approximate frequency obtained using the second procedure is more accurate than the frequency obtained with the first due to the fact that, in the second procedure, application of the harmonic balance method produces an infinite set of harmonics, while in the first procedure only two harmonics are produced. Both approximate frequencies are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one are demonstrated and discussed. The discrepancy between the first-order approximate frequency obtained by means of the second procedure and the exact frequency never exceeds 1.6%. We also obtained the approximate frequency by applying the second-order harmonic balance method and in this case the relative error is as low 0.31% for all the range of values of amplitude of oscillation A.

  10. Growth of lithium triborate single crystals from molten salt solution under various temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guretskii, S. A.; Ges, A. P.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Ignatenko, A. A.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Luginets, A. M.; Milovanov, A. S.; Molchan, P. V.

    1995-12-01

    Single crystals of lithium triborate LiB 3O 5 (LBO) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method with B 2O 3 as a solvent using different temperature gradients in the zone of crystallization. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LBO single crystals have been investigated. The influence of post-growth thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere on the optical properties has been studied.

  11. OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION KINETICS OF GUAVAS IN MALTOSE SOLUTIONS WITH CALCIUM SALT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DI S. MASTRANTONIO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The osmotic dehydration kinetics of guavas in maltose solutions at 40 and 60ºBrix, with addition of 0, 0.6 and 1.2% of calcium lactate was studied in this paper and the final product quality was evaluated. The experiments were carried out up to 60 hours and samples were taken for analysis at different times to evaluate guavas weight reduction, water loss and sugar gain and to characterize the product according to its texture and color. After 24 hours of process the mass transfer of water and sugar between the osmotic solution and the fruit was negligible, showing that process equilibrium was reached. The increase of sugar concentration in the osmotic solution showed strong influence on the dehydration process, increasing the water loss and reducing sugar gain. The presence of calcium ions in the osmotic solution also influenced the kinetics of mass transfer and showed a strong influence on fruit texture. Higher values of stress and strain at failure were obtained when calcium lactate was employed. The effect of the different osmotic treatments on the color parameters was also investigated and significant changes were observed in the values of chroma C* and hue H* due to sugar concentration and calcium addition.

    KEYWORDS: Osmotic dehydration; kinetics; guava; maltose; calcium lactate.

  12. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Prevention by Nitrite in Carbon Steel Exposed to Dilute Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. Zapp; John W. Van Zee

    2002-02-01

    The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during waste removal for permanent disposition and waste tank closure to ensure that the tanks are maintained safely. The results of the research provide the insight necessary to develop solutions that prevent further degradation.

  13. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  14. Corrosion Tests of Steel Bar in Concrete under High Temperature by Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChangMin; Lee, YoonHee; Lee, KunJai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, KyungHo; Jang, HyunKie; Kim, JeongMook [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The saturation of South Korea's at-reactor (AR) spent fuel storage pools has created necessity for additional spent fuel storage capacity. The utility company (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company) is planning to construct a dry storage facility, which offers advantages such as no generation of second time radioactive waste, relatively low operational cost, and a short construction period. Spent nuclear fuel from CANDU will be stored in MACSTOR-400. MACSTOR-400 developed by KHNP and AECL is a new dry storage module to replace Korea's existing concrete silo. This module composed of reinforced concrete has a capacity of 446MgU, twice the MACSTOR 200. Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear facilities because of two primary properties, its structural strength and its ability to shield radiation. The use of concrete in nuclear facilities for containment and shielding of radiation and radioactive materials has made its performance crucial for the safe operation of the facility. Corrosion of reinforcing bars deteriorates the concrete structures and reduces their service life. Because spent fuel dry storage will be constructed near seashore, the reinforced concrete components and structures must withstand the damage due to salt attack under high temperature that is emitted by spent fuel. It can be noted that the temperature considerably affects degradation of reinforced concrete structure. However, there are very few examination examples to make clear the influence of the temperature. To obtain the basic material properties at high temperature and evaluate life time of spent fuel dry storage facility, the following test is now in progress.

  15. Oxidative Leaching of metals from electronic waste with solutions based on quaternary ammonium salts

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of electric and electronic waste (WEEE) is a problem which receives ever more attention. An inadequate treatment results in harmful products ending up in the environment. This project intends to investigate the possibilities of an alternative route for recycling of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs) obtained from rejected computers. The process is based on aqueous solutions composed of an etchant, either 0.2 M CuCl2.2H2O or 0.2 M FeCl3.6H2O, and a quater...

  16. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2015-12-10

    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations.

  17. Organic solutes in coconut palm seedlings under water and salt stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. A. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical mechanisms associated with isolated and/or concurrent actions of drought and soil salinity in seedlings of coconut tree, through the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble carbohydrates, soluble amino N and free proline in leaves and roots. The experiment, conducted in a protected environment, in Fortaleza, Brazil, in a randomized block design, in a split-plot arrangement, evaluated the effects of different levels of water stress (plots by imposing distinct percentages of replacement of water losses through crop potential evapotranspiration - ETpc (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, associated with subplots consisting of increasing levels of soil salinity in saturation extract (1.72, 6.25, 25.80 and 40.70 dS m-1 provided by the soils collected in the Irrigated Perimeter of Morada Nova. Salinity did not change the concentration of organic solutes; however, there were increases in leaf and root levels of free proline in response to water stress, which contributes to the osmoregulation and/or osmoprotection of the species under adverse conditions of water supply.

  18. Use of a liter-scale microbial desalination cell as a platform to study bioelectrochemical desalination with salt solution or artificial seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-05-15

    Bioelectrochemical desalination is potentially advantageous because of bioenergy production and integrated wastewater treatment and desalination. In this work, the performance and energy benefits of a liter-scale upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) were evaluated. The UMDC desalinated both salt solution (NaCl) and artificial seawater, and the removal rate of total dissolved solid (TDS) increased with an increased hydraulic retention time, although TDS reduction in artificial seawater was lower than that in salt solution. Our analysis suggested that electricity generation was a predominant factor in removing TDS (more than 70%), and that other factors, like water osmosis and unknown processes, also contributed to TDS reduction. It was more favorable given the high energy efficiency, when treating salt solution, to operate the UMDC under the condition of high power output compared with that of high current generation because of the amount of energy production; while high current generation was more desired with seawater desalination because of lower salinity in the effluent. Under the condition of the high power output and the assumption of the UMDC as a predesalination in connection with a reversal osmosis (RO) system, the UMDC could produce electrical energy that might potentially account for 58.1% (salt solution) and 16.5% (artificial seawater) of the energy required by the downstream RO system. Our results demonstrated the great potential of bioelectrochemical desalination.

  19. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  20. Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel immersed in water and salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2010-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels immersed in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated for their structure and dynamics using static and quasi-elastic laser light scattering (QELS) techniques. Ensemble-averaged electric field correlation function (, ) obtained from the non-ergodic analysis of intensity-autocorrelation function for PAAm gel immersed in water and in 5 M NaCl showed an exponential decay to a plateau with an initial decay followed by saturation at long times. The value of the plateau was found to depend on NaCl concentration and was higher than that of water. Collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network of the hydrogel immersed in water and in different concentrations of NaCl was determined by analysing (, ). The measured diffusion coefficient showed linear decrease with increase in concentration of NaCl. The characteristic network parameters were obtained by analyzing (, ) with harmonically bound Brownian particle model and from static light scattering studies.

  1. Challenges in balancing the amount of solution information in requirement specifications for embedded products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mannion, Mike

    2013-01-01

    having solution information in requirements is sensible and when it should be avoided. In this research challenge paper, we advocate that researchers should identify different contexts and corresponding criteria that practitioners can use to evaluate when requirements specifications may include design......Requirements are traditionally viewed as being free of the details of an envisioned solution and specified using purely problem domain entities. Preventing premature design in the requirements permits the available design space not to be restricted too early which might inhibit innovative designs....... In practice, on many industrial projects, separating the problem and solution domain entities can be difficult, and arguably there are benefits for not doing so. Many customers feel more confident describing their requirements, often as the difference between the existing products and their needs, some...

  2. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  3. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    , which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  4. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  5. Synthesis and Uptake of the Compatible Solutes Ectoine and 5-Hydroxyectoine by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in Response to Salt and Heat Stresses▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bursy, Jan; Kuhlmann, Anne U.; Pittelkow, Marco; Hartmann, Holger; Jebbar, Mohamed; Pierik, Antonio J.; Bremer, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) synthesizes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine upon the imposition of either salt (0.5 M NaCl) or heat stress (39°C). The cells produced the highest cellular levels of these compatible solutes when both stress conditions were simultaneously imposed. Protection against either severe salt (1.2 M NaCl) or heat stress (39°C) or a combination of both environmental cues could be accomplished by adding low concentrations (1 mM) of either ectoine or 5-hydroxyectoine to S. coel...

  6. Inclusion of mPRISM potential for polymer-induced protein interactions enables modeling of second osmotic virial coefficients in aqueous polymer-salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The downstream processing of therapeutic proteins is a challenging task. Key information needed to estimate applicable workup strategies (e.g. crystallization) are the interactions of the proteins with other components in solution. This information can be deduced from the second osmotic virial coefficient B22 , measurable by static light scattering. Thermodynamic models are very valuable for predicting B22 data for different process conditions and thus decrease the experimental effort. Available B22 models consider aqueous salt solutions but fail for the prediction of B22 if an additional polymer is present in solution. This is due to the fact that depending on the polymer concentration protein-protein interactions are not rectified as assumed within these models. In this work, we developed an extension of the xDLVO model to predict B22 data of proteins in aqueous polymer-salt solutions. To show the broad applicability of the model, lysozyme, γ-globulin and D-xylose ketol isomerase in aqueous salt solution containing polyethylene glycol were considered. For all proteins considered, the modified xDLVO model was able to predict the experimentally observed non-monotonical course in B22 data with high accuracy. When used in an early stage in process development, the model will contribute to an efficient and cost effective downstream processing development.

  7. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  8. Solution of population balance equations in applications with fine particles: Mathematical modeling and numerical schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Laurent, F.; Fox, R. O.; Massot, M.

    2016-11-01

    The accurate description and robust simulation, at relatively low cost, of global quantities (e.g. number density or volume fraction) as well as the size distribution of a population of fine particles in a carrier fluid is still a major challenge for many applications. For this purpose, two types of methods are investigated for solving the population balance equation with aggregation, continuous particle size change (growth and size reduction), and nucleation: the extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) based on the work of Yuan et al. [52] and a hybrid method (TSM) between the sectional and moment methods, considering two moments per section based on the work of Laurent et al. [30]. For both methods, the closure employs a continuous reconstruction of the number density function of the particles from its moments, thus allowing evaluation of all the unclosed terms in the moment equations, including the negative flux due to the disappearance of particles. Here, new robust and efficient algorithms are developed for this reconstruction step and two kinds of reconstruction are tested for each method. Moreover, robust and accurate numerical methods are developed, ensuring the realizability of the moments. The robustness is ensured with efficient and tractable algorithms despite the numerous couplings and various algebraic constraints thanks to a tailored overall strategy. EQMOM and TSM are compared to a sectional method for various simple but relevant test cases, showing their ability to describe accurately the fine-particle population with a much lower number of variables. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the modeling and numerical choices, and their potential for the simulation of real-world applications.

  9. Designing Solutions for the Retirement System - In Search of Balance between Economy and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Piotr; Brukało, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Social security system currently faces a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy, and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result, social security systems are being subjected to transition aimed at securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This raises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In this article, we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyses relating to the performance of social security systems. The indicator may help to reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and adjust system's solutions to conditions characterizing these groups, in terms of both risk protection and prevention.

  10. Designing solutions for the retirement system – in search of balance between economy and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Romaniuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social security system currently face a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result social security systems are being subjects to transition aimed ad securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This rises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only, and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In the article we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyzes relating to the performance of social security systems, so that its construction will reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and system’s solutions in terms of both risk protection and prevention might be adjusted to conditions characterizing these groups.

  11. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    thousands of US high schools that integrate climate science and solutions in a way that inspires and informs youth, and similar programs exist internationally. Other approaches to prepare vulnerable communities, especially young people, for natural hazards and human-induced environmental change include programs such as Plan International's "Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction- Building Resilience Through Participation," and their "Weathering the Storm" project, focusing on integrating the needs of teenage girls with climate change adaptation and risk reduction. While minimizing global environmental and climate change is crucial, these and related programs that weave research with education, science with solutions offer the potential for addressing the "Grand Challenges" by better preparing for societal and environmental tipping points through a more balanced and integrated approach to addressing change."

  12. Effects of salt or cosolvent addition on solubility of a hydrophobic solute in water: Relevance to those on thermal stability of a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shota; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    The solubility of a nonpolar solute in water is changed upon addition of a salt or cosolvent. Hereafter, "solvent" is formed by water molecules for pure water, by water molecules, cations, and anions for water-salt solution, and by water and cosolvent molecules for water-cosolvent solution. Decrease and increase in the solubility, respectively, are ascribed to enhancement and reduction of the hydrophobic effect. Plenty of experimental data are available for the change in solubility of argon or methane arising from the addition. We show that the integral equation theory combined with a rigid-body model, in which the solute and solvent particles are modeled as hard spheres with different diameters, can reproduce the data for the following items: salting out by an alkali halide and salting in by tetramethylammonium bromide, increase in solubility by a monohydric alcohol, and decrease in solubility by sucrose or urea. The orders of cation or anion species in terms of the power of decreasing the solubility can also be reproduced for alkali halides. With the rigid-body model, the analyses are focused on the roles of entropy originating from the translational displacement of solvent particles. It is argued by decomposing the solvation entropy of a nonpolar solute into physically insightful constituents that the solvent crowding in the bulk is a pivotal factor of the hydrophobic effect: When the solvent crowding in the bulk becomes more serious, the effect is strengthened, and when it becomes less serious, the effect is weakened. It is experimentally known that the thermal stability of a protein is also influenced by the salt or cosolvent addition. The additions which decrease and increase the solubility of a nonpolar solute, respectively, usually enhance and lower the thermal stability. This suggests that the enhanced or reduced hydrophobic effect is also a principal factor governing the stability change. However, urea decreases the solubility but lowers the stability

  13. On the role of salt type and concentration on the stability behavior of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Jaquet, Baptiste; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Protein-salt interactions regulate protein solubility and stability and in particular several protein related processes, such as salting-out and aggregation. Using an IgG2 monoclonal antibody as a model multi-domain therapeutic protein, we have investigated the salt effect on the reversible formation of protein clusters with small aggregation number. The oligomer formation has been quantified by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). It is found that the salt effect is strongly ion specific and pH dependent. In particular, at pH 3.0 only anions affect the aggregation propensity, while at pH 4.0 both anions and cations influence the aggregation rate. The ranking of the anion effect follows the Hofmeister series with the only exception of sulfate, while that of the cation effect does not. In addition, a maximum of the aggregation propensity as a function of salt concentration is observed (i.e., presence of re-stabilization). By correlating the aggregation kinetics to the experimental investigation of protein structure and surface energy, it is shown that changes in pH and salt concentration induce aggregation not only through charge screening and various solvation forces, but also through the formation of protein intermediates characterized by partially ordered structures and certain degrees of hydrophobicity. The complex interaction between the solvation forces and such protein secondary structures induced by salts explains the observed experimental results relative to re-stabilization at large salt concentrations, ion specificity and the peculiar behavior of the sulfate anion.

  14. Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth in preterm infants fed expressed breast milk, a premature infant formula, and two low-solute adapted formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, O G; Wood, C; Barley, J

    1982-12-01

    Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth studies were done in 37 preterm infants (20 of very low birthweight) who were fed on expressed breast milk or on one of 3 formulae each of different composition, including a special premature formula and a highly adapted 'humanised' formula. The variability of breast milk composition was such that it would have been difficult to predict the infants' protein and energy intakes under normal nursing conditions. All measured parameters of nutritional performance were best in infants fed on the 'premature' formula and were reflected in greater weight gain, linear growth, and head growth. The nitrogen balance data suggest that the highly adapted formula, which had a protein content comparable with that of mature human milk, contained too little protein for small preterm infants.

  15. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies of dysprosium(III) salt solutions for a better representation of the microscopic features used within the binding mean spherical approximation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Guilbaud, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moulin, Christophe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe

    2006-10-19

    This work is aimed at a predictive description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide(III) salt solutions at high concentration and 25 degrees C. A new solution of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory, based on the Wertheim formalism, for taking into account 1:1 and also 1:2 complex formation, is used to reproduce, from a simple procedure, experimental osmotic coefficient variation with concentration for three binary salt solutions of the same lanthanide(III) cation: dysprosium(III) perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride. The relevance of the fitted parameters is discussed, and their values are compared with available literature values. UV-vis/near-IR, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy experiments, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were conducted for dilute to concentrated solutions (ca. 3 mol.kg-1) for a study of the microscopic behavior of DyCl3 binary solutions. Coupling MD calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure led to the determination of reliable distances. The MD results were used for a discussion of the parameters used in the BIMSA.

  16. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies of dysprosium(III) salt solutions for a better representation of the microscopic features used within the binding mean spherical approximation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruas, Alexandre; Guilbaud, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moulin, Christophe; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe [DEN/DRCP/SCPS, CEA-Valrho Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex, DEN/DPC/SECR/LSRM, CEA-Saclay, Bat 391, BP 91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); Laboratoire LI2C (UMR 7612), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Boite No. 51, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This work is aimed at a predictive description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide (III) salt solutions at high concentration and 25 deg. C. A new solution of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory, based on the Wertheim formalism, for taking into account 1: 1 and also 1: 2 complex formation, is used to reproduce, from a simple procedure, experimental osmotic coefficient variation with concentration for three binary salt solutions of the same lanthanide (III) cation: dysprosium (III) perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride. The relevance of the fitted parameters is discussed, and their values are compared with available literature values. UV-vis/near-IR, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy experiments, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were conducted for dilute to concentrated solutions (ca. 3 mol, kg{sup -1}) for a study of the microscopic behavior of DyCl{sub 3} binary solutions. Coupling MD calculations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure led to the determination of reliable distances. The MD results were used for a discussion of the parameters used in the BIMSA. (authors)

  17. Synthesis and uptake of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in response to salt and heat stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursy, Jan; Kuhlmann, Anne U; Pittelkow, Marco; Hartmann, Holger; Jebbar, Mohamed; Pierik, Antonio J; Bremer, Erhard

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) synthesizes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine upon the imposition of either salt (0.5 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C). The cells produced the highest cellular levels of these compatible solutes when both stress conditions were simultaneously imposed. Protection against either severe salt (1.2 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C) or a combination of both environmental cues could be accomplished by adding low concentrations (1 mM) of either ectoine or 5-hydroxyectoine to S. coelicolor A3(2) cultures. The best salt and heat stress protection was observed when a mixture of ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine (0.5 mM each) was provided to the growth medium. Transport assays with radiolabeled ectoine demonstrated that uptake was triggered by either salt or heat stress. The most effective transport and accumulation of [(14)C]ectoine by S. coelicolor A3(2) were achieved when both environmental cues were simultaneously applied. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine allows S. coelicolor A3(2) to fend off the detrimental effects of both high salinity and high temperature on cell physiology. We also characterized the enzyme (EctD) required for the synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine, a hydroxylase of the superfamily of the non-heme-containing iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). The gene cluster (ectABCD) encoding the enzymes for ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine biosynthesis can be found in the genome of S. coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces scabiei, and Streptomyces chrysomallus, suggesting that these compatible solutes play an important role as stress protectants in the genus Streptomyces.

  18. Condensation of Self-Assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene Glycol and Doped with Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (Chonbuk); (Kent)

    2012-10-10

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of interaggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  19. EVALUATION OF ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING METHODS USING AN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP AND TECHNIQUE FOR ORDER PREFERENCES BY SIMILARITY TO IDEAL SOLUTION (TOPSIS BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines are special flow-line production systems which are of great importance in the industrial production of high quantity standardized commodities. In this article, assembly line balancing problem is formulated as a multi objective (criteria problem where four easily quantifiable objectives (criteria's are defined. Objectives (criteria's included are line efficiency, balance delay, smoothness index, and line time. And the value of these objectives is calculated by five different heuristics. In this paper, focus is made on the prioritization of assembly line balancing (ALB solution methods (heuristics and to select the best of them. For this purpose, a bench mark assembly line balancing problem is solved by five different heuristics and the value of objectives criteria's (performance measures of the line is determined. Finally the prioritization of heuristics is carried out through the use of AHP-TOPSIS based approach by solving an example.

  20. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulikov, Alexei O; Meili, Markus

    2003-01-01

    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ((137)Cs, (134)Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for (137)Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a). potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ("carrier") of caesium; (b). the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c). the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of (137)Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the (137)Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the (137)Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects.

  1. Extravasation injury of balanced electrolyte solution simulates the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine D'Acunto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation injury (EI is an iatrogenic condition that occurs preferentially in neonatal and pediatric patients when the injection of fluid substances by intravenous access is required and it accidentally leaks into the adjacent tissues or in spaces outside of vascular compartment. Different types and amount of substances once undergoing extravasation can affect the EI differently [1]. In some instances immediate measures such as saline washout, local antidotes, enzymatic debridement and surgical interventions can be required in order to prevent the occurrence of a growing injury avoiding the progression of the EI to a medical emergency [6]. Here we report an unusual case of a preterm 2-month-old male patient in which the extravasation of balanced electrolyte solution on the upper right arm resulted in the development of full-thickness skin necrosis appearing as the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis. The management of necrotic tissue was performed using escharectomy as well as autograft skin under conditions of general anesthesia.

  2. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  3. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J., E-mail: brian.riley@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Frank, Steven M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl–Li{sub 2}O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol–gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na{sup +} and Cl{sup −} to form halite in solution and Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2} to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (∼92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl–Li{sub 2}O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  4. Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Xavier

    1939-01-01

    Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  5. Effects of Bile Salt Sodium Glycodeoxycholate on the Self-Assembly of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymer P123 in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Solmaz; Galantini, Luciano; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Schillén, Karin

    2015-12-22

    A comprehensive experimental study on the interaction between the PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer P123 (EO20PO68EO20) and the anionic bile salt sodium glycodeoxycholate (NaGDC) in water has been performed. The work was aimed at investigating the suitability of using P123 as bile salt sequestrant beside the fundamental aspects of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer-bile salt interactions. Various experimental techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed in combination with electrophoretic mobility measurements. The system was investigated at a constant P123 concentration of 1.74 mM and with varying bile salt concentrations up to approximately 250 mM NaGDC (or a molar ratio n(NaGDC)/n(P123) = 144). In the mixed P123-NaGDC solutions, the endothermic process related to the self-assembly of P123 was observed to gradually decrease in enthalpy and shift to higher temperatures upon progressive addition of NaGDC. To explain this effect, the formation of NaGDC micelles carrying partly dehydrated P123 unimers was proposed and translated into a stoichiometric model, which was able to fit the experimental DSC data. In the mixtures at low molar ratios, NaGDC monomers associated with the P123 micelle forming a charged "P123 micelle-NaGDC" complex with a dehydrated PPO core. These complexes disintegrated upon increasing NaGDC concentration to form small "NaGDC-P123" complexes visualized as bile salt micelles including one or a few P123 copolymer chains.

  6. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabiazar, Roonak [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na{sub 3}Cit and [C{sub 4}mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na{sub 3}Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of

  7. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  8. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  9. A high-order, purely frequency based harmonic balance formulation for continuation of periodic solutions: The case of non-polynomial nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Karkar, Sami; Vergez, Christophe; 10.1016/j.jsv.2012.09.033

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the method proposed by Cochelin and Vergez [A high order purely frequency-based harmonic balance formulation for continuation of periodic solutions, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 324 (2009) 243-262] to the case of non-polynomial nonlinearities. This extension allows for the computation of branches of periodic solutions of a broader class of nonlinear dynamical systems. The principle remains to transform the original ODE system into an extended polynomial quadratic system for an easy application of the harmonic balance method (HBM). The transformation of non-polynomial terms is based on the differentiation of state variables with respect to the time variable, shifting the nonlinear non-polynomial nonlinearity to a time-independent initial condition equation, not concerned with the HBM. The continuation of the resulting algebraic system is here performed by the asymptotic numerical method (high order Taylor series representation of the solution branch) using a further differentiation ...

  10. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  11. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil

  12. Electrostatic self-energy of a partially formed spherical shell in salt solution: application to stability of tethered and fluid shells -- viruses and vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Bozic, Anze Losdorfer; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electrostatics of a partially formed, charged spherical shell in a salt solution. We solve the problem numerically at the Poisson-Boltzmann level and analytically in the Debye-Huckel regime. From the results on energetics of partially formed shells we examine the stability of tethered (crystalline) and fluid shells towards rupture. We clearly delineate different regimes of stability towards rupture, where, for fluid shells, we also include the effects of bending elasticity of the shells. Our analysis shows how charging of the shell induces its instability towards rupture but also provides insight regarding growth of charged shells.

  13. Interconnection of salt-induced hydrophobic compaction and secondary structure formation depends on solution conditions: revisiting early events of protein folding at single molecule resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2012-03-30

    What happens in the early stage of protein folding remains an interesting unsolved problem. Rapid kinetics measurements with cytochrome c using submillisecond continuous flow mixing devices suggest simultaneous formation of a compact collapsed state and secondary structure. These data seem to indicate that collapse formation is guided by specific short and long range interactions (heteropolymer collapse). A contrasting interpretation also has been proposed, which suggests that the collapse formation is rapid, nonspecific, and a trivial solvent related compaction, which could as well be observed by a homopolymer (homopolymer collapse). We address this controversy using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which enables us to monitor the salt-induced compaction accompanying collapse formation and the associated time constant directly at single molecule resolution. In addition, we follow the formation of secondary structure using far UV CD. The data presented here suggest that both these models (homopolymer and heteropolymer) could be applicable depending on the solution conditions. For example, the formation of secondary structure and compact state is not simultaneous in aqueous buffer. In aqueous buffer, formation of the compact state occurs through a two-state co-operative transition following heteropolymer formalism, whereas secondary structure formation takes place gradually. In contrast, in the presence of urea, a compaction of the protein radius occurs gradually over an extended range of salt concentration following homopolymer formalism. The salt-induced compaction and the formation of secondary structure take place simultaneously in the presence of urea.

  14. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  15. Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of thorium and uranium dissolved in a solution of high salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Asako; Kameo, Yutaka; Hoshi, Akiko; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakashima, Mikio

    2007-01-26

    Extraction chromatography with commercially available UTEVA resin (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) was applied for the separation of Th and U from control solutions prepared from a multi-element control solution and from sample solutions of solidified simulated waste. Thorium and U in control solutions with 1-5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) were extracted with UTEVA resin and recovered with a solution containing 0.1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) and 0.05mol/dm(3) oxalic acid to be separated from the other metallic elements. Extraction behavior of U in the sample solutions was similar to that in the control solutions, but extraction of Th was dependent on the concentration of HNO(3). Thorium was extracted from 5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions but not from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions. We conjecture that thorium fluoride formation interferes with extraction of Th. Addition of Al(NO(3))(3) and Fe(NO(3))(3), which have higher stability constant with fluoride ion than Th, does improve extractability of Th from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solution.

  16. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, N.; Rybalchenko, A.; Shevelko, V. P.; Al-Turany, M.; Kollegger, T.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  17. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  18. Specific Na+ and K+ Cation Effects on the Interfacial Water Molecules at the Air/Aqueous Salt Solution Interfaces Probed with Non-resonant Second Harmonic Generation (SHG)

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Hong-tao; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hong-fei

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the polarization dependent non-resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement of the interfacial water molecules at the aqueous solution of the following salts: NaF, NaCl, NaBr, KF, KCl, and KBr. Through quantitative polarization analysis of the SHG data,the orientational parameter D value and the relative surface density of the interfacial water molecules at these aqueous solution surfaces were determined. From these results we found that addition of each of the six salts caused increase of the thickness of the interfacial water layer at the surfaces to a certain extent. Noticeably, both the cations and the anions contributed to the changes, and the abilities to increase the thickness of the interfacial water layer were in the following order: KBr > NaBr > KCl > NaCl ~ NaF > KF. Since these changes can not be factorized into individual anion and cation contributions, there are possible ion pairing or association effects, especially for the NaF case. We also found that the orientational ...

  19. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  20. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  1. Homogenous Balance Method and Exact Analytical Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup Equations in Shallow Water%齐次平衡法和浅水波中WBK方程的精确分析解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏志

    2004-01-01

    Based on the homogenous balance method and with the help of mathematica,the Backlund transformation and the transfer heat equation are derived. Analyzing the heat-transfer equation, the multiple soliton solutions and other exact analytical solution for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations(WBK) are derived. These solutions contain Fan's, Xie's and Yan's results and other new types of analytical solutions, such as rational function solutions and periodic solutions. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear differential equations.

  2. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  3. Effects of Na2SO4 or NaCl on sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds in an aqueous solution under Ar: Positive and negative effects induced by the presence of salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Helal; Nanzai, Ben; Okitsu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol, phenol, catechol and resorcinol was studied under Ar at 200 kHz in the absence and presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl. The rates of sonochemical degradation in the absence of salts decreased in the order 4-chlorophenol>phenol>catechol>resorcinol and this order was in good agreement with the order of log P (partition coefficient) value of each phenolic compound. The effects of salts on the rates of sonochemical degradation consisted of no effect or slight negative or positive effects. We discussed these unclear results based on two viewpoints: one was based on the changes in pseudo hydrophobicity and/or diffusion behavior of phenolic compounds and the other was based on the changes in solubility of Ar gas. The measured log P value of each phenolic compound slightly increased with increasing salt concentration. In addition, the dynamic surface tension for 4-chlorophenol aqueous solution in the absence and presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl suggested that phenolic compounds more easily accumulated at the interface region of bubbles at higher salt concentration. These results indicated that the rates of sonochemical degradation should be enhanced by the addition of salts. On the other hand, the calculated Ar gas solubility was confirmed to decrease with increasing salt concentration. The yield of H2O2 formed in the presence of Na2SO4 or NaCl decreased with increasing salt concentration. These results suggested that sonochemical efficiency decreased with decreasing gas amount in aqueous solution: a negative effect of salts was observed. Because negative and positive effects were induced simultaneously, we concluded that the effects of salts on the rates of sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds became unclear. The products formed from sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol were also characterized by HPLC analysis. The formation of phenol and 4-chloro-1,3-dihydroxy benzene was confirmed and these concentrations were affected by the

  4. A Solution Approach to Assembly Line Balancing Problem With Task Related Constraints and an Application At An Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally certain tasks in an assembly line balancing problem are required to be kept together due to some specific reasons. These tasks are attained to the same work stations. Such problems are called as 'Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Task Related Constraints (ALBTRC'. Certain situations like awkward product construction, simultaneous operations or specific requirements leading to zoning and positional constraints like utilization of common resources as tools, jigs and fixtures are implemented thanks to these supplementary constraints. Additionally, materials handling and tooling costs, distances, set-up and lead times are also reduced. Literature on ALBTRC seems quite rare compared to Classical Line Balancing papers, although ALBTRC is one of the common real life balancing problems. This study aimed to develop and implement a novel line balancing method for a manufacturing concern where known methods are impractical to employ due to some specific positional constraints. 'Largest Candidate Method' known as a simple but effective tool is modified for this purpose first. Then a thorough 'method and time study' is conducted to get the necessary data to utilize that method. As a result, more efficient alternatives are generated and presented to decision maker.

  5. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  6. α-Cyclodextrin/aminobenzoic acid binding in salt solutions at different pH: dependence on guest structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Anastasia; Chibunova, Ekaterina; Kumeev, Roman; Fedorov, Maxim; Terekhova, Irina

    2013-06-01

    Influence of Na(+) and K(+) cations on α-cyclodextrin guest-host complex formation with isomeric aminobenzoic acids was examined at different pH and temperature of 298.15 K by (1)H NMR and calorimetry methods. More pronounced influence of Na(+) on inclusion complex formation of α-CD with aminobenzoic acid anions compare to the effects of Na(+) on α-CD complex formation with zwitterionic aminobenzoic acid molecules was revealed. For the first time, the dependence of salt effects on the structure, ionization and the hydration state of the guest molecule was demonstrated and analysed on the basis of the obtained thermodynamic parameters of complex formation and calculated free energy of hydration of different ionized forms of aminobenzoic acids.

  7. Electro-hydrodynamic generation of monodisperse nanoparticles in the sub-10 nm size range from strongly electrolytic salt solutions: governing parameters of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisser, Anne, E-mail: a.maisser@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Attoui, Michel B. [LISA, UMR CNRS University Paris Est Creteil, University Paris-Diderot (France); Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M. [Universidad de Sevilla, ESI (Spain); Szymanski, Wladyslaw W. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    A charge reduced electro-hydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device has been used to generate airborne salt clusters in the sub 10 nm size range. The focus of this study on that specific sub-micron range of electrospray droplets with relatively high electrical conductivities and permittivities aims to address the still existing controversy on the scaling laws of electrosprayed droplet diameters. In this study different concentrations of sodium chloride and potassium chloride-both show strong electrolytic behavior-have been electrosprayed from solutions in pure water, or from aqueous ammonium acetate buffer liquids of varying concentrations. The dry residue salt cluster diameter generated by the EHDA process have been measured using a differential mobility analyzer. The initial droplet diameter has been determined indirectly from the measured particle size following the steps of Chen et al. (J Aerosol Sci 26:963-977, 1995). Results have been compared to existing scaling laws valid for direct droplet measurements. They can be interpreted concisely on the basis of a realistic hypothesis on possible electrochemical effects taking place and affecting the droplet and thus nanoparticle formation in EHDA. The hypothesis developed in this work and the comparison with the experimental results are shown and discussed in the manuscript.

  8. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  9. 再生水及盐溶液入渗与蒸发对土壤水盐和碱性的影响%Effects of infiltration and evaporation with treated wastewater and salt solutions on soil moisture and salinize-alkalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商放泽; 任树梅; 邹添; 杨培岭※

    2013-01-01

    evaporation with treated wastewater and salt solutions. As a coexistence system with variety of materials like salinity, nutrients, suspended solids and DOM, the mass concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ in soil solution showed a different distribution in various depths during infiltration and evaporation with treated wastewater. The mass concentration of Cl-in treated wastewater was about 0.3 times of salt solutions, but the mass concentration of Cl-in soil solution in treated wastewater treatment was 0.95-1.29 times of salt solutions treatments. The mass ratio of Cl-in soil also varied in different soil depths. The treated wastewater treatment had a stronger leaching ability on soil Cl-, and it may attribute to the particularity of treated wastewater and the results of soil maintain charge balance. According to the results, it was concluded that compared with clear water and salt solutions, soil salinity and some salt ions indicated a different migration and distribution in the soil profile after infiltration and evaporation with treated wastewater, and more attention should be paid to the migration and leaching of K+, Ca2+and Cl-. The results of this research provide references for the long-term secure and rational irrigation with treated wastewater in agriculture.%  为研究再生水利用对土壤盐碱性影响的特殊性,采用室内大型土槽试验,对比研究了清水、再生水和钠吸附比(sodium adsorption ratio,SAR)分别为3、10和20(mmolc/L)0.5的盐溶液入渗与蒸发10次(模拟灌溉2 a)期间对土壤及土壤溶液盐分迁移累积和碱性的影响。结果表明:与清水相比,再生水和SAR值为20(mmolc/L)0.5的盐溶液处理中0~40 cm 深度壤土含水率较高,80~120 cm 砂土含水率的增加产生滞后现象;再生水和盐溶液入渗与蒸发后土壤中盐分产生累积,累积量为9.54%~51.83%,而再生水处理中淋洗液带出的盐分最多,是其他处理的1.09~1.42

  10. Data on energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles obtained by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of transition metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Zimnyakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the data on the energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles produced by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts. Band gap characteristics are investigated using diffuse reflection spectra of the obtained powders. Calculated logarithmic derivative quantity of the Kubelka–Munk function reveals a presence of local maxima in the regions 0.5–1.5 eV and 1.6–3.0 eV which correspond to band gap values of the investigated materials. The values might be related to the constituents of the composite nanoparticles and intermediate products of their chemical interaction.

  11. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  12. Cost-effective electrostatic-sprayed SrAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphor coatings by using salted sol–gel derived solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kyu-Seog Hwang; Bo-An Kang; Sung-Dai Kim; Seung Hwangbo; Jim-Tae Kim

    2011-08-01

    3 Mol% of europium doped strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4:Eu2+) coatings on silicon substrates were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition method using a salted sol–gel derived solution as a starting material. Asdeposited films at 100°C for 5 h were heated at 1100°C for 2 h under a reducing ambient atmosphere of 95%N2 + 5%H2 . Nanocrystalline SrAl2O4 film was confirmed by surface morphological and crystallographic analyses. Monitored at 520 nm, the excitation spectrum showed a broad band from 300 ∼ 500 nm and the emission intensity showed a maximum yellow peak intensity at 512 nm with a broad band from 460 ∼ 610 nm.

  13. Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt solutions by a second generation high pressure electrical conductivity probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A; Dunstan, Dave E; Hartley, Patrick G; Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt solutions was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second generation of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl solutions upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl solutions was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.

  14. Optimization of charge carrier transport balance for performance improvement of PDPP3T-based polymer solar cells prepared using a hot solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Fujun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Wenbin; An, Qiaoshi; Li, Lingliang; Sun, Qianqian; Tang, Weihua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-04-21

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs), with poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the active layers, were fabricated using solutions of different temperatures. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution was about 6.22%, which is better than 5.54% for PSCs prepared using cool (room temperature) solutions and 5.85% for PSCs prepared using cool solutions with a 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive. The underlying reasons for the improved PCE of the PSCs prepared using a hot solution could be attributed to the more dispersive donor and acceptor distribution in the active layer, resulting in a better bi-continuous interpenetrating network for exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport. An enhanced and more balanced charge carrier transport in the active layer is obtained for the PSCs prepared using a hot solution, which can be determined from the J-V curves of the related hole-only and electron-only devices.

  15. Behavioral and neural responses of toads to salt solutions correlate with basolateral membrane potential of epidermal cells of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Baula, Victor; Tuttle, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Dehydrated toads initiated water absorption response (WR) behavior and absorbed water from dilute NaCl solutions. With 200-250 mM NaCl, WR behavior and water absorption were both suppressed. With 200-250 mM Na-gluconate, WR initiation was significantly greater than with NaCl but water loss was gr...

  16. Separation characteristics of rare earth elements in the TOPO/DTPA - Salting-out reagent solution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, S.; Koma, Yoshikazu; Koyama, Tomozo; Tanaka, Yasumasa [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kano, J.

    1998-11-01

    A test of mutual separation of rare earth elements was carried out using an organic phosphorus extraction solvent TOPO (tri-octyl phosphorus oxide). It was found that the distribution ratio monotonously increased with the atomic number and the separation factor of La/Ln was 10{sup 3}. Under the condition that a sufficient quantity of DTPA compared with the amount of rare earth metals and pH > 1.5 in which DTPA easily formed complexes with lanthanides, the following conclusions were obtained; (i) the separation factor was not affected by pH, the kind of salting-out reagent, or the concentration, (ii) the extraction reaction with TOPO and complex formation with DTPA mainly contributed to the separation of lanthanides, and (iii) the separation factor computed by means of the distribution ratio of TOPO extraction and complex formation constant for DTPA more or less agreed with the empirical value. Separation of rare earth elements using TOPO revealed similar characteristics to those of systems with CMPO and TBP. (H. Baba)

  17. Effect of the salt-induced micellar microstructure on the nonlinear shear flow behavior of ionic cetylpyridinium chloride surfactant solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, D.; Pasquino, R.; Kriegs, H.; Szekely, N.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Lettinga, M. P.; Grizzuti, N.

    2017-03-01

    The shear flow dynamics of linear and branched wormlike micellar systems based on cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate in brine solution is investigated through rheometric and scattering techniques. In particular, the flow and the structural flow response are explored via velocimetry measurements and rheological and rheometric small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments, respectively. Although all micellar solutions display a similar shear thinning behavior in the nonlinear regime, the experimental results show that shear banding sets in only when the micelle contour length L ¯ is sufficiently long, independent of the nature of the micellar connections (either linear or branched micelles). Using rheometric SANS, we observe that the shear banding systems both show very similar orientational ordering as a function of Weissenberg number, while the short branched micelles manifest an unexpected increase of ordering at very low Weissenberg numbers. This suggests the presence of an additional flow-induced relaxation process that is peculiar for branched systems.

  18. Thermoelastic analysis of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste repositories in salt. A semi-analytical solution. [JUDITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, C.M.

    1977-04-01

    An underground repository containing heat generating, High Level Waste or Spent Unreprocessed Fuel may be approximated as a finite number of heat sources distributed across the plane of the repository. The resulting temperature, displacement and stress changes may be calculated using analytical solutions, providing linear thermoelasticity is assumed. This report documents a computer program based on this approach and gives results that form the basis for a comparison between the effects of disposing of High Level Waste and Spent Unreprocessed Fuel.

  19. Hydration and ion pair formation in common aqueous La(III) salt solutions--a Raman scattering and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Irmer, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectra of aqueous lanthanum perchlorate, triflate (trifluorosulfonate), chloride and nitrate solutions were measured over a broad concentration (0.121-3.050 mol L(-1)) range at room temperature (23 °C). A very weak mode at 343 cm(-1) with a full width at half height at 49 cm(-1) in the isotropic spectrum suggests that the nona-aqua La(III) ion is thermodynamically stable in dilute perchlorate solutions (∼0.2 mol L(-1)) while in concentrated perchlorate solutions outer-sphere ion pairs and contact ion pairs are formed. The La(3+) nona-hydrate was also detected in a 1.2 mol L(-1) La(CF3SO3)3(aq). In lanthanum chloride solutions chloro-complex formation was detected over the measured concentration range from 0.5-3.050 mol L(-1). The chloro-complexes in LaCl3(aq) are fairly weak and disappear with dilution. At a concentration complexes disappeared. In LaCl3 solutions, with additional HCl, a series of chloro-complexes of the type [La(OH2)(9-n)Cln](+3-n) (n = 1-3) were formed. The La(NO3)3(aq) spectra were compared with a spectrum of a 0.409 mol L(-1) NaNO3(aq) and it was concluded that in La(NO3)3(aq) over the concentration range from 0.121-1.844 mol L(-1), nitrato-complexes, [La(OH2)(9-n)(NO3)n](+3-n) (n = 1, 2) were formed. These nitrato-complexes are quite weak and disappear with dilution La(OH2)9](3+) with the polarizable dielectric continuum are in good agreement with data from recent structural experimental measurements and high quality simulations. The DFT frequency of the La-O stretching mode at 328.2 cm(-1), is only slightly smaller than the experimental one.

  20. Statistical mechanics of sum frequency generation spectroscopy for the liquid-vapor interface of dilute aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah-Vanhoucke, Joyce; Smith, Jared D.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2009-01-02

    We demonstrate a theoretical description of vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) at the boundary of aqueous electrolyte solutions. This approach identifies and exploits a simple relationship between SFG lineshapes and the statistics of molecular orientation and electric field. Our computer simulations indicate that orientational averages governing SFG susceptibility do not manifest ion-specific shifts in local electric field, but instead, ion-induced polarization of subsurface layers. Counterbalancing effects are obtained for monovalent anions and cations at the same depth. Ions held at different depths induce an imbalanced polarization, suggesting that ion-specific effects can arise from weak, long ranged influence on solvent organization.

  1. The effects of replacing the water model while decoupling water-water and water-solute interactions on computed properties of simple salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jicun; Wang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The effects of decoupling the water-water and water-solute interactions are studied with selected mono-valent ions as the solute. Using the ion-water cross terms developed for the BLYPSP-4F water model, we replaced the water potential with WAIL, TIP4P, and TIP3P without changing the ion-water parameters. When the adaptive force matching (AFM) derived BLYPSP-4F model is replaced by the other AFM derived WAIL model, the difference in ion properties, such as hydration free energies, radial distribution functions, relative diffusion constants, is negligible, demonstrating the feasibility for combining AFM parameters from different sources. Interestingly, when the AFM-derived ion-water cross-terms are used with a non-AFM based water model, only small changes in the ion properties are observed. The final combined models with TIP3P or TIP4P water reproduce the salt hydration free energies within 6% of experiments. The feasibility of combining AFM models with other non-AFM models is of significance since such combinations allow more complex systems to be studied without specific parameterization. In addition, the study suggests an interesting prospect of reusing the cross-terms when a part of a general force field is replaced with a different model. The prevailing practice, which is to re-derive all cross-terms with combining rules, may not have been optimal.

  2. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    CERN Document Server

    Simakin, A V

    2010-01-01

    Laser exposure of suspension of either gold or palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of UO2Cl2 of natural isotope abundance was experimentally studied. Picosecond Nd:YAG lasers at peak power from 1011 to 1013 W/cm2 at the wavelength of 1064 and 355 nm were used as well as a visible-range Cu vapor laser at peak power of 1010 W/cm2. The composition of colloidal solutions before and after laser exposure was analyzed using atomic absorption and gamma spectroscopy between 0.06 and 1 MeV range of photon energy. A real-time gamma-spectroscopy was used to characterize the kinetics of nuclear reactions during laser exposure. It was found that laser exposure initiated nuclear reactions involving both 238U and 235U nuclei via different channels in H2O and D2O. The influence of saturation of both the liquid and nanoparticles by gaseous H2 and D2 on the kinetics of nuclear transformations was found. Possible mechanisms of observed processes are discussed.

  3. Structure and thermodynamics of nonideal solutions of colloidal particles. Investigation of salt-free solutions of human serum albumin by using small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Carlo simulation, to study salt-free solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) in the concentration range up to 0.26 g ml(-1). The model calculations of the theoretical SANS intensities are quite general, thus avoiding the approximation that the relative positions and orientations of the particles...... are independent of each other. The computation of the theoretical intensities also includes the calculation of a 'thermodynamic' intensity scattered at zero angle, which is obtained via the nonideal part of the chemical potential. The latter quantity is obtained by applying the test particle method during...... the Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the SANS data can be explained by a model where the HSA molecules behave as hard ellipsoids of revolution with semiaxes a = 6.8 nm, b = c = 1.9 nm. In addition to the hard core interaction, the particles are also surrounded by a soft, repulsive rectangular...

  4. A novel salt of antidiabetic drug metformin resulting from a proton transfer reaction: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and solution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Refahi, Masoud; García-Granda, Santiago; Mendoza-Meroño, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    Reaction between N,N-dimethylebiguanidine, Met = Metformin, and 4-hydroxy-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, HO-dipicH2, results in the formation of a novel proton transfer compound, [MetH2][HO-dipicH]2·H2O, 1. The characterization was performed using FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystal system is triclinic with space group P 1 bar and two molecules per unit cell. The protonation constants of O-dipic and Met, in all of probability protonated forms, and the equilibrium constants for the O-dipic-Met proton transfer system were investigated by the potentiometric pH titration method using the Hyperquad2008 program. The stoichiometry of the proton transfer species in solution were in agreement with the solid state result.

  5. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  6. Adapting protein solubility by glycosylation. N-glycosylation mutants of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase in salt and organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, J W; Vind, J; Welinder, K G

    1999-07-13

    Protein solubility is a fundamental parameter in biology and biotechnology. In the present study we have constructed and analyzed five mutants of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 N-glycosylation sites. All mutants contain Man(x)(GlcNAc)(2) glycans. The peroxidase activity was the same for wild-type CIP and all the glycosylation mutants when measured with the large substrate 2,2'-azino-bis(-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). The solubility of the five CIP mutants showed a linear dependence on the number of carbohydrate residues attached to the protein in buffered solution of both ammonium sulfate (AMS) and acetone, increasing in AMS and decreasing in acetone. Moreover, the change in free energy of solvation appears to be a constant, though with opposite signs in these solvents, giving DeltaDeltaG degrees (sol)=-0.32+/-0.05 kJ/mol per carbohydrate residue in 2.0 M AMS, a value previously obtained comparing ordinary and deglycosylated horseradish peroxidase, and 0. 37+/-0.10 kJ/mol in 60 v/v% acetone.

  7. Exchange reactions between a molten salt and a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone; Reactions d'echange entre un sel fondu et une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Present interest centred around molten salts can be explained by their possible use in the field of nuclear energy, in particular as a support for fuels and also as reprocessing agents. It seemed of interest to consider the molten salt as a solvent and to study partition phenomena with a second phase stable at high temperatures. The salt chosen is a ternary eutectic of alkali nitrates and the second phase is a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone. The working temperature is fixed at 150 deg. C. We have studied first of all the stability of the two phases and their mutual solubilities at this temperature. It has been shown that the two solvents are immiscible and stable. We have also described the extraction by the silicone solution of various products in solution in the salt phase, and have determined the partition coefficients and the formulae of the extracted molecules. It has been possible to calculate the partition coefficients of the following ions extracted as nitrates: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} whose partition coefficients are very low: Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} whose extraction yields are greater than 50 per cent; finally Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, highly extracted. Also the following anions have been extracted in the form of alkali salts: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, CN{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Amongst these, only the halogens have non-negligible partition coefficients. In certain particular cases we have been able to study the influence of complex formation on the extraction phenomena. Two applications are described: - The separation of two products by complex formation and extraction (separation of magnesium from cobalt, nickel and zinc); - The calculation of the equilibrium constant of a complex by measurement of the variation in the partition coefficient of the ion complexed

  8. Comparison of the Accuracy and Performance of Different Numbers of Classes in Discretised Solution Method for Population Balance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One way of solving population balance model (PBM in a time efficient way is by means of discretisation of the population property of interest. A computational grid, for example, vi+1=kvi (vi is the volume of particle in class i, could be used to classify the particles in discretisation techniques. However, there are still disagreements in the appropriate number of classes divided by the grids. In this study, the different numbers of classes for solving PBM were compared in terms of accuracy and performance to describe the particle size distribution (PSD from the flocculation of activated sludge. It is found that the simulated PSDs are similar to the experimental data for all the geometric grids (vi+1:vi≤2, and there is no obvious difference among the values of calibrated parameter, ratio of breakage rate coefficient and collision efficiency, for each velocity gradient. However, the simulation results with less error could be obtained with larger number of classes, and more computational times, which show exponential relationship with the number of classes, are needed. Considering numerical accuracy and efficiency, the classes 35 or a geometric grid with factor 1.6, aligning with the Fibonacci sequence (vi+vi-1≈vi+1, is recommended for the particles in the size range of 5.5~1086 μm.

  9. Investigation of the effect of additives on the basis of pickling solutions containing iron salts on the structure and strength of fine concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukuttsova Natal’ya Petrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern tendencies of construction industry development are connected with the use of new high-efficient materials with the application of resource- and energy-saving technologies of their generation. The use of industrial man-made products as the components improving the characteristics of construction products is now a promising field of research. The article presents the results of the use of waste pickling solutions of steel rolling factories, containing salts of iron as nanomodified additives for the products based on cement binder. The effectiveness of the influence of the considered additives on the structure and strength of fine-grained concrete is shown. If using this additive in the amount of 0.32 % from the mass of cement for 28 days of natural hardening, the fine concrete strength is growing by 1.8 times due to additional formation of hydrosilicates, densification of structure and reduction of the total porosity of the cement system by 2 times.

  10. Cr(VI) sorption behavior from aqueous solutions onto polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt: Kinetics and thermodynamics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barassi, Giancarlo; Valdes, Andrea; Araneda, Claudio; Basualto, Carlos; Sapag, Jaime; Tapia, Cristian [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile); Valenzuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvalenzu@uchile.cl [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-15

    This work studies the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from an aqueous acid solution on hydrophobic polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt-type extractant immobilized in their pore structure. The microcapsules were synthesized by adding the extractant Aliquat 336 during the in situ radical copolymerization of the monomers styrene (ST) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The microcapsules, which had a spherical shape with a rough surface, behaved as efficient adsorbents for Cr(VI) at the tested temperatures. The results of kinetics experiments carried out at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process fits well to a pseudo-second-order with an activation energy of 82.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming that the sorption process is controlled by a chemisorption mechanism. Langmuir's isotherms were found to represent well the experimentally observed sorption data. Thermodynamics parameters, namely, changes in standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup 0}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup 0}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup 0}), are also calculated. The results indicate that the chemisorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. The entropy change value measured in this study shows that metal adsorbed on microcapsules leads to a less chaotic system than a liquid-liquid extraction system.

  11. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L

    2014-10-08

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration.

  12. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J. I.; Hidalgo, A.; Tello, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge–Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969

  13. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Carlsbad Field Office

    2015-07-01

    management solution. The operational lessons learned from these two incidents will be available to be shared with other geologic repository programs. Neither of these two operational incidents call into question the suitability of rock salt as a repository host rock. Both incidents point to a need to take care to evaluate all potential consequences in making decisions about underground equipment maintenance and housekeeping, and to make a greater effort to assure that measures are taken to mitigate lower likelihood events and to practice emergency egress procedures until they are second nature to the workforce.

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  15. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  16. Inhibition Behaviour of 2-butine1, 4diol and Tartrate Salt, and Their Synergistic Effects on Corrosion of AA3003 Aluminium Alloy in 0.5% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taghi Shahrabi; Alireza Yazdzad; Mirghasem Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to investigate the inhibition behaviour of 2-butine 1, 4diol and potassium sodium tartrate and their synergistic effects on 3003 aluminium alloy corrosion in 0.5% NaCl solution. Experiments were carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization method in a three-electrode cell. It was concluded that the inhibition efficiencies increased with an increase in the concentrations of inhibitors. For 2-butinel, 4diol and tartrate salt, the optimum in the inhibition efficiency, at room temperature and neutral pH, was observed for concentrations close to 10-3 mol/L and 1.5×10-3mol/L, respectively. The electrochemical results illustrated that 2-butine1, 4diol and tartrate salt, have significant synergistic inhibition effects on corrosion of 3003 aluminium alloy in 0.5% NaCl solution. The optimum ratio of concentrations for tartrate to alcohol was 2:1.

  17. Free energetics of carbon nanotube association in aqueous inorganic NaI salt solutions: Temperature effects using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association using graphical processing unit-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion, and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intratube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and

  18. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-05-22

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

  19. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  20. Age, budget and dynamics of an active salt extrusion in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C. J.; Jarvis, R. J.

    The Hormuz salt of Kuh-e-Namak, Iran began rising through its Phanerozoic cover in Jurassic times and had surfaced by Cretaceous times. In Miocene times, the still-active Zagros folds began to develop and the salt is still extruding to feed a massive topographic dome and two surface flows of salt which have previously been called salt glaciers but are here called namakiers. Two crude but independent estimates for the rate of salt extrusion and loss are shown to balance the salt budget if the current salt dynamics are assumed to be in steady state. First, to replace the extrusive salt likely to be lost in solution in the annual rainfall, the salt must rise at an average velocity of about 11 cm a -1. Second, the foliation pattern shows that the extruding (and partially dissolved) salt column spreads under its own weight. The maximum height of the salt dome is consistent with a viscous fluid with a viscosity of 2.6 × 10 17 poises extruding from its orifice at a rate of almost 17 cm a -1. Both estimates are consistent in indicating that salt can extrude onto the surface 42-85 times faster than the average long term rate at which salt diapirs rise to the surface. The structure, fabrics, textures and deformation mechanisms of the impure halite all change along the path of the extrusive salt from the dome down the length of both namakiers. Such changes tend to occur when the flowing salt encounters changes in its boundary conditions, and the recognition of buried namakiers is discussed in the light of such observations. Episodes of salt flow at a rate of 0.5 m per day have been measured along the margin of the N namakier after significant rain showers. Such brief episodes of rapid flow alternate with long periods when the namakier is dry and stationary. The shape of the colour bands cropping out on the N namakier indicate that the flow over the surface of impure salt with a mylonitic texture obeys a power law with n ≈ 3. Although the reported annual rainfall has the

  1. The Salts of Mars: A Rich and Ubiquitous Natural Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeff S.

    1998-01-01

    The Viking and Pathfinder Mars landers have shown that martian soil is highly enriched in Cl, S, P, and perhaps Br. which, in all likelihood, occur as salts (chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, and perhaps bromides). Carbonates also may be present Many martian salt minerals are believed to be hydrated. These water-soluble constituents of the soil will offer the first colonists a rich source of many industrial commodities needed to sustain and grow the colony. Being hydrous, martian salts hold a tremendous potential to supply water in regions of Mars where otherwise preferable ice may be absent or difficult to access A caliche-like form of concrete or adobe may be manufactured by the drying of briny mud. Sulfates and phosphates may be used as additives for the manufacture of soil prepared and balanced for agriculture. Sulfates and chlorides offer a raw material for the manufacture of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Electrolytic processes applied to magnesium sulfate solution may yield metallic Mg. In short, martian salts will offer colonists abroad industrial base of chemical substances potentially useful in development of indigenous construction, chemical, and agricultural industries. Best of all, such salty dust deposits are among the most widespread and chemically uniform (i.e., dependable) raw materials on Mars. A simple method of preprocessing martian soil to extract and isolate the major salt consituents and to obtain water will be presented, as will a more thorough presentation of possible industrial uses of these materials in a Mars base.

  2. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  3. Characterization of the deviation to the ideality of concentrated actinide and lanthanide salt solutions: contribution of the Bimsa theory; Caracterisation de l'ecart a l'idealite de solutions concentrees de sels d'actinide et de lanthanide: contribution de la theorie Bimsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruas, A

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this work is to describe the mean stoichiometric activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients or water activities of aqueous actinide nitrate salt solutions up to high concentration. These sets of data are required for a better control of the equilibria occurring in liquid-liquid extraction processes. Experimental acquisition of these thermodynamic properties, in the case of some actinide nitrates, is possible and was conducted before.But, many actinide salt solutions cannot be experimentally handled up to high concentration because of unstable oxidation state or very high radioactivity. As a consequence, a suitable predictive theory is necessary for the description of these nitrate salt solutions (such as Am (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Cm (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}). The BIMSA ('Binding Mean Spherical Approximation') was chosen for this purpose. This theory, unlike other methods, uses a set of microscopic parameters that have some physical meaning, for the description of macroscopic thermodynamic properties (osmotic coefficients, activity coefficients).The following manuscript is divided by 4 chapters, corresponding to 4 articles accepted in the scientific journal 'Journal of Physical Chemistry'. Chapter 1 first reviews the basic thermodynamic concepts before describing the issues involved in acquiring actinides binary data. An approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions, the notion of fictive binary data, is described. Within this approach, the activity coefficient of an aqueous phase constituent depends on two parameters: the water activity of the system and total concentration of dissolved constituents. As a first application, new fictive binary data of uranyl nitrate are proposed from measurements on the ternary system UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.Chapter 2 gives the main principles of the BIMSA theory. It shows also preliminary promising results obtained when modeling lanthanide(III) salt properties. Then

  4. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  5. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  6. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  7. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  8. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  9. Solid-state materials for anion sensing in aqueous solution: highly selective colorimetric and luminescence-based detection of perchlorate using a platinum(II) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen D; Howard, Whitney; Kaval, Necati; Hart, Robert; Krause, Jeanette A; Connick, William B

    2010-02-21

    The PF(6)(-) salt of a platinum(II) complex changes from yellow to red and becomes intensely luminescent upon exposure to aqueous ClO(4)(-). The response is remarkably selective. Spectroscopic changes are consistent with anion exchange resulting in shortening of the intramolecular PtPt distances between the square planar cations.

  10. Solid-state materials for anion sensing in aqueous solution: highly selective colorimetric and luminescence-based detection of perchlorate using a platinum(II) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stephen D.; Howard, Whitney; Kaval, Necati; Hart, Robert; Krause, Jeanette A.; Connick, William B. (UCIN); (Shepherd)

    2010-07-23

    The PF{sub 6}{sup -} salt of a platinum(II) complex changes from yellow to red and becomes intensely luminescent upon exposure to aqueous ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. The response is remarkably selective. Spectroscopic changes are consistent with anion exchange resulting in shortening of the intramolecular Pt***Pt distances between the square planar cations.

  11. Solute accumulation and distribution traits of an alkali resistant forage plant Kochia sieversiana and physiological contribution of organic acid under salt and alkali stresses%盐碱胁迫下抗碱牧草碱地肤溶质积累、分布特点及有机酸的生理贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻莹; 郭立泉; 张淑芳; 王晓苹; 石德成

    2013-01-01

    对碱地肤幼苗进行盐、碱胁迫处理,通过测定各种溶质积累及分布特点,探讨碱地肤适应盐碱生境生理机制的部位差异,明确有机酸对其适应盐碱生境的贡献.结果表明,各种溶质在幼叶、成熟叶、幼茎、老茎及根等不同部位的分布存在明显差异,其中无论胁迫与否,有机酸均主要分布在茎叶之中,特别是在决定光合生产力的成熟叶片中.Na+、K+、Ca2+在不同部位的分布规律基本一致,表明Na+对K+、Ca2+的吸收与转运不存在拮抗竞争作用.实验证明了K+、Ca2+特殊的吸收机制及各溶质的分布特点对碱地肤抗盐碱生理是至关重要的;不论在盐胁迫还是碱胁迫下,有机酸在碱地肤不同部位特别是成熟叶中,均是参与渗透调节、离子平衡及pH调节的主导成分,是决定碱地肤适应盐碱生境的关键物质之一.实验同时也证明了碱地肤的不同部位对盐碱胁迫的适应机制有所不同.%The accumulation and distribution characteristics of various solutes from Kochia sieversiana seedlings stressed by salt and alkali were measured to study the physiological mechanisms in different parts of K. sieversiana and their role in adaptability to salt-alkalinized soil, and to identify the contribution of organic acid to salt-alkalinized habitat adaptability. There were considerable differences in the distribution of various solutes from different plant parts such as young leaves, mature leaves, young stems, old stems and roots. Organic acid was distributed mainly in stems and leaves, especially in mature and functional leaves on which photosynthetic productivity was dependent. Distributions of Na+ , K+ and Ca2+ in different plant parts were uniform on the whole indicating that there was no competition for Na+ , K+ and Ca2+ for absorption and transportation. Special absorption mechanisms of K+ and Ca2+ and distribution characteristics of various solutes from K. sieversiana were very important

  12. Experimental study of evaporation of distilled water and 10% NaCl and СaCl2 aqueous salt solutions droplets under their free falling on a heated surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feoktistov D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of evaporation of distilled water and 10% aqueous salt solutions of NaCl and СaCl2 droplets under their free falling on a heated surface. It is proved that it is more expedient to conduct the experimental research in this field according to classical multifactorial experiment. Laser treatment of surfaces is found to increase the evaporation rate and to biases the point of boiling crisis in the region of lower surface temperatures. In this case, in the conditions of boiling crisis the frequency of contact of a droplet with a heated surface will decrease.

  13. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  14. Phase Diagrams of the Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Poly(ethylene glycol/Sodium Polyacrylate/Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Pessoa Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA, and a salt have been studied. The effects of the polymer size, salt type (NaCl, Na2SO4, sodium adipate and sodium azelate and salt concentrations on the position of the binodal curve were investigated. The investigated PEG molecules had a molar mass of 2,000 to 8,000 g/mol, while that of NaPAA was 8,000 g/mol. Experimental phase diagrams, and tie lines and calculated phase diagrams, based on Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions are presented. Due to strong enthalpic and entropic balancing forces, the hydrophobicity of the added salt has a strong influence on the position of the binodal, which could be reproduced by model calculations.

  15. Multi-Scale Modeling of the Effects of Salt and Perfume Raw Materials on the Rheological Properties of Commercial Thread-like Micellar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueming; Zou, Weizhong; Koenig, Peter H; McConaughy, Shawn D; Weaver, Michael R; Eike, David Michael; Schmidt, Michael J; Larson, Ronald G

    2017-02-22

    We link micellar structures to rheological properties for two surfactant body-wash formulations at various concentrations of salts and perfume raw materials (PRMs) using molecular simulations and micellar-scale modeling as well as traditional surfactant packing arguments. The two body washes, named BW-1EO and BW-3EO, are composed of sodium lauryl ethylene glycol ether sulfate (SLEnS, where n is the average number of ethylene glycol repeat units), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), ACCORD (which is a mixture of six PRMs), and NaCl salt. BW-3EO is an SLE3S-based body-wash, whereas BW-1EO is an SLE1S-based body-wash. Additional PRMs are also added into the body-washes. The effects of temperature, salt and added PRMs on micellar lengths, breakage times, end-cap free energies, and other properties are obtained from fits of rheological data to predictions of the "Pointer Algorithm" (Zou and Larson, J. Rheol. 2014, 58, 1-41), which is a simulation method based on the Cates model of micellar dynamics. Changes of these micellar properties are interpreted using the Israelachvili surfactant packing argument. From coarse-grained molecular simulations we infer how salt modifies the micellar properties by changing the packing between the surfactant head groups, with the micellar radius remaining nearly constant. PRMs do so by partitioning to different locations within the micelles according to their octanol/water partition coefficient POW and chemical structures, adjusting the packing of head and/or tail groups, and by changing the micelle radius, in the case of a large hydrophobic PRM. We find that relatively hydrophilic PRMs with log⁡POW 4 are isolated, deep inside the micelle, separating from the tails and swelling the radius of the micelle, leading to shorter micelles and much lower viscosities, leading eventually to swollen-droplet micelles.

  16. Solution- and solid-state conformations of C(α)-alkyl analogues of methylphenidate (Ritalin) salts: avoidance of gauche(+)gauche(-) interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avital; Froimowitz, Mark; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Glaser, Robert

    2011-11-18

    Alkyl analogues of methylphenidate (Ritalin) salts are slow onset, long duration dopamine reuptake inhibitors with a potential use as a cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy. X-ray crystallographic studies and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations strongly suggest that avoidance of sterically unfavorable gauche(-)gauche(+) orientations effectively influences both the C(α)-alkyl side chain conformation and the formation of a predominant rotamer about the CH-CH bond ligating piperidine and C(Ar)R moieties. The favored CH-CH rotamer in D(2)O and in CD(2)Cl(2) of the pharmacologically interesting i-Bu and CH(2)-cyc-Pnt (RS,RS)-salts has the same antiperiplanar arrangement that was found in the crystal structures, although there clearly is a fast equilibrium involving smaller amounts of synclinal partners. While the rotamer in the (RS,SR)-i-Bu HCl crystal structure exhibits a synclinal orientation for the vicinal pair of adjacent methine protons, the weighted time-averaged arrangement for these protons becomes almost completely antiperiplanar when the crystals are dissolved in D(2)O. Increased steric congestion around the CH-CH bond in the analogous N-methyl tertiary ammonium salts seems to augment the quantity of the preferred rotamer within the mixture. The stereochemistry of the species observed via NMR seems to arise from specific combinations of N-methyl orientation and avoidance of sterically unfavorable gauche(-)gauche(+) arrangements.

  17. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  18. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  19. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  20. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} absorbers processed from solution deposited metal salt precursors under different selenization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fella, Carolin M.; Uhl, Alexander R.; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin film solar cells are fabricated by a simple, non-vacuum deposition of metal salts dissolved in non-hazardous solvents followed by selenization in Se atmosphere. Despite a residual carbon-rich layer between the back contact and the CZTSe absorber layer, solar cells with up to 4.28% conversion efficiency are obtained for Cu-poor and Zn-rich CZTSe absorbers. A frequently reported problem, the loss of tin, is investigated with respect to the influence of the selenization conditions such as substrate temperature and selenium partial pressure. EDX point measurements directly confirm that the remaining decomposed layer consists of a mixture of binary ZnSe and Cu{sub 2-x}Se phases if the substrate temperature is too high and not sufficient Se is supplied. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  2. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  3. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl- and NO3- isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4-/NO3- ratios and NO3- isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3-/ClO4- in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3-, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age of the salts and

  4. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl− and NO3−isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4−/NO3− ratios and NO3− isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3−/ClO4− in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3−, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70–200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age

  5. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  6. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  7. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  8. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  9. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  10. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  11. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  12. Reduced Solubility of Polymer-Oriented Water for Sodium Salts, Sugars, Amino Acids, and other Solutes Normally Maintained at Low Levels in Living Cells,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    polymer was prepared often with aid of gentle heating. The polymer solution was then inserted into 1/4 inch dialysis tubing, the ends of the sac tied...it was moved to another tube filled also with non-labelled solution and the process repeated many times until after the final washing, the sacs were...tragacanth (74C-0207); and gum xantham (888-0200); corn starch (6813-0216); potato starch (65B-2060); pectin (107B-0090); alginic acid (766-818); also

  13. Estimation of Zn mobility and biological availability in sod-podzolic soil and leached chernozem based on results of soil extraction by various salt solutions and Zn accumulation in barley plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Y. A.

    2012-04-01

    Extraction of soils by chemical reagents is widely used as a basis for forecasting the stock of the metal in the soil available to the plants. There are some doubts about how heavy metals uptake from specific soil to certain plant species can be adequately modeled on the results of chemical extraction. Problems of regulation of heavy metals in natural objects and risk assessment of soil contamination must be solved as issues of unification and standardization of existing assessment methods and new methods developing for their use in studies of the mobility of metals in soils and their availability to plants. Zn is a priority pollutant of the soil. The availability of Zn compounds to plants in two soils of different genesis was compared on the basis of their extraction by neutral salt solutions Ca(NO3)2, MgCl2, and CH3COONH4 and a pot experiment. It was shown that not only the concentration of contaminant in the extractant, but also the proportion of extractable Zn in its total content in the soil increased with increasing contamination of soil. The difference between the estimates of exchangeable Zn obtained by these methods was ~2.5 times for soddy-podzolic soil and 3-6 times for leached chernozem. The relationship between the accumulation of Zn in 14-day-old barley seedlings and the content of its exchangeable form in the soil was near linear, but the parameters of regression equations for two soils differed significantly. Chemical extraction allowed the differentiation of the mobile Zn fraction, but its accumulation by plants from different soils could not be predicted from the extractability of the element by neutral salt solutions without consideration for other soil properties.

  14. 盐穴储气库双井造腔技术现状及难点分析%Comprehensive Analysis about Dual Well Solution Mining Technology in Salt Cavern Storages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊驰; 黄孟云; 班凡生; 郑东波

    2016-01-01

    At present, solution mining in salt cavern mainly adopts the technology of the single well dissolved cavity in our country, but this general technology cannot completely meet the need of salt cavern storage construction in China, especially in the aspects of cavity size, construction cycle, ect.Another technology called dual well opera-tion in solution mining is an effective measure to solve this problem with the advantages of increasing water injection capacity, energy saving, enlarging cavity volume and shortening the period of dissolution.Based on the comprehen-sive analysis of dual well application abroad, this paper points out that dual well technology should address the as-pects of the cavity form design and control, cavity configuration monitoring and process parameters optimization in domestic fields.%目前我国在盐层建库主要采用单井溶腔技术,但常用的单井溶腔技术无论在造腔体积、建库周期等方面均已不能满足我国盐穴储气库建设日益增加的需求,而盐穴储气库双井溶腔技术具有增大注水排量、降低能耗、增大腔体体积、缩短建库周期等优点,因此在综合分析国外盐穴储气库双井溶腔技术及难点的基础上,指出腔体形态设计与控制、腔体形态监测与工艺参数优化等是国内盐穴储气库双井溶腔技术存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的解决措施。

  15. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  16. Hydration of beryllium(II) in aqueous solutions of common inorganic salts. A combined vibrational spectroscopic and ab initio molecular orbital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Fischer, Dieter; Irmer, Gert; Pye, Cory C

    2009-09-01

    Raman spectra of aqueous beryllium perchlorate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions have been measured over a broad concentration (0.098-4.950 mol L(-1)) range. The Raman spectroscopic data suggest that the tetra-aqua beryllium(II) ion is thermodynamically stable in perchlorate, chloride, and nitrate solutions over the concentration range measured. No inner-sphere complexes in these solutions could be detected spectroscopically except in very concentrated beryllium nitrate solutions. Beryllium sulfate solutions however, show a different picture, namely the existence of a thermodynamically stable beryllium sulfato complex most likely monodentate even at very low concentrations. At very high beryllium sulfate concentrations, a small quantity of a bidentate sulfato complex was found. With a temperature increase, the sulfato complex formation increases and this demonstrates the entropically driven sulfato complex formation. Furthermore, with increased temperature the hydrolysis increases, measured by the formation of hydrogen sulfate. Ab initio geometry optimizations and frequency calculations are reported for beryllium-water clusters with only inner sphere waters, clusters with an inner sphere and an incomplete second hydration, and clusters with a higher number of waters in the second hydration sphere. The cluster, [Be(OH2)(12)(2+)] (Be[4 + 8]) with 4 water molecules in the first sphere and 8 water molecules in the second sphere gave sufficiently realistic frequencies for BeO4 skeleton in comparison to the experimental ones. However, the cluster, [Be(OH2)(18)(2+)] (Be[6 + 12]) with 6 water molecules in the inner sphere and 12 water molecules in the outer sphere on an energy minimum gave unrealistically low BeO4 frequencies. This fact demonstrates that a six-fold coordination of Be2+ can be ruled out.

  17. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  18. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  19. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall may affect an older adult's life. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) There are many types of balance disorders. One of the most common is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. In BPPV, you experience a brief, ...

  20. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  1. Temperature-dependent solubility transition of Na₂SO₄ in water and the effect of NaCl therein: solution structures and salt water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Gehlot, Praveen Singh; Gupta, Hariom; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-11-06

    Dual, aqueous solubility behavior of Na2SO4 as a function of temperatures is still a natural enigma lying unresolved in the literature. The solubility of Na2SO4 increases up to 32.38 °C and decreases slightly thereafter at higher temperatures. We have thrown light on this phenomenon by analyzing the Na2SO4-water clusters (growth and stability) detected from temperature-dependent dynamic light scattering experiments, solution compressibility changes derived from the density and speed of sound measurements, and water structural changes/Na2SO4 (ion pair)-water interactions observed from the FT-IR and 2D DOSY (1)H NMR spectroscopic investigations. It has been observed that Na2SO4-water clusters grow with an increase in Na2SO4 concentration (until the solubility transition temperature) and then start decreasing afterward. An unusual decrease in cluster size and solution compressibility has been observed with the rise in temperature for the Na2SO4 saturated solutions below the solubility transition temperature, whereas an inverse pattern is followed thereafter. DOSY experiments have indicated different types of water cluster species in saturated solutions at different temperatures with varying self-diffusion coefficients. The effect of NaCl (5-15 wt %) on the solubility behavior of Na2SO4 at different temperatures has also been examined. The studies are important from both fundamental and industrial application points of view, for example, toward the clean separation of NaCl and Na2SO4 from the effluent streams of textile and tannery industries.

  2. The Upside to Hg-DOM Associations for Water Quality: Removal of Hg from Solution Using Coagulaion with Metal-Based Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Y.; Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Horwath, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the potential use of metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved mercury (Hg) from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however those studies used high concentrations of Hg, which did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. Filtered water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) was treated with three industrial-grade coagulants (ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride) to determine their efficacy in removing both inroganic (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from the water column. The Delta suffers from elevated surface water Hg concentrations and as a result is listed as an imparied water body. Coagulants removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations. Research using isotopically labeled Hg is providing insight into whether coagulation can remove recently added Hg (e.g. atmospheric deposition) from solution and whether once formed, the floc can remove additional Hg from the water column.

  3. Impact of pulsed electric field on electrodialysis process performance and membrane fouling during consecutive demineralization of a model salt solution containing a high magnesium/calcium ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEFs), hashed modes of current consisting in the application of a constant current density during a fixed time (Ton) followed by a pause lapse (Toff), were recently demonstrated as an effective alternative for mineral fouling mitigation and process intensification during electrodialysis (ED) treatments. Recent ED studies have continuously reported a considerable mineral fouling formation on ion-exchange membranes, especially during the demineralization of solutions containing a high Mg/Ca ratio and a basified concentrate solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process performance under two different PEF conditions on a mineral solution containing a mineral mixture giving a high Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio of 2/5. Two different pause-lapse durations (PEF ratio 1 (Ton/Toff 10s/10s); PEF ratio 0.3 (Ton/Toff 10s/33.3 s)) during consecutive ED treatments and their comparison with dc current were evaluated at a current density of 40 mA/cm(2). Our results showed that PEFs resulted in an intensification of ED process, enhancing the demineralization rates (DRs), reducing the system resistance (SR), and reducing the fouling and energy consumption (EC). PEF ratio 1 was the most optimal condition among the current regimes applied, leading to faster and higher demineralization rates due to a lower fouling and with low energy consumption during all consecutive runs.

  4. Salt Dependence of the Radius of Gyration and Flexibility of Single-stranded DNA in Solution probed by Small-angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Lipfert, Jan; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian

    2012-07-06

    Short single-stranded nucleic acids are ubiquitous in biological processes and understanding their physical properties provides insights to nucleic acid folding and dynamics. We used small angle x-ray scattering to study 8-100 residue homopolymeric single-stranded DNAs in solution, without external forces or labeling probes. Poly-T's structural ensemble changes with increasing ionic strength in a manner consistent with a polyelectrolyte persistence length theory that accounts for molecular flexibility. For any number of residues, poly-A is consistently more elongated than poly-T, likely due to the tendency of A residues to form stronger base-stacking interactions than T residues.

  5. Spectral features of guanidinium-carboxylate salt bridges. The combined ATR-IR and theoretical studies of aqueous solution of guanidinium acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Elena O.; Lokshin, Boris V.; Mai, Bich D.; Vener, Mikhail V.

    2016-08-01

    The spectrum of guanidinium acetate in aqueous solution has been recorded by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Assignments of the bands have been done using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Three IR intensive bands at 1670, 1550, and 1410 cm-1 are associated with stretching and bending vibrations of the groups forming a ring of six heavy atoms of the bidentate configuration of guanidinium acetate. The relatively weak broad band near 2200 cm-1 is tentatively assigned to the stretching vibration of the Nsbnd H⋯O fragment of the hydrogen-bonded ion pairs.

  6. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd Thin–Long Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40°C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  7. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  8. 腌制温度和食盐用量对咸鸭蛋蛋黄脂质的影响%Effect of pickling temperature and concentration of salt solution on lipid of duck egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙门; 宋野; 杜庆飞; 周頔; 蔡华珍; 詹歌

    2015-01-01

    为进一步提高咸鸭蛋品质,以鸭蛋为原料,分析不同腌制条件对蛋黄中脂质存在形式、脂质氧化速率的影响。结果表明,在腌制过程中,随着腌制温度的升高、腌制时间的延长,蛋黄指数、脂质含量、蛋黄皂化值均显著增加(P<0.05);腌制用盐量对蛋黄中脂质的皂化值有显著的促进作用(P<0.05)。在腌制液食盐质量分数为20%~30%时,升高腌制温度对蛋黄中脂质二次氧化(硫代巴比妥酸值thiobarbituric acid, TBARS)有显著促进作用(P<0.05),在腌制30 d后,TBARS无显著变化;并且在试验条件下,提高腌制用盐量能显著提高蛋黄中的 TBARS(P<0.05);动力学分析表明,增加食盐用量能够降低蛋黄中脂质初始氧化反应的活化能,从而促进脂质氧化。因此,通过调整腌制用盐量及腌制温度能够实现对咸鸭蛋蛋黄中脂质氧化的调控,由此得出咸鸭蛋较好的腌制条件为腌制温度25℃、腌制用盐量25 g/(100 g)、腌制时间为25 d,该研究结果可以为咸鸭蛋的腌制生产提供技术参考。%Salted duck egg is a kind of Chinese-style pickled egg with a long shelf life. Its pleasant and fragrant taste is preferred by most of the people in China and other Southeast Asian countries. Salted duck egg is normally made by pickling the duck eggs in 20.0%-30.0% NaCl solution at room temperature (30℃) for 30 days. Lipid is one of the important structural and functional compositions for duck eggs; it has a very important impact on the quality of the duck egg, and has close relationship with the nutrition value and flavor and texture of duck eggs. The lipid oxidation also plays a role in the human body health, and is closely related to many diseases of the human body. The prooxidant effect of NaCl will enhance the oxidation of duck egg lipid during pickling. In that case, the objective of this paper was to research the oxygenolysis of the lipid

  9. Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Sara; Mendoza, Alma J; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2013-06-15

    Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]≤1×10(-3) mM.

  10. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    described, and for two other salts information on the composition was lacking. Many of the salts are colorless and the luminescence is in most cases in the blue region. The measurements include light yield and decay time under excitation with fast electrons. Most of the salts were found to be efficient......Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously...

  11. Balancing Patient Access to Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome With Maintaining Procedural Competence: Are Collaborative Services Part of the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew G; Teoh, Mark; Hodges, Ryan J; Palma-Dias, Ricardo; Cole, Stephen A; Fung, Alison M; Walker, Susan P

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) have been recognized for over a decade, yet access to FLP remains limited in many settings. This means at a population level, the potential benefits of FLP for TTTS are far from being fully realized. In part, this is because there are many centers where the case volume is relatively low. This creates an inevitable tension; on one hand, wanting FLP to be readily accessible to all women who may need it, yet on the other, needing to ensure that a high degree of procedural competence is maintained. Some of the solutions to these apparently competing priorities may be found in novel training solutions to achieve, and maintain, procedural proficiency, and with the increased utilization of 'competence based' assessment and credentialing frameworks. We suggest an under-utilized approach is the development of collaborative surgical services, where pooling of personnel and resources can improve timely access to surgery, improve standardized assessment and management of TTTS, minimize the impact of the surgical learning curve, and facilitate audit, education, and research. When deciding which centers should offer laser for TTTS and how we decide, we propose some solutions from a collaborative model.

  12. Dependence of DNA persistence length on ionic strength of solutions with monovalent and divalent salts: a joint theory-experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Annaël; Salomé, Laurence; Rousseau, Philippe; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Using high-throughput Tethered Particle Motion single molecule experiments, the double-stranded DNA persistence length, $L_p$, is measured in solutions with Na$^+$ and Mg$^{2+}$ ions of various ionic strengths, $I$. Several theoretical equations for $L_p(I)$ are fitted to the experimental data, but no decisive theory is found which fits all the $L_p$ values for the two ion valencies. Properly extracted from the particle trajectory using simulations, $L_p$ varies from 30~nm to 55~nm, and is compared to previous experimental results. For the Na$^+$ only case, $L_p$ is an increasing concave function of $I^{-1}$, well fitted by Manning's electrostatic stretching approach, but not by classical Odjik-Skolnick-Fixman theories with or without counter-ion condensation. With added Mg$^{2+}$ ions, $L_p$ shows a marked decrease at low $I$, interpreted as an ion-ion correlation effect, with an almost linear law in $I^{-1}$, fitted by a proposed variational approach.

  13. 氧化镁铵盐法制备高纯过氧化镁%Preparation of High Purity Magnesium Peroxide by Magnesia and Ammonium Salt Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海丽; 吴小王

    2011-01-01

    在氯化铵溶液体系中,以氧化镁,过氧化氢为原料,制备高纯过氧化镁。研究表明采用氧化镁活性大于100,氯化铵/氧化镁不小于10%,过氧化氢:氧化镁不小于4∶1,反应温度大于40℃情况下,反应时间不小于30 min,可制备出纯度大于90%的过氧化镁。%In ammonium chloride solution,magnesium oxide and hydrogen peroxide as raw material,high purity magnesium peroxide was prepared.The results showed that using magnesium oxide activity was greater than 100,ammonium chloride and magnesium oxide was not less than 10%,hydrogen peroxide to magnesium oxide was not less than 4:1,the reaction temperature was higher than 40 ℃,and the reaction time was not less than 30 min,with magnesium peroxide purity above 90%.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution of potassium salts of some 4-((alkylcarbonyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acids at 298 and 313 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Emilia; Compari, Carlotta; Viscardi, Guido; Quagliotto, Pierluigi

    2002-11-15

    To understand the aggregation behavior of surface-active ligands with a salycilic polar head, we undertook a systematic study of some classes of anionic surfactants where the presence and the position of the -OH and the carboxylic group differ. This paper reports the dilution heats at 298 and 313 K of aqueous solutions of potassium 4-((alkylcarbonyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoate (KPAS-C(n) where n stands for the number of carbon atoms in the chain) in KOH at 0.1 m, measured as a function of concentration. From the experimental data, apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs concentration were obtained. By using a pseudo-phase-transition approach, the enthalpy changes upon micelle formation (DeltaH(m)) and assuming that in the restricted range of temperature examined heat capacities are constant, the heat capacity changes have been obtained. Micelle formation enthalpies are seen to be additive with a group contribution for the methylene group of -1.5+/-0.1 kJ mol(-1) per group at 298 K and -2.3+/-0.1 kJ mol(-1) per group at 313 K, comparable with that obtained for similar anionic compounds in the same experimental conditions and for N-alkylnicotinamide chlorides (cationic surfactants). The -CH(2)- group contribution to the micelle formation heat capacities is -53+/-1 J K(-1) mol(-1).

  15. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  16. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sn{sub 2} solid solutions prepared by reduction of salts in tetraethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwokeke, Uche G. [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Chadwick, Alan V. [Functional Materials Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH (United Kingdom); Alcantara, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Alfredsson, Maria [Functional Materials Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH (United Kingdom); Tirado, Jose L., E-mail: iq1ticoj@uco.es [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > New nanoparticulate materials in the ternary system Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sn{sub 2} are reported. > The electrochemical behaviour of the intermediate nano-Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sn{sub 2} compositions is better than the corresponding micro-CoSn{sub 2} and FeSn{sub 2}. > The samples that contain iron form Li{sub x}Sn phases during the discharge of the cell and exhibit capacities over 500 mAh g{sup -1} during the first 30 cycles. > The partial replacement of cobalt by iron could moderate the potential cost and toxicity of the materials in Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the electrochemical performance of tin intermetallic phases as electrode active material for lithium-ion batteries, Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sn{sub 2} solid solutions with x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 were prepared by chemical reduction in tetraethylene glycol. Precise control of the synthesis conditions allowed single-phase nanocrystalline materials to be prepared, with particle diameters of about 20 nm and cubic, nanorods, and U-shaped morphologies. The substitution of iron by cobalt induced a contraction of the unit cell volume. The hyperfine parameters of the {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra were sensitive to the Co/Fe substitution and revealed a superparamagnetic behaviour. In lithium cells nanocrystalline Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Sn{sub 2} active materials delivered reversible capacities above 500 mAh g{sup -1} that depended on the composition and cycling conditions. The intermediate compositions exhibit better electrochemical performance than the end compositions CoSn{sub 2} and FeSn{sub 2}.

  17. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  18. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  19. Molecular properties and intermolecular forces--factors balancing the effect of carbon surface chemistry in adsorption of organics from dilute aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzyk, Artur P

    2004-07-01

    Presented paper recapitulates the results of 6 years' study concerning the effect of carbon surface chemical composition on adsorption of paracetamol, phenol, acetanilide, and aniline from dilute aqueous solutions on carbons. Adsorption-desorption isotherms, enthalpy, and kinetics of adsorption data are shown for the measurements performed at three temperatures (300, 310, and 320 K) at two pH levels (1.5 and 7) on commercial activated carbons. The data were obtained for four carbons: the initial carbon D43/1 and forms modified by applying concentrated HNO3, fuming H2SO4, and gaseous NH3. The modification procedures do not change the porosity in a drastic way, but lead to drastic changes of the composition of carbon surface layer. By applying MOPAC (a general-purpose semiempirical molecular orbital package), the physicochemical constants characterizing the molecules of adsorbates are calculated, including the distribution of the Mulliken charges, the dipole moments and ionization potentials, and the energies of interaction with the unique positive and negative charges. They are correlated with the parameters characterizing the adsorption (and kinetics) process of studied molecules on the mentioned above carbons. The mechanisms proposed in the literature for the description of adsorption from dilute aqueous solutions are verified, and a general mechanism of adsorption is proposed.

  20. Balancing priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Johansen, Andreas Kaas; Lauridsen, Frederik Vahr Bjarnø

    2016-01-01

    a heterogeneous ensemble of care providers. In this paper, we present findings from a field study of coordinative work in distributed elder care in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the coordinative challenges of distributed elder care, and to inform design of new care......, that are needed by the healthcare system, but also the work involved in balancing priorities....

  1. Stochastic modeling of salt accumulation in the root zone due to capillary flux from brackish groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, S.H.H.; Vervoort, R.W.; Suweis, S.; Guswa, A.J.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater can be a source of both water and salts in semiarid areas, and therefore, capillary pressure–induced upward water flow may cause root zone salinization. To identify which conditions result in hazardous salt concentrations in the root zone, we combined the mass balance equations for salt

  2. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2016-12-15

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions.

  3. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  4. 用低场核磁共振研究盐溶液漂洗对带鱼鱼糜凝胶品质的影响%Effect of salt solution rinse on properties of hairtail surimi gel by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文鸽; 张问; 王小飞; 徐大伦; 楼乔明; 张进杰; 严小军

    2016-01-01

    In the previous optimization test, relative content of salt-soluble protein, gel strength of surimi gel, washing loss rate were used as the indices to study the influence of different salt solution washing on the hairtail surimi quality, and the optimum concentration of each single-component salt solution (0.30% NaCl, 0.06% CaCl2 or 0.50% sodium citrite) was determined. Then the above-mentioned 3 kinds of salt solution were mixed in certain proportion, and their optimal proportions (0.15% NaCl, 0.04% CaCl2 and 0.35% sodium citrite) in the compound salt solution were obtained by the orthogonal array design. In this paper, the water relaxation time (T2) and proton density of hairtail surimi gel were explored by the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Using the moisture content, water holding property, gel strength, photographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) of hairtail surimi gel as the indices, the effects of single-component salt solution and compound salt solution on the properties and moisture distribution of hairtail surimi gel were studied. Results of LF-NMR showed that the water in the hairtail surimi gel was bound stronger and its degree of freedom decreased after the washing treatment by 4 groups of salt solution. According to the data of texture analyzer and SEM, the surimi washed by NaCl, CaCl2 solution showed a higher gel strength, and a denser and more uniform aperture of gel network. Combining the water distribution and water holding capacity of the surimi gel, the results showed that the immobilized water in the gel of surimi washed by NaCl or CaCl2 solution was not easy to turn into the free water, and their water holding capacity were stronger than those in the gel of surimi washed by sodium citrite or compound salt solution. The reason might be the contraction and denaturation of protein induced by NaCl or CaCl2 solution, which caused the decrease of the binding ability of water in some extent, and the effect of CaCl2 solution on

  5. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  6. Sorption of water vapor, hydration, and viscosity of carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar, diutan, and xanthan gums, and their molecular association with and without salts (NaCl, CaCl2, HCOOK, CH3COONa, (NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Paltu; Mukherjee, Indrajyoti; Bhattacharya, Subhash; Datta, Sidhhartha; Moulik, Satya P; Sarkar, Diptabhas

    2009-10-06

    Gums are routinely used in food industry, pharmacy and oil recovery process. In these uses, the hydrocolloids very often encounter interactions with salts at moderate to high temperature. Since they are normally employed in the form of solution and gel, their viscous or fluidity properties need detailed investigation. In the present work, properties such as water vapor adsorption of finely powdered carboxymethylhydroxypropyl derivatized guar (CMHPG) as well as xanthan (Xn) and diutan (Dn) gums, their hydration in solution, their viscosity behaviors, and salt effects on fluidity have been studied. The concentration domains for the existence of free and associated molecules in the studied solutions have been assessed from the viscosity results. The gums have been found to bind a fair amount of water from the vapor phase with them. In solution, they can interact and arrest a large amount of water in their folded configuration. Intrinsic viscosities of the gums in aqueous medium declined in the presence of salts. The activation energies for their viscous flow were moderate and comparable, and were dependent on their concentrations. From the power law relation and viscosity master curve behavior mostly two critical association states of the macromolecular dispersions were envisaged.

  7. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  8. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  9. Salt acclimation of cyanobacteria and their application in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-12-29

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  10. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  11. 岩盐椭球储气库应力解析及其稳定性分析%Stress Solutions and Stability Analysis of Ellipsoidal Gas Storage Cavern in Salt Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宏发; 王武; 方秦; 赵佩胜

    2012-01-01

    岩盐地下储气库根据成腔方式不同,储气库形状也有较大变化,但简化为细长旋转椭球体(短长轴比s)是合理的.假定岩盐体为无限大各向同性线弹性体,将旋转椭球岩盐储气库受力分解为两种受力状态:有内压的静水压力状态和无内压的非静水压力状态.利用弹性理论应力叠加原理,求得了在地应力场(垂直p,水平Po)和内压(pi)作用下储气库腔壁上关键点(顶点和赤道线上任意点)的应力精确解析解.对某岩盐储气库进行了数值模拟计算,数值计算结果与解析解较接近.分析了关键点应力随椭球腔形状、地应力和内压的变化规律,认为径向应力随内压比(pi/p)的增加而增加,几乎与轴比(s)无关;水平环向应力随内压比和轴比的增加而减小.结合已有试验资料,确定了盐岩广义Hoek-Brown破坏模型参数,并据此计算得到了储气库不出现破坏时的极限内压值范围,当s=0.9时极限内压较小.%The shapes of the gas storage caverns vary with building ways, but simplified as an elongated rotational ellipsoid ( minor to major axis ratio, s ) is reasonable. Assumed that the ellipsoidal cavity is in linear elasticity and isotropy infinite body, the mechanical status of the caverns can be resolved into: hydrostatic pressure with internal pressure and non-hydrostatic pressure without internal pressure. Using principle of superposition on stress in elastic theory, the exact stress solutions for the key points,which are the peak and an arbitrary point on the equator line of the ellipsoidal cavity, were solved under geostress field ( vertical stress, p; horizontal stress ,p0 ) and internal pressure(pi). The numerical simulation analysis on rotational ellipsoidal gas storage cavern in salt rock was conducted, and the results of numerical simulation coincided with analytic solutions. Analyzed the laws of the stresses of the key points varying with shape of cavity, geostresses and internal

  12. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  13. 季铵盐壳聚糖膜对水体中十二烷基苯磺酸钠吸附的研究%Adsorption of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate from Aqueous Solution by Quaternary Chitosan Salt Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓东; 徐国钦; 娄本勇

    2012-01-01

    The quaternary chitosan salt membrane (QCSM)was prepared as an adsorbent by using chitosan as raw material, and its adsorption behavior for sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS)was studied. Effect factors such as solution pH, adsorption time, concentration and temperature were investigated. Results showed that pH 4.0 and shaking time 120min were the optima] conditions for adsorption of SDBS. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order equation and the equilibrium isotherm may be described by Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich and Tempkin model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic with an increase in entropy.%以壳聚糖为原料,制备季铵盐壳聚糖膜(QCSM)吸附剂,研究吸附剂对十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)的吸附性能,考察了溶液pH值、吸附时间、浓度和温度的影响.结果表明,吸附适宜条件的为:pH 4.0,吸附时间120 min,吸附过程可以很好地用准二级动力学方程描述,吸附等温线用Langmuir方程的拟合效果优于Freundlich和Tempkin方程.在热力学研究表中,△G0<0,△H0>0,△S0>0,表明此吸附过程是自发、吸热和熵增加的过程.

  14. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  15. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  16. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  17. Wzrost pomidorów na pożywce azotanowej lub amonowej w obecności różnych form i zróżnicowanych ilości żelaza [The development of tomato plants growing on nutrient solutions containing either nitrates or ammonium salts, in presence of various forms and doses of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabrowsk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In all the experiments the tomato plants seemed to grow better both in aerated and nonaerated cultures in the solutions containing nitrates, than in those with ammonium salts. The best development of plants was observed in aerated cultures containing a full dose of ferric citrate. The positive effect of ferric versenate was manifested rather in the nonaerated cultures containing lower doses of this compound.

  18. 多重嵌套的可计算非线性动态投入产出模型及其平衡增长解%MULTIPLE EMBEDDED COMPUTABLE NONLINEAR DYNAMIC INPUT OUTPUTMODEL AND ITS BALANCED GROWTH SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金水

    2000-01-01

    给出多重嵌套的可计算非线性动态投入产出模型,并给出相应的价格、利润率、产出结构、增长率的平衡增长解计算公式.从本文给出的模型可以看出非线性投入产出模型可以有无穷多种不同形式,其中只有1种为众所周知的列昂惕夫线性投入产出模型.本文模型的重要意义在于:它是线性投入产出模型与CGE(可计算一般均衡)模型的统一.它既克服了线性投入产出模型资本与劳动不可替代的缺点,又可方便地求解动态CGE的平衡增长解.%The multiple embedded computable nonlinear dynamic inputoutput model is given in this paper, and its balanced growth solutionsabout prices, output level, growth rate, profit rate are discussed. Wecan see from this model that there are infinite different cases ofnonlinear dynamic input output models, and only one of them is thewell-known Leontief I-O model. The significance of the model is that itunifies linear I-O model and dynamic CGE model . It not only overcomes the shortcoming of linear I-O model that the capital and labor can not be substituted, but also can easily find the balanced growth solutions of dynamic CGE model.

  19. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  20. Mechanisms of pressure-diuresis and pressure-natriuresis in Dahl salt-resistant and Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beard Daniel A; Mescam Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on blood flow regulation, renal filtration, and urine output in salt-sensitive Dahl S rats fed on high-salt (hypertensive) and low-salt (prehypertensive) diets and salt-resistant Dahl R rats fed on high-salt diets were analyzed using a mathematical model of renal blood flow regulation, glomerular filtration, and solute transport in a nephron. Results The mechanism of pressure-diuresis and pressure-natriuresis that emerges from simulation of the integrated systems is t...

  1. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  2. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Brun, Christian [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)]. E-mail: christian.lebrun@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2007-01-15

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  3. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  4. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  5. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  6. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, Pdehydration.

  7. Wearable Potentiometric Chloride Sweat Sensor: The Critical Role of the Salt Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Seob; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2016-12-20

    The components of sweat provide an array of potential biomarkers for health and disease. Sweat chloride is of interest as a biomarker for cystic fibrosis, electrolyte metabolism disorders, electrolyte balance, and electrolyte loss during exercise. Developing wearable sensors for biomarkers in sweat is a major technological challenge. Potentiometric sensors provide a relatively simple technology for on-body sweat chloride measurement, however, equilibration between reference and test solutions has limited the time over which accurate measurements can be made. Here, we report on a wearable potentiometric chloride sweat sensor. We performed parametric studies to show how the salt bridge geometry determines equilibration between the reference and test solutions. From these results, we show a sweat chloride sensor can be designed to provide accurate measurements over extended times. We then performed on-body tests on healthy subjects while exercising to establish the feasibility of using this technology as a wearable device.

  8. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers.

  9. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  10. Insensitivity to Salt of Assembly of a Rigid Biopolymer Aggrecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2008-08-01

    Many polyelectrolytes, ranging from sulfonated polystyrene to DNA, exhibit a strong sensitivity of their phase behavior to salt concentration, especially to higher valence salts, which often lead to phase separation. We show that the stiff polyelectrolyte aggrecan exhibits a qualitatively different behavior. Specifically, the scattering properties of aggrecan solutions are exceptionally insensitive to the addition of calcium salt, conferring on aggrecan the role of an ion reservoir mediating calcium metabolism in cartilage and bone, and also providing osmotic resilience to compressive load.

  11. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Nadin Pade; Martin Hagemann

    2014-01-01

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanis...

  12. Characteristics of Salt Affected Soil and Its Amelioration by Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Salt-affected soils extensively distribute on the earth.Although the causes are various,generally speaking salinization occurrence results from the accumulation of free salts to an extent that causes degradation of vegetation and soils.Besides,irrational human practices have increased soil salinity by allowing excess recharging of groundwater to change the natural balance of the water cycle in the landscape. This reduces the suitability to plant growth and increases the potential for other forms of land ...

  13. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  14. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE HERRING SALTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To the salting process of fish many studies are devoted, both in experimental and in theoretical terms. Study of features of fish salting in historical terms can be divided into 3 groups. One group of researchers believes that osmotic pressure has a major influence during the salting process. Another group attributed this process to the influence of molecular diffusion. The third group considers that during this process takes place both osmosis and diffusion. Determination of the main characteristics (salinity, diffusion coefficients, time of salting, etc. is a very time-consuming task. This leads to the idea of searching for innovative research methods. Current state of science, in addition to theoretical solutions points to the possibility to determine the basic characteristics of salting and applying methods associated with the interaction of ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation with matter. In our studies, we have been producing laser beam scanning of salt solution and fish meat thickness. Scattered radiation is determined by the salt concentration, diffusion coefficients, the size of the diffusing particles. This method is called a photon correlation spectroscopy. It has been applied in our work. The dependence of the scattered light intensity on the concentration of sodium chloride solution (brine has been investigated. According to diffusion coefficient a diffusion in solution to herring skin a conclusion was made that salt solution obtains fractal structure and its size was determined. Also we determined diffusion coefficients depending on the temperature in the layers. The layers are brine-leather, leather, and herring meat thickness. The process of diffusion-osmotic equilibrium revealed at temperatures of 10-12 ° C. Suggested the possibility of higher quality of fish salting at low temperatures. On the basis of the selfsimilar solution of the differential diffusion equation, a formula for calculating time salting fish was obtained

  15. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  16. Several Organic Salts with High Two-Photon Active

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Yu-Peng; JIANG, Min-Hua; WANG, He-Zhou; FANG, Qi

    2001-01-01

    Several organic salts with D-A molecular structure and different counterion have been prepared and experimentally investigated. The two-photon induced frequency-upconverted spectra and two-photon pumped lasing are measured for the organic salt solutions in various solvents. The results indicate that counterions have influence on their stability and lasing property.

  17. Atmospheric bromine flux from the coastal Abu Dhabi sabkhat: A ground-water mass-balance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2007-07-01

    A solute mass-balance study of ground water of the 3000 km2 coastal sabkhat (salt flats) of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, documents an annual bromide loss of approximately 255 metric tons (0.0032 Gmoles), or 85 kg/km2. This value is an order of magnitude greater than previously published direct measurements from the atmosphere over an evaporative environment of a salar in Bolivia. Laboratory evidence, consistent with published reports, suggests that this loss is by vapor transport to the atmosphere. If this bromine flux to the atmosphere is representative of the total earth area of active salt flats then it is a significant, and generally under recognized, input to the global atmospheric bromide flux.

  18. Elucidating how bamboo salt interacts with supported lipid membranes: influence of alkalinity on membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Min Chul; Park, Jae Hyeon; Herrin, Jason Scott; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Haiwon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-07-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional medicine produced from sea salt. It is widely used in Oriental medicine and is an alkalizing agent with reported antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic properties. Notwithstanding, linking specific molecular mechanisms with these properties has been challenging to establish in biological systems. In part, this issue may be related to bamboo salt eliciting nonspecific effects on components found within these systems. Herein, we investigated the effects of bamboo salt solution on supported lipid bilayers as a model system to characterize the interaction between lipid membranes and bamboo salt. The atomic composition of unprocessed and processed bamboo salts was first analyzed by mass spectrometry, and we identified several elements that have not been previously reported in other bamboo salt preparations. The alkalinity of hydrated samples was also measured and determined to be between pH 10 and 11 for bamboo salts. The effect of processed bamboo salt solutions on the fluidic properties of a supported lipid bilayer on glass was next investigated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. It was demonstrated that, with increasing ionic strength of the bamboo salt solution, the fluidity of a lipid bilayer increased. On the contrary, increasing the ionic strength of near-neutral buffer solutions with sodium chloride salt diminished fluidity. To reconcile these two observations, we identified that solution alkalinity is critical for the effects of bamboo salt on membrane fluidity, as confirmed using three additional commercial bamboo salt preparations. Extended-DLVO model calculations support that the effects of bamboo salt on lipid membranes are due to the alkalinity imparting a stronger hydration force. Collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that processing of bamboo salt strongly affects its atomic composition and that the alkalinity of bamboo salt solutions contributes to its effect on membrane

  19. Solutions based on load balancing technology to the access pressure of network tasks%基于负载均衡技术的网络作业系统访问压力解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于梅英; 张海波; 王春彦

    2011-01-01

    为解决网上作业系统访问压力与数据阻塞问题,提出了一种应用缓存技术、负载均衡技术的解决方案,并对网上作业系统的信息载入慢、服务器压力大、成绩试算次数过多3个关键问题设计了相应的解决算法.经兰州大学网络教育学院网上作业系统运行验证,表明实施解决方案后,能够有效地降低因访问过于集中而引起的网络阻塞和死锁问题,提高作业系统的稳定性和有效性.%In order to solve the problem of the high access pressure of network task system and data blocking, this article proposes solutions based on cache technology and load balancing technology,and a plan for solving three key problems: low speed of information load of network task system, high pressure of server and too many times of pilot calculation for scores. We also tested the network task system on the website of Lanzhou University Distance Education College. The result shows that applying it can effectively solve the problem of network being blocked or locked caused by excessive access so as to enhance the stability and effectiveness of the network task system.

  20. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR).

  1. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  2. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  3. Efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais em solução nutritiva na tolerância de cultivares de trigo à toxicidade de alumínio Influence of salt concentrations in nutrient solution on tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo três diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico combinados com quatro diferentes concentrações salinas. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanência de 46 horas em solução contendo determinadas concentrações de sais e de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 e INIA-66 foram os mais sensíveis, IAC-15 moderadamente sensível, Alondra S-46 e IAC-17 moderadamente tolerantes, BH-1146, IAC-13, IAC-5 e C-3 tolerantes à presença de quantidades crescentes de Al³+ na solução nutritiva tratamento, o sintoma de toxicidade de alumínio ficou acentuado ou por aumento da concentração de alumínio ou por diminuição da concentração de sais para todos os cultivares estudados. Aparentemente, tolerância à toxicidade de determinada concentração de alumínio é uma característica antes relativa do que absoluta, por depender da concentração de sais presentes.The aluminum tolerance of ten wheat cultivars was studied in nutrient solutions using three different levels of this element combined with four different salt concentrations. The tolerance was evaluated by measuring, the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous treatment in Al added solutions of equal, one half, one fifth and one tenth the salt concentration of the aluminum-free solution. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 and INIA-66 were sensitive; IAC-15 was moderately sensitive; Alondra-S-46 and IAC-17 showed moderate tolerance; BH-1146, IAC-13, IAC-5, and C-3 were tolerant to the presence of increasing concentrations of Al³+ in the treatment nutrient solution. The aluminum toxicity symptom (inhibition of root growth was dependent on the salt concentration and the amount of aluminum in the treatment solution. For the same level of Al3+ toxicity increased when the

  4. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  5. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  6. t-BAMBP-煤油溶液萃取盐湖卤水中铷和铯离子%Solvent extraction of rubidium and cesium from salt lake brine with t-BAMBP-kerosene solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世明; 刘和辉; 黄云敬; 阳卫军

    2015-01-01

    The residues of salt lake brine from which potassium had been removed were used to extract Rb+and Cs+together with a sulphonated kerosene (SK) solution of 1.0 mol/L 4-tert-butyl-2-(α-methylbenzyl) phenol (t-BAMBP). Rb+and Cs+were enriched and separated effectively by precipitating Mg2+ before extraction and by scrubbing out K+ and Na+ repeatedly before stripping. The effects of the volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous extraction phase (O/A), alkalinity of aqueous phase (c(OH)−), interference from K+and Mg2+, and ratio the volume of organic phase to aqueous scrubbing phase (O/A′) were investigated. The experimental brine was extracted optimally by 5-stage extraction with 1.0 mol/L t-BAMBP in SK, c(OH−)=1 mol/L, and O/A=1:1. The scrubbing yield of rubidium was only about 10.5%when the extraction solvent was washed 3 times with 1×10−4 mol/L NaOH at O/A′=1:0.5. After 5-stage countercurrent extraction, the final extraction yields of Rb+and Cs+reached 95.04%and 99.80%, respectively.%将工厂提钾后的盐湖卤水作为提取Rb+和Cs+的实验用卤水,将萃取剂t-BAMBP的磺化煤油溶液作为有机相进行萃取。在萃取之前预先沉淀出镁并作为一种产品,在反萃前再多次洗涤分离出大部分的 K+和 Na+,最终使Rb+和Cs+得到有效富集和分离。研究油水相比(O/A)、水相的碱性(c(OH−)、K+和Mg2+的含量及洗涤油水相比(O/A′)对萃取过程的影响。最佳工艺条件为:1.0 mol/L的 t-BAMBP磺化煤油溶液,水相碱性c(OH−)=1 mol/L,油水相比O/A=1:1。当用1×10−4 mol/L NaOH溶液洗涤萃取油相3次,洗涤油水相比O/A′=1:0.5时,铷和铯的洗脱率仅为10.5%。经过5级逆流萃取,最终铷和铯的萃取率分别达到了95.04%与99.80%。

  7. Influence of salt ions on binding to molecularly imprinted polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, Henrik; Kempe, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Salt ions were found to have an influence on template binding to two model molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), targeted to penicillin G and propranolol, respectively, in water-acetonitrile mixtures. Water was detrimental to rebinding of penicillin G whereas propranolol bound in the entire water-acetonitrile range tested. In 100% aqueous solution, 3-M salt solutions augmented the binding of both templates. The effects followed the Hofmeister series with kosmotropic ions promoting the larges...

  8. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  10. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  11. Limiting salt crystallization damage in lime mortar by using crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Salt crystallization is a recurrent cause of damage in porous building materials. Lime-based mortars, which were widely used in construction of ancient masonry, are especially prone to salt damage, due to their low mechanical strength. Existing solutions to tackle salt damage in mortars have been ma

  12. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  13. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  14. 原盐种类对氯碱生产的影响及应对措施%Effects of crude salt types on chlor-alkali production and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康新飞

    2013-01-01

    分析了西安西化氯碱化工有限责任公司所用工业原料盐的种类和特点,总结出应用不同盐种进行盐水精制的应对措施,有效保证了一次盐水的质量和电解装置的优越性能。%The types and characteristics of crude salt used in Xi'an Xihua Chlor -Alkali Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.were analyzed.Measures to refine different types of crude salt were summarized . These measures endured effectively the quality of primary brine and the high performances of electrolysis units.

  15. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  16. Thermodynamic study on phosphorus removal from tungstate solution via magnesium salt precipitation method%镁盐沉淀法从钨酸盐溶液除磷的热力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵香; 何利华; 赵中伟; 陈星宇; 高利利; 刘旭恒

    2013-01-01

    通过计算,绘制了25°C时Mg2+-3-4PO -+4NH -H2O体系的热力学平衡图,并对钨酸盐溶液除磷过程进行系统的热力学研究。结果表明:当采用磷酸镁盐法除磷时,溶液中游离总镁浓度从0.01 mol/L增加到1.0 mol/L,对应的最佳理论除磷pH值从9.8降到8.8,而溶液中残留的总磷含量基本维持在4.0×10-6 mol/L;随着溶液pH值的升高,体系中稳定存在的沉淀组分依次为 MgHPO4、Mg3(PO4)2和 Mg3(PO4)2+Mg(OH)2。当采用磷酸铵镁法除磷时,增大溶液游离总氨浓度有利于除磷,而增大游离总镁量对除磷深度基本无影响。计算所得除磷的最佳 pH值为9~10;当游离总氨浓度为5.0 mol/L时,溶液中残留的总磷为1.4×10-7 mol/L。以自制的钨酸铵溶液(WO350 g/L,P 13 g/L)为原料,采用磷酸铵镁盐法除磷以对理论分析进行验证。结果表明:当氯化镁的加入量为理论量的1.1时,除磷的最佳pH值为9.5,与热力学分析结果一致。%The thermodynamic equilibrium diagrams of Mg2+- 3-4PO - +4NH -H2O system at 298 K were established based on the thermodynamic calculation. From the diagram, the thermodynamic conditions for removing phosphorus from the tungstate solution by magnesium salt precipitation were obtained. The results show that when the concentration of total magnesium increases from 0.01 mol/L to 1.0 mol/L, the optimal pH for the phosphorus removal by magnesium phosphate decreases from 9.8 to 8.8. The residual concentration of total phosphorus almost keeps the level of 4.0×10-6 mol/L in the system. MgHPO4, Mg3(PO4)2 and the mixture of Mg3(PO4)2 and Mg(OH)2 are stabilized in these system, respectively. However, increasing the total concentration of magnesium has little effect on phosphorus removal by magnesium ammonium phosphate, while it is helpful for phosphorus removal by increasing the total ammonia concentration. The calculated results demonstrate that the residual concentration of total

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    , sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

  19. Salt Rejection of Non-Ionic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, P.; Stannett, V.

    1976-01-01

    A modified solution-diffusion model for the description of salt and water transport through homogeneous membranes is introduced. It is compared with the current solution-diffusion model and the combined flow-diffusion model for the description of transport under reverse osmosis conditions....... The advantage of the modified description over the current solution-diffusion model is the inclusion of a salt-water coupling transport coefficient which allows the description to be extended to membranes of high water permeability (high water content). The advantage of the modified solution-diffusion model...

  20. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  1. New applications of the homogeneous balance principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 王跃明; 王明亮; 方宗德

    2003-01-01

    The homogeneous balance principle has been widely applied to the exploration of nonlinear transformation, exact solutions (especially solitary wave solution), dromion and similarity reduction to the nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. In this paper, we use the homogeneous balance principle to derive Backlund transformations for nonlinear partial differential equations that have more nonlinear terms and more highest-order partial derivative terms. With the aid of the Backlund transformations derived here, we could obtain exact solutions to the nonlinear partial differential equations. The Davey-Stewartson equation and the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are considered as the examples.

  2. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  3. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  4. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  5. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  6. CALCULATION OF CONDUCTANCE FOR ORGANIC SOLUTIONS OF LITHIUM SALT USING MEAN SPHERICAL APPROXIMATION THEORY%应用平均球近似理论计算锂盐有机溶液电导率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩景立

    2004-01-01

    The molar conductance of electrolytes LiPF6-PC (propylene carbonate), LiPF6·2DG (diglyme)-PC and LiPF6·PMDETA (pentamethy[diethylenetriamine)-PC were calculated by using mean spherical approximation(MSA). The range of concentration was from 0.001 mol·L-1 to 1 mol·L-1. The dissociation equilibrium of salts is taken into account. The mean relative deviations were 5.6%, 4.2% and 4.7%,respectively.

  7. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  8. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  9. Phase equilibria for salt-induced lysozyme precipitation: Effect of salt concentration and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, E.; WATANABE, E. O.; PESSOA FILHO, P. A.; Maurer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The salt-induced precipitation of lysozyme from aqueous solutions was studied at 25 degrees C and various pH values by cloud-point investigations, precipitation experiments (analysing the compositions of the coexisting phases) and microscopic investigations of the precipitates. Sodium sulphate as well as ammonium sulphate were used to induce the precipitation. The experimental results are discussed and used to develop a scheme of the phase equilibrium in water-rich aqueous solutions of lysozy...

  10. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  11. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  12. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  13. Sodium transport and distribution in sweet pepper during and after salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.

    2000-01-01

    In hydroponic systems often saline water is used in nutrient solutions. Transpiration leads to a steady increase of the salt concentration. To avoid unfavourable salt conditions, solutions are renewed, regularly. So, plants are exposed to varying sodium concentrations. In this paper, the sodium dist

  14. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  15. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  16. 公平与效率兼顾的最佳解:城乡一体化%The Best Solution to the Balanced-Consideration of Fairness and Efficiency: Integration of Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲俐; 赵峰

    2011-01-01

    社会公平体现了公平范畴的全面性,经济公平是最基本的公平,分配公平与否是公平问题的核心。效率即“帕累托效率”,效率的物质技术基础和道德基础是效率实现的双重基础,在物质技术基础一定的情况下,道德基础对效率的提高具有决定作用。经济伦理学视公平与效率为辩证统一的关系,效率的发展与公平的进步在发展方向上相一致。城乡分割状态下导致对社会经济运行搡作的不公平、结果的不公平及运行效率的损害。城乡一体化是公平与效率兼顾的最佳解:实现农村各个方面全面、协调、可持续发展,彻底摆脱城乡差距过大、城乡不公平状态,实现社会公平与社会效率的统一。%Social fairness embodies the comprehensiveness of the definition of fairness, the economic fairness is the most basic fairness, and it's the core of fairness issue that whether social allocation is fair or not. The efficiency is the "pareto-efficiency" and that it's the material and technical basis and moral basis of efficiency accounts for the double foundation of efficiency fulfillment. The moral foundation plays a decisive role in the improvement of efficiency in condition with invariable material foundation. Science of business ethics regards efficiency and fairness as Dialectical unification relationship between each other. The development direction of efficiency development is the same as that of fairness progress. The state of division between urban and rural areas leads to unfairness to operation and outcome of social economic function as well as harm to operating efficiency. The integration of urban and rural areas is the best solution to the balanced-consideration of fairness and efficiency: fulfillment of comprehensive, coordinative and sustainable development in every aspect of rural areas development. Completely getting rid of excess gap and state of unfairness between

  17. Putrescine differently influences the effect of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene synthesis in rice cultivars differing in salt resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, Muriel; Ndayiragije, Alexis; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lambillotte, Béatrice; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C; Lutts, Stanley

    2010-06-01

    Effects of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene production were examined in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars [I Kong Pao (IKP), salt sensitive; and Pokkali, salt resistant] grown for 5 d and 12 d in nutrient solution in the presence or absence of putrescine (1 mM) and 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The salt-sensitive (IKP) and salt-resistant (Pokkali) cultivars differ not only in their mean levels of putrescine, but also in the physiological functions assumed by this molecule in stressed tissues. Salt stress increased the proportion of conjugated putrescine in salt-resistant Pokkali and decreased it in the salt-sensitive IKP, suggesting a possible protective function in response to NaCl. Activities of the enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) involved in putrescine synthesis were higher in salt-resistant Pokkali than in salt-sensitive IKP. Both enzymes were involved in the response to salt stress. Salt stress also increased diamine oxidase (DAO; 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidase (PAO EC 1.5.3.11) activities in the roots of salt-resistant Pokkali and in the shoots of salt-sensitive IKP. Gene expression followed by reverse transcription-PCR suggested that putrescine could have a post-translational impact on genes coding for ADC (ADCa) and ODC (ODCa and ODCb) but could induce a transcriptional activation of genes coding for PAO (PAOb) mainly in the shoot of salt-stressed plants. The salt-resistant cultivar Pokkali produced higher amounts of ethylene than the salt-sensitive cultivar IKP, and exogenous putrescine increased ethylene synthesis in both cultivars, suggesting no direct antagonism between polyamine and ethylene pathways in rice.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of 1:1 Salt Aqueous Solutions with the Electrolattice Equation of State Propriétés thermophysiques des solutions aqueuses de sels 1:1 avec l’équation d’état de réseau pour électrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuber A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrolattice Equation of State (EOS is a model that extends the MattediTavares-Castier EOS (MTC EOS to systems with electrolytes. This model considers the effect of three terms. The first one is based on a lattice-hole model that considers local composition effects derived in the context of the generalized Van der Waals theory: the MTC EOS was chosen for this term. The second and the third terms are the Born and the MSA contributions, which take into account ion charging and discharging and long-range ionic interactions, respectively. Depending only on two energy interaction parameters, the model represents satisfactorily the vapor pressure and the mean ionic activity coefficient data of single aqueous solutions containing LiCI, LiBr, LiI, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, KBr, KI, CsCl, CsBr, CsI, or RbCI. Two methods are presented and contrasted: the salt-specific and the ion-specific approaches. Therefore, the aim of this work is to calculate thermodynamic properties that are extensively used to design, operate and optimize many industrial processes, including water desalination. L’équation d’état, dite électrolattice, est un modèle qui étend l’équation d’état de Mattedi-Tavares-Castier à des systèmes avec électrolytes. Ce modèle prend en compte l’effet de trois termes. Le premier terme est basé sur les trous dans le réseau en considérant les effets de la composition locale, étude effectuée dans le cadre de la théorie généralisée de Van der Waals : l’équation d’état de Mattedi-Tavares-Castier a été choisie pour ce premier terme. Les deuxième et troisième termes sont les contributions de Born et du MSA. Ils tiennent compte du chargement et du déchargement des ions, et des interactions ioniques à longue distance, respectivement. Le modèle n’ayant besoin que de deux paramètres d’interaction énergétique, il modélise de manière satisfaisante la pression de vapeur et le coefficient d’activité ionique

  19. Effect of salt on aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foght, J.; Semple, K.; Pooley, K.; Guigard, S.; Biggar, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Biodegradation can be limited by low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other terminal electron acceptors, low nutrient concentrations, low temperatures and potentially by low numbers of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbes in inhospitable environments. At flare pit sites, salt is a common co-contaminant in subsurface sediments and groundwater contaminated with crude oil. There are few published reports on the effects of salt on hydrocarbon degradation by soil or freshwater microbial communities. In this study, subsurface sediment and groundwater were collected and stored. Five grams of sediment and 50 ml of groundwater were added to flasks, providing replicate indigenous microbial populations. Nutrients were added to certain flasks as autoclaved solutions of ammonium nitrate and potassium phosphate. Positive and negative controls were included in each test series. Flasks were sealed with neoprene stoppers and unsealed briefly to introduce fresh oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions. Results indicate that nutrient addition is required for significant aliphatic but not aromatic hydrocarbon mineralization. Salt was found to be inhibitory to general metabolic activity. Salt concentrations above 1 per cent wt/vol resulted in increased lag times and a lower extent of mineralization. Inhibitory effects observed included increased lag times and decreased rates and extents of mineralization. Low levels of salt were sometimes stimulatory, which may be explained by the salt providing a more ionically balanced medium for the microbes, or by the dispersal of clays to provide a larger surface area for attachment of cells or for access to trace nutrients. It was noted that certain flasks within a replicate set experienced a long lag time before eventually and suddenly beginning to mineralize the substrate at a rate similar to that of less stressed flasks. The lag time may be considered as an adaptation period of the consortium to the stressors, during which there is

  20. Thermal driven water treatment systems for full separation of solute-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sahib

    This work encompasses the study of a novel thermal driven desalination system to accomplish full separation of water and solute. This process advantageous over other process because it involves zero recirculation and zero liquid discharge, thus having minimum environmental impact. Since this system provides full separation, salts and other valuable products can be obtained in addition to pure water. This system can operate at high energy efficiencies using medium temperature heat source like industrial reject or solar cells. This plant consists of two technologies, the full separation and multi effect distillation which when integrated together 8ive us water and salt separately. Three different configuration of the FS-MED system have been presented, naming concurrent feed, variable feed, and counter current feed. They vary depending on their flow and feed distribution. Numerical procedure has been developed to solve the energy and mass balance equation for steady state condition has been presented.

  1. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila V. Dyakova; Aleksander G. Kasikov; Elena S. Kshumaneva; Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cob...

  2. Ionic Liquids: Just Molten Salts After All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Croft

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been much effort in recent years to characterise ionic liquids in terms of parameters that are well described for molecular solvents, using these to explain reaction outcomes remains problematic. Herein we propose that many reaction outcomes in ionic liquids may be explained by considering the electrostatic interactions present in the solution; that is, by recognising that ionic liquids are salts. This is supported by evidence in the literature, along with studies presented here.

  3. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  4. Rheological properties of reversible thermo-setting in situ gelling solutions with the methylcellulose-polyethylene glycol-citric acid ternary system (2): Effects of various water-soluble polymers and salts on the gelling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Saegusa, Katsuhiko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    The influences of various salts and water-soluble polymers on the phase transition temperature of thermo-setting gels prepared by combining methylcellulose (MC)-sodium citrate (SC)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) at appropriate ratios (the MC-SC-PEG system) were investigated. Concerning cations, comparison of the phase transition temperature between SC and tripotassium citrate (PC) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and an increase in the viscosity of PC between 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Concerning the valency of anions, comparisons among SC, disodium tartrate dihydrate (ST), disodium maleate hemihydrates (SM), and sodium sulfate (SS) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of trivalent SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and changes in the viscosity of the three bivalent sodium salts (ST, SM, and SS) at > or =30 degrees C. Thus the phase transition temperature decreased with an increase in the valency of anions. Subsequently, the influences of various water-soluble polymers on the gelling temperature were compared. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) instead of PEG, the gelling temperature decreased with an increase in the PVP concentration even without the addition of SC. Unlike PVP, the addition of xanthan gum as a viscosity-increasing polysaccharide did not reduce the gelling temperature irrespective of its concentration. Temperature-associated changes in viscosity were observed at a fixed SC concentration with changes in the concentration of PVP or PEG. The gel phase transition temperature increased from 46 degrees C to 50 degrees C in gels not containing PVP or PEG. The viscosity did not differ between the addition of PVP or PEG at a low concentration and its absence. However, the viscosity clearly changed after the addition of each agent at a high concentration.

  5. Salting-out and salting-in: competitive effects of salt on the aggregation behavior of soy protein particles and their emulsifying properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Neng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lianfu

    2015-08-01

    Emulsions stabilized by protein particles have gained increasing research attention due to their combined advantages of biocompatibility and superior stability. In this study, colloidal particles consisting of soy protein isolates (SPIs) prepared through a heat-treatment procedure are used to make oil-in-water emulsions at a protein concentration of 10 g L(-1) and a pH of 5.91. We investigate parallelly the effects of NaCl on the stability and rheological properties of the particle suspensions and their stabilized emulsions at salt concentrations of 0, 100 and 400 mM. The aggregation behavior of the particles is strongly dependent on the NaCl concentration, showing signs of sedimentation at low NaCl concentration (100 mM) but redispersion again at high NaCl concentration (400 mM). The extensive particle aggregation is beneficial to the formation of a continuous interfacial film for the emulsions, and hence results in a remarkable increase of creaming stability and interfacial viscoelastic moduli. The results can be explained in terms of two competitive effects of NaCl: salting-out and salting-in, which are attributed to complex electrostatic interactions between the particles as a function of NaCl concentration. The delicate balance between salting-out and salting-in provides an interesting insight into the nature of underlying protein particle interactions in aqueous suspensions and a possible mechanism for tailoring their emulsifying properties via salt effects.

  6. "Switchable water": aqueous solutions of switchable ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sean M; Jessop, Philip G

    2010-04-26

    "Salting out" is a standard method for separating water-soluble organic compounds from water. In this method, adding a large amount of salt to the aqueous solution forces the organic compound out of the aqueous phase. However, the method can not be considered sustainable because it creates highly salty water. A greener alternative would be a method that allows reversible salting out. Herein, we describe aqueous solutions of switchable ionic strength. Aqueous solutions of a diamine in water have essentially zero ionic strength but are converted by CO(2) into solutions of high ionic strength. The change is reversible. Application to the reversible salting out of THF from water is described.

  7. DNA denaturation in ionic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arghya; Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2016-05-01

    Salt or cations, present in solution play an important role in DNA denaturation and folding kinetics of DNA helix. In this work we study the thermal melting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule using Peyrard Bishop Dauxois (PBD) model. We modify the potential of H-bonding between the bases of the complimentary strands to introduce the salt and solvent effect. We choose different DNA sequences having different contents of GC pairs and calculate the melting temperatures. The melting temperature increases logarithmically with the salt concentration of the solution. The more GC base pairs in the chain enhance the stability of DNA chain at a fix salt concentration. The obtained results are in good accordance with experimental findings.

  8. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  9. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  10. Salt-free vesicle-phases and their template effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Researches on the construction, structure, and formation of vesicles formed from surfactants have attracted great attention from colloid and interface chemists. The vesicles formed from salt-free cationic-anionic surfactant systems are very different from those with excess salts, having many particular properties. In this paper, we introduce the properties of vesicles prepared from salt-free surfactant systems, according to our own results, especially the vesicles formed from surfactants with divalent metal ions as counterions in aqueous solutions and room temperature ionic liquids. Moreover, the primary results on template effect of the metal-ligand vesicles have also been summarized.

  11. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-03-29

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted.

  12. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  13. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  14. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  15. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 Addiction Science Award . Read More » 0 Comments Bath Salts: An Emerging Danger February 05, 2013 / Sara Bellum ... copy Listen Drug Facts ... Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  16. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  17. Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with Spatially Dependent Recurrent Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent

    2014-04-01

    Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of spatially homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of spatially heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that depends on the spatial separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the spatial spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.

  18. Computational Analysis of the SRS Phase III Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.

    1999-10-07

    Completion of the Phase III evaluation and comparison of salt disposition alternatives was supported with enhanced computer models and analysis for each case on the ''short list'' of four options. SPEEDUP(TM) models and special purpose models describing mass and energy balances and flow rates were developed and used to predict performance and production characteristics for each of the options. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and an alternate salt disposition alternative.

  19. 盐岩球腔储库弹性应力分布的理论解析%THEORETICAL ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN ELASTICITY STAGE OF SPHERICAL CAVITY STORAGE CAVERN IN SALT ROCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 许宏发; 江淼; 方秦

    2012-01-01

    假定地下储气库为球形腔体,利用在弹性阶段应力可叠加的基本原理,将球形储气库的受力方式简化分解为静水压力和垂直方向受力.对这2种受力方式下围岩应力分布解析结果进行叠加,获得在远场三轴压应力和储库内部压力共同作用下球腔储气库围岩弹性应力分布的完整解析解.在相同条件下,对盐岩球腔储气库进行数值分析,并将解析解与数值分析结果进行比较,结果表明,应力分布解析解与数值解吻合较好,验证所提出的分析方法是合理可行的.结合Hoek-Brown破坏准则,计算得出储气库不出现塑性破坏时的极限内压值范围.%Based on the assumption that the storage cavern is sphere, and using a basic principle that the stress could be superimposed in the elastic stage, the force modes of spherical gas storage cavern is disintegrated into hydrostatic pressure and vertical stress. Through the superposition of analytic results of surrounding rock stress distribution under the two kinds of force modes, the elastic stress distribution functions in surrounding rock of the spherical gas storage cavern in salt rock under remote field triaxial compressive stresses and internal pressure are derived. The numerical analysis of spherical gas storage cavern of salt rock is conducted under the same condition. Comparison shows that numerical simulation results are in good agreements with theoretical calculation results; and the presented analysis method is verified to be feasible. Then Hoek-Brown criterion is used to estimate the stability of spherical cavity storage cavern, and the limit of internal pressure is obtained when the plastic failure of gas storage cavern doesn't appear.

  20. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich,...

  1. Solução hipersaturada de sal ou de glicerina a 98% como conservantes de centros frênicos caninos utilizados na reparação de defeitos musculares em ratos wistar Over saturated salt or 98% glycerin as preservation solutions for canine frenic center utilized in the reparations of muscle lesions in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Veloso Brun

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de testar a solução hipersaturada de sal (na proporção de 1,5g de sal comercial para 1ml de água tridestilada como conservante de centro frênico canino e de comparar seus resultados com os da solução de glicerina a 98% utilizada para o mesmo fim, foram realizados implantes dessa membrana em lesões musculares produzidas em 28 ratos Wistar. Previamente às cirurgias, as soluções foram avaliadas quanto à presença de bactérias e fungos, com resultados negativos. Os defeitos foram produzidos em ambos os músculos retos abdominais de cada animal, e posteriormente reparados com centros frênicos conservados. Os ratos foram separados em sete grupos de igual número, sendo sacrificados aos três, cinco, sete, 10, 15, 30 e 60 dias do pós-operatório, o que permitiu as avaliações macro e microscópicas das regiões de implantação. Ao exame macroscópico foi constatado substituição dos implantes por tecido vivo, sem a ocorrência de eliminação dos mesmos. Ao exame microscópico, observou-se que as substituições ocorreram com a deposição de tecido conjuntivo fibroso, sendo que ao final do período de observação, já não existam membranas. Não ocorreram diferenças entre as reações teciduais no local de implantação entre os dois tratamentos. Esses resultados demonstram que os meios de conservação estudados apresentam respostas semelhantes na conservação de centro frênico canino, sendo ambos adequados para tal fim.Aiming to evaluate the over saturated salt solution (1.5g commercially available salt in 1.5ml of tridestilled water as tissue conservator of the canine frenic center and to compare its conservator potential with the well-established glycerin 98% conservator solution, peaces of this tissue were implanted to repair produced muscle lesions in 28 Wistar rats. Previously both solutions had been tested for bacterial and fungal contaminations, both exams with negative results. In each experimental

  2. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  3. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  4. 铝盐在水溶液中的水解和聚合反应对铝致大鼠发育毒性的影响%Effects of Hydrolysis and Polymerization of Aluminum Salt in Water Solution on Developmental Toxicity in Rats in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本忠; 屈卫东; 吴德生

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨铝盐在水中发生的化学反应对铝发育毒性的影响。方法用全胚胎培养方法比较新配和存放11.5个月的Al2(SO4)3溶液对大鼠胚胎生长发育和器官形态分化的抑制效应。结果二种受试溶液均表现出一定的胚胎毒性和致畸性,但与新配溶液相比,存放溶液的毒性明显降低。在同一浓度下,给予存放溶液的大鼠其反映胚胎生长发育的各项指标和反映器官形态分化的Brown总评分,以及畸形胚胎发生率和胚胎死亡均明显低于新溶液,其中胚胎死亡率下降幅度更大。结论存放的Al2(SO4)3溶液因Al3+与水分子发生络合反应使Al3+的存在状态发生改变,使其对大鼠的发育毒性减弱。%Objective To explore the effects of chemical reaction of aluminum salt in water solution on developmental toxicity.Methods Inhibiting actions on embryo growth and development,and organ morphogenetic differentiation in rats induced by newly prepared and 11.5-month stored aluminum sulfate solution were observed and compared using whole embryo culture method in rats.Results Both of the two observed solutions showed a certain embryo toxicity and teratogenicity.The toxicity of stored solution decreased significantly compared with that of newly prepared solution.At the same concentration of aluminum,the total Brown's morphogenetic score reflecting the every index of embryo growth and development and organ morphogenetic differentiation,the incidence rates of terata and the number of dead embryos were significant lower in rats exposed to stored solution compared with those exposed to newly prepared solution,especially the morbidity of embryos.Conclusion The complexation reaction between aluminum ions (Al3+) and water molecules in stored aluminum sulfate solution resulted in the changes of existing state of Al3+ and its decreasing developmental toxicity to rats.

  5. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  6. 3-吗啉丙磺酸缓冲的生理盐溶液的配制及pH稳定性%Preparation and pH stability of a physiological salt solution buffered with 3-Morpholine propanesulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平娜娜; 曹蕾; 黄燕茹; 米燕妮; 曹永孝

    2012-01-01

    目的 配制以3-吗啉丙磺酸和Na2HPO4为缓冲对的生理盐溶液(MOPS液),并观察其pH稳定性及对大鼠离体血管张力的影响.方法 配制MOPS液和Krebs液及其母液,分别给MOPS液或Krebs液通O2或950 mL/L O2+50 mL/L CO2,用pH计测定pH值,用张力描记仪记录大鼠离体血管的张力.结果 MOPS液和K+-MOPS液14d内的pH变化为(7.32±0.04)~(7.51±0.04),基本恒定;Krebs液和K+ -Krebs液随时间延长,pH由7.40±0.01逐渐升至8.41±0.04.通气速度对MOPS液的pH影响小,变化范围为(7.24±0.04)~(7.39±0.00);Krebs液对通气速度敏感,在15~60个气泡/min,pH的变化范围在(6.81±0.07)~(8.33±0.02)之间,波动范围较大.在相同通气速度下MOPS液和Krebs液体积的变化对其pH影响小.大鼠离体的肠系膜动脉、脑基底动脉和冠状动脉在MOPS液中能产生良好的收缩.结论 MOPS液具有pH稳定、放置时间长、通气容易掌握,并且应用成本低的优点,可用于哺乳动物离体组织、器官如血管等实验.%To prepare a normal saline solution buffered with 3-morpholine propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and to study its pH stability and its influence on rat artery rings isometric tension. Methods The MOPS solution, Krebs solution and their stock solutions were prepared, and aerated with O2 or 95% O2 + 5% CO2. The solutions' pH was measured by pH meter, and an isometric tension of rat artery rings was recorded by a sensitive myograph in vitro. Results The pH value of MOPS solution and K+-MOPS solution ranged steadily from 7.32+ 0.04 to 7.51 ±0.04 in 14 days. The pH value of Krebs solution and K+ -Krebs solution increased gradually from 7.40 ±0.01 to 8.41±0.04 over time and extended, and its fluctuation range was large. Aerating velocity had little effect on the pH of MOPS solution, which ranged from 7.24±0.04 to 7.39±0.00; while the pH value of Krebs solution was sensitive to aerating velocity, ranging from 6. 81 ±0.07 to 8.33 + 0.02 with a velocity of 15

  7. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  8. Salt-specific stability and denaturation of a short salt-bridge forming alpha-helix

    CERN Document Server

    Dzubiella, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a single alanine-based Ace-AEAAAKEAAAKA-Nme peptide in explicit aqueous electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KF) at large salt concentrations (3-4 M) is investigated using 1 microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. The peptide displays 71 alpha-helical structure without salt and destabilizes with the addition of NaCl in agreement with experiments of a somewhat longer version. It is mainly stabilized by direct and indirect (i+4)EK salt bridges between the Lys and Glu side chains and a concomitant backbone shielding mechanism. NaI is found to be a stronger denaturant than NaCl, while the potassium salts hardly show influence. Investigation of the molecular structures reveals that consistent with recent experiments Na+ has a much stronger affinity to side chain carboxylates and backbone carbonyls than K+, thereby weakening salt bridges and secondary structure hydrogen bonds. At the same time the large I- has a considerable affinity to the nonpolar alanine in line with rece...

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  10. [The salt content of food: a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, A; Delaveau, P

    2009-07-01

    Salt abuse in nutrition may exert harmful effects on health, increasing arterial hypertension and its cardiovascular consequences. It is a risk factor, particularly for older subjects and those having chronic diseases such as arterial hypertension, some renal diseases, and obesity. In subjects more particularly vulnerable, the maintenance of sodium balance, which is mainly aldosterone dependent, is perturbed. Although the use of salt for food preservation has greatly declined, it remains a serious risk factor. Excessive salt intake however results more often from poor dietary habits. The WHO and AFSSA have advised to reduce daily salt intake to 5 g, whereas it is currently about 9-10 g. In spite of repeated warnings, salt abuse remains the causal agent for many disease conditions, mainly arterial hypertension. That is why legislative measures should be taken in order to limit the salt content of food industry products, particularly as a preservative in foods. A large-scale public information campaign would be necessary with participation of public health partners, particularly physicians and pharmacists.

  11. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    Polyelectrolytes are polymers with ionizable groups. In polar solvents, these groups dissociate releasing counterions into solution and leaving uncompensated charges on the polymer backbone. Examples of polyelectrolytes include biopolymers such as DNA and RNA, and synthetic polymers such as poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acids). In this talk I will discuss recent molecular dynamics simulations of static and dynamic properties of polyelectrolyte solutions. These simulations show that in dilute and semidilute polyelectrolyte solutions the electrostatic induced chain persistence length scales with the solution ionic strength as I - 1 / 2. This dependence of the chain persistence length is due to counterion condensation on the polymer backbone. In dilute polyelectrolyte solutions the chain size decreases with increasing the salt concentration as R ~ I- 1 / 5. This is in agreement with the scaling of the chain persistence length on the solution ionic strength, lp ~ I- 1 / 2. In semidilute solution regime at low salt concentrations the chain size decreases with increasing polymer concentration, R ~ cp-1 / 4 . While at high salt concentrations one observes a weaker dependence of the chain size on the solution ionic strength, R ~ I- 1 / 8. Analysis of the simulation data throughout the studied salt and polymer concentration ranges shows that there exist general scaling relations between multiple quantities X (I) in salt solutions and corresponding quantities X (I0) in salt-free solutions, X (I) = X (I0) (I /I0) β . The exponent β = -1/2 for chain persistence length lp , β = 1/4 for solution correlation length, β = -1/5 and β = -1/8 for chain size R in dilute and semidilute solution regimes respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of the spectrum and of the relaxation times of Rouse modes confirms existence of the single length scale (correlation length) that controls both static and dynamic properties of semidilute polyelectrolyte solutions. These findings

  13. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  14. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Press Releases NOF in the News Osteoporosis in the News Press/Media Kit NOF Events Blog Advocacy NOF Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Fractures/Fall Prevention › Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance ...

  15. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  16. Infrared thermography of evaporative fluxes and dynamics of salt deposition on heterogeneous porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani; Dragila, Maria; Weisbrod, Noam

    2011-12-01

    Evaporation of saline solutions from porous media, common in arid areas, involves complex interactions between mass transport, energy exchange and phase transitions. We quantified evaporation of saline solutions from heterogeneous sand columns under constant hydraulic boundary conditions to focus on effects of salt precipitation on evaporation dynamics. Mass loss measurements and infrared thermography were used to quantify evaporation rates. The latter method enables quantification of spatial and temporal variability of salt precipitation to identify its dynamic effects on evaporation. Evaporation from columns filled with texturally-contrasting sand using different salt solutions revealed preferential salt precipitation within the fine textured domains. Salt precipitation reduced evaporation rates from the fine textured regions by nearly an order of magnitude. In contrast, low evaporation rates from coarse-textured regions (due to low capillary drive) exhibited less salt precipitation and consequently less evaporation rate suppression. Experiments provided insights into two new phenomena: (1) a distinct increase in evaporation rate at the onset of evaporation; and (2) a vapor pumping mechanism related to the presence of a salt crust over semidry media. Both phenomena are related to local vapor pressure gradients established between pore water and the surface salt crust. Comparison of two salts: NaCl and NaI, which tend to precipitate above the matrix surface and within matrix pores, respectively, shows a much stronger influence of NaCl on evaporation rate suppression. This disparity reflects the limited effect of NaI precipitation on matrix resistivity for solution and vapor flows.

  17. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  18. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  19. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  20. Pathogenesis of salt retention in dogs with chronic bile-duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimovitz, C; Alon, U; Better, O S

    1982-01-01

    1. The present study investigates the role of mineralocorticoids in the pathogenesis of salt retention and ascites in dogs with chronic ligation of the common bile duct (CBDL). 2. After CBDL the natriuretic response to an intravenous sodium load [0.9% sodium chloride solution (150 mmol/l): saline; 10% of body weight] was markedly depressed. Urinary sodium excretion was 285 +/- 62 vs 960 +/- 58 mumol/min in the control period before CBDL (P less than 0.001). This antinatriuresis was associated with a significant rise in plasma aldosterone concentration, from 52.5 +/- 5.5 pg/ml before CBDL to 177 +/- 50 pg/ml after CBDL (P less than 0.02). Ascites was present in all salt-retaining CBDL dogs. 3. Bilateral adrenalectomy resulted in disappearance of ascites and in a rise in the natriuretic response to extracellular volume expansion. Urinary sodium excretion was 770 +/- 124 mumol/min, a value significantly higher than in the CBDL dogs with intact adrenals (P less than 0.001). Sodium balance studies in the adrenalectomized CBDL dogs during chronic deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) treatment (25 mg/day) showed that in these animals there was failure to escape from the mineralocorticoid-induced sodium retention. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow did not change during the studies. 4. The present evidence supports the thesis that sodium retention in the CBDL dog results from a dual mechanism: (a) excess of circulating aldosterone and (b) and extra-adrenal factor which prevents escape from the salt-retaining effect of mineralocorticoids, in the CBDL dogs, thereby perpetuating the antinatriuresis in these animals.

  1. Transport phenomena during nanofiltration of concentrated solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald

    2016-01-01

    In most scientific studies on nanofiltration either the development of new membrane materials or the characterization of membranes is reported. In the latter case most studies use single solute salt or sugar solutions and/or investigate nanofiltration of solutions with mixtures of ions at low concen

  2. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions.

  3. Ion balances of organic layers and mineral soil horizons after forest fertilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, E.E.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.

    1988-04-01

    In laboratory experiments with undisturbed soil cores, processes of ion adsorption and -desorption, which were triggered off in different soil horizons by fertilizing neutral salts. (MgSO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), were studied by the means of ion balances. It could be shown, that in a typical 'Pseudogley-Braunerde' on sandy triassic covering (Oberer Buntsandstein) in the Northern Black Forst (FRG) practically no SO/sub 4//sup 2-/-storing in the soil occurs. This causes a transport gradient for soil originating cation-acids which then compensate the SO/sub 4//sup 2-/-anion in the soil pore solution. More than 5 keq ha/sup -1/ acid equivalents leave the rhizosphere in the drainage water, 90% of them consist of Al/sup 3+/. Fertilizing of acid soils with neutral salts enriches the base saturation of acid top soils by increasing the buffering load of deeper horizons or charges the hydrosphere. Acidification thus becomes more irreversible.

  4. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  5. The influence of temperature in a capillary imbibition salt weathering simulation test on Mokattam limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones used in monuments in Egypt from ancient Egyptian times and salt weathering is one of the main threats to these monuments. During this work, cylindrical limestone samples (2 cm diameter and approx. 4 cm length from Mokattam group, one of the most frequent materials in historic Cairo, were subjected, in a purpose-made simulation chamber, to laboratory salt weathering tests with a 10% weight NaCl solution at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 °C. During each test, temperature was kept constant and salt solutions flowed continuously imbibing samples by capillary rise resembling the way they get into building stone in many real cases. Air temperature, relative humidity inside the simulation chamber and also samples weight were digitally monitored and recorded. Results show the influence of temperature and the ratio between imbibitions and evaporation on the dynamics of salt crystallization in the samples.Los monumentos egipcios se construyeron frecuentemente con caliza desde la antigüedad y uno de sus principales agentes de deterioro son las sales. Por ejemplo, en la zona histórica de El Cairo son frecuentes las calizas del grupo Mokattam. Cilindros (2 cm de diámetro y aproximadamente 4 cm de altura de esta caliza se sometieron a ensayos de deterioro por sales en una cámara experimental específicamente diseñada. Se utilizó una solución salina (10% en peso de NaCl a diferentes temperaturas (20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C que se mantuvieron constantes en cada ensayo. La solución fluía constantemente embebiendo las muestras por capilaridad, simulando lo que ocurre en casos reales. La temperatura del aire, humedad relativa en la cámara y peso de las muestras se monitorizaron con sensores digitales. Los resultados muestran la influencia de la temperatura y del balance entre imbibición y evaporación en la dinámica de la cristalización de sales en las muestras.

  6. Nd:YAG laser associated with metal salts solutions in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity; O laser de Nd:YAG associado a solucoes de sais metalicos no tratamento da hipersensibilidade dentinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauche, Carlos Eugenio Correia

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the ultrastructural changes caused by the radiation of Nd:YAG laser on the tooth tissue and determine qualitatively the presence of Sn{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++} and F{sup -}, inside the dentin, being it irradiated or not. Ten molar teeth recently extracted were cut into 2 mm discs. The samples were soaked in a EDTA solution at 17% for 2 minutes and divided into five groups. Group I: the samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1,5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz, 150 {mu}s and 125 J/cm{sup 2}) and after that, a treatment with an SnF{sub 2} aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group II: the samples got laser irradiation with the same parameters and then a treatment with an SrCl{sub 2} solution at 10% as a toothpaste (Sensodyne{sup TM}) for 30 minutes. Group III: the samples just got a treatment with a SnF{sub 2} aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group IV: the samples just got a treatment with a SrCl{sub 2} toothpaste (Sensodyne{sup TM}) for 30 minutes. Group V: samples that just got laser irradiation in the parameters above mentioned. Then, all samples were prepared for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the samples of groups I, II, III and IV for energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The ultrastructure aspect of the dentin showed the surface totally altered by the irradiation. Pits and whitish globules were found amidst an heterogenous and rough structure, due to the melting and resolidification of the dental structure. Craters were also observed. Carbonization areas were absent. Ions Sn{sup ++} were found at a depth of 250 {mu}m in the samples of group I (Nd:YAG + SnF{sub 2}), whereas in the samples of group III, Sn{sup ++} were not found deeper than 100 {mu}m. Sr{sup ++} could be detected at least at 500 {mu}m in the inner dentin in the samples of group II (Nd:YAG + SrCl{sub 2}). However, Sn{sup ++} were not found at 50 {mu}m in group IV samples. Ions F{sup -} were just found in the irradiated samples of group I

  7. Determinação espectrofotométrica de alumínio em concentrados salinos utilizados em hemodiálise empregando pré-concentração em fluxo Spectrophotometric aluminium determination in high salts concentrations solution used in hemodyalisis emploing preconcentration in flow injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Silva Pereira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic flow injection procedure for spectrophotometric aluminium determination in purified water and solutions containing high salts concentrations used for hemodyalisis treatment was developed. The method was base on reaction of Al3+ with cianine eriochrome R (ECR after preconcentration using the AG50W-X8 cationic-exchange resin. Elution was carried out using a 1 % (m/v calcium chloride solution. The manifold comprised an automatic proporcional injector controlled by a computer equipped with an eletronic interface and software written in QuicBASIC 4.5 with facilities to control the injector and perform data acquisition. Samples with concentration ranging from 4.96 to 19.90 µg L-1 Al were analyzed and recoveries between 88 and 113% were obtained by using the standard addition method. Other profitable analytical characteristics such as a relative standard deviation 1.3 % (n = 10 for a typical sample 14.5 µg L-1 Al, a linear response ranging up to 60.0 µg L-1Al, and a sampling throughput of 10 determinations per hour were achieved. A detection limit of 4.2 µg L-1 Al was estimated as suggested by IUPAC.

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design...... fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content...... in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g...

  10. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  11. Integrated Current Balancing Transformer for Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2011-01-01

    A simple, PCB compatible integrated solution is proposed for the current balancing requirement of the primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). Input inductor and the current balancing transformer are merged into the same core, which reduces the number of components allowing a cheaper...

  12. Theoretical Study on Effects of Salt and Temperature on Denaturation Transition of Double-stranded DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Rui-Xin; YAN Xun-Ling; PANG Xiao-Feng; JIANG Shan; LIU Sheng-Gang

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics properties of a nonlinear dynamics model of the denaturation of the DNA double-helix and study the effects of salt concentration and temperature on denaturation transition of DNA. The specific heat, entropy, and denaturation temperature of the system versus salt concentration are obtained. These results show that the denaturation of DNA not only depends on the temperature but also is influenced by the salt concentration in the solution of DNA, which are in agreement with experimental measurement.

  13. Photolysis of oxygen saturated ethers in the presence of Sn (Ⅱ) or Cu (Ⅱ) salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施敏

    2000-01-01

    Photolysis of diethyl ether-oxygen charge transfer complex the presence of Sn(Ⅱ) or Cu(Ⅱ) salts gave higher yields of the oxiation products, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, ethanol,ethyl formate and methanol compared with those without the salts. In addition, the photolysis of an oxygen saturated tetrahydrofuran (THF) or dibutyl lether solution gave γ-butyro-Their yields were also affected by the addition of Cu(Ⅱ) or Sn(Ⅱ) salts.

  14. The importance of salt in the athlete's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Verle

    2007-07-01

    Salt consists of sodium and chloride, and is important for normal physiologic function. High sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium. Fluid replacement with hypotonic solutions will lead to incomplete rehydration and possible complications such as hyponatremia, decreased performance, heat cramps, or other heat-related illness. There is significant individual variation in sodium loss during activity. In some the losses can be replaced by normal dietary intake, whereas in others the losses can be dramatic and increased dietary intake is essential. There are various methods to increase sodium intake, such as increased use of table salt on foods, salty snacks, adding salt to sports drinks, and use of salt tablets. Emphasis on replacement of fluids is also important, but care must be taken to avoid overhydration. Simple measures such as recording daily pre- and postexercise body weight can aid in making fluid and sodium ingestion decisions; in some cases, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary.

  15. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  16. Densities and solubilities of Glycylglycine and Glycyl-L-Alanine in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Mollerup, Jørgen; Rudolph, E. Susanne J.

    2004-01-01

    is 1.74 and 4.78 mol/kg of water, respectively. The solubility of glycylglycine in salt solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, and (NH4)(2)SO4 show a moderate salting-in effect. The solubility of glycyl-L-alanine show a minor or no salting-in effect at low salt concentrations and a moderate salting-out effect...

  17. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  18. Crescimento e nutrição mineral de mudas de umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. submetidas a níveis de salinidade em solução nutritiva Growth and mineral nutrition of umbuzeiro seedlings (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. under salt stress in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de umbuzeiro em solução nutritiva com diferentes níveis de NaCl, conduziu-se este experimento em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e seis doses de NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 mmol L-1. As mudas foram adaptadas na solução de Hoagland a 25%, 33% e 50% da sua força iônica, permanecendo durante 15 dias em cada concentração. Após esse período, conduziram-se as plantas por 60 dias em solução com 100% da força iônica e os tratamentos com NaCl. A troca das soluções foi feita quinzenalmente. O NaCl na solução nutritiva afetou negativamente o crescimento das mudas de umbuzeiro. O umbuzeiro foi classificado como moderadamente tolerante à salinidade quando cultivado em até 31 mmol L-1 de NaCl na solução nutritiva, sendo a compartimentalização nas raízes o possível mecanismo de tolerância à salinidade. A ordem de acumulação dos macronutrientes foi: N > K > Ca > P > S > Mg e N > Ca > K > P > S > Mg, na ausência e com 100 mmol L-1, respectivamente, e a dos micronutrientes, exceto o Cl, foi: Fe > B > Mn > Zn > Cu, independente da concentração de NaCl no meio.To evaluate the growth and the mineral nutrition of umbuzeiro seedlings, under salt stress, an experiment in nutrient solution was conducted, under greenhouse conditions in the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocs, with four replications and six doses of NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol L-1. The seedlings were adapted in the Hoagland solution to 25, 33 and 50% of ionic forces, staying for fifteen days in each concentration. After this period the seedlings were conduced for 60 days in nutrient solution with 100% of the ionic force and the treatments with NaCl. The change of the solutions was made biweekly

  19. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  20. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is to be achieved and what should be avoided? • Through what types of processes are the criteria, conditions and values that are to be realised or taken into consideration constructed and decided upon? • What characterises the content, differences and complexity of the different types of values and criteria...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...