Sample records for balanced salt solution

  1. 21 CFR 864.2875 - Balanced salt solutions or formulations. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balanced salt solutions or formulations. 864.2875 Section 864.2875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Balanced salt solutions or formulations. (a) Identification. A balanced salt solution or formulation is a...

  2. Hank's balanced salt solution: an alternative resuspension medium to label autologous leukocytes. Experience in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Comin, Joseph; Plaza, Pedro; Roca, Manoel [Hospital de Bellvitge (Spain). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail:; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia


    In this work Hank balanced salt solution (HBSS) has been used as resuspension medium, instead of leukocyte poor plasma (LPP) to label autologous white blood cells in 28 patients with suspicion of active inflammatory bowel disease. Labelled cells were reinjected and anterior and caudo-cranial views were obtained at 30 min, 2 h and 6 h p.i. Regions of interest were outlined on liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow (spine), background and lesions and the organ/background activity ratios were calculated in all scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups: Group 1: LPP, 30 patients and Groups 2: HBSS, 28 patients. labelling efficiency was higher in HBSS group (89.0 +- 3.2%) than in the LPP group (6.5 +- 6.3%). Organ/background activity ratios were similar in both groups. Concerning diagnostic accuracy was similar at 30 min and 2 h but the false positive rate increased at 6 h p.i. in the HBSS group. HBSS seems to be a valid alternative as resuspension medium in the labeling of autologous leukocytes but leukocyte poor plasma seem to induce less leukocyte damage. Based on these results, in our center HBSS is the currently used medium to label leukocytes. (author)

  3. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study. (United States)

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E


    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  4. Iris reconstruction using autologous iris preserved in cold balanced salt solution for 8 hours in iatrogenic total iridodialysis during cataract surgery: a case report. (United States)

    Bang, Seung Pil; Jun, Jong Hwa


    A large iris defect or extensive iridodialysis can be an intractable cause of visual disturbance, photophobia, glare, monocular diplopia, or cosmetic deformity. The implantation of an artificial iris substitute could be an effective option, but this can cause a reduction in endothelial cell density. We succeeded in the anatomical restoration of iris tissue that was totally dialyzed out of the eye, and was preserved in cold balanced salt solution for 8 h. Engrafted iris tissue was maintained within the aqueous humor. A 71-year-old man was referred to our clinic for management of an iatrogenic total iridodialysis. The totally dialyzed iris tissue was immediately preserved in sterile cold balanced salt solution and packed in a sterile biopsy bottle that was surrounded with ice cubes. Under general anesthesia, a pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the remaining lens cortex and vitreous fiber anterior to the equator. A sulcus-positioned intraocular lens (IOL) was repositioned and fixed by ab externo scleral sutures. Preserved iris tissue was inserted and ironed using both iris spatula and ocular viscoelastic devices. Five-point ab interno scleral sutures were made 1.0 mm posterior to the limbus. The engrafted iris was successfully maintained for 6 months and did not undergo any atrophic change or depigmentation, which may be caused by primary implantation failure due to a blocked blood supply.

  5. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions. (United States)

    Hoorn, Ewout J


    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  6. Corrosion performance of MAO coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy in simulated body fluid vs. Earle's Balance Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Benjamin M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Zhang, Lei, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Li, Weiping; Ning, Chengyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Chen, Cheng-fu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 755905, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gu, Yanhong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MAO coating is deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy by microarc oxidation. • Corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 in EBSS vs. c-SBF is studied. • MAO-coated AZ31 exhibits enhanced corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31. • Samples in EBSS show slower corrosion progression than the samples in c-SBF. • CO{sub 2} buffer and less chloride in EBSS cause corrosion rate gap in c-SBF and EBSS. - Abstract: Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) provides an alternative to the conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) and has been shown to better simulate the corrosion conditions in vivo. In this work, a series of tests were conducted to explore the corrosion performance of MAO-coated AZ31 samples in EBSS vs. c-SBF. Samples were produced by varying MAO process parameters and then immersed up to 21 days in both EBSS and c-SBF. The corrosion rates were evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic scanning. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to compare the progression of microcracks across the surface of the coatings. The evaluation of cross-sectional thickness showed an increase in MAO coating thickness with the process voltage. MAO samples with a thicker coating generally have higher impedance and lower current density at the initial immersion time point of 0.5 h. Samples in EBSS showed higher initial impedance and lower current density values as compared to c-SBF counterparts for all process groups. Samples in EBSS demonstrated a much slower corrosion rate than c-SBF samples because of the decreased chloride content and CO{sub 2} buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  7. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions]. (United States)

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F


    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed.

  8. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks

  9. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.


    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  10. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  11. Scorpion toxins prefer salt solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikouee, A.; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz


    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), 287/1-287/14 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : ionic solutions * molecular dynamics * nonaqueous media * secondary structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2015

  12. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc


    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  13. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions


    T. Janc; M. Kastelic; M. Bončina; V. Vlachy


    The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, $T_{cloud}$, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer) and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer). We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above $I_{buffer} = 0.6$ mol dm$^{-3}$ does not affect the $T_{cloud}$ values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte b...

  14. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use of appropriate solution(s) of associated complementary equation via auxiliary equation method (AEM). Travelling wave solutions of the complementary equation ...

  15. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.


    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  16. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.


    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  17. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.


    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  18. To Compare the Effects of Storage Solutions 0.05% Thymol vs. 6% Sodium Hypochlorite vs. Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Flexural Strength of Dentin Bars (United States)


    generalized to teeth in vivo. If extracted teeth are to be treated as valid proxies of teeth in vivo, it is critical to understand the effect Young’s modulus and yield stress. (Aydin B, 2015) For in vitro measures such as flexural strength to be considered valid proxies of in vivo...The solution is commonly used to preserve periodontal ligament cells on a tooth that has been avulsed from the patient’s mouth (Aydin, 2015). The

  19. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo


    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  20. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The changes with time in the corrosion rate and corrosion current density on a cast iron electrode in various aqueous salt solutions have been carried out using total immersion test and potentiostatic polarization curves. The concentration of salts taken is expected to be present in potable water. The relative ...

  1. A study on the structure of thorium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magini, M.; Cabrini, A.; Di Bartolomeo, A.


    The structure of highly hydrolyzed thorium salt solutions has been investigated by large and small angle X-ray scattering techniques. The diffraction data obtained with large angle measurements show the presence in solution of microcrystalline particles with the thorium oxide structure. Particles larger than those were discovered by small angle measurements. A possible shape of these colloidal particles has been discussed

  2. Americium extraction by alkylpyrocatechin from alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalova, Z.K.; Rodionova, L.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.


    Effect of iron, aluminium, calcium, and sodium nitrates on americium extraction by 0.1 mol/l DOP solution [4-(α-α dioctylethyl) pyrocatechin] in toluene from a mixture of 2 mol/l NaOH with 0.1 mol/l EDTA has been investigated. It has been shown that americium extraction does not change essen-- tially in the presence of salts that permits to use DOP for Am extraction from alkaline solutions in the presence of outside salts. Verification of the above method of extraction of radioactive isotopes has been carried out. According to the data obtained double extraction provides a preparation of alkaline solutions practically free from radioactive isotopes. DOP application for Am extraction from alkaline salt solutions allows one to carry out repeated Am concentration and separation from accompanying elements. Conditions, under which Fe(3)-Am(3) pair separation coefficient achieves nx10 2 -10 4 , have been found out

  3. Optical absorption of dilute solutions of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatore, G.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura dell material del CNR, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))


    The theory of liquid structure for fluids of charged hard spheres is applied to an evaluation of the F-centre model for valence electrons in metal-molten salt solutions at high dilution. Minimization of the free energy yields the groundstate radius of the elctron bubble and hence the optical excitation energy in a Franck-Condon transition, the shift and broadening of the transition due to fluctuations in the bubble radius, the volume of mixing, and the activity of the salt in the solution.

  4. Solidification of salt solutions on a horizontal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, S.L.; Viskanta, R.


    The freezing of water-salt solutions on a horizontal wall is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The growth of the solid-liquid region is observed for NaCl - H sub(2)O and N H sub(4)Cl - H sub(2)O systems under different temperature and concentration conditions. A unidirectional mathematical model is used to predict the solidification process. The transport of heat is by diffusion, and convection is absent. The mass diffusion is neglected and the growth of crystal is governed by the transport of heat. In all experiments, the solution salt concentration is smaller than the eutectic composition, and the wall temperature is higher than the eutectic temperature. The predicted temperature and salt concentration profiles, as well as the interface position, are compared with experimental data. (author)

  5. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing


    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  6. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway, 1987-98 (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Miller, Craig W.; Waddell, Kidd M.


    The Southern Pacific Transportation Company completed a rock-fill causeway across Great Salt Lake in 1959. The effect of the causeway was to change the water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake by creating two separate but interconnected parts of the lake, with more than 95 percent of freshwater surface inflow entering the lake south of the causeway.The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of the causeway that divides the lake into south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway consist of two 15-foot-wide culverts, a 290-foot-wide breach, and permeable rock-fill material.

  7. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of ...

  8. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.


    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes

  9. Homemade sugar-salt solution for oral rehydration: knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 95% of these cases can be treated successfully with oral rehydration therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate caregivers' knowledge of, attitudes to and use of homemade sugar and salt solution (SSS) in order to address the shortfalls. Differences between the knowledge, attitudes and practices in urban, rural and ...

  10. Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The salting-out effect of various solutions of electrolyte in the extraction of tantalum and niobium using aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was investigated. This was achieved by leaching ball-milled Tantalite ore with mineral acids (H2SO4 and HF) in the ratio of 3:1. The leached liquor was then divided into five ...

  11. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analytical solution from spatially distributed systems. Indeed in McCoy and Madras. [19], the solution is given in terms of moments, and for this reason it is not possible to see explicitly the effect of the particle volume v appearing in the analytical solution. Also, as for these moments, there is no exact way to get back to the ...

  12. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.


    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  13. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various ...

  14. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Population balance; aggregation; breakage; auxiliary equation method; Laplace transform. PACS Nos 02.70.−c; 02.30.Mv; 02.30.Jr. 1. Introduction. A significant property of most of the particulate processes is the particle size, and the dis- tribution of this property is a major characteristic of such processes which, as a result, ...

  15. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Figure 2. Powder X-ray diffractogram of CuO (a) compared with those of CuO aged in aluminium nitrate for 2 days (b) and 4 days (c). Feature marked by asterisk is due to impurities. Table 2. Powder X-ray diffraction data of layered double hydroxides obtained by the ageing of unary hydroxides in Al (or Cr) salt solutions. d/Å.

  16. Ionic solubility and solutal advection governed augmented evaporation kinetics of salt solution pendant droplets (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vivek; Harikrishnan, A. R.; Khurana, Gargi; Dhar, Purbarun


    The presence of dispersed inclusions is known to modify the interfacial characteristics in liquids by adsorption-desorption of the ions at interfaces. The present article reports the influencing role of dissolved ions in a polar fluid on its evaporation dynamics. The evaporation dynamics of pendant droplets of aqueous solutions of variant simple salts and concentrations have been experimentally studied. The presence of salts is observed to enhance the evaporation rate (obeying the classical D2 law), and the enhancement has been found to hold a direct proportionality to the concentration of the dissolved salt. Furthermore, it is observed that the degree of enhancement in the evaporation rate is also directly proportional to the solubility of the salt in question. The phenomenon is explained based on the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of hydration of the ionic species in the polar fluid. The classical evaporation rate constant formulation is found to be inadequate in modeling the enhanced species transport. Additional probing via particle image velocimetry reveals augmented internal circulation within the evaporating salt based drops compared to pure water. Mapping the dynamic surface tension reveals that a salt concentration gradient is generated between the bulk and periphery of the droplet and it could be responsible for the internal advection cells visualized. A thermo-solutal Marangoni and Rayleigh convection based mathematical formulation has been put forward, and it is shown that the enhanced solute-thermal convection could play a major role in enhanced evaporation. The internal circulation mapped from experiments is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Scaling analysis further reveals that the stability of the solutal Marangoni convection surpasses the thermal counterpart with higher salt concentration and solubility. The present article sheds insight into the possible domineering role of conjugate thermohydraulic and

  17. Problems of evaluating isotope analysis of concentrated salt solutions in potash mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedl, H.D.


    Three problems of quantitative evaluation of analytic D and 18 O isotope data of concentrated salt solutions are discussed: (1) Consideration of the influence of admixtures of hydrated salts in determining meteoric or marine water fractions in a concentrated salt solution, (2) analytic accuracy and detection limits in determining meteoric water in salt solutions, and (3) processes of isotopic exchange with reservoir rock and sample matrix

  18. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.


    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  19. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect. (United States)

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott


    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  20. Kinetics of CO2 Absorption into Aqueous Basic Amino Acid Salt: Potassium Salt of Lysine Solution. (United States)

    Shen, Shufeng; Yang, Ya-nan; Bian, Yangyang; Zhao, Yue


    Aqueous amino acid salts are considered as an attractive alternative to alkanolamine solvents (e.g., MEA) for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The kinetics of CO2 into unloaded aqueous solutions of potassium lysinate (LysK) was studied using a wetted wall column at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 M and temperatures from 298 to 333 K. Physicochemical properties of aqueous LysK solutions such as density, viscosity, and physical solubility of CO2 were measured to evaluate the reaction rate constants. The reaction pathway is described using zwitterion mechanism taking into account the effect of ionic strength on the reaction rate. Under the fast pseudo-first-order regime, the reaction rate parameters were obtained and correlated in a power-law reaction rate expression. LysK shows higher chemical reactivity toward CO2 than the industrial standard MEA and most of amino acid salts. Its reaction rate constants increase considerably with concentration and temperature. The reaction order is found to be an average value of 1.58 with respect to LysK. The forward second-order kinetic rate constant, k2 0 , are obtained as 31615 and 84822 m3 kmol−1 s−1 at 298 and 313 K, respectively with activation energy of 51.0 kJ mol−1. The contribution of water to the zwitterion deprotonation seems to be more significant than that of LysK for the above-mentioned kinetic conditions

  1. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.


    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  2. Automatic computation and solution of generalized harmonic balance equations (United States)

    Peyton Jones, J. C.; Yaser, K. S. A.; Stevenson, J.


    Generalized methods are presented for generating and solving the harmonic balance equations for a broad class of nonlinear differential or difference equations and for a general set of harmonics chosen by the user. In particular, a new algorithm for automatically generating the Jacobian of the balance equations enables efficient solution of these equations using continuation methods. Efficient numeric validation techniques are also presented, and the combined algorithm is applied to the analysis of dc, fundamental, second and third harmonic response of a nonlinear automotive damper.

  3. Discontinuous hygroscopic growth of an aqueous surfactant/salt aerosol particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance (United States)

    Soonsin, V.; Krieger, U. K.; Peter, T.


    Organic compounds are a major fraction of tropospheric aerosol. The organic fraction is usually internally mixed with inorganic salts. Surface-active organic matter or surfactants, enriched in the oceanic surface layer and transferred to the atmosphere by bubble-bursting processes, are the most likely candidates to contribute the observed organic fraction in sea salt aerosol [1, 2]. If the organic substance is a surfactant, it will lower the surface tension. In addition aggregates of the organic monomers, called micelles, will form if the concentration of the organic exceeds a certain limit (critical micelle concentration). These aggregates do have different morphology (spheres or globular or rod like micelles, or spherical bilayer vesicles etc.) and size, depending on the nature of the organic molecule, its concentration and the concentration of inorganic salts [3]. These aggregate may promote solubilisation of organic compounds in aqueous atmospheric aerosol. We performed measurements of ternary aqueous solution particles consisting of tetraethylene glycol monooctyl ether (C8E4) as organic surfactant and sodium chloride (NaCl) as inorganic salt and water (H2O) using single levitated aerosol particles in an electrodynamic balance. The particles can be stored contact-free in a temperature and humidity controlled chamber and optical resonance spectroscopy is used to monitor radius change [4]. Mie resonance spectra of ternary droplets show discontinuous growth with increasing relative humidity (RH) and also discontinuous shrinkage with decreasing relative humidity. We observe this behavior at temperatures and RHs at which the salt is completely deliquesced and the concentration of the organic surfactant is larger than the critical micelle concentration. Independent measurements of particle mass show also discontinuous water uptake. We speculate that this discontinuous, step-like, growth is caused by disaggregation of a micelle needed to conserve the monolayer of

  4. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)


    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  5. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao


    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  6. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes (United States)

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.


    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  7. Balanced Sediment Fluxes in Southern California's Mediterranean-climate Zone Salt Marshes (United States)

    Rosencranz, J. A.; Dickhudt, P.; Ganju, N. K.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Ambrose, R. F.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Brosnahan, S.; MacDonald, G. M.


    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many southern California, USA salt marshes import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are also potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a sediment starved 1.5 km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1 km2 marsh (Mugu) with a watershed sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12000 and 8800 kg in a western channel. This offset 8700 kg export during two months of dry weather, while landward net fluxes in the eastern channel accounted for 33% of the import. During the storm, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1-2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence at Mugu yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg, accounting for 20% of dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are currently geomorphically stable. Our results suggest that storms and exceptionally high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea-level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes may lead to marsh elevational instability, based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  8. Ionic structure of solutions of alkali metals and molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrier, G.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.


    Neutron diffraction patterns from K-KCl and Rb-RbBr liquid solutions at various compositions are examined in an ionic-mixture model which neglects screening and aggregation due to the metallic electrons. The main feature of the observed diffraction patterns for wave number k above roughly 1A -1 are accounted for by the model. The approach to the metal-rich end of the phase diagram is analyzed in detail from different viewpoints in the K-KCl system. Short-range correlations of the potassium ions are described in this region by a metallic radius deduced from properties of the pure liquid metal, but a simple expanded-metal model must be supplemented by the assumption that considerable disorder is introduced in its structure by the halogen ions. Features of short-range ordering in the salt-rich region that are implied by a shoulder on the high-k side of the main peak in the diffraction pattern are also commented upon. (author)

  9. Density Fluctuation in Aqueous Solutions and Molecular Origin of Salting-Out Effect for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan Anh; Ilgen, Anastasia


    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the density fluctuations and cavity formation probabilities in aqueous solutions and their effect on the hydration of CO 2 . With increasing salt concentration, we report an increased probability of observing a larger than the average number of species in the probe volume. Our energetic analyses indicate that the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between CO 2 and aqueous solutions become more favorable with increasing salt concentration, favoring the solubility of CO 2 (salting in). However, due to the decreasing number of cavities forming when salt concentration is increased, the solubility of CO 2 decreases. The formation of cavities was found to be the primary control on the dissolution of gas, and is responsible for the observed CO 2 salting-out effect. Finally, our results provide the fundamental understanding of the density fluctuation in aqueous solutions and the molecular origin of the salting-out effect for real gas.

  10. Influence of Salts on Electrospinning of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Polymer Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yalcinkaya


    Full Text Available A roller electrospinning system was used to produce nanofibres by using different solution systems. Although the process of electrospinning has been known for over half a century, knowledge about spinning behaviour is still lacking. In this work, we investigated the effects of salt for two solution systems on spinning performance, fibre diameter, and web structure. Polyurethane (PU and polyethylene oxide (PEO were used as polymer, and tetraethylammonium bromide and lithium chloride were used as salt. Both polymer and salt concentrations had a noteworthy influence on the spinning performance, morphology, and diameter of the nanofibres. Results indicated that adding salt increased the spinnability of PU. Salt created complex bonding with dimethylformamide solvent and PU polymer. Salt added to PEO solution decreased the spinning performance of fibres while creating thin nanofibres, as explained by the leaky dielectric model.

  11. Static Load Balancing Algorithms In Cloud Computing Challenges amp Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah


    Full Text Available Abstract Cloud computing provides on-demand hosted computing resources and services over the Internet on a pay-per-use basis. It is currently becoming the favored method of communication and computation over scalable networks due to numerous attractive attributes such as high availability scalability fault tolerance simplicity of management and low cost of ownership. Due to the huge demand of cloud computing efficient load balancing becomes critical to ensure that computational tasks are evenly distributed across servers to prevent bottlenecks. The aim of this review paper is to understand the current challenges in cloud computing primarily in cloud load balancing using static algorithms and finding gaps to bridge for more efficient static cloud load balancing in the future. We believe the ideas suggested as new solution will allow researchers to redesign better algorithms for better functionalities and improved user experiences in simple cloud systems. This could assist small businesses that cannot afford infrastructure that supports complex amp dynamic load balancing algorithms.

  12. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The concentration of salts taken is expected to be present in potable water. The relative behaviour of these salts ... decreased so as to provide protection towards corrosion have also been calculated. It was found that KCl and. NaCl are ... Cast iron is widely used for water carrying purposes besides mild steel and other ...

  13. Computer program to simulate the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.


    This report presents a computer simulation program that was used by Waddell and Bolke (1973) to predict the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, for either existing or modified culvert openings (fig. 1). The development of the program, its accuracy and limitations, are described in the above report, which was prepared as part of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey. Users of this program should consider it an addendum to the report by Waddell and Bolke (1973).Although this program has been tested by its contributor, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the contributor or the Government, as to the functioning of the program and related program material, nor shall the fact of distribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the contributor or the Government, in connection therewith.The FORTRAN IV program listing (table 1) defines the constants and variables necessary for understanding the mechanics and the output from the program.

  14. A daily salt balance model for stream salinity generation processes following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari


    Full Text Available We developed a coupled salt and water balance model to represent the stream salinity generation process following land use changes. The conceptual model consists of three main components with five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores, (ii a saturated Groundwater Store and (iii a transient Stream zone Store. The Dry and Wet Stores represent the salt and water movement in the unsaturated zone and also the near-stream dynamic saturated areas, responsible for the generation of salt flux associated with surface runoff and interflow. The unsaturated Subsurface Store represents the salt bulge and the salt fluxes. The Groundwater Store comes into play when the groundwater level is at or above the stream invert and quantifies the salt fluxes to the Stream zone Store. In the stream zone module, we consider a 'free mixing' between the salt brought about by surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. Salt accumulation on the surface due to evaporation and its flushing by initial winter flow is also incorporated in the Stream zone Store. The salt balance model was calibrated sequentially following successful application of the water balance model. Initial salt stores were estimated from measured salt profile data. We incorporated two lumped parameters to represent the complex chemical processes like diffusion-dilution-dispersion and salt fluxes due to preferential flow. The model has performed very well in simulating stream salinity generation processes observed at Ernies and Lemon experimental catchments in south west of Western Australia. The simulated and observed stream salinity and salt loads compare very well throughout the study period with NSE of 0.7 and 0.4 for Ernies and Lemon catchment respectively. The model slightly over predicted annual stream salt load by 6.2% and 6.8%.

  15. Viscous Behavior of Dilute CMC Salt Solution Before and After Photodegradation


    El Ashhab, F. [فتحي الأشهب; Sheha, L. [ٍالبني عبد العزيز شيحا; Sheltami, R. M. [رشا محمد الشلطامي; Feituri, Z. M. [زكريا الفيتوري


    Photodegradation curve of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in aqueous solution has been reported. Densities and solution viscosities of very dilute CMC salt solution before and after UV-irradiation have been measured. UV-irradiation of CMC decreases the values of density, specific, reduced and intrinsic viscosities, molar mass, hydrodynamic volume, expansion factor, real and ideal chain dimensions of CMC in solution. In contrary, it increases the solute-solvent interaction and decreases the solut...

  16. Measurement of linear attenuation coefficients of gamma rays for some salts by aqueous solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teli, M.T.; Dongarge, S.M.; Mahajan, C.S.; Malode, S.S.; Nathuram, R.


    The linear attenuation coefficients of dilute aqueous solutions of some salts with varying concentrations are measured for different gamma energies (0.36 MeV to 1.33 MeV). From these measurements, linear attenuation coefficients for pure salts are obtained by using the improved technique of Teli (1998). The comparison with theoretical values shows excellent agreement. Half value thicknesses of the salts and total atomic cross sections are also evaluated. (author)

  17. Effects of salt on the `drying' transition and hydrophobic interaction between nano-sized spherical solutes (United States)

    Dzubiella, Joachim; Hansen, Jean-Pierre


    The effects of sodium halide salts on the hydration and effective interaction between two nanometer-sized, spherical hydrophobic solutes are studied using explicit-water molecular dynamics computer simulations. The system exhibits bimodal wet-dry hydration oscillations that are found to be significantly shifted to dryer states by the presence of salt at and above physiological concentrations. We find that the wet-dry equilibrium of the confined solvent and the resulting interaction between the two solutes can be sensitively tuned by varying the salt type and concentration. A free energy analysis indicates that the strong salt effects can be traced back to large changes in the water chemical potential for the transfer process of a water molecule from the bulk reservoir into the ion-depleted confined region. Our results provide a better understanding of salt effects at the onset of aggregation and self-assembly of large hydrophobic solutes such as globular proteins.

  18. Different photolysis kinetics at the surface of frozen freshwater vs. frozen salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan


    Full Text Available Reactions at air-ice interfaces can proceed at very different rates than those in aqueous solution, due to the unique disordered region at the ice surface known as the quasi-liquid layer (QLL . The physical and chemical nature of the surfacial region of ice is greatly affected by solutes such as sodium halide salts. In this work, we studied the effects of sodium chloride and sodium bromide on the photolysis kinetics of harmine, an aromatic organic compound, in aqueous solution and at the surface of frozen salt solutions above the eutectic temperature. In common with other aromatic organic compounds we have studied, harmine photolysis is much faster on ice surfaces than in aqueous solution, but the presence of NaCl or NaBr – which does not affect photolysis kinetics in solution – reduces the photolysis rate on ice. The rate decreases monotonically with increasing salt concentration; at the concentrations found in seawater, harmine photolysis at the surface of frozen salt solutions proceeds at the same rate as in aqueous solution. These results suggest that the brine excluded to the surfaces of frozen salt solutions is a true aqueous solution, and so it may be possible to use aqueous-phase kinetics to predict photolysis rates at sea ice surfaces. This is in marked contrast to the result at the surface of frozen freshwater samples, where reaction kinetics are often not well-described by aqueous-phase processes.

  19. Location of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining (United States)

    Kinscher, J.; Bernard, P.; Contrucci, I.; Mangeney, A.; Piguet, J. P.; Bigarre, P.


    Ground failures, caving processes and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities can produce significant socio-economic damages and represent a serious risk envisaged by the mine managements and municipalities. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing such a geohazard and to test the potential of geophysical methods to prevent them, the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity was monitored in the Lorraine basin in northeastern France. During the experiment, a huge microseismic data set (˜50 000 event files) was recorded by a local microseismic network. 80 per cent of the data comprised unusual swarming sequences with complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events which could not be processed through standard automatic detection and location routines. Here, we present two probabilistic methods which provide a powerful tool to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of these swarming sequences in an automatic manner. Both methods take advantage of strong attenuation effects and significantly polarized P-wave energies at higher frequencies (>100 Hz). The first location approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates for different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain the hypocentre locations. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P-wave energies and the associated polarization angles which provide very valuable information on the hypocentre location. Both methods are applied to a microseismic data set recorded during an important step of the development of the cavity, that is, before its collapse. From our results, systematic spatio-temporal epicentre migration trends are observed in the order of seconds to minutes and several tens of meters which are partially associated with cyclic behaviours. In addition, from spatio-temporal distribution of epicentre clusters we observed similar epicentre migration in the order of hours and days. All together, we

  20. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.


    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  1. Tetraphenylborate Solubility in High Ionic Strength Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Ginn, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.


    Solubility of sodium and potassium salts of the tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) in simulated Savannah River Site High Level Waste was investigated. Data generated from this study allow more accurate predictions of TPB solubility at the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility. Because previous research showed large deviations in the observed solubility of TPB salts when compared with model predictions, additional data were generated to better understand the solubility of TPB in more complex systems of high ionic strength and those containing both potassium and sodium. These data allow evaluation of the ability of current models to accurately predict equilibrium TPB concentrations over the range of experimental conditions investigated in this study

  2. Anomalous Protein-Protein Interactions in Multivalent Salt Solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pasquier, C.; Vazdar, M.; Forsman, J.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Lund, M.


    Roč. 121, č. 14 (2017), s. 3000-3006 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Monte Carlo * molecular dynamics * membranes * proteins * multivalent salts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  3. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, M.E.


    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas

  4. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review (United States)

    Gerzer, Rupert


    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a ;done deal; and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  5. Isolation of transplutonium elements on ion exchangers from solutions of high salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.


    The behaviour of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation and anion exchangers in aqueous alcoholic solutions of chlorides and nitrates of some alkali and alkaline earth metals depending on different factors: salt concentration, content of alcohol and of acid in the solution as well as the nature of a cation was studied. The data obtained were used to determine the optimal conditions of concentration of TPE on ion exchangers from solutions containing great quantities of salts. The advantages of the use of aqueous alcoholic solutions of nitric acid in the isolation of TPE are shown. (author)

  6. Alteration of non-metallic barriers and evolution of solution chemistry in salt formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Becker, D.; Hagemann, S.; Meyer, Th.; Noseck, U.; Rubel, A.; Mauke, R.; Wollrath, J.


    Different Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) materials considered in Germany for the sealing of repositories in salt formations are presented. Their long term behaviour in terms of interactions with salt solutions is discussed and evaluated. The discussed EBS materials are crushed salt, self sealing salt backfill, bentonite and salt concrete. Whereas the knowledge concerning the geochemical, geomechanical, hydrological and thermal behavior of crushed salt and salt concrete is well advanced further research is needed for other EBS materials. The self healing salt backfill has also been investigated in depth recently. In order to fully qualify this material large scale in situ experiments are still needed. The present knowledge on compacted bentonites in a salt environment is not yet sufficient for reliable predictions of the long-term performance in salt formations. The sealing concept of the low- and intermediate-level Radioactive Waste Repository Morsleben (ERAM) in a former rock salt and potash mine is presented. This concept is based on cementitious materials, i.e. salt concrete. The geochemical stability of different salt concretes in contact with brines expected in ERAM is addressed. It is shown how the results from leaching experiments and geochemical modelling are used in the safety analyses and how the chemical boundary conditions prevailing in the EBS influence the development of the permeability of the sealing system and thus control the radionuclide release. As a result of modelling the behaviour of the seals in the safety assessment it is shown, that the seals are corroded within a time span of about 20 000 years. The influence of the uncertainty in the model parameters on the safety of the repository was assessed by a variation of the initial permeability of the seal. The maximum dose rate resulting from the radionuclide release from ERAM is nearly independent of the variation of the initial permeability within four orders of magnitude. (authors)

  7. Distribution constants of lower alcohols, acetone, and ethyl acetate in n-hexane-aqueous solutions of inorganic salt systems and the nature of the salting-out effect (United States)

    Leschev, S. M.; Zayats, M. F.


    The distribution of model oxygen-containing organic nonelectrolytes in n-hexane-aqueous solutions of mineral salts (KF, (NH4)2SO4, K2CO3, K3PO4) and lower alcohol-saturated aqueous solutions of salt (KF, K2CO3, K3PO4) systems are studied at a temperature of 20 ± 1°C. Increments of the methylene and functional groups of organic nonelectrolyte of partition constants logarithm are calculated. It is shown that the nature of the salting-out effect primarily involves strengthening of the salt solution's structure and growth of the methylene group increment. A comparative characteristic of various salts according to the degree of their structuring effect and the effectiveness of the salting-out of organic nonelectrolytes from aqueous solutions is given.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of freezing of water and salt solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbka, Luboš; Jungwirth, Pavel


    Roč. 134, č. 1 (2007), s. 64-70 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ice freezing * salt ions * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2007

  9. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik (CNRS-UMR); (NIH); (ILL)


    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  10. Adsorption of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid from toluene the interface with inorganic salt aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajnshtejn, E.V.; Popov, A.N.


    Interfacial tension in the system toluene solution of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid HDEHP-aqueous solutions of inorganic salts has been measured by the drop volume method. The ion-exchange constants in the monolayers formed by HDEHP and alkaline-earth metals have been measured

  11. Calculation of solubility of salts in binary aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, A.R.


    The possibility of theoretical calculation of solubility of some salts of the MX-type, where M - Na, K, Cs; X - F-I, as well as CsNO 3 and others forming no crystal hydrates in the solid phase, and the azeotropic composition in the water-HNO 3 system is studied. The calculational results of solubility are shown to depend very much on the values accepted for the standard free energies of component formation, melting heats and crystallization and on the difference in heat capacity of the melt and the solid phase

  12. Meat batter production in an extended vane pump-grinder injecting curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt amount injected with the solution. (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen


    The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg -1 . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L * ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a * from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b * from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Solution behavior and activity of a halophilic esterase under high salt concentration. (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R


    Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2-16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45 degrees C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the alpha-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. The solution alpha-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that all the solutions studied were structurally inhomogeneous, it

  14. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj


    amine and the pH dropped between 2 and 3 units during the absorption process. In both types of solutions the temperature increased as a result of the CO2 absorption, which is expected due to the exothermic nature of the absorption reaction. The increase in temperature for the potassium glycinate......The reversible absorption of CO2 into a chemical solvent is currently the leading CO2 capture technology. Available solvents are almost exclusively based on aqueous alkanolamine solutions, which entail both economic and environmental complications, making the commercialization of the technology...... difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  15. Surface Crystallization of Aqueous Salt Solution Under Overheating and Overcooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakoryakov Vladimir


    Full Text Available The investigation of the surface crystallization with low negative and high positive temperatures were carried in the paper. Crystallization curves for distillate (Ts0 = −9 °C and different mass salt concentrations NaCl (Ts0 = 80 °C were obtained. Experimental data indicate that the crystallization centers influence each other and the number of centers does not change with time. The maximum speeds for the crystallization front reached 0.3–0.5 m/s. There are a significant anisotropy and a curvature of crystallization front. The surface kinetics should be considered to clarify the rate of freezing and melting of ice in modeling global warming.

  16. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... formed is a decisive factor in determining the effect of precipitation on the process. For the purpose of studying the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions, we developed an experimental set-up based on a dynamic analytical mode, with analysis of the effluent gas. Using this set-up, the CO2......New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev


    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  18. Nanosecond pulse radiolysis of ammoniacal solutions of silver salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhataziz; Cordier, P.; Perkey, L.M.


    In pulse radiolysis of silver salts in liquid ammonia at 23 0 C, the reaction of e/sub am/ - with Ag + produces Ag, and subsequently the reaction of Ag with Ag + produces Ag 2 + which probably disproportionates to Ag 2 . The maxima in absorption spectra at 435, 390, and 300 nm are ascribed to Ag, Ag 2 + , and Ag 2 , respectively. The measured specific rate of the reaction of e/sub am/ - with Ag + is 1.5 x 10 12 M -1 sec -1 at 23 0 C. The calculated specific rate with the Smoluchowski--Debye equation for a diffusion-controlled reaction of e/sub am/ - with Ag + is 1.4 x 10 12 M -1 sec -1 at 25 0 C. The specific rate for the reaction of Ag with Ag + is 1.3 x 10 10 M -1 sec -1 at 23 0 C. At the same temperature, the ratio of the specific rate for the disproportionation of Ag 2 + and extinction coefficient of Ag 2 + at the 390 nm is 10 6 cm sec -1 . A comparison of the spectra of various silver species dissolved in water with the spectra for same species dissolved in liquid ammonia shows that spectra in liquid ammonia are shifted toward longer wavelengths

  19. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rate should be decreased so as to provide protection towards corrosion have also been calculated. It was found that KCl and NaCl are major contributors than MnSO4, Pb(NO3)2, KI and KBr. The relative increase in corrosion is high in KBr, KI, NaNO3, CaCl2, and less in Pb(NO3)2, NaHCO3 and CaCO3 test solutions.

  20. Automation of nuclide separation for alpha- and beta-determination in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, M.; Flucht, R.; Hill, P.; Ostapczuk, P.; Zoriy, P.; Zoriy, M.; Lennartz, R.


    Analysis of saturated salt solutions by various analytical techniques is, usually, difficult. Small temperature changes could induce a precipitation of salts, which are not easy to solve again. Besides the possible lost of nuclides due to the precipitation, the chemical recovery could be also a severe problem because of multitude of steps included in separation procedure. To increase the reproducibility of chemical recovery an automatic system based on AutoTrace registered SPE Workstation (DIONEX Softron GmbH, Germering, Deutschland) was developed. Using this system it was possible in automated way to separate the nuclide of interest (e.g. U, Th, Am, Pu, Tc and Sr) in saturated salt solutions by means of ion exchanger. In addition, proposed automated system made it possible to increase the number of analyzed samples per working day as well as to reduce the amount of chemicals used. In the present work the different experimental parameters (e.g. flow rate, solution content, solution concentration, etc) for of developed automated arrangement were tested. Due to the increasing of the sample volume it was possible to improve the detection limit of overall analytical procedure (however, the time needed for separation in such case was increased). It was also found, that the dilution of analyzed saturated salt solutions (1:1) with water before the separation steps, minimizes the problems with precipitation and chemical recovery. (orig.)

  1. On salting in effect of the second group metal rhodanides on aqueous-amine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupatkin, I.L.; Ostrovskaya, E.M.; Vorob'eva, L.D.; Kamyshnikova, G.V.


    The ''salting in'' effect of rhodanides of Group 2 metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium) on aqueous-amine solutions (water-aniline, and water-o-toluidine systems) is studied. The solubility in these systems has been determined by the isothermal method at 25 deg C. Compositions of the co-existing liquid phases have been determined by refractometry. The phase diagrams of water-aniline-rhodanide of magnesium, calcium and strontium systems have the same qualitative view. These rhodanides ''salt in'' the water-aniline system so strongly that the systems are completely homogenized. According to the decreasing homogenization effect on the water-aniline and water-o-toluidine systems the salts may be arranged into the following series Mg(NCS) 2 >Ca(NCS) 2 >Sr(NCS) 2 >Ba(NCS) 2 . The ''salting in'. effect is weaker in the water-o-toluidine system rather than in the water-aniline one

  2. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui


    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  3. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  4. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.


    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    /or amino acid salt concentrations. The formation of solids poses challenges, but it also holds the promise for improving the efficiency of the capture process. This project focuses on phase equilibrium experiments of five systems CO2 + amino acid salt + H2O, at conditions relevant for the CO2 capture...... to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause...... they are naturally occurring substances, and partly because they have desirable properties, such as lower vapor pressures and higher stability against oxidative degradation. One important feature of these new solvents is the formation of solids upon CO2 absorption, which happens especially at higher CO2 loadings and...

  6. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.


    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  7. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang


    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  8. Effect of ionic strength of aqueous salt solutions in a liquid scintillation system on tritium counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.; Abd-elwahid, A.; Khachadoorian, S.K.


    The dependence of the counting efficiency of tritium dissolved in aqueous salt solutions as a function of salt ionic strength has been studied. The scintillation system used was POPOP/PPO/Triton x 100/toluene mixture. The quenching effect of the following salts have been investigated 1. Group I and group II metal chlorides and nitrates. 2. Different halides of potassium. 3. Different ammonium salts. 4. Different sodium oxychlorides

  9. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  10. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Oonk, C.A.M.; Nieman, S.H.; Wesselink, P.R.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.


    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Methods Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite

  11. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as hem...

  12. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes (United States)

    Ally, Moonis R.


    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  13. Swelling compositions based polycarboxylic acids and bentonite clays in solutions of salts of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarshesheva


    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the synthesis of chemical cross-linked composite materials made of natural inorganic polymer bentonite clay of Manrak deposit, and polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids. The swelling ability of the composition in solutions of salts of heavy metals (Ni2+ and Pb2+, influence of solution of concentration, pH and temperature on the swelling ability is investigated.

  14. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry


    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter


    Background. Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Bec...

  15. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko


    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  16. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob


    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  17. Solution behavior and activity of a halophilic esterase under high salt concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2-16, with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45 degrees C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD, dynamic light scattering (DLS and small angle neutron scattering (SANS were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the alpha-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The solution alpha-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers

  18. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.


    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  19. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.


    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated β-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated β-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included. (author)

  20. Evaporation of a sessile water drop and a drop of aqueous salt solution. (United States)

    Misyura, S Y


    The influence of various factors on the evaporation of drops of water and aqueous salt solution has been experimentally studied. Typically, in the studies of drop evaporation, only the diffusive vapor transfer, radiation and the molecular heat conduction are taken into account. However, vapor-gas convection plays an important role at droplet evaporation. In the absence of droplet boiling, the influence of gas convection turns out to be the prevailing factor. At nucleate boiling, a prevailing role is played by bubbles generation and vapor jet discharge at a bubble collapse. The gas convection behavior for water and aqueous salt solution is substantially different. With a growth of salt concentration over time, the influence of the convective component first increases, reaches an extremum and then significantly decreases. At nucleate boiling in a salt solution it is incorrect to simulate the droplet evaporation and the heat transfer in quasi-stationary approximation. The evaporation at nucleate boiling in a liquid drop is divided into several characteristic time intervals. Each of these intervals is characterized by a noticeable change in both the evaporation rate and the convection role.

  1. Solution-derived sodalite made with Si- and Ge-ethoxide precursors for immobilizing electrorefiner salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Lepry, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.


    Chlorosodalite has the general form of Na 8 (AlSiO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and this paper describes experiments conducted to synthesize sodalite with a solution-based approach to immobilize a simulated spent electrorefiner salt solution containing a mixture of alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides. The reactants used were the salt solution, NaAlO 2 , and either Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 or Ge(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 . Additionally, seven different glass sintering aids (at loadings of 5 mass%) were evaluated as sintering aids for consolidating the as-made powders using a cold-press-and-sinter technique. This process of using alkoxide additives for the Group IV component can be used to produce large quantities of sodalite at near-room temperature as compared to a method where colloidal silica was used as the silica source. However, the small particle sizes inhibited densification during heat treatments.

  2. Salt effects on the sol-gel transitions of aqueous peptide-amphiphile solutions (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    A hydrogel made of a peptide amphiphile (PA) is an interesting soft material especially in the biomedical fields due to its controllable nanoscale structures with excellent biocompatibility. To extend the practical use of PA, a comprehensive study of the sol-gel transitions of PA is necessary to be used as e.g. a biomedical material. The effects of the types of salts in our body or in medicinal agents on the physical properties of the PA solution are not fully understood. In this study, different types of salt with various negative ions were added to a PA (C16-W3K) solution. The salt effects on the rheological properties, the pH, and the zeta potentials of the PA solutions were studied. From the rheological testing, it was found that the C16-W3K solutions could not gelate in the presence of Na2CO3 or Na3PO4, which could be caused by the aggregation of the wormlike micelles made of C16-W3K. pH-wise, the sol-gel transitions could be observed only when the PA solutions were relatively acidic (the Zeta potential was positive) instead of basic (the Zeta potential was very negative) . It was therefore concluded that the sol-gel transitions of the PA solution could be effectively controlled by the types of salt. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI.

  3. Investigation of structural features of aqueous salt solutions by means of electronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashchenko, A.K.; Borina, A.F.


    Electronic spectroscopy and structural-geometric analysis have been used in studying ionic interactions in aqueous solutions of Co(NO 3 ) 2 , CoSO 4 , CoCl 2 , and NiSO 4 . The processes influencing the structural environment of the cations in solution and the character of the electronic spectra of Co(II) and Ni(II) have been distinguished: replacement of ligands in the first coordination sphere of the transition-metal ion, change in mobility of the particles in the medium, and change in the structural matrix on the solution upon going from one concentration region to another. A small change in the structure of bulk water in the solutions of these salts has been demonstrated. For Co(NO 3 ) 2 solutions, the limit of existence of a water-like structure of the solution has been defined

  4. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of frozen aqueous solutions of Fe3+ salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Knudsen, J. E.; Nielsen, M. K.


    Frozen aqueous solutions (FAS) of Fe3+ salts have been investigated by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to study the conditions for formation of glasses. A general discussion of spin–spin relaxation in glasses is given, and we discuss how changes in the spin–spin relaxation time can...... be attributed to changes in the average separation between the iron ions. In the FeCl3–H2O system, it was found that homogeneous glasses are easily formed when the salt concentration is larger than 3.5 moles FeCl3 per 100 moles H2O. In more dilute samples, ice crystallizes during cooling, while the salt...

  5. Water Balance and 'Salt Wasting' in the First Year of Life: The Role of Aldosterone-Signaling Defects. (United States)

    Bizzarri, Carla; Pedicelli, Stefania; Cappa, Marco; Cianfarani, Stefano


    In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon. A partial and transient aldosterone resistance is present in newborns and infants, thus reducing the capability of maintaining sodium balance in specific pathological conditions. The present review examines the mechanisms making infants more susceptible to salt wasting. Peculiar aspects of renal physiology in the first year of life and management of electrolyte disorders (i.e. sodium and potassium) are considered. Finally, inherited disorders associated with neonatal salt wasting are examined in detail. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The salting-out of molibdoferrats(II from aqueous solutions by the organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Nikolenko


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a method for producing of molybdoferrate(II precipitates by salting-out them from aqueous solutions by means of organic solvents. Dependence of the composition of molybdoferrate(II precipitates on the pH of the reaction solutions was studied. Experiments on salting-out of molybdoferrate(II with various organic solvents were carried out. As a result it was found that the best reagent for the molybdoferrate(II salting-out is acetone. By its use, lowest quantity of the ammonium sulfate impurities was obtained. It is also of importance that by using of acetone the process of regeneration by distillation of the reaction solutions is characterized by the lowest energy consumption. A functional relationship between the solubility of molybdoferrates(II and dielectric constant of the medium was established. By increasing the dielectric constant of the solvent solubility of molybdoferrates(II rapidly increases. The linearized dependence ln(lnS–ln(1/e was proposed to predict the solubility of molybdoferrates(II in various aqueous-organic solutions.

  7. Sensorimotor control of balance: a Tai Chi solution for balance disorders in older subjects. (United States)

    Tsang, William W N; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y


    In addition to environmental factors, deteriorating sensorimotor control of balance will predispose older adults to falls. Understanding the aging effects on sensorimotor control of balance performance is important for designing fall prevention programs for older adults. How repeated practice of Tai Chi can improve limb joint proprioception, integration of neural signals in the central nervous system for balance control, and motor output at the level of knee muscles is discussed in this chapter. Our previous studies showed that elderly Tai Chi practitioners performed significantly better than elderly nonpractitioners in (1) knee joint proprioception, (2) reduced or conflicting sensory situations that demand more visual or vestibular contributions, (3) standing balance control after vestibular stimulation without visual input, (4) voluntary weight shifting in different directions within the base of support, (5) single-leg stance during perturbations of the support surface, and (6) knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. In a prospective study, we further showed that 4 weeks of daily Tai Chi practice but not general education produced significant improvement in balance performance. The requirements of Tai Chi for accurate joint positioning and weight transfer involving smooth coordination of neck, trunk, upper and lower limb movements, make it particularly useful for improving the sensorimotor control of balance in the elderly. Because Tai Chi can be practiced any time and anywhere, and is well accepted by older people in both the East and now the West, it is especially suited to be a key component of a low-costing community-based fall prevention program alongside with education about environmental factors.

  8. Organic potassium salts or fibers effects on mineral balance and digestive fermentations in rats adapted to an acidogenic diet. (United States)

    Sabboh, Houda; Besson, Catherine; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Coudray, Charles; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Coxam, Véronique; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian


    Fibers and potassium (K) organic salts in plant foods are liable to affect Ca and Mg balance at digestive and renal levels, respectively. K organic salts could counteract the acidifying effects of western diets and consequences of excess NaCl. To study this question, male rats were adapted to a basal acidifying low-K (LK) diet, or to diets supplemented with a fiber mix (LK/F), or K citrate (HK) or both (HK/F). HK and HK/F diets displayed a marked alkalinizing effect in urine and promoted citraturia, but this effect was not modulated by fibers. The effect of fibers on Ca digestive absorption was more potent than K citrate effect on Ca renal excretion. In contrast, K citrate effect on kidney Mg excretion was more effective than that of fibers on Mg digestive absorption, a maximal effect on Mg balance was observed in rats fed the HK/F diet. Digestive fermentations in rats fed the LK/F diet were characterized by high-propionic acid fermentations and succinate accumulation. In rats adapted to the HK/F diet, K citrate supplementation depressed succinate and increased butyrate concentrations. Organic anions arising from digestive fermentations seem to be not directly involved in the alkalinizing effects of plant foods. Fibers and organic K salts exert distinct effects on Ca and Mg metabolism, but with interesting interactions as to Mg balance, digestive fermentations and urine pH.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Processed and natural clays are widely used to create impermeable liners in solid waste disposal landfills. The engineering properties of clay liners can be significantly affected by the leachate from the waste mass. In this study, the effect of inorganic salt solutions will be investigated. These solutions used at different concentrations. Two type of inorganic salt MnSO4 and FeCl3 are used at different concentration 2%,5%, 10%. Clay used in this study was the CL- clay (kaolinite. The results show that the consistency limits and unconfined compressive strength increased as the concentration of salts increased. While the permeability tends to decrease as salt concentration increased. Also, the compression index decreases as the concentration increased from 2% to 5%. The swelling index tends to increase slightly as the concentration of MnSO4 increased, while its decrease as the concentration of FeCl3. In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the performance of compacted clay liner exposed to the certain chemicals generated by the leachate and their effects on the geotechnical properties of compacted clay liner such consistency limits, permeability coefficient, compressibility characteristics and unconfined compressive strength.

  10. Modified harmonic balance method for the solution of nonlinear jerk equations (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, A. S. M. Z.


    In this paper, a second approximate solution of nonlinear jerk equations (third order differential equation) can be obtained by using modified harmonic balance method. The method is simpler and easier to carry out the solution of nonlinear differential equations due to less number of nonlinear equations are required to solve than the classical harmonic balance method. The results obtained from this method are compared with those obtained from the other existing analytical methods that are available in the literature and the numerical method. The solution shows a good agreement with the numerical solution as well as the analytical methods of the available literature.

  11. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaluenga, J.P.G.; Barragan, V.M.; Seoane, B.; Ruiz-Bauza, C.


    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs + ion

  12. The nonmetal-metal transition in solutions of metals in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.


    Solutions of metals in molten salts present a rich phenomenology: localization of electrons in disordered ionic media, activated electron transport increasing with metal concentration towards a nonmetal-metal (NM-M) transition, and liquid-liquid phase separation. A brief review of progress in the study of these systems is given in this article, with main focus on the NM-M transition. After recalling the known NM-M behaviour of the component elements in the case of expanded fluid alkali metals and mercury and of solid halogens under pressure, the article focuses on liquid metal - molten salt solutions and traces the different NM-M behaviours of the alkalis in their halides and of metals added to polyvalent metal halides. (author). 51 refs, 2 figs

  13. Anodic behavior of stainless-steel substrate in organic electrolyte solutions containing different lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki


    Highlights: • We investigated anodic behavior of stainless-steel in organic electrolytes for advanced capacitor. • Anion of the electrolyte affected the anodic stability of the alloy. • Anodic passivation occurs in LiPF 6 solution but pitting or active dissolution proceeds in other electrolyte solutions. • Fluoride source in the solution contributes to forming a stable surface layer on the stainless steel. - Abstract: The anodic behavior of austenitic stainless-steel, SUS304, as a current collector of positive electrode in lithium-ion battery/capacitor has been investigated in organic electrolyte solutions based on a mixed alkyl carbonate solvent with different lithium salts. Stable passivation characteristics were observed for the stainless-steel in the LiPF 6 solution, but pitting corrosion or active dissolution proceeded in the solutions containing other anions, BF 4 - , (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - (TFSA - ) and ClO 4 - . The mass ratios of the dissolved metal species in the solutions of LiTFSA and LiClO 4 were equivalent to that of the alloy composition, which suggests that no preferential dissolution occurs during the anodic polarization in these electrolyte solutions. An HF component formed by decomposition of PF 6 - with the contaminate water will act as an F - source for the formation of a surface fluoride layer, that will contribute to the anodic stability of SUS304 in the LiPF 6 solution. The anodic corrosion in the LiTFSA solution was suppressed in part by mixing the PF 6 salt or adding HF in the electrolyte

  14. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali


    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  15. Dynamics of circulation and salt balance in the upper reaches of Periyar river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    -January and became highly stratified during February-May. September-November was the transition period. The residual flux of salt was directed down the estuary just after the south-west monsoon period and was low. Main source of salt was through vertical shear...

  16. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 1. Small catchment water balance model (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ruprecht, John K.; Viney, Neil R.


    A long-term water balance model has been developed to predict the hydrological effects of land-use change (especially forest clearing) in small experimental catchments in the south-west of Western Australia. This small catchment model has been used as the building block for the development of a large catchment-scale model, and has also formed the basis for a coupled water and salt balance model, developed to predict the changes in stream salinity resulting from land-use and climate change. The application of the coupled salt and water balance model to predict stream salinities in two small experimental catchments, and the application of the large catchment-scale model to predict changes in water yield in a medium-sized catchment that is being mined for bauxite, are presented in Parts 2 and 3, respectively, of this series of papers.The small catchment model has been designed as a simple, robust, conceptually based model of the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments. The responses of the catchment to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three interdependent subsurface stores A, B and F. Store A depicts a near-stream perched aquifer system; B represents a deeper, permanent groundwater system; and F is an intermediate, unsaturated infiltration store. The responses of these stores are characterized by a set of constitutive relations which involves a number of conceptual parameters. These parameters are estimated by calibration by comparing observed and predicted runoff. The model has performed very well in simulations carried out on Salmon and Wights, two small experimental catchments in the Collie River basin in south-west Western Australia. The results from the application of the model to these small catchments are presented in this paper.

  17. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu


    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 ions which is achieved in the current study through electronic continuum correction force fields. A detailed analysis of the effects of ion-pairs on the structure and dynamics of water around the hydrated ions is done through classification of water into different subspecies based on their locations around the cations or anions only or bridged between them. We have looked at the diffusion coefficients, relaxation of orientational correlation functions, and also the residence times of different subspecies of water to explore the dynamics of water in different structural environments in the solutions. The current results show that the water molecules are incorporated into fairly well-structured hydration shells of the ions, thus decreasing the single-particle diffusivities and increasing the orientational relaxation times of water with an increase in salt concentration. The different structural motifs also lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion

  18. Adding salt to a surfactant solution: Linear rheological response of the resulting morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Danila; Pasquino, Rossana, E-mail:; Grizzuti, Nino [DICMaPI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)


    The micellar system composed of Cetylpyridinium Chloride-Sodium Salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) in brine aqueous solutions has been studied by systematically changing the salt concentration, in order to investigate the rheology of the arising morphologies. In particular, the zero-shear viscosity and the linear viscoelastic response have been measured as a function of the NaSal concentration (with [CPyCl] = 100 mM). The Newtonian viscosity shows a nonmonotonic dependence upon concentration, passing through a maximum at NaSal/CPyCl ≈ 0.6, and eventually dropping at higher salt concentrations. The progressive addition of salt determines first a transition from a Newtonian to a purely Maxwell-like behavior as the length of the micelles significantly increases. Beyond the peak viscosity, the viscoelastic data show two distinct features. On the one hand, the main relaxation time of the system strongly decreases, while the plateau modulus remains essentially constant. Calculations based on the rheological data show that, as the binding salt concentration increases, there is a decrease in micelles breaking rate and a decrease in their average length. On the other hand, in the same concentration region, a low-frequency elastic plateau is measured. Such a plateau is considered as the signature of a tenuous, but persistent branched network, whose existence is confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy images.

  19. Absorption and desorption of SO2 in aqueous solutions of diamine-based molten salts. (United States)

    Lim, Seung Rok; Hwang, Junhyeok; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Ho Seok; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Hyunjoo


    SO2 absorption and desorption behaviors were investigated in aqueous solutions of diamine-derived molten salts with a tertiary amine group on the cation and a chloride anion, including butyl-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-dimethylammonium chloride ([BTMEDA]Cl, pKb=8.2), 1-butyl-1,4-dimethylpiperazinium chloride ([BDMP]Cl, pKb=9.8), and 1-butyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2,2,2]octane chloride ([BDABCO]Cl, pKb=11.1). The SO2 absorption and desorption performance of the molten salt were greatly affected by the basicity of the molten salt. Spectroscopic, X-ray crystallographic, and computational results for the interactions of SO2 with molten salts suggest that two types of SO2-containg species could be generated depending on the basicity of the unquaternized amino group: a dicationic species comprising two different anions, HSO3(-) and Cl(-), and a monocationic species bearing Cl(-) interacting with neutral H2SO3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  1. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12 (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens


    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  2. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion. (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens


    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail:, E-mail:; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail:, E-mail: [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)


    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  4. Molecular Thermodynamics for Swelling of a Mesoscopic Ionomer Gelin 1:1 Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorov, Alexey; Radke, Clayton; Prausnitz,John


    For a microphase-separated diblock copolymer ionic gel swollen in salt solution, a molecular-thermodynamic model is based on the self-consistent field theory in the limit of strongly segregated copolymer subchains. The geometry of microdomains is described using the Milner generic wedge construction neglecting the packing frustration. Thermodynamic functions are expressed analytically for gels of lamellar, bicontinuous, cylindrical and spherical morphologies. Molecules are characterized by chain composition, length, rigidity, degree of ionization, and by effective polymer-polymer and polymer-solvent interaction parameters. The model predicts equilibrium solvent uptakes and the equilibrium microdomain spacing for gels swollen in salt solutions. Results are given for details of the gel structure: distribution of mobile ions and polymer segments, and the electric potential across microdomains. Apart from effects obtained by coupling classical Flory-Rehner theory with Donnan equilibria, viz., increased swelling with polyelectrolyte charge and shrinking of gel upon addition of salt, the model predicts the effects of microphase morphology on swelling.

  5. Centrifugal separation for miscible solutions: Fundamentals and applications to separation of molten salt nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Li; Camassa, R.; Ecke, R.E.


    The authors report on the physical separation of dilute solutions using centrifugal techniques. They use numerical simulations of the diffusion and sedimentation dynamics of centrifugation to model the approach to an equilibrium concentration profile. They verify experimentally the equilibrium profiles for aqueous solutions of different salts under rotation at 25000 rpm corresponding to centrifugal accelerations of about 57,000 g and 75,000 g in two different commercial centrifuges. These measurements provide ratios of sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. The authors show experimental results for the dynamics of separation that confirm the predictions of the theoretical model. They also measure the mass diffusion coefficient for several solutions. Although the relaxation to equilibrium is long, they have determined a method for efficiently extracting enriched components from a ternary mixture based on fast dynamics at early times. These dynamics are modeled in numerical simulations with realistic fluid parameters. Based on these studies the authors show that a multistage centrifugal separation process could provide efficient physical separation of actinides and fission products from a molten-salt solution in proposed transmutation/energy-production systems. The authors consider technical issues in the design of such a separation system

  6. Centrifugal separation for miscible solutions: Fundamentals and applications to separation of molten salt nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ning; Camassa, Roberto; Ecke, Robert E.; Venneri, Francesco


    We report on the physical separation of dilute solutions using centrifugal techniques. We use numerical simulations of the diffusion and sedimentation dynamics of centrifugation to model the approach to an equilibrium concentration profile. We verify experimentally the equilibrium profiles for aqueous solutions of different salts under rotation at 25000 rpm corresponding to centrifugal accelerations of about 57,000 g and 75,000 g in two different commercial centrifuges. These measurements provide ratios of sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. We show experimental results for the dynamics of separation that confirm the predictions of the theoretical model. We also measure the mass diffusion coefficient for several solutions. Although the relaxation to equilibrium is long, we have determined a method for efficiently extracting enriched components from a ternary mixture based on fast dynamics at early times. These dynamics are modeled in numerical simulations with realistic fluid parameters. Based on these studies we show that a multistage centrifugal separation process could provide efficient physical separation of actinides and fission products from a molten-salt solution in proposed transmutation/energy-production systems. We consider technical issues in the design of such a separation system

  7. Centrifugal separation for miscible solutions: Fundamentals and applications to separation of molten salt nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Li; Camassa, R.; Ecke, R.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others


    The authors report on the physical separation of dilute solutions using centrifugal techniques. They use numerical simulations of the diffusion and sedimentation dynamics of centrifugation to model the approach to an equilibrium concentration profile. They verify experimentally the equilibrium profiles for aqueous solutions of different salts under rotation at 25000 rpm corresponding to centrifugal accelerations of about 57,000 g and 75,000 g in two different commercial centrifuges. These measurements provide ratios of sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. The authors show experimental results for the dynamics of separation that confirm the predictions of the theoretical model. They also measure the mass diffusion coefficient for several solutions. Although the relaxation to equilibrium is long, they have determined a method for efficiently extracting enriched components from a ternary mixture based on fast dynamics at early times. These dynamics are modeled in numerical simulations with realistic fluid parameters. Based on these studies the authors show that a multistage centrifugal separation process could provide efficient physical separation of actinides and fission products from a molten-salt solution in proposed transmutation/energy-production systems. The authors consider technical issues in the design of such a separation system.

  8. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Boom, B.; Suurmond, D.; Hermans, J.


    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  9. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.


    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperatures....... Results showed that both the swell index and the liquid limit decreased with an increase in salt concentration irrespective of the type of cation. Monovalent cations showed higher values of the swell index and the liquid limit compared to divalent cations. In general, the swell index of bentonite...... increased whereas the liquid limit decreased with increasing temperature for all cation types and concentrations. Significant and high correlations were found between swell index and liquid limit of bentonite at all three temperatures. Hydraulic conductivity of bentonite was found to increase...

  10. Modeling of Dielectric Properties of Aqueous Salt Solutions with an Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj


    The static permittivity is the most important physical property for thermodynamic models that account for the electrostatic interactions between ions. The measured static permittivity in mixtures containing electrolytes is reduced due to kinetic depolarization and reorientation of the dipoles...... in the electrical field surrounding ions. Kinetic depolarization may explain 25–75% of the observed decrease in the permittivity of solutions containing salts, but since this is a dynamic property, this effect should not be included in the thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes. Kinetic depolarization has, however......, been ignored in relation to thermodynamic modeling, and authors have either neglected the effect of salts on permittivity or used empirical correlations fitted to the measured static permittivity, leading to an overestimation of the reduction in the thermodynamic static permittivity. We present a new...

  11. Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates from water-salt solutions with n.-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinov, V.A.; Kudrova, A.V.; Valueva, O.V.; Pyartman, A.K.


    Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates (Ln=La-Nd, Sm-Gd) from aqueous-salt solutions at 298.15 K was studied using solution of n.-octanol, its concentration 6.31 mol/l. It was ascertained that at Ln(NO 3 ) 3 concentration in aqueous phase below 0.6 mol/l, there is actually no extraction. At higher concentrations of nitrates in aqueous phase the content of lanthanides(III) in organic phase increases in the series La-Gd. Isotherms of extraction were ascertained, its phase equilibria being described mathematically. It is shown that extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates with n.-octanol should be realized from concentrated aqueous solutions [ru

  12. Can mothers safely prepare labon-gur salt-sugar solution after demonstration in a diarrhoeal hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M A; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Begum, S


    while 1.3% exceeded the upper danger limit for salt and 98.7% samples of gur were within safe and effective range. Mothers' performances were not different with regard to their educational status and prior practice at home. 80% knew about the solution before coming to the hospital and 45% had utilized......Home-based salt-sugar solution (SSS) prepared with labon (locally produced sea salt) and gur (unrefined brown sugar) has been recommended as a cheap, locally available and a simple tool to prevent and treat diarrhoeal dehydration. Preparation of labon-gur SSS is demonstrated to the patients...

  13. High Availability and Load Balancing Solution Development in High Load Distributed Systems of Electronic Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Nichiporchuk


    Full Text Available A review of several solutions for comfortable work in systems with a large number of short transactions has been produced in the work. Several common cluster design schemes of providing data identity between the nodes have been analyzed as well as several load balancing schemes. As a result, a simulation cluster has been designed and installed in respect to the formalized in the work requirements such as scalability, load balancing and replication support.

  14. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes


    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution. (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon


    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extreme ductile deformation of fine-grained salt by coupled solution-precipitation creep and microcracking: Microstructural evidence from perennial Zechstein sequence (Neuhof salt mine, Germany)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závada, Prokop; Desbois, G.; Schwedt, A.; Lexa, O.; Urai, J. L.


    Roč. 37, April (2012), s. 89-104 ISSN 0191-8141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15632S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock salt * solution-precipitation creep * microcracking * Griffith crack * fluid inclusion trails Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.285, year: 2012

  17. Effect of Hofmeister series salts on Absorptivity of aqueous solutions on Sodium polyacrylate (United States)

    Korrapati, Swathi; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Vijayalakshmi, U.


    Sodium polyacrylate (SPA) is a popular super absorbent commonly used in children diapers, sanitary pads, adult diapers etc. The use of SPA is in force from past 30 years and the newer applications like as food preservant are evolving. SPA is recently discovered by our group for improvement of sensitivity of colorimetric agents. Though the discovery of improvement in sensitivity is phenomenal, the mechanism still remains a puzzle. A typical assay reagent contains colorimetric/fluorescent reagents, buffers, salts, stabilizers etc. These chemicals are known to influence the water absorptivity of SPA. If we were to perform chemical/biochemical assays on SPA absorbed reagents effect of salts and other excipients on colorimetric/fluorescence compounds absorbed on SPA is very important. The hofmeister series are standard for studying effect of salts on permeability, stability, aggregation, fluorescence quenching etc. We recently studied affect of urea, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, guanidine thiocayanate on fluorescence characteristics of fluorescence compounds and noted that except urea all other reagents have resulted in fluorescence quenching and urea had an opposite effect and increased the fluorescence intensity. This result was attributed to the different water structure around fluorescent in urea solution versus other chaotropic agents.

  18. Super-absorbency and phase transition of gels in physiological salt solutions (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro


    IONIC gels with the ability to absorb many times their dry weight of water have found widespread use as absorbents in medical, chemical and agricultural applications1. The dramatic swelling power of these super-absorbent gels results from both the electrostatic repulsion between the charges on the polymer chains, and the osmotic pressure of the counter-ions2. In salt solutions such as saline, urine or blood, however, excess Na+ and Cl- ions screen the polymer charges and eliminate the osmotic imbalance, effectively changing the properties of the material to that of a non-ionic gel3: this greatly diminishes the swelling power, and hence the utility of these materials under physiological conditions. Here we report the development of a system combining a non-ionic gel with ionized surfactants, which shows super-absorbent behaviour even in the presence of salt. In water, the hydrophobic gel facilitates the formation of spherical surfactant micelles, which mimic the charged sites of an ionic gel. As the salt concentration is increased, the micelles become rod-like, maintaining the electrostatic repulsion along the polymer chains and thereby preserving the swelling power of the gel.

  19. The heat of solution and solvation number of lithium salts in water-alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashima, Michio; Takase, Takao; Fukuda, Shinroku; Baba, Norio


    The solvation numbers of LiCl and LiI, and of KI for comparison, in water-MeOH mixtures and water-i-PrOH mixtures were determined at an infinite dilution at 25 0 C from the adiabatic compressibility. The heats of solution of these salts were also determined. In general, with an increase in the concentration of alcohol the solvation number increases initially to reach a maximum at 10-30 mol% alcohol, then it decreases to a minimum and increases again from about 75 mol% alcohol. The maximum solvation numbers of the salts determined are as follows: LiCl 11.2 mol/mol at 30 mol% MeOH; LiCl 11.5 mol/mol at 15 mol% i-PrOH;LiI 8.2 mol/mol at 12 mol% i-PrOH and KI 14.0 mol/mol at 10 mol% i-PrOH. The larger the cation, the larger the solvation number. Also, the composition of the solvant where the salt containing larger ions has a maximum solvation number has a lower concentration of alcohol. The maximum solvation number of LiI containing a larger anion is smaller than that of LiCl because an iodide ion has a much larger structure-breaking effect than a chloride ion. By the way, there seems to be difference in the structure of the mixed solvent before and after the maximum solvation number. (auth.)

  20. Water--Problems and Solutions. A Report Concerning the Problems and Solutions of Negative Water Balance. (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    Outdoor leaders constantly face problems created by water shortage and, to act effectively, must thoroughly understand the body's use of water and the ways to delay dehydration when water shortage occurs. Dehydration begins when there is a negative water balance, or more water lost than ingested, and progresses from the stage of dryness, to the…

  1. Effect of balance Solution on the Peritoneal Membrane in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis. (United States)

    De Los Ríos, Tatiana; Pérez-Martínez, Juan; Portoles, Jose; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Rivera, Maite; Nowicki, Michał; Książek, Andrzej; Tato, Ana María; Bohnhorst, Christine; Feriani, Mariano

    Interference of conventional peritoneal dialysis fluids (cPDFs) with peritoneal membrane cell functions may be attributed to the dialysis fluid's low pH, high glucose concentration, and/or the presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs), the last of which leads to higher levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). It has been suggested that the peritoneal membrane might be better preserved by using biocompatible solutions, including cancer antigetn 125 (CA125). This prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomized, controlled, cross-over phase IV study compared the in vivo biocompatibility of a neutral-pH, low-GDP peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution (balance) with a cPDF in automated PD (APD) patients. Our study revealed a significantly increased appearance rate and concentration of CA125 in the peritoneal effluent of APD patients treated with the neutral-pH, low-GDP solution balance versus a conventional PD solution. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuber


    Full Text Available AbstractThe correlation of thermodynamic properties of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions is relevant to design and operation of many chemical processes, as in fertilizer production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, the Q-electrolattice equation of state (EOS is used to model vapor pressure, mean ionic activity coefficient, osmotic coefficient, and liquid density of sixteen methanol and ten ethanol solutions containing single strong 1:1 and 2:1 salts. The Q-electrolattice comprises the lattice-based Mattedi-Tavares-Castier (MTC EOS, the Born term and the explicit MSA term. The model requires two adjustable parameters per ion, namely the ionic diameter and the solvent-ion interaction energy. Predictions of osmotic coefficient at 298.15 K and liquid density at different temperatures are also presented.

  3. Are nanoscale ion aggregates present in aqueous solutions of guanidinium salts? (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Niedermayer, Stefan; Buchner, Richard; Hefter, Glenn


    A detailed investigation using broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) has been made of the aqueous solutions of guanidinium chloride and carbonate, GdmCl(aq) and Gdm₂CO₃(aq), at 25 °C. The spectra indicate that Gdm(+) ions, C(NH₂)₃(+), do not bind strongly to water nor are they hydrophobically hydrated; rather they appear to have a most unusual ability to dissolve in water without altering its dynamics. Although DRS is particularly sensitive to the presence of ion pairs, only weak ion pairing was detected in Gdm₂CO₃(aq) solutions and none at all in GdmCl(aq). Surprisingly, no evidence was found for the existence of the higher order homo- and heteroionic nanoscale aggregates that have been identified in recent years by Mason and co-workers using molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The present DR spectra and other solution properties of GdmCl(aq) and Gdm₂CO₃(aq), such as apparent molar volumes and electrical conductivities, are shown to have strong similarities to those of the corresponding Na+ salts. However, such solutions also differ remarkably from their Na(+) analogues (and all other simple electrolytes in aqueous solution) in that their average water relaxation times correlate strongly with their bulk viscosities. The biological implications of the present results are briefly discussed.

  4. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis. (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan


    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composite Properties of Polyimide Resins Made From "Salt-Like" Solution Precursors (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.; Echigo, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Hisayasu


    Recent work in high temperature materials at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC (trademark)) have led to the development of new polyimide resin systems with very attractive properties. The majority of the work done with these resin systems has concentrated on determining engineering mechanical properties of composites prepared from a poly(amide acid) precursor. Three NASA Langley-developed polyimide matrix resins, LaRC (trademark) -IA, LaRC (trademark) -IAX, and LaRC (trademark) -8515, were produced via a salt-like process developed by Unitika Ltd. The 'salt-like' solutions (sixty-five percent solids in NMP) were prepregged onto Hexcel IM7 carbon fiber using the NASA LaRC Multipurpose Tape Machine. Process parameters were determined and composite panels fabricated. Mechanical properties are presented for these three intermediate modulus carbon fiber/polyimide matrix composites and compared to existing data on the same polyimide resin systems and IM7 carbon fiber manufactured via poly(amide acid) solutions (thirty-five percent solids in NMP). This work studies the effects of varying the synthetic route on the processing and mechanical properties of polyimide composites.

  6. Changes in mechanical properties and morphology of elastomer coatings after immersion in salt solutions (United States)

    Terán Arce, Fernando; Avci, Recep; Beech, Iwona; Cooksey, Keith; Wigglesworth-Cooksey, Barbara


    RTV11 (^TM GE Silicones) and Intersleek (^TM International Paints) are two elastomers of considerable significance to the navy and maritime industry for their application as fouling release coatings. Both materials are composed of polymeric matrices with embedded filler particles, which provide increased strength and durability to the elastomer. Using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface and bulk analysis techniques, we have found surface regions with microelastic properties, which correlate with the locations of filler particles inside the coatings. These particles are able to undergo elastic displacements of hundreds of nm inside the polymeric matrix during compression by the AFM tip. While elastic properties of Intersleek remain largely unchanged after immersion in salt solutions, roughening, embrittlement and stiffening occurs in RTV11 coatings depending on the amount of curing agent and humidity used during preparation and curing, respectively. Interestingly, such transformations are absent after immersion in pure water. In particle free regions, elastic moduli of RTV11 take values of 2 - 3 MPa before immersion in salt solutions. After immersion, those values increase 5 - 10 times.

  7. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions. (United States)

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V


    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of nanoparticle heating on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Alexander, Andrew J.; Camp, Philip J.


    The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface. This leads to a transient reduction in molality in the proximal zone and an increase in ion clustering in the distal zone. At longer times, ions begin to diffuse back into the proximal zone. It is speculated that the formation of proximal and distal zones, and the increase in ion clustering, plays a role in the mechanism of nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation.

  9. BALANCE (United States)

    Carmichael, H.


    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  10. Determining the Enthalpy of Vaporization of Salt Solutions Using the Cooling Effect of a Bubble Column Evaporator (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Pashley, Richard M.


    The enthalpy of vaporization (?H[subscript vap]) of salt solutions is not easily measured, as a certain quantity of pure water has to be evaporated from a solution, at constant composition, and at a fixed temperature and pressure; then the corresponding heat input has to be measured. However, a simple bubble column evaporator (BCE) was used as a…

  11. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry. (United States)

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter


    BACKGROUND.: Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Because no preclinical control for solute concentrations is available so far using this new process, we employed routine clinical chemistry analytics. METHODS.: We report the controls of solute concentrations created by these methods for 746 samples of concentrates and 151 dissolution processes. For analysis, absolute and relative deviations from prescriptions and associations between the solute concentrations and the density controls of the concentrates were computed. RESULTS.: A total of 98% of all the concentrates were found to be within a 10% margin of error from the prescriptions. The mean relative deviation of the solute concentrations from the prescriptions was -0.635 ± 3.83%. Among particular solutes, sodium had the highest maximum deviation of 26 mmol/L from the prescription. Calcium and magnesium (small concentration solutes) exhibited small systematic errors of 1.37 and 1.22%, respectively. Other solute concentrations showed random errors only and no associations with the mean relative deviations of all the solutes within a production batch or with the density controls. CONCLUSIONS.: Single solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry after dry salt production of concentrates is a valuable additional tool for monitoring clinical risk with dialysate concentrates. The analytical random error of clinical chemistry exceeds the weight tolerance of production; therefore, such analytics cannot be used for precision production and control of dry salt containers.

  12. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara


    indicates that only a minor part of the chloride ions is bound in Friedel's in the studied Portland cement (P) and limestone blended (L) cement. The chloride binding capacity with respect to the formation of Friedel's salt by consumption of monocarbonate is reached for the P and L mortars, where only...... a fraction of about 20% of the amount of C3A is found to contribute to formation of Friedel's salt. Higher amounts of Friedel's salt are formed in the metakaolin containing mortars. However, the limited chloride ingress depths prevent quantification of the potential full chloride binding capacity of Friedel......Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  13. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy


    buffer is used as release media. Generally, the initial release of the drug salt from in situ suspensions occurred faster as compared to conventional suspensions, probably due to incomplete precipitation of the drug salt, and hence formation of supersaturated solutions where the rate of release......A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...... indicated that the release of drug salt in deionized water was predominantly limited by the diffusion across the membrane whereas it is essentially dissolution rate controlled in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.40). Thus, the in vitro model appears to have a potential in formulation screening when phosphate...

  14. [Physical and chemical evaluation during refrigeration storage of salted catfish (Pseudoplatystoma sp.) in brine solution, and packed under vacuum]. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diana; Barrero, Marinela; Kodaira, Makie


    Salting fish in the south Venezuelan towns are still the main method of preserving fish including cutt, and salting fish process, storage and commercialization. As the result, salted-dried fish is particularly susceptible to spoilage by a number of factors, including lipid oxidation, browning meat. Packing salted fish product is an alternative increasing storage life time reducing lost of quality and enhancing the storage time. The present study evaluated the physic, chemist, and sensory quality of fish fillet from cat fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp.) from Apure state, Venezuela. Fillet fish were placed in brine solution at 36% of sodium chloride 1:2 fillet: brine solution; after, they were packed under followed conditions: vacuum, vacuum and storage under refrigeration condition, and room temperature. The results showed significant differences (p refrigeration temperature after three moths. The best conditions treatment was vacuum packing and refrigeration at 4 degrees C.

  15. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank


    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  16. Neptunium sorption and co-precipitation of strontium in simulated DWPF salt solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.; Orebaugh, E.G.; King, C.M.


    Batch experiments performed using crushed slag saltstone (∼40 mesh) removed >80% of 237 Np from simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) salt solution. The concentration of 237 Np (110 pCi/ml) used was 1000x greater than levels in actual DWPF solutions. Neptunium-239 was used as a tracer and was formed by neutron activation of uranyl nitrate. Results showed that small amounts of crushed saltstone (as little as 0.05 grams), removed >80% of neptunium from 15 ml of simulated DWPF solution after several hours equilibration. The neptunium is sorbed on insoluble carbonates formed in and on the saltstone matrix. Further testing showed that addition of 0.01 and 0.10 ml of 1 molar Ca +2 (ie. Ca (NO 3 ) 2 , CaCl 2 ) into 15 ml of simulated DWPF solution yielded a white carbonate precipitate which also removed >80% of the neptunium after 1 hour equilibration. Further experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of this procedure to co-precipitate strontium

  17. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Li, X.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)


    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of Intravenously Administered Crystalloid Solutions on Acid?Base Balance in Domestic Animals


    Muir, W.


    Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid?base balance. The Stewart approach to acid?base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules...

  19. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  20. Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn


    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m3 H2/m3·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H2/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Carbon nanotube doping mechanism in a salt solution and hygroscopic effect: density functional theory. (United States)

    Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Il Ha; Kim, Ki Kang; Kong, Jing; Lee, Seung Mi; Lee, Young Hee


    The mechanism of doping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a salt solution was investigated using the density functional theory. We propose that the anion-CNT complex is a key component in doping CNTs. Although the cations play an important role in ionizing CNTs as an intermediate precursor, the ionized CNTs are neutralized further by forming a stable anion-CNT complex as a final reactant. The anion-CNT bond has a strong ionic bonding character and clearly shows p-type behavior by shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. The midgap state is introduced by the strong binding of carbon and anion atoms. These localized charged anion sites are highly hygroscopic and induce the adsorption of water molecules. This behavior provides a new possibility for using anion-functionalized CNTs as humidity sensors.

  2. The preparation of magnetite from iron(III) and iron(II) salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, D.L.


    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite from iron(III) and iron(II) salt solutions at temperatures between 295 to 373 K. The effect of the reagent concentration, a chelating agent and different alkali-metal cations on the formation of magnetite has been investigated. The magnetite samples have been examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen, emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and by determination of the point of zero charge. A review of previous work on the preparation of magnetite in an aqueous environment is also included. This work is relevant to the corrosion processes which can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  3. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per


    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... volume method discretization. Indoor air relative humidity and moisture content distribution in the construction are compared for the experimented materials and conventional building materials. Results show better agreement between isotherms obtained by standard method and air-drying for low density...

  4. Micro-Arc oxidation of Ti in a solution of sulfuric acid and Ti+3 salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalevicius, Rimas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Niaura, Gediminas; Jagminas, Arunas


    A comparative study was performed on the behavior of titanium electrode in a sulfuric acid solution with and without Ti +3 during micro-arc oxidation under the constant current density control regime. The composition and microstructure of the obtained micro-arc films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, glancing-angle X-ray diffractometry, Raman and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. We have shown that addition of a Ti +3 salt extends the region of current densities (j a ) can be used for micro-arc oxidation of Ti and results in an obvious change of sparking behavior from extensive, large and long-played sparks to numerous, small and short sparks. As a consequence, the titania films formed in the Ti +3 -containing solutions are relatively thick, more uniform, composed of almost pure crystalline anatase and rutile phases of TiO 2 , and contain a network of evenly distributed small pores. It has also been shown that these films are promising for applications in catalysis, sensors and optoelectronics. The Raman spectra indicate that an increase in the electrolysis time of titanium in the Ti +3 -containing solution leads to the increase in rutile content, as expected

  5. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers


    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  6. Complex electronic waste treatment - An effective process to selectively recover copper with solutions containing different ammonium salts. (United States)

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y


    Recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste has been highlighted by the EU directives. The difficulties for recycling are induced by the high complexity of such waste. In this research, copper could be selectively recovered using an ammonia-based process, from industrially processed information and communication technology (ICT) waste with high complexity. A detailed understanding on the role of ammonium salt was focused during both stages of leaching copper into a solution and the subsequent step for copper recovery from the solution. By comparing the reactivity of the leaching solution with different ammonium salts, their physiochemical behaviour as well as the leaching efficiency could be identified. The copper recovery rate could reach 95% with ammonium carbonate as the leaching salt. In the stage of copper recovery from the solution, electrodeposition was introduced without an additional solvent extraction step and the electrochemical behaviour of the solution was figured out. With a careful control of the electrodeposition conditions, the current efficiency could be improved to be 80-90% depending on the ammonia salts and high purity copper (99.9wt.%). This research provides basis for improving the recyclability and efficiency of copper recovery from such electronic waste and the whole process design for copper recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Intravenously Administered Crystalloid Solutions on Acid-Base Balance in Domestic Animals. (United States)

    Muir, W


    Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules: SID > [HCO3-] increases plasma pH (alkalosis); SID solutions has little to no effect on plasma pH because of their low titratable acidity. Appreciation of IV fluid composition and an understanding of basic physicochemical principles provide therapeutically valuable insights about how and why fluid therapy can produce and correct alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium. The ideal balanced crystalloid should (1) contain species-specific concentrations of key electrolytes (Na + , Cl - , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ ), particularly Na + and Cl - ; (2) maintain or normalize acid-base balance (provide an appropriate SID); and (3) be isosmotic and isotonic (not induce inappropriate fluid shifts) with normal plasma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Freeze-Thaw Behavior of Mortar Containing Deicing Salt Solution. (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadi S; Farnam, Yaghoob; Bentz, Dale P; Zavattieri, Pablo D; Weiss, Jason


    This paper presents a one-dimensional finite difference model that is developed to describe the freeze-thaw behavior of an air-entrained mortar containing deicing salt solution. A phenomenological model is used to predict the temperature and the heat flow for mortar specimens during cooling and heating. Phase transformations associated with the freezing/melting of water/ice or transition of the eutectic solution from liquid to solid are included in this phenomenological model. The lever rule is used to calculate the quantity of solution that undergoes the phase transformation, thereby simulating the energy released/absorbed during phase transformation. Undercooling and pore size effects are considered in the numerical model. To investigate the effect of pore size distribution, this distribution is considered using the Gibbs-Thomson equation in a saturated mortar specimen. For an air-entrained mortar, the impact of considering pore size (and curvature) on freezing was relatively insignificant; however the impact of pore size is much more significant during melting. The fluid inside pores smaller than 5 nm (i.e., gel pores) has a relatively small contribution in the macroscopic freeze-thaw behavior of mortar specimens within the temperature range used in this study (i.e., +24 °C to -35 °C), and can therefore be neglected for the macroscopic freeze-thaw simulations. A heat sink term is utilized to simulate the heat dissipation during phase transformations. Data from experiments performed using a low-temperature longitudinal guarded comparative calorimeter (LGCC) on mortar specimens fully saturated with various concentration NaCl solutions or partially saturated with water is compared to the numerical results and a promising agreement is generally obtained.

  9. Periodic Solutions of the Duffing Harmonic Oscillator by He's Energy Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-Naggar


    Full Text Available Duffing harmonic oscillator is a common model for nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering. This paper presents He´s Energy Balance Method (EBM for solving nonlinear differential equations. Two strong nonlinear cases have been studied analytically. Analytical results of the EBM are compared with the solutions obtained by using He´s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (FAF and numerical solutions using Runge-Kutta method. The results show the presented method is potentially to solve high nonlinear oscillator equations.

  10. Significant Enhancement in the Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films through a Treatment with Organic Solutions of Inorganic Salts. (United States)

    Fan, Zeng; Du, Donghe; Yu, Zhimeng; Li, Pengcheng; Xia, Yijie; Ouyang, Jianyong


    Conducting polymers have promising thermoelectric application because they have many advantages including abundant elements, mechanical flexibility, and nontoxicity. The thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers strongly depend on their chemical structure and microstructure. Here, we report a novel and facile method to significantly enhance the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) films through a treatment with organic solutions of inorganic salts. N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) and a common inorganic salt like zinc chloride (ZnCl2) are used as the solvent and solute of the solutions, respectively. The treatments can significantly increase both the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the PSS films. The thermoelectric properties of the PSS films are sensitive to the experimental conditions, such as the salt concentration, treatment temperature, and the cation of the salts. After treatment at the optimal experimental conditions, the PSS films can exhibit a Seebeck coefficient of 26.1 μV/K and an electrical conductivity of over 1400 S/cm at room temperature. The corresponding power factor is 98.2 μW/(m·K(2)). The mechanism for the enhancement in the thermoelectric properties is attributed to the segregation of some PSSH chains from PSS and the conformation change of PEDOT chains as a result of the synergetic effects of inorganic salts and DMF.

  11. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Potassium Taurate Solutions : Part 1. Crystallization in Carbon Dioxide Loaded Aqueous Salt Solutions of Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.S.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    Crystallization of a reaction product was observed during the absorption of CO2 in aqueous potassium taurate solutions at 298 K. The crystallizing solid was found to be the protonated amine. The critical CO2 loading value at which crystallization occurred was measured for various amino acid salt

  12. Stability of interbed for salt cavern gas storage in solution mining considering cusp displacement catastrophe theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu


    Full Text Available Cusp displacement catastrophe theory can be introduced to propose a new method about instability failure of the interbed for gas storage cavern in bedded salt in solution mining. We can calculate initial fracture drawing pace of this interbed to obtain 2D and 3D gas storage shapes at this time. Moreover, Stability evaluation of strength reduction finite element method (FEM based on this catastrophe theory can used to evaluate this interbed stability after initial fracture. A specific example is simulated to obtain the influence of the interbed depth, cavern internal pressure, and cavern building time on stability safety factor (SSF. The results indicate: the value of SSF will be lower with the increase of cavern building time in solution mining and the increase of interbed depth and also this value remains a rise with the increase of cavern internal pressure Especially, we can conclude that the second-fracture of the interbed may take place when this pressure is lower than 6 MPa or after 6 days later of the interbed after initial fracture. According to above analysis, some effective measures, namely elevating the tube up to the top of the interbed, or changing the circulation of in-and-out lines, can be introduced to avoid the negative effects when the second-fracture of the interbed may occur.

  13. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium salt of adipic acid bis-(2,4,6-triiodo-3-carboxyanilide). [Gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, V.T.; Pikaev, A.K.; Shubnyakova, L.P.; Sysoeva, K.S.


    The ..gamma.. radiolysis of aqueous solutions of the sodium salt of adipic acid bis-(2,4,6-triiodo-3-carboxyanilide) was studied. The radiation-chemical decomposition yields of this compound and the formation of iodide ions under various conditions were measured. (auth)

  14. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van


    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  15. Formation of Hydrogen-Ion in Isomolar Solution of Hydrochloric and Hydrobromic Acids and Their Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kovaleva


    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a large amount of factual material on thermodynamic parameters of complexation of agents in different solvents, including mixed ones, obtained knowledge is specific in nature. In order to identify more general patterns, studies are relevant that would allow to interpret the obtained data taking into account the interaction between chemical forms in solutions. This paper presents a general approach to studying weak ionic interactions in solutions that allows to simultaneously determine the constants of these interactions and the parameters characterizing the influence of changes in the ionic environment on these constants by the example of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals. The obtained constants for hydrosulfate-ion formation and the imperfection parameters can be a reference material for more accurate calculation of the concentration of hydrogen ions in sulfuric acid solutions. The developed approach and patterns identified in the work can be used to study the balanced states for formation of low and medium stable complexes.

  16. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro


    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  17. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavallari


    Full Text Available The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA, diethylamine (DEtA, triethylamine (TEtA, monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA, triethanolamine (TEA, pyrrolidine (Py, piperidine (Pp, morpholine (M, piperazine (Pz and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; a saturated solution (5 mL of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane.

  18. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Diagnosis of upper-ocean heat and salt balances using least squares with inequality constraints (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.


    Heat and salt balances in the upper 200 m are examined using data from Seaglider spatial surveys June 2008 to January 2010 surrounding a NOAA surface mooring at Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W). A least-squares approach is applied to repeat Seaglider survey and moored measurements to solve for unknown or uncertain monthly three-dimensional circulation and vertical diffusivity. Within the surface boundary layer, the estimated heat and salt balances are dominated throughout the surveys by turbulent flux, vertical advection, and for heat, radiative absorption. When vertically integrated balances are considered, an estimated upwelling of cool water balances the net surface input of heat, while the corresponding large import of salt across the halocline due to upwelling and diffusion is balanced by surface moisture input and horizontal import of fresh water. Measurement of horizontal gradients allows the estimation of unresolved vertical terms over more than one annual cycle; diffusivity in the upper-ocean transition layer decreases rapidly to the depth of the maximum near-surface stratification in all months, with weak seasonal modulation in the rate of decrease and profile amplitude. Vertical velocity is estimated to be on average upward but with important monthly variations. Results support and expand existing evidence concerning the importance of horizontal advection in the balances of heat and salt in the Gulf of Alaska, highlight time and depth variability in difficult-to-measure vertical transports in the upper ocean, and suggest avenues of further study in future observational work at OSP.

  19. Speciation in Solutions of Lithium Salts in Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Propylene Carbonate, and Dimethyl Carbonate from Raman Data: A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gorobets


    Full Text Available Our recent Raman studies of cation and anion solvation and ion pairing in solutions of lithium salts in dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene carbonate, and dimethyl carbonate are briefly overviewed. Special attention is paid to differences in our and existing data and concepts. As follows from our results, cation solvation numbers in solutions are low (~2 and disagree with previous measurements. This discrepancy is shown to arise from correct accounting for dimerization, hydrogen bonding, and conformation equilibria in the solvents disregarded in early studies. Another disputable question touches upon the absence of free ions in solutions of lithium salts in carbonate solvents and the statement that the charge transfer in carbonate solutions is caused by SSIPs. Direct proofs of the nature of charge carriers in the solvents studied have been obtained by means of analyses of vibrational dynamics. It has been found that collision times for free anions are short and evidence weak interactions between anions and solvent molecules. In SSIPs, collision times are an order of magnitude longer thus signifying strong interactions between anions and cations. In CIPs, collision times become shorter than in SSIPs reflecting the transformation of the structure of concentrated solutions to that of molten salts.

  20. Cations extraction of sandy-clay soils from cavado valley, portugal, using sodium salts solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva João Eudes da


    Full Text Available Cases of contamination by metals in the water wells of the Cavado Valley in north-west Portugal can be attributed to the heavy leaching of clay soils due to an excess of nitrogen resulting from the intensive use of fertilisers in agricultural areas. This work focuses on the natural weathering characteristics of soils, particularly the clay material, through the study of samples collected near the River Cavado. Samples taken from various sites, after physico-chemical characterisation, were subjected to clay dissolution tests, using sodium salts of different ionic forces, to detect the relationship between certain physico-chemical parameters of water, such as pH, nitrate, chloride and sulphate content, in the dissolution of clay and the subsequent extraction of such cations as Al, Fe and K. In acidic sandy clay soils, the mineralogical composition of which was characterised by a predominance of quartz, micas, kaolinite and K-feldspars, decreases of the clay material/water pH ratio increases dissolution of the micaceous and K-feldspars phases. The presence of nitrates in the aqueous solution apparently advanced the extraction of all three cations Al, Fe and K. The specific surface area of the clay material showed a significant correlation with the main kinetic parameters of cation extraction.

  1. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan


    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  2. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.


    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  3. SANS from Salt-Free Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophilic and Highly Charged Star-Branched Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boué


    Full Text Available Scattering functions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (NaPSS star-branched polyelectrolytes with high sulfonation degrees were measured from their salt-free aqueous solutions, using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS technique. Whatever the concentration c, they display two maxima. The first, of abscissa q1*, is related to a position order between star cores and scales as q1* ∝ c1/3. The second, of abscissa q2*, is also observed in the scattering function of a semi-dilute solution of NaPSS linear polyelectrolytes. In the dilute regime (c < c*, non-overlapping stars, peak abscissa does not depend on concentration c and is just an intramolecular characteristic associated with the electrostatic repulsion between arms of the same star. In the semi-dilute regime, due to the star interpenetration, the scattering function – through the peak position, reflects repulsion between arms of the same star or of different stars. The c threshold between these distinct c-dependencies of q2* in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes is estimated as c*. Just as simple is the measurement of the geometrical radius R of the star obtained from the q1* value at c* through the relation 2R = 2π/q1*. By considering NaPSS stars of the same functionality with different degrees of polymerization per arm Na, we find R scaling linearly with Na, suggesting an elongated average conformation of the arms. This is in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulations. Meanwhile the value of q2* measured in the dilute regime does not allow any inhomogeneous counterion distribution inside the stars to be revealed.

  4. Effects of Monovalent and Divalent Salt Solutions on the Transport of Toxoplasma gondii in Saturated Porous Media (United States)

    Darnault, C. J. G.; Pullano, C. P.; Mutty, T.; L'Ollivier, C.; Dubey, J. P.; Dumetre, A.


    The pathogenic microorganism Toxoplasma gondii is a current public health threat. Knowledge of the fate and transport of T. gondii in the environment, especially the subsurface, is critical to evaluate the risk of soil and groundwater contaminations. The physico-chemcial properties of groundwater systems, i.e. solution chemistry and aquifer materials, play a key role in the interaction of biocolloids with surfaces and therefore their mobility. This research examines how different salt solutions alter the mobility of T. gondii through saturated porous media. Salt solutions containing varying ionic strengths and concentrations of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride were used to test the transport of the T. gondii oocysts. These tests were performed using quartz silica sand columns fed by a peristaltic pump in order to generate flow and transport of the biocolloids. The salt solution was pumped though the column followed by a pulse of the T. gondii oocysts, then a pulse of salt solution without oocysts, and then lastly a pulse of distilled water. Sampling of the solution exiting the columns was tested for T. gondii oocysts using qPCR in order to quantify the oocysts present. The breakthough curve results were then compared to a conservative bromide tracer test in order to determine the factors associated with the movement of these biocolloids through the sand columns. A model of the flow of the toxoplasma colloids through the sand matrix was made in order to characterize the parameters affecting the transport and retention of T. gondii occysts though saturated porous media.

  5. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.


    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  6. Physico-Chemical Study of the Separation of Calcium Isotopes by Chemical Exchange Between Amalgam and Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duie, P.; Dirian, G.


    In a preliminary study of the isotopic exchange between Ca amalgam and aqueous or organic solutions of Ca salts, the main parameters governing the feasibility of a separation process based on these systems such as separation factor, exchange kinetics, rate of decomposition of the amalgam were investigated. The separation factor between 40 Ca and 46 Ca was found to be of the order of 1.02. The rate of the exchange reaction is rather low for aqueous solutions, extremely low for organic solutions. The amalgam seems not to be attacked by dimethyl-formamide solutions; but it is rapidly decomposed by aqueous solutions of Ca halides. This decomposition is slow in the case of aqueous solutions of calcium formate and still slower for Ca(OH) 2 ; however, except in particular conditions, the observed rate is often much higher, owing to interfering reactions between amalgam and water vapor contained in H 2 bubbles. (authors) [fr

  7. Saturated salt solution: a further step to a formaldehyde-free embalming method for veterinary gross anatomy. (United States)

    Lombardero, M; Yllera, M M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Oliveira, M J; Ferreira, P G


    In the field of veterinary anatomy, most of the specimens used in practical sessions are perfused with fixatives. Thus, they can be used for a longer time , reducing the number of animals for educational purposes. Formalin is the most commonly used fixative, consisting of a 37% formaldehyde solution. However, formaldehyde is a powerful irritant of the eyes and airways and is considered carcinogenic, causing nasopharyngeal cancer in exposed workers and professionals. In the present study, we explored an alternative method to avoid the use of formaldehyde in specimens used for gross anatomy practical sessions. We propose an inexpensive, non-toxic fixative that is available worldwide, such as sea salt. This method consists of a continuous perfusion of saturated salt solution for a period of 6-8 h, enabling drainage of the solution to avoid a weight increase of the specimen, and allowing salt to be retained in the tissue. The method is based on recirculation of the saturated salt solution instead of maceration. Perfused specimens retained their natural consistency and joint mobility, with no blood, resembling a piece of meat from the slaughterhouse. They could be used immediately without a maceration period, or stored in the fridge until use and then kept in a bath of saturated salt solution for future conservation. In the case of the former, no refrigeration was needed. The specimens did not have an irritating or offensive smell, and could be used for long sessions (several hours per day) and stored for long periods. However, the blood vessels used for perfusion determine the results: a less invasive approach (through common carotid arteries) gave good preservation of the musculoskeletal system, whereas more invasive access to cannulate the abdominal aorta and vena cava caudalis was required to achieve better preservation of the viscera. In conclusion, we propose that perfusion followed by immersion in a saturated salt solution is a good alternative method for the

  8. Nanofiltration as energy-efficient solution for sulfate waste in vacuum salt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Steensma, M.; ten Kate, A.; Westerink, J.B.; Demmer, R.L.M.; Bakkenes, H.; Manuhutu, C.F.H.


    In vacuum salt production sulfate is an important impurity, but it is also used to remove other cationic impurities from the raw brine. Removal of excess sulfate is currently done by purging salt crystallizer mother liquor from the brine plant, or crystallizing sodium sulfate through evaporative or

  9. Effect of temperature on solvation behaviour of diclofenac sodium salt in aqueous glycine and L-proline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Gardas, Ramesh L; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna


    Highlights: • Solvation behaviour of diclofenac drug studied in aqueous solutions. • Density and speed of sound of drug in aq. glycine and L-proline are measured. • Hydrophobic nature of diclofenac sodium salt is studied. • Effect of temperature on solvation of diclofenac sodium salt is analysed. - Abstract: Apparent molar volume (V 2,ϕ ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2,ϕ ) of diclofenac sodium salt (DSS) drug within the concentration range of (0.001 to 0.008) mol · kg −1 in (0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) mol · kg −1 aqueous glycine and L-proline solutions are computed from the experimental density (ρ) and speed of sound (u) values at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Derived parameters such as partial molar properties, transfer partial molar properties, hydration numbers and Hepler’s constant are computed from the data of V 2,ϕ and K s,2,ϕ . These parameters have been used to understand the effect of temperature on interactions between DSS drug and aqueous glycine/L-proline solution. Furthermore, the structure making and breaking ability of DSS drug in probed solutions are analysed at experimental conditions

  10. Electronic Tongue for Qualitative Analysis of Aqueous Solutions of Salts Using Thick-film Technology and Metal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Soto


    Full Text Available An electronic tongue for the qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions of salts hasbeen developed. The following set of electrodes was used: RuO2, Ag, and Cu in thick-filmtechnology and Au, Pb, Zn and Ni as small bars of the corresponding metal. The response ofthe designed “electronic tongue” was tested on a family of samples containing pure salt andcomplex mixtures. The electrodes were used as potentiometric un-specific sensors and thee.m.f. of each electrode in contact with a certain aqueous solution was used as input signalfor a PCA analysis. The study showed that the set of electrodes were capable to discriminatebetween aqueous solutions of salts basically by their different content in anions and cations(the anions SO42-, Cl-, PO4H2-, CO3H-, NO3- and cations Na+ and K+ were studied. In orderto better analyze the basis for the discrimination power shown by the electronic tongue, aquantitative analysis was also envisaged. A fair estimation of the concentrations of thedifferent ions in the solutions studied appeared to be possible using this electronic tonguedesign.Keywords:

  11. Improved solution methods for an inverse problem related to a population balance model in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, Andreas; Krebs, Jochen


    In this paper, a population balance equation, originating from applications in chemical engineering, is considered and novel solution techniques for a related inverse problem are presented. This problem consists in the determination of the breakage rate and the daughter drop distribution of an evolving drop size distribution from time-dependent measurements under the assumption of self-similarity. We analyze two established solution methods for this ill-posed problem and improve the two procedures by adapting suitable data fitting and inversion algorithms to the specific situation. In addition, we introduce a novel technique that, compared to the former, does not require certain a priori information. The improved stability properties of the resulting algorithms are substantiated with numerical examples. (paper)

  12. Acid and salt uptake during the marinatig process of Engraulis anchoita fillets influence of the solution: fish ratio and agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Capaccioni


    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of different conditions of the marination stage on the salt and acid uptake, immersion time, and sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita. Different solution:fish ratios and the agitation effect during this stage were analyzed. The ratios used were: 0.77:1, 3:1 and 10:1 (with and without agitation. An increase of marinating solution:fish ratio causes a higher speed of acid and salt penetration The product obtained with the 10:1 ratio had a dry and fibrous texture and a slightly salty taste. Salt concentration was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the samples with agitation. Agitation did not influence the acid uptake, and the salt penetration speed decreased, but rancidity was detected in this product. The ratio 3:1 decreases the marinating time without damaging sensory attributes and can be used in the fish marinating process.

  13. Electrochemical activation of carbon cloth in aqueous inorganic salt solution for superior capacitive performance (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao; Tang, Jie; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue


    Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as an electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. However, pristine CC has such a low surface area and poor electrochemical activity that the energy storage capability is usually very poor. Herein, we report a green method, two-step electrochemical activation in an aqueous solution of inorganic salts, to significantly enhance the capacitance of CC for supercapacitor application. Micro-cracks, exfoliated carbon fiber shells, and oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) were introduced onto the surface of the carbon filament. This resulted in an enhancement of over two orders of magnitude in capacitance compared to that of the bare CC electrode, reaching up to a maximum areal capacitance of 505.5 mF cm-2 at the current density of 6 mA cm-2 in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of CC electrodes led to the removal of most electrochemically unstable surface OFGs, resulting in superior charging/discharging rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Although the activated CC electrode contained a high-level of surface oxygen functional groups (~15 at%), it still exhibited a remarkable charging-discharging rate capability, retaining ~88% of the capacitance when the charging rate increased from 6 to 48 mA cm-2. Moreover, the activated CC electrode exhibited excellent cycling stability with ~97% capacitance remaining after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 24 mA cm-2. A symmetrical supercapacitor based on the activated CC exhibited an ideal capacitive behavior and fast charge-discharge properties. Such a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to activate CC shows great potential in the fabrication of high-performance flexible supercapacitors.Carbon cloth (CC) is an inexpensive and highly conductive textile with excellent mechanical flexibility and strength; it holds great promise as

  14. Global Classical Solutions for Partially Dissipative Hyperbolic System of Balance Laws (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Kawashima, Shuichi


    The basic existence theory of Kato and Majda enables us to obtain local-in-time classical solutions to generally quasilinear hyperbolic systems in the framework of Sobolev spaces (in x) with higher regularity. However, it remains a challenging open problem whether classical solutions still preserve well-posedness in the case of critical regularity. This paper is concerned with partially dissipative hyperbolic system of balance laws. Under the entropy dissipative assumption, we establish the local well-posedness and blow-up criterion of classical solutions in the framework of Besov spaces with critical regularity with the aid of the standard iteration argument and Friedrichs' regularization method. Then we explore the theory of function spaces and develop an elementary fact that indicates the relation between homogeneous and inhomogeneous Chemin-Lerner spaces (mixed space-time Besov spaces). This fact allows us to capture the dissipation rates generated from the partial dissipative source term and further obtain the global well-posedness and stability by assuming at all times the Shizuta-Kawashima algebraic condition. As a direct application, the corresponding well-posedness and stability of classical solutions to the compressible Euler equations with damping are also obtained.

  15. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours, and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  16. Results for the first quarter calendar year 2017 tank 50H salt solution sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the First Quarter Calendar Year 2017 (CY17) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The First Quarter CY17 Tank 50H samples [a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-50-17-7) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-17-8)] were obtained on January 15, 2017 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on January 16, 2017. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. All volatile organic analysis (VOA) and semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) were performed on the surface sample and all other analyses were performed on the variable depth sample. The information from this characterization will be used by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the First Quarter CY17 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). This memorandum is part of Deliverable 2 from SRR request. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the TTQAP for the Tank 50H saltstone task.

  17. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal Setschenow salting constants in sulfate, nitrate, and chloride solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waxman, Eleanor M.; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo


    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols....... We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.......06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na...

  18. highly selective amino acid salt solutions as absorption liquid for CO(2) capture in gas-liquid membrane contactors. (United States)

    Simons, Katja; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Mengers, Harro; Brilman, Wim; Wessling, Matthias


    The strong anthropogenic increase in the emission of CO(2) and the related environmental impact force the developments towards sustainability and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In the present work, we combine the high product yields and selectivities of CO(2) absorption processes with the advantages of membrane technology in a membrane contactor for the separation of CO(2) from CH(4) using amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquid to alkanol amine solutions. Amino acids, such as sarcosine, have the same functionality as alkanol amines (e.g., monoethanolamine=MEA), but in contrast, they exhibit a better oxidative stability and resistance to degradation. In addition, they can be made nonvolatile by adding a salt functionality, which significantly reduces the liquid loss due to evaporation at elevated temperatures in the desorber. Membrane contactor experiments using CO(2)/CH(4) feed mixtures to evaluate the overall process performance, including a full absorption/desorption cycle show that even without a temperature difference between absorber and desorber, a CO(2)/CH(4) selectivity of over 70 can be easily achieved with the sarcosine salt solution as absorption liquid. This selectivity reaches values of 120 at a temperature difference between absorber and desorber of 35 degrees C, compared to a value of only 60 for MEA under the same conditions. Although CO(2) permeance values are somewhat lower than the values obtained for MEA, the results clearly show the potential of amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquids for the energy efficient removal of CO(2). In addition, due to the low absorption of CH(4) in sarcosine compared to MEA, the loss of CH(4) is reduced and significantly higher CH(4) product yields can be obtained.

  19. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder


    on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental......We have proposed a method of deducing the chemical compounds found in deep polar ice cores by analyzing the balance between six major ions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). The method is demonstrated for the Holocene and last glacial maximum regions of the Dome Fuji and GRIP ice cores....... The dominant compounds depend only on the ion balance and the sequence of chemical reactions. In priority order, the principle salts are calcium sulfate, other sulfates, nitrate, chloride, and carbonate. The chemical abundances deduced by this method agree well with the results of Raman spectroscopy...

  20. Mixing-cell boundary conditions and apparent mass balance errors for advective dispersive solute transport (United States)

    Gimmi, Thomas; Flühler, Hannes


    In many field or laboratory situations, well-mixed reservoirs like, for instance, injection or detection wells and gas distribution or sampling chambers define boundaries of transport domains. Exchange of solutes or gases across such boundaries can occur through advective or diffusive processes. First we analyzed situations, where the inlet region consists of a well-mixed reservoir, in a systematic way by interpreting them in terms of injection type. Second, we discussed the mass balance errors that seem to appear in case of resident injections. Mixing cells (MC) can be coupled mathematically in different ways to a domain where advective-dispersive transport occurs: by assuming a continuous solute flux at the interface (flux injection, MC-FI), or by assuming a continuous resident concentration (resident injection). In the latter case, the flux leaving the mixing cell can be defined in two ways: either as the value when the interface is approached from the mixing-cell side (MC-RI-), or as the value when it is approached from the column side (MC-RI+). Solutions of these injection types with constant or—in one case—distance-dependent transport parameters were compared to each other as well as to a solution of a two-layer system, where the first layer was characterized by a large dispersion coefficient. These solutions differ mainly at small Péclet numbers. For most real situations, the model for resident injection MC-RI+ is considered to be relevant. This type of injection was modeled with a constant or with an exponentially varying dispersion coefficient within the porous medium. A constant dispersion coefficient will be appropriate for gases because of the Eulerian nature of the usually dominating gaseous diffusion coefficient, whereas the asymptotically growing dispersion coefficient will be more appropriate for solutes due to the Lagrangian nature of mechanical dispersion, which evolves only with the fluid flow. Assuming a continuous resident concentration at

  1. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes


    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  2. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase\\ud under High Salt Concentration


    Rao, L.; Zhao, X.; Pan, F.; Li, Y.; Xue, Y.; Ma, Y.; Lu, J.R.


    Background: Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. Methodology/Principal Findings: A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a rang...

  3. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase under High Salt Concentration


    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R.


    BACKGROUND: Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a rang...

  4. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies. (United States)

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer


    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  5. Separation of Lead (Pb2+ and Cadmium (Cd2+ from Single and Binary Salt Aqueous Solutions Using Nanofiltration Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abed Mohammed


    Full Text Available The present work reports on the performance of three types of nanofiltration membranes in the removal of highly polluting and toxic lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd2+ from single and binary salt aqueous solutions simulating real wastewaters. The effect of the operating variables (pH (5.5-6.5, types of NF membrane and initial ions concentration (10-250 ppm on the separation process and water flux was investigated. It was observed that the rejection efficiency increased with increasing pH of solution and decreasing the initial metal ions concentrations. While the flux decreased with increasing pH of solution and increasing initial metal ions concentrations. The maximum rejection of lead and cadmium ions in single salt solution was 99%, 97.5 % and 98 % at pH 6, 6.5 and 6.2 and 78%, 49.2% and 44% at pH 6.5, 6.2 and 6.5 for NF1, NF2 and NF3 respectively. On the other hand, maximum permeate flux for single NF2 (32.2> NF3 (16.1>NF1 (14.2 (l/m2.h for 100 ppm, higher than binary salt solution was NF2 (23.7 ˃ NF3 (13 ˃ NF1 (8 (l/m2.h for (10 Pb2+/50 Cd2+ ppm. The NF membranes proved able to achieve high separation efficiency of both lead and cadmium ions in very suitable conditions, leaving wastewaters in a condition suitable prior discharged into the environment.

  6. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies. (United States)

    Vane, Leland M


    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  7. On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mütze, Annekathrin, E-mail:; Heunemann, Peggy; Fischer, Peter [ETH Zürich, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)


    Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear stress, concentration, temperature, and composition of the counterions (X = lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) of the salicylate salt solute to determine vorticity and gradient shear bands. A combination of rheological measurements, laser technique, video analysis, and rheo-small-angle neutron scattering allow for a detailed exploration of number and types of shear bands. Typical flow curves of the solutions show Newtonian, shear-thinning, and shear-thickening flow behavior. In the shear-thickening regime, the solutions show vorticity and gradient shear bands simultaneously, in which vorticity shear bands dominate the visual effect, while gradient shear bands always coexist and predominate the rheological response. It is shown that gradient shear bands change their phases (turbid, clear) with the same frequency as the shear rate oscillates, whereas vorticity shear bands change their phases with half the frequency of the shear rate. Furthermore, we show that with increasing molecular mass of the counterions the number of gradient shear bands increases, while the number of vorticity shear bands remains constant. The variation of temperature, shear stress, concentration, and counterions results in a predictable change in the rheological behavior and therefore allows adjustment of the number of vorticity shear bands in the shear band regime.

  8. Modification of thermal sensitivity of Chinese hamster cells by exposure to solutions of monovalent and divalent cationic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Vadasz, J.


    Chinese hamster V79 cells were heated in culture medium or in -3 solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 and BaCl 2 . The presence of any one of these ionic solutions during heating increased the thermal sensitivity of the cells. The order of increased thermal sensitivity was KCl > LiCl > NaCl for the monovalent salts and BaCl 2 > MgCl 2 > CaCl 2 for the divalent cation salts. The addition of glucose to LiCl or NaCl solutions did not reduce the thermal sensitization caused by these solutions. When cells were sensitized by LiCl or NaCl treatment, a change in pH from 7.2 to 6.6 did not further increase thermal sensitivity. These data show that nutrient and ionic factors and their interplay are involved in cellular thermal sensitivity

  9. Spontaneous polyiodide formation by unbalancing of charge in room-temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt solutions (United States)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Aono, Masami; Kyuko, Yoshiki; Nagaya, Shoki; Koyama, Shu; Abe, Hiroshi


    Spontaneous formations of polyiodides, Im-, were observed in room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-lithium salt solutions. The RTILs consisted of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, [Cnmim][I] (n = 3, 4, and 6). The lithium salt used was lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, Li[FSI]. By Raman spectroscopy, the gradual increase in the peak intensities of the polyiodides at a fixed temperature in the [Cnmim][I]-Li[FSI]-ethanol mixtures was observed along with color changes of the mixtures. Because no polyiodides were observed in the [C4mim][I] - [C4mim][FSI] mixture, it was determined that the spontaneous formation of Im- without external addition of iodine was induced by the Li ion.

  10. Kinetic study of CO2 with various amino acid salts in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoist, J.; Versteeg, G. F.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Holst, J. v


    A study towards the kinetics Of CO2 with several aqueous salts of amino acids was performed at a temperature of 298 K. Absorption rate experiments were carried out in the pseudo-first-order regime, enabling the determination of the kinetic rate constant from the flux. In a preliminary screening at a

  11. Estimation of effect of inorganic salts on state of melts and carbamide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymnikov, N.S.; Yakunin, N.A.; Baranov, A.V.; Moryganov, A.P.


    The character of coordination in the systems carbamide-LiCl and carbamide-CaCl 2 has been shown on the basis of IR spectroscopy data. Interrelation between complexing in the melt carbamide-inorganic salt and thermal resistance of amide compound has been ascertained. 3 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Using oral rehydration solution (oral rehydration salt with the addition of probiotic strain for the treatment of children with acute infectious pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Kramarov


    Full Text Available Background. Dehydration may be present in children with acute infectious pathology, for elimination of which we can use oral rehydration solutions (oral rehydration salts. When antibiotic therapy is prescribed, about 11–40 % of children have antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD. To prevent the development of AAD, it is recommended to use probiotic drugs. Purpose of the study: to examine the efficacy and tolerability of the oral rehydration solution (Rehydron Bio to maintain the water-electrolyte balance and prevent dysbiotic disorders in children with acute infectious diseases. Materials and methods. The study involved 60 children aged 3 to 14 years old with acute infectious diseases, who underwent in-patient treatment at the clinical basis of the department of children’s infectious diseases of Bogomolets NMU and received antibacterial therapy. The main group consisted of 30 children, who received Rehydron Bio as a part of comprehensive therapy. The comparison group included 30 children, who received standard therapy and were compensated for fluid loss by traditional means (tea, drinking water, etc.. Results. Among dehydration symptoms, the most often ones were the thirst and dryness of the mucous membranes, which were detected in 40–63 % of patients during the first day after hospitalization. The restoration of water-electrolyte balance due to the introduction of water and basic mineral substances ensures the rapid disappearance of dehydration symptoms. The AAD was detected in 10.0 % of patients in comparison group, the additional introduction of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevented the development of this complication. Conclusions. Oral rehydration with Rehydron Bio is an effective therapy of water-electrolyte disturbances in children with acute infectious diseases. The presence in Rehydron Bio of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG allows it to be used to prevent AAD in children with acute infectious diseases.

  13. Will mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate or citric acid improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Manley, Karen Joy


    Uraemic symptoms including taste changes, nausea and dry retching are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taste buds detect five basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, umami and bitter. Saliva in CKD usually has increased concentrations of urea, sodium, potassium, phosphate and higher pH levels. Genetic sensitivities to the bitter taste, with the changes in saliva can cause taste changes and impact uraemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess if mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid improves upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in CKD patients. An interventional crossover study with 42 CKD patients (21 men, 21 women) complaining of upper GI symptoms were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire to assess symptoms and tested for genetic taste sensitivities. Saliva samples were analysed. Mouth rinse solutions of salt, bicarbonate, citric acid and de-ionised water were trialled in randomized order for patient reaction and symptom improvement. All 42 patients experienced anorexia, 39 (93%) reported taste changes, 27 (48%) nausea and 27 (48%) dry retching. All solutions improved symptoms in some patients. Sodium bicarbonate (P = 0.005) gave the greatest improvement in mouth feel and symptom control compared with the least favoured citric acid solution. Sixty-six percent of patients found sodium bicarbonate beneficial with 40% preference over other solutions. Simple mouthwashes can be used to relieve or eliminate some uraemic symptoms. Rinsing the mouth with a sodium bicarbonate solution cleanses receptors on taste buds and may alter mouth pH thereby reducing some upper GI symptoms that CKD patients can experience. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro


    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  15. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains


    Moia, Davide; Giovannitti, Alexander; Szumska, Anna A.; Schnurr, Martin; Rezasoltani, Elham; Maria, Iuliana P.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny


    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient t...

  16. Experimental determination of Henry's law constants of difluoromethane (HFC-32 and the salting-out effects in aqueous salt solutions relevant to seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kutsuna


    Full Text Available Gas-to-water equilibrium coefficients, KeqS (in M atm−1, of difluoromethane (CH2F2, a hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant (HFC-32, in aqueous salt solutions relevant to seawater were determined over a temperature (T range from 276 to 313 K and a salinity (S range up to 51 ‰ by means of an inert-gas stripping method. From the van't Hoff equation, the KeqS value in water, which corresponds to the Henry's law constant (KH, at 298 K was determined to be 0.065 M atm−1. The salinity dependence of KeqS (the salting-out effect, ln(KH∕KeqS, did not obey the Sechenov equation but was proportional to S0. 5. Overall, the KeqS(T value was expressed by ln(KeqS(T  =  −49.71 + (77.70 − 0.134  ×  S0. 5  ×  (100∕T + 19.14  ×  ln(T∕100. By using this equation in a lower-tropospheric semi-hemisphere (30–90 °S of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE 12-box model, we estimated that 1 to 4 % of the atmospheric burden of CH2F2 resided in the ocean mixed layer and that this percentage was at least 4 % in the winter; dissolution of CH2F2 in the ocean may partially influence estimates of CH2F2 emissions from long-term observational data of atmospheric CH2F2 concentrations.

  17. Depletion and double layer forces acting between charged particles in solutions of like-charged polyelectrolytes and monovalent salts. (United States)

    Moazzami-Gudarzi, Mohsen; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal; Trefalt, Gregor


    Interaction forces between silica particles were measured in aqueous solutions of the sodium salt of poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) and NaCl using the colloidal probe technique based on an atomic force microscope (AFM). The observed forces can be rationalized through a superposition of damped oscillatory forces and double layer forces quantitatively. The double layer forces are modeled using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory for a mixture of a monovalent symmetric electrolyte and a highly asymmetric electrolyte, whereby the multivalent coions represent the polyelectrolyte chains. The effective charge of the polyelectrolyte is found to be smaller than the bare number of charged groups residing on one polyelectrolyte molecule. This effect can be explained by counterion condensation. The interplay between depletion and double layer forces can be further used to predict the phase of the depletion force oscillations. However, this picture holds only at not too elevated concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and salt. At higher salt concentrations, attractive van der Waals forces become important, while at higher polyelectrolyte concentrations, the macromolecules adsorb onto the like-charged silica interface.

  18. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  19. Enhancement mechanisms behind exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions with an aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Fu-qiang; Gao, Jie; Li, Lan-juan; Bai, Zhi-ping; Ling, Chen; Zhu, Chang-qing; Chen, Da; Li, Ai-min


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions was achieved. • Interaction mechanisms and selective adsorption mechanisms were depicted. • Geometric structure of complex was optimized and affirmed by DFT. • Enhancement mechanism of salts was further investigated. - Abstract: The aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent (CEAD) could exclusively remove and to selectively recover copper. The adsorption and separation properties of Cu(II) onto CEAD from aqueous media, with or without salts such as NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 and Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , were systematically compared by carrying out single, binary and multiple component static and dynamic experiments. In binary systems, the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were obviously increased by 39.47%, 47.37% and 57.89% with Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , respectively. Besides, simulation study was performed to selectively recover Cu(II) from multi-component aqueous media, with the separation factor of only 54.91 in aqueous media without salts. The separation factor became infinite in the presence of NaNO 3 and the enhancement ratio for Cu(II) was raised by 126.31%. Dynamic adsorption could separate Cu(II) and Ni(II) completely and the amount of effluent for pure Ni(II) increased to 127 BV with the help of NaNO 3 . In the predominant chelating mode simulated by density functional theory calculation, a metal ion coordinated with three nitrogen atoms and formed a chelating complex with two five-membered rings, and Cu(II) showed stronger coordinating ability than Ni(II) did. Meanwhile, anions exerted significant beneficial effects by electrostatic screening, and thus strengthened the exclusive removal and selective recovery of Cu(II)

  20. Isolation of adenine salts in the gas phase from a liquid beam of aqueous solutions by IR laser irradiation (United States)

    Kohno, J.-Y.; Mafuné, F.; Kondow, T.


    A continuous liquid flow in a vacuum (a liquid beam) of an aqueous solution of adenine salt containing hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide was irradiated with an intense pulsed IR laser at 3 μm, which is resonant to a vibrational mode related to the OH stretch vibration of H2O. Neutral species isolated into the vacuum were ionized by a pulsed UV laser at 270 nm, and the product ions were mass-analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It is found that AH2^{2+}{\\cdot}2Cl^- and [ A iH] ^{i-}{\\cdot} iNa^+ (i=1 3) are isolated in the vacuum from the aqueous acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively, under irradiation of the IR laser, and undergo four-photon ionization involving decomposition and proton transfer of the intermediate species under irradiation of the UV laser.

  1. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods. (United States)

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz


    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  2. Comparison of whole-gut irrigation with golytely (GOL) and with a balanced electrolyte solution (BES) as preparation for colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, H.; Lantink, J. A.; Wiltink, E.; Tytgat, G. N.


    The cleansing results of whole-gut irrigation with golytely (GOL) or with a balanced electrolyte solution (BES) were compared in otherwise unprepared patients. In one study 30 patients were randomly prepared either with 4 l GOL or with BES till a clear rectal effluent was obtained. Only 4/15

  3. Electrical resistivities and solvation enthalpies for solutions of salts in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Dadd, A.T.


    An empirical correlation is shown to exist between the resistivity coefficients drho/dc for solutes in liquid alkali metals and the corresponding solvation enthalpies Usub(solvn) of the neutral gaseous solute species. Qualitative arguments based on an electrostatic solvation model in which the negative solute atom is surrounded by a solvation sphere of positive solvent ion cores are used to show that both parameters are dependent on the charge density of the solute atom and hence on the extent of charge transfer from solvent to solute. Thus as the charge density of the solute increases, the solvation enthalpy increases regularly and the resistivity coefficients pass through a maximum to give the observed approximately parabolic drho/dc versus Usub(solvn) relationship. (Auth.)

  4. Ice VII from aqueous salt solutions: From a glass to a crystal with broken H-bonds (United States)

    Klotz, S.; Komatsu, K.; Pietrucci, F.; Kagi, H.; Ludl, A.-A.; Machida, S.; Hattori, T.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Bove, L. E.


    It has been known for decades that certain aqueous salt solutions of LiCl and LiBr readily form glasses when cooled to below ≈160 K. This fact has recently been exploited to produce a « salty » high-pressure ice form: When the glass is compressed at low temperatures to pressures higher than 4 GPa and subsequently warmed, it crystallizes into ice VII with the ionic species trapped inside the ice lattice. Here we report the extreme limit of salt incorporation into ice VII, using high pressure neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations. We show that high-pressure crystallisation of aqueous solutions of LiCl•RH2O and LiBr•RH2O with R = 5.6 leads to solids with strongly expanded volume, a destruction of the hydrogen-bond network with an isotropic distribution of water-dipole moments, as well as a crystal-to-amorphous transition on decompression. This highly unusual behaviour constitutes an interesting pathway from a glass to a crystal where translational periodicity is restored but the rotational degrees of freedom remaining completely random.

  5. High-order approximate solutions of strongly nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator based on the harmonic balance method (United States)

    Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Hosen, Md. Alal; Ahmad, Kartini; Ali, M. Y.; Ismail, A. F.

    In this paper, a new reliable analytical technique has been introduced based on the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) to determine higher-order approximate solutions of the strongly nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator. The application of the HBM leads to very complicated sets of nonlinear algebraic equations. In this technique, the high-order nonlinear algebraic equations are approximated in the form of a power series solution, and this solution produces desired results even for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation. Moreover, a suitable truncation formula is found in which the solution measures better results than existing results and it saves a lot of calculation. It is highly noteworthy that using the proposed technique, the third-order approximate solutions gives an excellent agreement as compared with the numerical solutions (considered to be exact). The proposed technique is applied to the strongly nonlinear cubic-quintic Duffing oscillator to reveals its novelty, reliability and wider applicability.

  6. Density, Viscosity, Solubility, and Diffusivity of N2O in Aqueous Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    Solubility and diffusivity of N2O in aqueous solutions of potassium taurate are reported over a wide range of concentration and temperature. Also, the solubility of N2O in aqueous potassium glycinate solution is reported at 295 K. The ion specific constants are reported for taurate and glycinate

  7. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona


    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  8. Effect of anionic salts on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and udder oedema of dry pregnant cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an anionic diet on mineral metabolism, acid-base status and udder oedema of dairy cows fed grass silage based diets during the dry period. Eighteen pregnant, non-lactating Friesian cows were divided randomly into two groups according to their expected calving date. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as mill equivalents [(Na + + K + - (Cl - + S 2- ], for high DCAB (control and low DCAB treatments were +254 and -41 mEq kg -1 dry matter (DM, respectively. Anionic salts were ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl, magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 and magnesium sulphate (MgSO 4 . Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.9 kg DM and a concentrate mixture (2.7 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, 1 day and 1 week after calving. Udder oedema was evaluated by a quantitative and a subjective method. Acidification resulted in a marked decrease in urinary pH, increased urinary Ca excretion and a change in blood acidbase balance. Blood Ca 2+ and plasma Ca tot concentrations were more stable at parturition for the anionic group, although such differences were not statistically significant. Anionic salts (DCAB -41 mEq kg -1 DM did not cause udder oedema in experimental cows.;

  9. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion in the hydrolysis-polymerization course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyi Wang


    Full Text Available A new concept of critical point is expounded by analysing the potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. The critical point is defined as the characteristic spot of the Al3+ salt solutions potentiometric titration curve, which is related to the experiment conditions. In addition, the changes of critical points reflect the influence of experiment conditions on the course of the hydrolysis-polymerization and the conversion of hydroxyl polynuclear aluminum species. According to the OH/Al mole ratio, the Al species can be divided into four regions quantitatively by three characteristic points on the titration curves: Part I, Al3+/Ala region, consist chiefly of Al3+ and mononuclear Al; Part II, the small/middle polynuclear Al region, including Al2-Al12; Part III, the large-size polynuclear aluminum region, consistent with predominantly Al13-Al54 and a little sol/gel Al(OH3; Part IV, the dissolving region of sol/gel Alc, only Al(OH 3 (aq or am and Al(OH4- species, which set up a base to study on the hydrolysis-polymerization of Al3+. At the same time, significant effects of total aluminum concentration, temperature, halide ion, silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical points were observed. Given the three critical points which demarcating the aluminum forms, we carry out a through investigation into the fundamental regulations of these factors’ influence, and offer a fresh train of thought to study the hydrolysis-polymerization of Al3+ in soil solutions.

  10. Resuscitation with balanced electrolyte solution prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. (United States)

    Mahler, Simon A; Conrad, Steven A; Wang, Hao; Arnold, Thomas C


    The objective of the study was to determine if balanced electrolyte solution (BES) prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A convenience sample of DKA patients aged 18 to 65 years with serum bicarbonate less than or equal to 15 and anion gap greater than or equal to 16 was enrolled at "Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport" an capitalize Emergency Department over a 24-month period (2006-2008). Patients were randomized to standardized resuscitation with normal saline (NS) or BES (Plasma-Lyte A pH 7.4; Baxter International, Deerfield, IL). Every 2 hours, serum chloride and bicarbonate were measured until the patient's anion gap decreased to 12. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed on patients who met inclusion criteria and received at least 4 hours of study fluid. Chloride and bicarbonate measurements from the BES and NS groups were compared using unpaired and paired Student t tests. Of 52 patients enrolled, 45 (22 in BES group and 23 in NS group) met inclusion criteria and received 4 hours of fluid. The mean postresuscitation chloride was 111 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] = 110-112) in the NS group and 105 mmol/L (95% CI = 103-108) in the BES group (P ≤ .001). The mean postresuscitation bicarbonate was 17 mmol/L (95% CI = 15-18) in the NS group and 20 mmol/L (95% CI = 18-21) in the BES group (P = .020). Resuscitation of DKA patients with BES results in lower serum chloride and higher bicarbonate levels than patients receiving NS, consistent with prevention of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frictional properties of the end-grafted polymer layer in presence of salt solution (United States)

    Raftari, Maryam; Zhang, Zhenyu; Leggett, Graham J.; Geoghegan, Mark


    We have studied the frictional behaviour of grafted poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) films using friction force microscopy (FFM). The films were prepared on native oxide-terminated silicon substrates using the technique of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These brushes had constant grafting density (1.18 nm2), and of a thickness of ˜66 nm, as measured by ellipsometry. We show that single asperity contact mechanics (Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) and Derjaguin-M"uller-Toporov (DMT) models) as well as a linear (Amontons) relation between applied load and frictional load all apply to these systems depending on the concentration of salt and the nature of the FFM probe. Measurements were made using gold-coating and polymer functionalized silicon nitride triangular probes. Polymer functionalized probe included growth the PDMAEMA with same method on tips. The frictional behaviour are investigated between PDMAEMA and gold coated and PDMAEMA tips immersed in different concentrations of KCl, KBr and KI.

  12. Use of alkali metal salts to prepare high purity single-walled carbon nanotube solutions and thin films (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) display interesting electronic and optical properties desired for many advanced thin film applications, such as transparent conductive electrodes or thin-film transistors. Large-scale production of SWCNTs generally results in polydispersed mixtures of nanotube structures. Since SWCNT electronic character (conducting or semiconducting nature) depends on the nanotube structure, application performance is being held back by this inability to discretely control SWCNT synthesis. Although a number of post-production techniques are able to separate SWCNTs based on electronic character, diameter, or chirality, most still suffer from the disadvantage of high costs of materials, equipment, or labor intensity to be relevant for large-scale production. On the other hand, chromatographic separation has emerged as a method that is compatible with large scale separation of metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs. In this work, SWCNTs, in an aqueous surfactant suspension of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are separated by their electronic character using a gel chromatography process. Metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) are collected as initial fractions since they show minimum interaction with the gel medium, whereas, semiconducting SWCNTs (sc- SWCNTs) remain adsorbed to the gel. The process of sc-SWCNT retention in the gel is found to be driven by the packing density of SDS around the SWCNTs. Through a series of separation experiments, it is shown that sc-SWCNTs can be eluted from the gel simply by disturbing the configuration of the SDS/SWCNT micellar structure. This is achieved by either introducing a solution containing a co-surfactant, such as sodium cholate (SC), or solutions of alkali metal ionic salts. Analysis of SWCNT suspensions by optical absorption provides insights into the effect of changing the metal ion (M+ = Li+, Na+, and K+) in the eluting solution. Salts with smaller metal ions (e.g. Li+) require higher concentrations to achieve

  13. Application Of A Balanced Adder-Subtractor In The Solution Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balanced adder-subtractor employing operational amplifier is used to solve simultaneous linear equations. A pair of simultaneous linear equation with two unknowns have been considered for the design of the balanced adder-subtractor operated from a 6- volts d.c power source. A general purpose operational amplifier, ...

  14. Solution-processed barium salts as charge injection layers for high performance N-channel organic field-effect transistors. (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Koo; Khim, Dongyoon; Xu, Yong; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kang, Minji; Kim, Jihong; Facchetti, Antonio; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu


    N-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have generally shown lower field-effect mobilities (μFET) than their p-type counterparts. One of the reasons is the energetic misalignment between the work function (WF) of commonly used charge injection electrode, i.e. gold (Au), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of n-channel electron-transporting organic semiconductors. Here, we report barium salts as solution-processed interlayers, to improve the electron-injection and/or hole-blocking in top-gate/bottom-contact n-channel OFETs, based on poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-dithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM). Two different barium salts, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) and barium chloride (Ba(Cl)2), are employed as the ultrathin interlayer (∼2 nm); and they effectively tune the WF of Au from 4.9 eV, to as low as 3.5 eV. The resulting n-channel OFETs exhibit significantly improved μFET, approaching 2.6 cm(2)/(V s) and 0.1 cm(2)/(V s) for the best P(NDI2OD-T2) and PC61BM devices, respectively, with Ba(OH)2 as interlayer.

  15. A molecular dynamic study on the dissociation mechanism of SI methane hydrate in inorganic salt aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Xu, Jiafang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Jinxiang; Sun, Zening; Wang, Xiaopu; Zhang, Jun


    Gas hydrate is not only a potential energy resource, but also almost the biggest challenge in oil/gas flow assurance. Inorganic salts such as NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 are widely used as the thermodynamic inhibitor to reduce the risk caused by hydrate formation. However, the inhibition mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed to study the dissociation of structure I (SI) methane hydrate in existence of inorganic salt aqueous solution on a micro-scale. The simulation results showed that, the dissociation became stagnant due to the presence of liquid film formed by the decomposed water molecules, and more inorganic ions could shorten the stagnation-time. The diffusion coefficients of ions and water molecules were the largest in KCl system. The structures of ion/H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 O were the most compact in hydrate/NaCl system. The ionic ability to decompose hydrate cells followed the sequence of: Ca 2+ >2K + >2Cl - >2Na + . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical simulation of solidification in a horizontal cylindrical annulus charged with an aqueous salt solution (United States)

    Neilson, D. G.; Incropera, F. D.; Bennon, W. D.


    A computational study of solidification of a binary Na2CO3 solution in a horizontal cylindrical annulus is performed using a continuum formulation with a control-volume based, finite-difference scheme. The initial conditions were selected to facilitate the study of counter thermal and solutal convection, accompanied by extensive mushy region growth. Numerical results are compared with experimental data with mixed success. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the overall solidification process and associated physical phenomena. However, the plume thickness calculated for the solutally-driven convective upflow is substantially smaller than the observed value. Evolution of double-diffusive layers is predicted, but over a time scale much smaller than that observed experimentally. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and measured results for solid growth, but the mushy region thickness is significantly overpredicted.

  17. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globularprotein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.


    Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish the potential of mean force between two globular proteins in an aqueous electrolyte solution. This potential includes nonelectrostatic contributions arising from dispersion forces first, between the globular proteins, and second, between ions in solution and between each ion and the globular protein. These latter contributions are missing from standard models. The potential of mean force, obtained from simulation, is fitted to an analytic equation. Using our analytic potential of mean force and Barker-Henderson perturbation theory, we obtain phase diagrams for lysozyme solutions that include stable and metastable fluid-fluid and solid-fluid phases when the electrolyte is 0.2 M NaSCN or NaI or NaCl. The nature of the electrolyte has a significant effect on the phase diagram.

  18. Ion Pairing in Aqueous Lithium Salt Solutions with Monovalent and Divalent Counter-Anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluhařová, Eva; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel


    Roč. 117, č. 46 (2013), s. 11766-11773 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12001 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lithium * aqueous solution * neutron scattering * molecular dynamics * polarizability Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2013

  19. Water purification using organic salts (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available

    The osmotic dehydration kinetics of guavas in maltose solutions at 40 and 60ºBrix, with addition of 0, 0.6 and 1.2% of calcium lactate was studied in this paper and the final product quality was evaluated. The experiments were carried out up to 60 hours and samples were taken for analysis at different times to evaluate guavas weight reduction, water loss and sugar gain and to characterize the product according to its texture and color. After 24 hours of process the mass transfer of water and sugar between the osmotic solution and the fruit was negligible, showing that process equilibrium was reached. The increase of sugar concentration in the osmotic solution showed strong influence on the dehydration process, increasing the water loss and reducing sugar gain. The presence of calcium ions in the osmotic solution also influenced the kinetics of mass transfer and showed a strong influence on fruit texture. Higher values of stress and strain at failure were obtained when calcium lactate was employed. The effect of the different osmotic treatments on the color parameters was also investigated and significant changes were observed in the values of chroma C* and hue H* due to sugar concentration and calcium addition.

    KEYWORDS: Osmotic dehydration; kinetics; guava; maltose; calcium lactate.

  1. Iodometric determination of decahydrodecaborate (2-) salts in aqueous solutions and nickel plating electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorova, N.V.; Svitsyn, R.A.


    A method for decahydrodecaborate (2-) anion determination in aqueous solutions and in electrolyte of nickel plating in the range of concentrations 0.002-100 mass % was described. The method is based on the interaction of the compound analyzed with iodine in the presence of acetic acid in the process of heating and subsequent titration of iodine excess by sodium thiosulfate. Relative error of the determination is 1 %

  2. Analysis of Hanford Cast Stone Supplemental LAW using Composition Adjusted SRS Tank 50 Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Vitrification is the primary disposition path for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone.

  3. Radiation chemical behavior of ethylene-propylene elastomers in salt solutions. IV. Oxygen uptake testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharescu, T.; Podina, C.


    The stability of γ-irradiated ethylene-propylene elastomers, namely ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) can be satisfactorily evaluated by the oxygen uptake method. The rates of oxidation induced by γ radiation were assessed on the samples immersed in aqueous sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations. First and second derivatives of [O 2 ] = f(time) dependencies are invoked for the evaluation of oxidative degradation. (author)

  4. Novel Biological Hydrogel: Swelling Behaviors Study in Salt Solutions with Different Ionic Valence Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, poly γ-glutamic acid/ε-polylysine (γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels were successful prepared. The γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels could be used to remove Na+, Ca2+, and Cr3+ from aqueous solution and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The performance of hydrogels were estimated under different ionic concentration, temperature, and pH. The results showed that the ionic concentration and the pH significantly influenced the swelling capacity of γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels. The swelling capacities of γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels were decreased with the increase of the ionic concentration. However, the swelling capacity of the γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogel was increased with the increase of the pH. The swelling kinetics indicated that γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels presented a more limited swelling degree in metal ion solutions with higher ionic valence numbers than in ion solutions with lower ionic valence numbers. However, the swelling kinetics of γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels showed that they proposed a satisfactory description in NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. The adsorption process was fitted with a pseudo-second-order rate equation model. Moreover, the desorption kinetics of γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels showed that they could release most of the adsorption ions. Considering the biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ionic-sensitive properties, we propose that these γ-PGA/ε-PL hydrogels have high potential to be used in environmental protection, medical treatment, and other related fields.

  5. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.


    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer


    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  7. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium123 (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M


    Background: Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. Objective: We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Design: Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11–15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Results: Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at as NCT01564238. PMID:23553157

  8. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium. (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M


    Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11-15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at as NCT01564238.

  9. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)


    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  10. Nd:YAG laser associated with metal salts solutions in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauche, Carlos Eugenio Correia


    The objective of this study was to observe the ultrastructural changes caused by the radiation of Nd:YAG laser on the tooth tissue and determine qualitatively the presence of Sn ++ , Sr ++ and F - , inside the dentin, being it irradiated or not. Ten molar teeth recently extracted were cut into 2 mm discs. The samples were soaked in a EDTA solution at 17% for 2 minutes and divided into five groups. Group I: the samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1,5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz, 150 μs and 125 J/cm 2 ) and after that, a treatment with an SnF 2 aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group II: the samples got laser irradiation with the same parameters and then a treatment with an SrCl 2 solution at 10% as a toothpaste (Sensodyne TM ) for 30 minutes. Group III: the samples just got a treatment with a SnF 2 aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group IV: the samples just got a treatment with a SrCl 2 toothpaste (Sensodyne TM ) for 30 minutes. Group V: samples that just got laser irradiation in the parameters above mentioned. Then, all samples were prepared for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the samples of groups I, II, III and IV for energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The ultrastructure aspect of the dentin showed the surface totally altered by the irradiation. Pits and whitish globules were found amidst an heterogenous and rough structure, due to the melting and resolidification of the dental structure. Craters were also observed. Carbonization areas were absent. Ions Sn ++ were found at a depth of 250 μm in the samples of group I (Nd:YAG + SnF 2 ), whereas in the samples of group III, Sn ++ were not found deeper than 100 μm. Sr ++ could be detected at least at 500 μm in the inner dentin in the samples of group II (Nd:YAG + SrCl 2 ). However, Sn ++ were not found at 50 μm in group IV samples. Ions F - were just found in the irradiated samples of group I. According to the study results we observed that through ultrastructural changes, caused by

  11. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.


    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste generated during the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing that contains alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides plus trace iodine and actinides. All of the approaches included an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, fired (650–950 °C), and characterized. Both 5 and 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B glass binder were introduced at different stages in the process. Route (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal glass binder additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density). Detailed comparisons are provided of the results.

  12. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts. (United States)

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy


    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic solutes in coconut palm seedlings under water and salt stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. A. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical mechanisms associated with isolated and/or concurrent actions of drought and soil salinity in seedlings of coconut tree, through the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble carbohydrates, soluble amino N and free proline in leaves and roots. The experiment, conducted in a protected environment, in Fortaleza, Brazil, in a randomized block design, in a split-plot arrangement, evaluated the effects of different levels of water stress (plots by imposing distinct percentages of replacement of water losses through crop potential evapotranspiration - ETpc (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, associated with subplots consisting of increasing levels of soil salinity in saturation extract (1.72, 6.25, 25.80 and 40.70 dS m-1 provided by the soils collected in the Irrigated Perimeter of Morada Nova. Salinity did not change the concentration of organic solutes; however, there were increases in leaf and root levels of free proline in response to water stress, which contributes to the osmoregulation and/or osmoprotection of the species under adverse conditions of water supply.

  14. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies. (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C


    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows]. (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf


    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In multifamily building hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. In this case study , Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit and Elevate Energy. explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs.

  17. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer (United States)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  18. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas


    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used...

  19. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René


    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  20. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H


    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  1. Non-monotonic course of protein solubility in aqueous polymer-salt solutions can be modeled using the sol-mxDLVO model. (United States)

    Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele


    Protein purification is often performed using cost-intensive chromatographic steps. To discover economic alternatives (e.g., crystallization), knowledge on protein solubility as a function of temperature, pH, and additives in solution as well as their concentration is required. State-of-the-art models for predicting protein solubility almost exclusively consider aqueous salt systems, whereas "salting-in" and "salting-out" effects induced by the presence of an additional polymer are not considered. Thus, we developed the sol-mxDLVO model. Using this newly developed model, protein solubility in the presence of one salt and one polymer, especially the non-monotonic course of protein solubility, could be predicted. Systems considered included salts (NaCl, Na-p-Ts, (NH(4))(2) SO(4)) and the polymer polyethylene glycol (MW: 2000 g/mol, 12000 g/mol) and proteins lysozyme from chicken egg white (pH 4 to 5.5) and D-xylose ketol-isomerase (pH 7) at 298.15 K. The results show that by using the sol-mxDLVO model, protein solubility in polymer-salt solutions can be modeled in good agreement with the experimental data for both proteins considered. The sol-mxDLVO model can describe the non-monotonic course of protein solubility as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration, previously not covered by state-of-the-art models. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Viscosity-Lowering Effect of Amino Acids and Salts on Highly Concentrated Solutions of Two IgG1 Monoclonal Antibodies. (United States)

    Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Tao; Dai, Weiguo; Feng, Xiuying; Zhang, Xinyi; Qian, Feng


    Monoclonal antibodies display complicated solution properties in highly concentrated (>100 mg/mL) formulations, such as high viscosity, high aggregation propensity, and low stability, among others, originating from protein-protein interactions within the colloidal protein solution. These properties severely hinder the successful development of high-concentration mAb solution for subcutaneous injection. We hereby investigated the effects of several small-molecule excipients with diverse biophysical-chemical properties on the viscosity, aggregation propensity, and stability on two model IgG1 (JM1 and JM2) mAb formulations. These excipients include nine amino acids or their salt forms (Ala, Pro, Val, Gly, Ser, HisHCl, LysHCl, ArgHCl, and NaGlu), four representative salts (NaCl, NaAc, Na2SO4, and NH4Cl), and two chaotropic reagents (urea and GdnHCl). With only salts or amino acids in their salt-forms, significant decrease in viscosity was observed for JM1 (by up to 30-40%) and JM2 (by up to 50-80%) formulations, suggesting charge-charge interaction between the mAbs dictates the high viscosity of these mAbs formulations. Most of these viscosity-lowering excipients did not induce substantial protein aggregation or changes in the secondary structure of the mAbs, as evidenced by HPLC-SEC, DSC, and FT-IR analysis, even in the absence of common protein stabilizers such as sugars and surfactants. Therefore, amino acids in their salt-forms and several common salts, such as ArgHCl, HisHCl, LysHCl, NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaAc, could potentially serve as viscosity-lowering excipients during high-concentration mAb formulation development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available Expediency of development of recipes and innovative biotechnologies for combined milk-vegetational products with balanced chemical composition, strengthened probiotic properties and extended shelf life was proven in field of establishing proper diet for adult healthy people, both in everyday consumption and during treatment of illnesses and rehabilitation after it. Principles of scientific approach to creation of biotechnologies for fermented combined products with balance of basic food nutrients are described here, as well as innovative biotechnological approaches, which provide the possibility of getting desired products (yoghurt drinks with high probiotic properties and long shelf life. Main stages of development are described for recipes and biotechnologies of bifido-enabled combined yoghurt drinks with balanced chemical composition, rich on lively bifido- and Lactobacterium cells and long shelf life. A scheme for production of desired products with explanation of technological process parameters is provided, it was tested in industrial conditions at “Gormolzavod №1” Ltd. in Odesa, Ukraine. In samples of milk-rice and milk-spelt yoghurt drinks, which were produced in industrial conditions, we determined chemical composition and primary quality objectives. Desired products have balanced ratio of proteins : fats : carbohydrates (1 : 1 : 4, high sensory qualities, standard quality values during long shelf life (20 days in sealed tare, contain a high concentration of viable cells of probiotic cultures – such as B. animalis Bb-12 (not less than 3.6∙108 CFU / cm3 and mixed cultures of L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus (not less than 4.0∙108 CFU/cm3, as well as physiologically significant number of prebiotics – lactulose and fiber (30 and 10%, according to the daily consumption norm when consuming 500 cm3 of product.

  4. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide


    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient transport of electronic charge via the conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  5. Study the Synthesis, Characterization and Immersion of Dense and Porous Bovine Hydroxyapatite Structures in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (United States)

    Eslami, N.; Mahmoodian, R.; Hamdi, M.; Khatir, Nadia Mahmoudi; Herliansyah, M. K.; Rafieerad, Ali Reza


    The bone-bonding potential of biomaterials is evaluated in vitro through examining the surface apatite formation in Hank's media to enhance biocompatibility, which is also applicable to facilitate in vivo osseointegration of implantable devices. Hence, bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) bioceramic structures have been used in various biomedical applications such as orthopedic implants. In this article, the microstructure, in vitro bioactivity, and nanomechanical properties of the synthesized dense and porous BHA are investigated via scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nanoindentation analysis. From the obtained results, porous BHA mostly possesses adequate requirements for substitution as implants in the human body.

  6. Challenges in balancing the amount of solution information in requirement specifications for embedded products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mannion, Mike


    . In practice, on many industrial projects, separating the problem and solution domain entities can be difficult, and arguably there are benefits for not doing so. Many customers feel more confident describing their requirements, often as the difference between the existing products and their needs, some...

  7. Tuning Charge Balance in Solution-Processable Bipolar Triphenylamine-diazafluorene Host Materials for Phosphorescent Devices. (United States)

    Fan, Zhaokang; Zhao, Huiru; Li, Nengquan; Quan, Yiwu; Chen, Qingmin; Ye, Shanghui; Li, Shuhua; Wang, Ying; Fan, Quli; Huang, Wei


    Three bipolar hosts, namely TPA-DAF, TPA-DAF2, and TPA-DAF3, comprising an electron-donating triphenylamine (TPA) group and electron-accepting 4,5-diazafluorene (DAF) units are investigated for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). Given the nonplanar structure of the sp(3)-hybridized C9 atom in DAF unit, these molecules have a highly nonplanar configuration, good film-forming property, and high triplet energy (ET) of 2.88-2.89 eV. Among them, TPA-DAF shows more balanced carrier injecting/transporting ability, suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (MO) energy level and higher current density, and therefore TPA-DAF-based devices exhibit the best performances, having an extremely slight efficiency roll-off with current efficiency of 20.0 cd/A at 973 cd/m(2), 19.5 cd/A at 5586 cd/m(2), and 17.6 cd/A at 9310 cd/m(2) for blue PhOLEDs; 23.5 cd/A at 1059 cd/m(2) and 15.3 cd/A at 8850 cd/m(2) for green PhOLEDs; and 12.2 cd/A at 1526 cd/m(2), 10.5 cd/A at 5995 cd/m(2), and 9.2 cd/A at 8882 cd/m(2) for red PhOLEDs, respectively. The results also provide a direct proof for the influence of charge balance on the device performance.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of the passage of decontaminated salt solution from the ITP filters into tank 50H for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Davis, J.R.


    This report assesses the nuclear criticality safety associated with the decontaminated salt solution after passing through the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) filters, through the stripper columns and into Tank 50H for interim storage until transfer to the Saltstone facility. The criticality safety basis for the ITP process is documented. Criticality safety in the ITP filtrate has been analyzed under normal and process upset conditions. This report evaluates the potential for criticality due to the precipitation or crystallization of fissionable material from solution and an ITP process filter failure in which insoluble material carryover from salt dissolution is present. It is concluded that no single inadvertent error will cause criticality and that the process will remain subcritical under normal and credible abnormal conditions

  9. Performance Evaluation of FAO Model for Prediction of Yield Production, Soil Water and Solute Balance under Environmental Stresses (Case Study Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rezaverdinejad


    Full Text Available In this study, the FAO agro-hydrological model was investigated and evaluated to predict of yield production, soil water and solute balance by winter wheat field data under water and salt stresses. For this purpose, a field experimental was conducted with three salinity levels of irrigation water include: S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to 1.4, 4.5 and 9.6 dS/m, respectively, and four irrigation depth levels include: I1, I2, I3 and I4 corresponding to 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop water requirement, respectively, for two varieties of winter wheat: Roshan and Ghods, with three replications in an experimental farm of Birjand University for 1384-85 period. Based on results, the mean relative error of the model in yield prediction for Roshan and Ghods were obtained 9.2 and 26.1%, respectively. The maximum error of yield prediction in both of the Roshan and Ghods varieties, were obtained for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 treatments. The relative error of Roshan yield prediction for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 were calculated 20.0, 28.1 and 26.6%, respectively and for Ghods variety were calculated 61, 94.5 and 99.9%, respectively, that indicated a significant over estimate error under higher water stress. The mean relative error of model for all treatments, in prediction of soil water depletion and electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract, were calculated 7.1 and 5.8%, respectively, that indicated proper accuracy of model in prediction of soil water content and soil salinity.

  10. The distribution of soluble radionuclide-relevant trace elements between salt minerals and saline solutions; Die Verteilung loeslicher Radionuklid-relevanter Spurenelemente zwischen Salzmineralen und salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Ina


    The research platform ENTRIA (Disposal options for radioactive residues Interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation principles) includes the sub-project ''Final disposal in deep geological formations without any arrangements for retrieval''. This approach considers rock salt (beside clay and granite) as host rock formation for disposal of heat-producing long-live waste. Most rock salt formations contain Mg-rich brines derived from highly evolved sea water evaporation processes now included in the rock salt mass. If such brines get access to metal-canister corrosion will allow release of soluble nuclides to the brine. In this scenario, it cannot be excluded that contaminated brines leave the deep seated disposal area and move along geological or technical migration pathways towards the rock salt/cap rock contact. The temperature of the brine will drop from near 80 C to 25 or 30 C. The deceasing temperature of the brine causes precipitation of magnesian chloride and sulfate phase in equilibrium with the brine. In order to understand the salt precipitation and the retention mechanism of dissolved trace elements experiments have been set up which allow formation of sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and hydrous Mg-sulphates under controlled conditions. The retention capacity of crystallizing salt minerals based occurring in magnesian brine solutions at decreasing temperature within a salt dome is best measured as the distribution coefficient D. This concept assumes incorporation of trace elements into the lattice of salt minerals. The distribution coefficients of the trace elements, Rb, Cs, Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B between sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and MgSO{sub 4} phases have been determined at experimental temperatures of 25, 35, 55 and 83 C. The results clearly indicate the following range of distribution coefficients (D): Sylvite D > 1 Rb and Br, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Carnallite D > 1 Rb and Cs, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Kainite D

  11. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman


    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied

  12. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied.

  13. PEDOT:PSS Films with Metallic Conductivity through a Treatment with Common Organic Solutions of Organic Salts and Their Application as a Transparent Electrode of Polymer Solar Cells. (United States)

    Yu, Zhimeng; Xia, Yijie; Du, Donghe; Ouyang, Jianyong


    A transparent electrode is an indispensable component of optoelectronic devices, and there as been a search for substitutes of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) is a conducting polymer that is very promising as the next generation of materials for the transparent electrode if it can obtain conductivity as high as that of ITO. Here, we report the treatment of PSS with organic solutions to significantly enhance its conductivity. Common organic solvents like dimethylformamide and γ-butyrolactone and common organic salts like methylammonium iodide and methylammonium bromide are used for the organic solutions. The conductivity of pristine PSS films is only ∼0.2 S/cm, and it can be increased to higher than 2100 S/cm. The conductivity enhancement is much more significant than control treatments of PSS films with neat organic solvents or aqueous solutions of the organic salts. The mechanism for the conductivity enhancement is the synergetic effects of both the organic salts and organic solvents on the microstructure and composition of PSS. They induce the segregation of some PSSH chains from PSS. Highly conductive PSS films were studied as the transparent electrode of polymer solar cells. The photovoltaic efficiency is comparable to that with an ITO transparent electrode.

  14. Mutual influence of ions of rare earth metals (III) during extraction by trialkylbenzylammonium naphthenates in toluene from multicomponent salt-containing aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Zhikharev, D.A.; Keskinov, V.A.


    Extraction of lanthanide (III) nitrates [Ln(III): Sm-Lu(III), Y] from multicomponent aqua-salt solutions by trialkylbenzylammonium naphthenates in toluene at 298 K and pH 3 is studied. Physicochemical and mathematical models describing distribution and mutual influence of Ln(III) ions in multicomponent solutions in dependence on summary Ln(III) concentration in aqueous phase and concentrate composition are represented with regard to formation of compounds of (R 4 N) 2 [Ln(NO 3 ) 3 A 2 ] (A - fragments of naphthene acids) in organic phase [ru

  15. Influence of electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts on microbial quality and overall appearance of blueberries during storage. (United States)

    Liato, Viacheslav; Hammami, Riadh; Aïder, Mohammed


    The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions. For E. coli O157:H7, the electro-activated potassium acetate and potassium citrate solutions achieved a decrease of 3.5 log CFU/g after 5 min of berry washing. The most important fungus reduction was found when blueberries were washed with an electro-activated solution of potassium acetate and a NaOCl solution. After 5 min of blueberry washing with an electro-activated potassium acetate solution, a very high reduction effect was observed for A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea, which showed survival levels of only 2.2 ± 0.16, 0.34 ± 0.15 and 0.21 ± 0.16 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the effect of the washing on the organoleptic quality of blueberries, the obtained results showed no negative effect on the product color or textural profile. Finally, this work suggests that washing with electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts can be used to enhance the shelf-life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A complete analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck and balance equations for nucleation and growth of crystals (United States)

    Makoveeva, Eugenya V.; Alexandrov, Dmitri V.


    This article is concerned with a new analytical description of nucleation and growth of crystals in a metastable mushy layer (supercooled liquid or supersaturated solution) at the intermediate stage of phase transition. The model under consideration consisting of the non-stationary integro-differential system of governing equations for the distribution function and metastability level is analytically solved by means of the saddle-point technique for the Laplace-type integral in the case of arbitrary nucleation kinetics and time-dependent heat or mass sources in the balance equation. We demonstrate that the time-dependent distribution function approaches the stationary profile in course of time. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  17. Condensation of Self-Assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene Glycol and Doped with Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (Chonbuk); (Kent)


    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of interaggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  18. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows. (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P


    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  19. Interdisciplinary studies on the long-term safety of an underground waste repository in salt rock in case of solution ingress. More precise definition of modelling requirements. Geomechanical aspects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, K.


    For assessment of long-term safety of a waste repository in salt rock, relevant accident scenarios involving water or salt solution ingress and the effects are simulated by modelling. The models take into account geomechanical, hydrological and geochemical effects as well as their interactions. (DG) [de

  20. Designing solutions for the retirement system – in search of balance between economy and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Romaniuk


    Full Text Available Social security system currently face a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result social security systems are being subjects to transition aimed ad securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This rises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only, and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In the article we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyzes relating to the performance of social security systems, so that its construction will reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and system’s solutions in terms of both risk protection and prevention might be adjusted to conditions characterizing these groups.

  1. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.


    thousands of US high schools that integrate climate science and solutions in a way that inspires and informs youth, and similar programs exist internationally. Other approaches to prepare vulnerable communities, especially young people, for natural hazards and human-induced environmental change include programs such as Plan International's "Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction- Building Resilience Through Participation," and their "Weathering the Storm" project, focusing on integrating the needs of teenage girls with climate change adaptation and risk reduction. While minimizing global environmental and climate change is crucial, these and related programs that weave research with education, science with solutions offer the potential for addressing the "Grand Challenges" by better preparing for societal and environmental tipping points through a more balanced and integrated approach to addressing change."

  2. Structure and thermodynamics of nonideal solutions of colloidal particles. Investigation of salt-free solutions of human serum albumin by using small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, B.; Mortensen, K.


    The understanding of the structural and thermodynamic properties of moderately or highly concentrated solutions is fundamental, e.g., in medicine and biology and also in many technical processes, In this work, we have used the small-angle neutron scattering method (SANS), in combination with Monte...... Carlo simulation, to study salt-free solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) in the concentration range up to 0.26 g ml(-1). The model calculations of the theoretical SANS intensities are quite general, thus avoiding the approximation that the relative positions and orientations of the particles...

  3. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabiazar, Roonak [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na{sub 3}Cit and [C{sub 4}mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na{sub 3}Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of

  4. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Golabiazar, Roonak; Shekaari, Hemayat


    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na 3 Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C 4 mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na 3 Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na 3 Cit and [C 4 mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na 3 Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of entropy and enthalpy are the driving forces

  5. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.


    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  6. Process for using a saturated salt hydrate solution as a heat storing material in a latent heat storage device. Anvendelse av en mettet salthydratloesning som varme-lagringsmateriale i et latent varmemagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasel-Nielen, J.; Merkenich, K.; Gehrig, O.; Sommer, K.


    Disclosed is a process for preparing a salt composition having a phase transition heat greater than the heat capacity of water at a corresponding temperature, for charging a latent heat storage device. The process comprises the steps of providing an acid component of the salt hydrate; providing a base component of the salt hydrate, wherein at least one of the acid or base components comprises a liquid; and mixing the acid component and the base component together to cause a neutralization reaction. The acid and base components are mixed in a ratio and in respective concentrations to produce a salt hydrate solution saturated at the desired phase transition point. The claims concern the use of saturated salt hydrate solution with a certain phase transition heat produced in a particular way.

  7. Integrated membrane distillation-crystallization: process design and cost estimations for seawater treatment and fluxes of single salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, R.J.M.; Medevoort, J. van; Roelands, C.P.M.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Leerdam, R.C. van


    The goal of this research is to design an integrated membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) process for desalination of seawater with pure water and dry salts as the only products. The process is based on a combination of membrane distillation (MD) and osmotic distillation (OD) steps with

  8. Communication: Investigation of ion aggregation in ionic liquids and their solutions with lithium salt under high pressure (United States)

    Pilar, Kartik; Balédent, Victor; Zeghal, Mehdi; Judeinstein, Patrick; Jeong, Sangsik; Passerini, Stefano; Greenbaum, Steve


    X-ray scattering measurements were utilized to probe the effects of pressure on a series of ionic liquids, N-alkyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr1A-TFSI) (A = 3, 6, and 9), along with mixtures of ionic liquid and 30 mol. % lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt. No evidence was found for crystallization of the pure ionic liquids or salt mixtures even at pressures up to 9.2 GPa. No phase separation or demixing was observed for the ionic liquid and salt mixtures. Shifts in the peak positions are indicative of compression of the ionic liquids and mixtures up to 2 GPa, after which samples reach a region of relative incompressibility, possibly indicative of a transition to a glassy state. With the application of pressure, the intensity of the prepeak was found to decrease significantly, indicating a reduction in cation alkyl chain aggregation. Additionally, incompressibility of the scattering peak associated with the distance between like-charges in the pure ionic liquids compared to that in mixtures with lithium salt suggests that the application of pressure could inhibit Li+ coordination with TFSI- to form Li[TFSI2]- complexes. This inhibition occurs through the suppression of TFSI- in the trans conformer, in favor of the smaller cis conformer, at high pressures.

  9. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.


    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  10. Sol-gel transition behavior of aqueous peptide-amphiphile (C16-W3K) solutions: effects of alkyl-tail length, mechanical shear, temperature, and salt (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Otsuka, Takahiro; Orimo, Yoshinori; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    Peptide amphiphiles (PA) possess nanoscale micelle structures and excellent biocompatibility. In aqueous PA solution, PA molecules can self-assemble through various configurations into spherical and wormlike micelles, which can occasionally form hydrogels. C16-W3K is one of the unique PA, whose micelle configurations can transfer from spherical to wormlike structures in its aqueous solution over time, while the wormlike micelles could also lead to gelation. In our recent research, the effects of the length of the hydrophobic alkyl tail and other external factors of C16-W3K on the gelation behavior of the C16-W3K solution have been discussed. It has been revealed that longer alkyl-tails could facilitate the gelation of the C16-W3K solution, and that the external stimuli, such as mechanical shear and heat, could promote faster gelation of the C16-W3K solution. It was also found that salt could adjust the pH of the C16-W3K solution, having profound influence on the gelation behavior of the C16-W3K solution. In fact, the gelation of the C16-W3K with a higher storage modulus could be obtained from relatively acidic solutions, while the gelation of the C16-W3K solution was firmly suppressed in highly basic solutions. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI.

  11. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants. (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D


    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  12. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulikov, Alexei O.; Meili, Markus


    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for 137 Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a) potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ('carrier') of caesium; (b) the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c) the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of 137 Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the 137 Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the 137 Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects

  13. Corn grain-processing method interacts with calcium salts of palm fatty acids supplementation on milk production and energy balance of early-lactation cows grazing tropical pasture. (United States)

    Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela


    The objective of our study was to investigate the associative effects of feeding Ca salts of palm fatty acids (FA) and corn grain-processing method on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early-lactation dairy cows grazing a tropical pasture. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum L. Cameroon) and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. Treatments were flint corn grain-processing method either as fine ground (FGC) or steam-flaked (SFC) associated with Ca salts of palm FA supplementation either not supplemented or supplemented (CSPO). From 17 to 40 wk postpartum (carryover period) all cows received a common diet fed as total mixed ration. During the treatment period, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method were observed for milk yield, milk fat yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM), as CSPO caused them to increased to a greater extent in the FGC diet compared with the SFC diet. Furthermore, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for body weight change, because CSPO increased body weight loss in the FGC diet but not in the SFC diet. The CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, ECM, and cumulative milk yield compared with not supplemented. Also, CSPO increased energy intake, milk energy output, and energy partitioning toward milk, whereas reduced energy was allocated to body reserves. The SFC increased milk yield, ECM, milk protein yield, milk casein yield, and cumulative milk yield, and decreased milk urea N compared with FGC. The SFC compared with FGC also increased body condition score and body weight change, and increased energy partitioning toward body reserves. During the carryover period, an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for milk yield, which occurred because

  14. Extravasation injury of balanced electrolyte solution simulates the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine D'Acunto


    Full Text Available Extravasation injury (EI is an iatrogenic condition that occurs preferentially in neonatal and pediatric patients when the injection of fluid substances by intravenous access is required and it accidentally leaks into the adjacent tissues or in spaces outside of vascular compartment. Different types and amount of substances once undergoing extravasation can affect the EI differently [1]. In some instances immediate measures such as saline washout, local antidotes, enzymatic debridement and surgical interventions can be required in order to prevent the occurrence of a growing injury avoiding the progression of the EI to a medical emergency [6]. Here we report an unusual case of a preterm 2-month-old male patient in which the extravasation of balanced electrolyte solution on the upper right arm resulted in the development of full-thickness skin necrosis appearing as the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis. The management of necrotic tissue was performed using escharectomy as well as autograft skin under conditions of general anesthesia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma


    Full Text Available Assembly lines are special flow-line production systems which are of great importance in the industrial production of high quantity standardized commodities. In this article, assembly line balancing problem is formulated as a multi objective (criteria problem where four easily quantifiable objectives (criteria's are defined. Objectives (criteria's included are line efficiency, balance delay, smoothness index, and line time. And the value of these objectives is calculated by five different heuristics. In this paper, focus is made on the prioritization of assembly line balancing (ALB solution methods (heuristics and to select the best of them. For this purpose, a bench mark assembly line balancing problem is solved by five different heuristics and the value of objectives criteria's (performance measures of the line is determined. Finally the prioritization of heuristics is carried out through the use of AHP-TOPSIS based approach by solving an example.

  16. Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of thorium and uranium dissolved in a solution of high salt concentration. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Asako; Kameo, Yutaka; Hoshi, Akiko; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakashima, Mikio


    Extraction chromatography with commercially available UTEVA resin (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) was applied for the separation of Th and U from control solutions prepared from a multi-element control solution and from sample solutions of solidified simulated waste. Thorium and U in control solutions with 1-5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) were extracted with UTEVA resin and recovered with a solution containing 0.1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) and 0.05mol/dm(3) oxalic acid to be separated from the other metallic elements. Extraction behavior of U in the sample solutions was similar to that in the control solutions, but extraction of Th was dependent on the concentration of HNO(3). Thorium was extracted from 5mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions but not from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solutions. We conjecture that thorium fluoride formation interferes with extraction of Th. Addition of Al(NO(3))(3) and Fe(NO(3))(3), which have higher stability constant with fluoride ion than Th, does improve extractability of Th from 1mol/dm(3) HNO(3) sample solution.

  17. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.


    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  18. Diffusivities of lysozyme in aqueous MgCl2 solutions from dynamic light-scattering data:  Effect of protein and salt concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, J. J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanch, H. W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Prausnitz, J. M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) studies are reported for lysozyme in aqueous magnesium chloride solutions at ionic strengths 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 M for a temperature range 10–30 °C at pH 4.0. The diffusion coefficient of lysozyme was calculated as a function of protein concentration, salt concentration, temperature, and scattering angle. A Zimm-plot analysis provided the infinitely-dilute diffusion coefficient and the protein-concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The hydrodynamic radius of a lysozyme monomer was obtained from the Stokes–Einstein equation; it is 18.6 ± 1.0 Å. The difference (1.4 Å) between the hydrodynamic and the crystal-structure radius is attributed to binding of Mg2+ ions to the protein surface and subsequent water structuring. The effect of protein concentration on the diffusion coefficient indicates that attractive interactions increase as the temperature falls at fixed salt concentration. However, when plotted against ionic strength, attractive interactions exhibit a maximum at ionic strength 0.84 M, probably because Mg2+–protein binding and water structuring become increasingly important as the concentration of magnesium ion rises. Finally, the present work suggests that inclusion of ion binding and water structuring at the protein surface in a pair-potential model is needed to achieve accurate predictions of protein-solution phase behavior.

  19. Groundwater fluxes in a shallow seasonal wetland pond: The effect of bathymetric uncertainty on predicted water and solute balances (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Cook, Peter G.; Brunner, Philip


    The successful management of groundwater dependent shallow seasonal wetlands requires a sound understanding of groundwater fluxes. However, such fluxes are hard to quantify. Water volume and solute mass balance models can be used in order to derive an estimate of groundwater fluxes within such systems. This approach is particularly attractive, as it can be undertaken using measurable environmental variables, such as; rainfall, evaporation, pond level and salinity. Groundwater fluxes estimated from such an approach are subject to uncertainty in the measured variables as well as in the process representation and in parameters within the model. However, the shallow nature of seasonal wetland ponds means water volume and surface area can change rapidly and non-linearly with depth, requiring an accurate representation of the wetland pond bathymetry. Unfortunately, detailed bathymetry is rarely available and simplifying assumptions regarding the bathymetry have to be made. However, the implications of these assumptions are typically not quantified. We systematically quantify the uncertainty implications for eight different representations of wetland bathymetry for a shallow seasonal wetland pond in South Australia. The predictive uncertainty estimation methods provided in the Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis software (PEST) are used to quantify the effect of bathymetric uncertainty on the modelled fluxes. We demonstrate that bathymetry can be successfully represented within the model in a simple parametric form using a cubic Bézier curve, allowing an assessment of bathymetric uncertainty due to measurement error and survey detail on the derived groundwater fluxes compared with the fixed bathymetry models. Findings show that different bathymetry conceptualisations can result in very different mass balance components and hence process conceptualisations, despite equally good fits to observed data, potentially leading to poor management

  20. Multiscale Modeling of the Effects of Salt and Perfume Raw Materials on the Rheological Properties of Commercial Threadlike Micellar Solutions. (United States)

    Tang, Xueming; Zou, Weizhong; Koenig, Peter H; McConaughy, Shawn D; Weaver, Mike R; Eike, David M; Schmidt, Michael J; Larson, Ronald G


    We link micellar structures to their rheological properties for two surfactant body-wash formulations at various concentrations of salts and perfume raw materials (PRMs) using molecular simulations and micellar-scale modeling, as well as traditional surfactant packing arguments. The two body washes, namely, BW-1EO and BW-3EO, are composed of sodium lauryl ethylene glycol ether sulfate (SLEnS, where n is the average number of ethylene glycol repeat units), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), ACCORD (which is a mixture of six PRMs), and NaCl salt. BW-3EO is an SLE3S-based body wash, whereas BW-1EO is an SLE1S-based body wash. Additional PRMs are also added into the body washes. The effects of temperature, salt, and added PRMs on micellar lengths, breakage times, end-cap free energies, and other properties are obtained from fits of the rheological data to predictions of the "Pointer Algorithm" [ Zou , W. ; Larson , R.G. J. Rheol. 2014 , 58 , 1 - 41 ], which is a simulation method based on the Cates model of micellar dynamics. Changes in these micellar properties are interpreted using the Israelachvili surfactant packing argument. From coarse-grained molecular simulations, we infer how salt modifies the micellar properties by changing the packing between the surfactant head groups, with the micellar radius remaining nearly constant. PRMs do so by partitioning to different locations within the micelles according to their octanol/water partition coefficient P OW and chemical structures, adjusting the packing of the head and/or tail groups, and by changing the micelle radius, in the case of a large hydrophobic PRM. We find that relatively hydrophilic PRMs with log P OW PRMs, with log P OW between 2 and 4, mix with the hydrophobic surfactant tails within the micellar core and slightly enhance the viscosity and micelle length, which is consistent with the packing argument. Large and very hydrophobic PRMs, with log P OW > 4, are isolated deep inside the micelle, separating

  1. Finite elements-based 2D theoretical analysis of the effect of IEX membrane thickness and salt solution residence time on the ion transport within a salinity gradient power reverse electrodialysis half cell pair


    Etienne, Brauns


    Reverse electrodialysis electrical power generation is based on the transport of salt ions through ion conductive membranes. The ion flux, equivalent to an electric current, results from a salinity gradient, induced by two salt solutions at significantly different concentrations. Such equivalent electric current in combination with the corresponding electrochemical potential difference across the membrane, equivalent to an electric potential, results in a battery equivalency. While having a c...

  2. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail:


    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  3. Structure and thermodynamics of nonideal solutions of colloidal particles. Investigation of salt-free solutions of human serum albumin by using small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, B.; Mortensen, K.


    the Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the SANS data can be explained by a model where the HSA molecules behave as hard ellipsoids of revolution with semiaxes a = 6.8 nm, b = c = 1.9 nm. In addition to the hard core interaction, the particles are also surrounded by a soft, repulsive rectangular......The understanding of the structural and thermodynamic properties of moderately or highly concentrated solutions is fundamental, e.g., in medicine and biology and also in many technical processes, In this work, we have used the small-angle neutron scattering method (SANS), in combination with Monte...... Carlo simulation, to study salt-free solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) in the concentration range up to 0.26 g ml(-1). The model calculations of the theoretical SANS intensities are quite general, thus avoiding the approximation that the relative positions and orientations of the particles...

  4. Metals removal from spent salts (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.


    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  5. Actinide removal from spent salts (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.


    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  6. Free radical generation in Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds primed with polyethylene glycol or potassium salt solutions. (United States)

    Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Goodman, Bernard A; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, Harald R


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds show that priming with PEG+200 mg kg(-1) gibberelic acid (GA(3)) results in appreciably higher free radical contents than in unprimed control samples. Only relatively minor changes in the free radical levels were observed in seeds primed with K(+) salts. However, both priming treatments have been reported previously to result in faster germination rates compared to controls without changing the germination percentage. In measurements on individual seeds of L. decidua, there were no significant differences between the mean free radical levels in viable and non-viable seeds within each treatment group. Thus, the elevation in free radical levels in the PEG+GA(3) treatments appear to be a direct consequence of the priming treatment and do not correspond to the initiation of germination.

  7. Mechanism of groundwater inrush hazard caused by solution mining in a multilayered rock-salt-mining area: a case study in Tongbai, China (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Shi, Tingting; Chen, Zhihua; Xiang, Liu; Xiang, Shaopeng; Yang, Muyi


    The solution mining of salt mineral resources may contaminate groundwater and lead to water inrush out of the ground due to brine leakage. Through the example of a serious groundwater inrush hazard in a large salt-mining area in Tongbai County, China, this study mainly aims to analyse the source and channel of the inrushing water. The mining area has three different types of ore beds including trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, also sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, with the formula Na2CO3 × NaHCO3 × 2H2O, it is a non-marine evaporite mineral), glauber (sodium sulfate, it is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates) and gypsum (a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with chemical formula CaSO4 × 2H2O). Based on characterisation of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemical data of the groundwater at different points and depths were used to analyse the pollution source and the pollutant component from single or mixed brine by using physical-chemical reaction principle analysis and hydrogeochemical simulation method. Finally, a possible brine leakage connecting the channel to the ground was discussed from both the geological and artificial perspectives. The results reveal that the brine from the trona mine is the major pollution source; there is a NW-SE fissure zone controlled by the geological structure that provides the main channels through which brine can flow into the aquifer around the water inrush regions, with a large number of waste gypsum exploration boreholes channelling the polluted groundwater inrush out of the ground. This research can be a valuable reference for avoiding and assessing groundwater inrush hazards in similar rock-salt-mining areas, which is advantageous for both groundwater quality protection and public health.

  8. Free Energies by Thermodynamic Integration Relative to an Exact Solution, Used to Find the Handedness-Switching Salt Concentration for DNA. (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja


    Sets of free energy differences are useful for finding the equilibria of chemical reactions, while absolute free energies have little physical meaning. However finding the relative free energy between two macrostates by subtraction of their absolute free energies is a valuable strategy in certain important cases. We present calculations of absolute free energies of biomolecules, using a combination of the well-known Einstein molecule method (for treating the solute) with a conceptually related method of recent genesis for computing free energies of liquids (to treat the solvent and counterions). The approach is based on thermodynamic integration from a detailed atomistic model to one which is simplified but analytically solvable, thereby giving the absolute free energy as that of the tractable model plus a correction term found numerically. An example calculation giving the free energy with respect to salt concentration for the B- and Z-isomers of all-atom duplex DNA in explicit solvent and counterions is presented. The coexistence salt concentration is found with unprecedented accuracy.

  9. An alternative integral-balance solutions to transient diffusion of heat (mass by time-fractional semi-derivatives and semi-integrals: Fixed boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan


    Full Text Available A new approach to integral-balance solutions of the diffusion equation of heat (mass with constant transport properties by applying time-fractional semi-derivatives and semi-integrals of Riemann-Liouville sense has been developed. The time-fractional semiderivatives and semiintegrals replace the surface gradient (temperature which in the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM of Goodman and the Double-integration method (DIM should be expressed through the assumed profile. The application of semiderivatives and semiintegrals reduces the approximation errors to levels less than the ones exhibited by the classical HBIM and DIM. The method is exemplified by solutions of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems.

  10. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake. (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun


    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  11. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye. (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J


    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  12. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.


    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  13. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, G.


    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  14. Effects of Amendment of Biochar and Pyroligneous Solution from wheat straw pyrolysis on Yield and soil and crop salinity in a Salt stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain (United States)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Pan, W.; Pan, G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, X.


    Crop production has been subject to salt stress in large areas of world croplands. Organic and/or bio-fertilizers have been applied as soil amendments for alleviating salt stress and enhancing crop productivity in these salt-stressed croplands. While biochar production systems using pyrolysis of crop straw materials have been well developed in the world, there would be a potential measure to use materials from crop straw pyrolysis as organic amendments in depressing salt stress in agriculture. In this paper, a field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar and pyroligneous solution from cropstraw pyrolysis on soil and crop salinity, and wheat yield in a moderately salt stressed Entisol from the Central Great Plain of North China. Results indicated that: biochar and pyroligneous solution increased soil SOC, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous by 43.77%, 6.50%, 45.54% and 108.01%, respectively. While Soil bulk density was decreased from 1.30 to 1.21g cm-3; soil pH (H2O) was decreased from 8.23 to 7.94 with a decrease in soluble salt content by 38.87%. Wheat yield was doubled over the control without amendment. In addition, sodium content was sharply declined by 78.80% in grains, and by 70.20% and 67.00% in shoot and root, respectively. Meanwhile, contents of potassium and phosphorus in plant tissue were seen also increased despite of no change in N content. Therefore, the combined amendment of biochar with pyroligneous solution would offer an effective measure to alleviate the salt stress and improving crop productivity in world croplands. Keywords: biochar, salt affected soils, wheat, crop productivity, salinity

  15. Determination of pKa constants of hypericin in aqueous solution of the anti-allergic hydrotropic drug Cromolyn disodium salt (United States)

    Keša, Peter; Antalík, Marián


    In this work we established three from altogether six proton dissociation constants (pKa) of hydroxyl groups of hypericin in its monomeric form. The monomeric state of hypericin (5.0 × 10-6 mol·L-1) in aqueous solution was stabilised by the presence of hydrotropic drug Cromolyn disodium salt (6.0 × 10-2 mol·L-1). Data show that one acid-base transition occurs with the pKa of 7.8 and the other two are characterised by the apparent single pKa of 11.5. The spectral changes of hypericin above pH 13 indicate that the last two hydroxyls are deporotonized at this high pH values.

  16. Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt solutions by a second generation high pressure electrical conductivity probe (United States)

    Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A.; Dunstan, Dave E.; Hartley, Patrick G.; Maeda, Nobuo


    We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt solutions was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second generation of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl solutions upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl solutions was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.

  17. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini


    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  18. Kinetics of the reversible reaction of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) with sarcosine salt in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Xiang, Qunyang; Fang, Mengxiang; Yu, Hai; Maeder, Marcel


    Aqueous sarcosine salts are fast carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents suitable for use in postcombustion CO(2) capture in coal-fired power plants. We have developed a detailed reaction scheme including all the reactions in the sarcosine-CO(2)-water system. All unknown rate and equilibrium constants were obtained by global data fitting. We investigated the temperature-dependent rate and equilibrium constants of the reaction between aqueous CO(2) and sarcosine using stopped-flow spectrophotometry, by following the pH changes over the wavelength range 400-700 nm via coupling to pH indicators. The corresponding rate and equilibrium constants ranged from 15.0 to 45.0 °C and were analyzed in terms of Arrhenius, Eyring, and van't Hoff relationships. The rate constant for the reaction between CO(2) and sarcosine to form the carbamate at 25.0 °C is 18.6(6) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), which is very high for an acyclic amine; its activation enthalpy is 59(1) kJ mol(-1) and the entropy is 33(4) J mol(-1) K(-1). In addition, we investigated the slow reaction between bicarbonate and sarcosine using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and report the corresponding rate and equilibrium constants at 25.0 °C. This rate constant is 5.9 × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1).

  19. Hydration and ion pair formation in common aqueous La(III) salt solutions--a Raman scattering and DFT study. (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Irmer, Gert


    Raman spectra of aqueous lanthanum perchlorate, triflate (trifluorosulfonate), chloride and nitrate solutions were measured over a broad concentration (0.121-3.050 mol L(-1)) range at room temperature (23 °C). A very weak mode at 343 cm(-1) with a full width at half height at 49 cm(-1) in the isotropic spectrum suggests that the nona-aqua La(III) ion is thermodynamically stable in dilute perchlorate solutions (∼0.2 mol L(-1)) while in concentrated perchlorate solutions outer-sphere ion pairs and contact ion pairs are formed. The La(3+) nona-hydrate was also detected in a 1.2 mol L(-1) La(CF3SO3)3(aq). In lanthanum chloride solutions chloro-complex formation was detected over the measured concentration range from 0.5-3.050 mol L(-1). The chloro-complexes in LaCl3(aq) are fairly weak and disappear with dilution. At a concentration La(OH2)(9-n)Cln](+3-n) (n = 1-3) were formed. The La(NO3)3(aq) spectra were compared with a spectrum of a 0.409 mol L(-1) NaNO3(aq) and it was concluded that in La(NO3)3(aq) over the concentration range from 0.121-1.844 mol L(-1), nitrato-complexes, [La(OH2)(9-n)(NO3)n](+3-n) (n = 1, 2) were formed. These nitrato-complexes are quite weak and disappear with dilution La(OH2)9](3+) with the polarizable dielectric continuum are in good agreement with data from recent structural experimental measurements and high quality simulations. The DFT frequency of the La-O stretching mode at 328.2 cm(-1), is only slightly smaller than the experimental one.

  20. A Solution Approach to Assembly Line Balancing Problem With Task Related Constraints and an Application At An Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Altuntaş


    Full Text Available Occasionally certain tasks in an assembly line balancing problem are required to be kept together due to some specific reasons. These tasks are attained to the same work stations. Such problems are called as 'Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Task Related Constraints (ALBTRC'. Certain situations like awkward product construction, simultaneous operations or specific requirements leading to zoning and positional constraints like utilization of common resources as tools, jigs and fixtures are implemented thanks to these supplementary constraints. Additionally, materials handling and tooling costs, distances, set-up and lead times are also reduced. Literature on ALBTRC seems quite rare compared to Classical Line Balancing papers, although ALBTRC is one of the common real life balancing problems. This study aimed to develop and implement a novel line balancing method for a manufacturing concern where known methods are impractical to employ due to some specific positional constraints. 'Largest Candidate Method' known as a simple but effective tool is modified for this purpose first. Then a thorough 'method and time study' is conducted to get the necessary data to utilize that method. As a result, more efficient alternatives are generated and presented to decision maker.

  1. The altered balance between sympathetic nervous system and nitric oxide in salt hypertensive Dahl rats: ontogenetic and F2 hybrid studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef


    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2002), s. 945-955 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011805; GA AV ČR IAA7011711; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : salt hypertension * sympathetic nervous system * Dahl rats Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2002

  2. Kinetic study of the α-tocopherol-regeneration reaction of ubiquinol-10 in methanol and acetonitrile solutions: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates. (United States)

    Mukai, Kazuo; Oi, Masanori; Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi


    A kinetic study of regeneration reaction of α-tocopherol (α-TocH) by ubiquinol-10 has been performed in the presence of four kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiClO(4), NaClO(4), NaI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol and acetonitrile solutions, using double-mixing stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The second-order rate constants (k(r)'s) for the reaction of α-tocopheroxyl (α-Toc•) radical with ubiquinol-10 increased and decreased notably with increasing concentrations of metal salts in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. The k(r) values increased in the order of no metal salt NaClO(4) ~ NaI > LiClO(4) > Mg(ClO(4))(2) at the same concentration of metal salts. The metal salts having a smaller ionic radius of cation and a larger charge of cation gave a larger k(r) value in methanol, and a smaller k(r) value in acetonitrile. The effect of anion was almost negligible in both the solvents. Notable effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectrum of α-Toc• radical were observed in aprotic acetonitrile solution, suggesting complex formation between α-Toc• and metal cations. On the other hand, effects of metal cations were negligible in protic methanol, suggesting that the complex formation between α-Toc• and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between α-Toc• and methanol molecules. The difference between the reaction mechanisms in methanol and acetonitrile solutions was discussed on the basis of the results obtained. High concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts coexist with α-TocH and ubiquinol-10 in plasma, blood, and many tissues, suggesting the contribution of the metal salts to the above regeneration reaction in biological systems.

  3. Triton X-100 as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail for counting aqueous solutions and ionic nutrient salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.W.


    Triton X-100, used alone, was found to act as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail. Triton X-100 acted as a scintillator and the effect was not due to Cerenkov radiation. A variety of other commercially available surfactants also acted as scintillators, but with different levels of efficiency. Triton X-100/water combinations were suitable for counting aqueous solutions of 33 P and 86 Rb and the count rate was stable over extended periods of time. Triton X-100/toluene combinations also yielded high counting efficiencies. Triton X-100 was more sensitive to quenching than standard cocktails containing fluors. (author)

  4. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater. (United States)

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G


    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P salinity and height above the water table remained significant factors, but the root fresh mass density was no longer significant. Regression of data from the 200 and 400 mM NaCl treatments showed that the rate of Na + accumulation in the soil increased until the Na + concentration reached ~250 mM within the root zone; subsequent decreases in accumulation were associated with decreases in stomatal conductance. Salinization of the soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. On the Riemann solutions of the balance equations for steam and water flow in a porous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Marchesin, D.; Bruining, J.


    Conservation laws have been used to model a variety of physical phenomena and therefore the theory for this class of equations is well developed. However, in many problems, such as transport of hot fluids and gases undergoing mass transfer, balance laws are required to describe the flow. As an

  6. Mechanism of groundwater inrush hazard caused by solution mining in a multilayered rock-salt-mining area: a case study in Tongbai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zeng


    Full Text Available The solution mining of salt mineral resources may contaminate groundwater and lead to water inrush out of the ground due to brine leakage. Through the example of a serious groundwater inrush hazard in a large salt-mining area in Tongbai County, China, this study mainly aims to analyse the source and channel of the inrushing water. The mining area has three different types of ore beds including trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, also sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, with the formula Na2CO3  ×  NaHCO3  ×  2H2O, it is a non-marine evaporite mineral, glauber (sodium sulfate, it is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates and gypsum (a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with chemical formula CaSO4  ×  2H2O. Based on characterisation of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemical data of the groundwater at different points and depths were used to analyse the pollution source and the pollutant component from single or mixed brine by using physical–chemical reaction principle analysis and hydrogeochemical simulation method. Finally, a possible brine leakage connecting the channel to the ground was discussed from both the geological and artificial perspectives. The results reveal that the brine from the trona mine is the major pollution source; there is a NW–SE fissure zone controlled by the geological structure that provides the main channels through which brine can flow into the aquifer around the water inrush regions, with a large number of waste gypsum exploration boreholes channelling the polluted groundwater inrush out of the ground. This research can be a valuable reference for avoiding and assessing groundwater inrush hazards in similar rock-salt-mining areas, which is advantageous for both groundwater quality protection and public health.

  7. Contribution to the study of uranyl salts in butyl phosphate solutions; Contribution a l'etude des solutions de sels d'uranyle dans les phosphates butyliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A spectroscopic study in the normal infrared region and involving the following associations: tri-alkyl phosphates (tri-butyl, tri-ethyl, tri-methyl), uranyl salts (nitrate, chloride, acetate) has confirmed the existence of an interaction between the phosphoryl group and the uranium atom, as shown by a movement of absorption band for the valency P = 0 from {approx} 1270 cm{sup -1} to {approx} 1180 cm{sup -1}. A study of the preparation, analysis and spectroscopy of the solids obtained by the precipitation of uranyl salts by acid butyl phosphates has been carried out. By infrared spectrophotometry it has been shown that the tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates are associated in non-polar diluents even before the uranium is introduced. The extraction of uranyl salts from acid aqueous solutions by a diluted mixture of tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates proceeds by different mechanisms according to the nature of the ion (nitrate or chloride). (author) [French] Une etude spectroscopique dans l'infrarouge moyen portant sur les associations: - phosphates trialcoyliques (tributylique - triethylique - trimethylique) - sels d'uranyle (nitrate, chlorure, acetate) a confirme l'existence d'une interaction entre le groupement phosphoryle et l'atome d'uranium, se manifestant par un deplacement de la bande d'absorption de la vibration de valence P = 0 de {approx} 1270 cm{sup -1} a {approx} 1180 cm{sup -1}. Une etude preparative, analytique et spectroscopique des solides obtenus par precipitation de sels d'uranyle par les phosphates butyliques acides a ete effectuee. La spectrophotomerie infrarouge met en evidence l'association, anterieure a toute introduction d'uranium, des phosphates tributylique et dibutylique dans des diluants non polaires. L'extraction de sels d'uranyle, d'une solution aqueuse acide par un melange dilue de phosphates tributylique et dibutylique, s'effectue suivant des processus differents a la

  8. Direct Analysis of Metal Ions in Solutions with High Salt Concentrations by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. (United States)

    Regadío, Mercedes; Riaño, Sofía; Binnemans, Koen; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom


    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is becoming more and more popular for elemental analysis in academia and industry. However, simplification of the procedures for analyzing samples with complex compositions and residual matrix effects is still needed. In this work, the effect of an inorganic (CaCl 2 ) and an organic (tetraalkylphosphonium chloride) matrix on metals quantification by TXRF was investigated for liquid samples. The samples were spiked with up to 20 metals at concentrations ranging from 3 to 50 mg L -1 per element, including elements with spectral peaks near the peaks of the matrix elements or near the Raleigh and Compton scattering peaks of the X-ray source (molybdenum anode). The recovery rate (RR) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) were calculated to express the accuracy and the precision of the measured element concentrations. In samples with no matrix effects, good RRs are obtained regardless of the internal standard selected. However, in samples with moderate matrix content, the use of an optimum internal standard (OIS) at a concentration close to that of the analyte significantly improved the quantitative analysis. In samples with high concentrations of inorganic ions, using a Triton X-100 aqueous solution to dilute the sample during the internal standardization resulted in better RRs and lower RSDs compared to using only water. In samples with a high concentration of organic material, pure ethanol gave slightly better results than when a Triton X-100-ethanol solution was used for dilution. Compared to previous methods reported in the literature, the new sample-preparation method gave better accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for the elements tested. Sample dilution with an OIS and the surfactant Triton X-100 (inorganic media) or ethanol (organic media) is recommended for fast routine elemental determination in matrix containing samples, as it does not require special equipment, experimentally derived case-dependent mathematical

  9. Measurement and evaluation of the water and the salt solutions occurring in the exploitation of rock salt, potash or copper shale deposits in the Bernburg Hauptsattel or the Sangerhaeuser Revier in order to assess the long-term safety of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, A.


    For a thorough assessment of conditions governing the occurrence of salt solutions or water in a repository in the Zechstein, i.e. in the salt formation and at its boundaries, data measured in other mines developed in this formation can yield valuable information. The studies reported were based on geological, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical data collected for more than 50 inflow areas or salt solution bearing areas, covering approx. 15,000 chemical or physical analyses from which the data were derived describing the characteristics or development of inflow streams with time. In addition, the mapped inflow streams were evaluated with a view to the geological and hydrogeological and the geomechanical conditions of origin, as well as engineering impacts. (DG) [de

  10. Organic matrix effects on the formation of light-absorbing compounds from α-dicarbonyls in aqueous salt solution. (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T; McNeill, V Faye


    Aqueous-phase reactions of organic compounds are of general importance in environmental systems. Reactions of α-dicarbonyl compounds in the aqueous phase of atmospheric aerosols can impact their climate-relevant physical properties including hygroscopicity and absorption of light. Less-reactive water-soluble organic compounds may contribute an organic matrix component to the aqueous environment, potentially impacting the reaction kinetics. In this work we demonstrate the effects of organic matrices on the self-reactions of glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) in aqueous solutions containing ammonium sulfate. At an organic-to-sulfate mass ratio of 2 : 1, carbohydrate-like matrices resembling oxidized organic aerosol material reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing products by up to an order of magnitude. The greatest decreases in the reaction rates were observed for organic matrices with smaller, more linear molecular structures. Initial UV-Vis spectra, product studies, relative rate data, acidity changes, and viscosity measurements suggest that shifts in carbonyl equilibria, due in part to (hemi)acetal formation with the matrix, reduce the rate of formation of light-absorbing imidazole and oligomer species.

  11. Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study. (United States)

    Hofmann-Kiefer, Klaus F; Chappell, Daniel; Kammerer, Tobias; Jacob, Matthias; Paptistella, Michaela; Conzen, Peter; Rehm, Markus


    The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer's lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid-base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated. Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer's lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n = 12) or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n = 12) according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid-base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes. Patients received a mean dose of 4,054 ± 450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer's lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer's lactate. Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial.

  12. Kinetic study of the aroxyl radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol in methanol solution: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates. (United States)

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Abe, Kouichi; Mukai, Kazuo


    A kinetic study of the aroxyl (ArO*) radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TocH) has been performed in the presence of six kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiI, LiClO(4), NaI, NaClO(4), KI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The decay rate of the ArO* for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased linearly with increasing concentration of metal salts. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased in the order of no metal salt concentration of metal salts. For example, the k(s) values in methanol solution including 4.00 x 10(-1) M of LiI and Mg(ClO(4))(2) were 3.04 and 1.30 times larger than that in the absence of metal salts, respectively. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having smaller ionic radius of cation and anion and larger charge of cation gave larger rate constants (k(s)). Effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectra of the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical were negligible in methanol solution, suggesting that the complex formation between the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical molecule and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between radical and methanol molecules. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of alpha-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from alpha-TocH to ArO* radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordinations of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO* (ArO: (-)) and of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of alpha-TocH (alpha-TocH(+)*) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. On the other hand, the effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the alpha-Toc* radical was not observed. The result suggests that the hydrogen transfer reaction between two alpha-Toc* radical molecules proceeds via a one-step hydrogen atom transfer mechanism rather than via an

  13. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  14. Cr(VI) sorption behavior from aqueous solutions onto polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt: Kinetics and thermodynamics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barassi, Giancarlo; Valdes, Andrea; Araneda, Claudio; Basualto, Carlos; Sapag, Jaime; Tapia, Cristian [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile); Valenzuela, Fernando, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 20, Santiago (Chile)


    This work studies the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions from an aqueous acid solution on hydrophobic polymeric microcapsules containing a long-chain quaternary ammonium salt-type extractant immobilized in their pore structure. The microcapsules were synthesized by adding the extractant Aliquat 336 during the in situ radical copolymerization of the monomers styrene (ST) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The microcapsules, which had a spherical shape with a rough surface, behaved as efficient adsorbents for Cr(VI) at the tested temperatures. The results of kinetics experiments carried out at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process fits well to a pseudo-second-order with an activation energy of 82.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming that the sorption process is controlled by a chemisorption mechanism. Langmuir's isotherms were found to represent well the experimentally observed sorption data. Thermodynamics parameters, namely, changes in standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup 0}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup 0}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup 0}), are also calculated. The results indicate that the chemisorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. The entropy change value measured in this study shows that metal adsorbed on microcapsules leads to a less chaotic system than a liquid-liquid extraction system.

  15. Investigation of the effect of additives on the basis of pickling solutions containing iron salts on the structure and strength of fine concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukuttsova Natal’ya Petrovna


    Full Text Available The modern tendencies of construction industry development are connected with the use of new high-efficient materials with the application of resource- and energy-saving technologies of their generation. The use of industrial man-made products as the components improving the characteristics of construction products is now a promising field of research. The article presents the results of the use of waste pickling solutions of steel rolling factories, containing salts of iron as nanomodified additives for the products based on cement binder. The effectiveness of the influence of the considered additives on the structure and strength of fine-grained concrete is shown. If using this additive in the amount of 0.32 % from the mass of cement for 28 days of natural hardening, the fine concrete strength is growing by 1.8 times due to additional formation of hydrosilicates, densification of structure and reduction of the total porosity of the cement system by 2 times.

  16. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 3. The large catchment model (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viney, Neil R.; Jeevaraj, Charles G.


    This paper presents an application of a long-term, large catchment-scale, water balance model developed to predict the effects of forest clearing in the south-west of Western Australia. The conceptual model simulates the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments before and after clearing. The large catchment is divided into a number of sub-catchments (1-5 km2 in area), which are taken as the fundamental building blocks of the large catchment model. The responses of the individual subcatchments to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three inter-dependent subsurface stores A, B and F, which are considered to represent the moisture states of the subcatchments. Details of the subcatchment-scale water balance model have been presented earlier in Part 1 of this series of papers. The response of any subcatchment is a function of its local moisture state, as measured by the local values of the stores. The variations of the initial values of the stores among the subcatchments are described in the large catchment model through simple, linear equations involving a number of similarity indices representing topography, mean annual rainfall and level of forest clearing.The model is applied to the Conjurunup catchment, a medium-sized (39·6 km2) catchment in the south-west of Western Australia. The catchment has been heterogeneously (in space and time) cleared for bauxite mining and subsequently rehabilitated. For this application, the catchment is divided into 11 subcatchments. The model parameters are estimated by calibration, by comparing observed and predicted runoff values, over a 18 year period, for the large catchment and two of the subcatchments. Excellent fits are obtained.

  17. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)


    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  18. Modeled salt density for nuclear material estimation in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel (United States)

    Mariani, Robert D.; Vaden, DeeEarl


    Spent metallic nuclear fuel is being treated in a pyrometallurgical process that includes electrorefining the uranium metal in molten eutectic LiCl-KCl as the supporting electrolyte. We report a model for determining the density of the molten salt. Material balances account for the net mass of salt and for the mass of actinides present. It was necessary to know the molten salt density, but difficult to measure. It was also decided to model the salt density for the initial treatment operations. The model assumes that volumes are additive for the ideal molten salt solution as a starting point; subsequently, a correction factor for the lanthanides and actinides was developed. After applying the correction factor, the percent difference between the net salt mass in the electrorefiner and the resulting modeled salt mass decreased from more than 4.0% to approximately 0.1%. As a result, there is no need to measure the salt density at 500 °C for inventory operations; the model for the salt density is found to be accurate.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In dilute mixtures of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDoBS), and nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl monoether (C13-15E(7)) a transition from a micellar to a lamellar phase is found at high salting-out electrolyte (NaCit) concentrations. With an increase of the salt

  20. The energy balance within a bubble column evaporator (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Shahid, Muhammad; Pashley, Richard M.


    Bubble column evaporator (BCE) systems have been studied and developed for many applications, such as thermal desalination, sterilization, evaporative cooling and controlled precipitation. The heat supplied from warm/hot dry bubbles is to vaporize the water in various salt solutions until the solution temperature reaches steady state, which was derived into the energy balance of the BCE. The energy balance and utilization involved in each BCE process form the fundamental theory of these applications. More importantly, it opened a new field for the thermodynamics study in the form of heat and vapor transfer in the bubbles. In this paper, the originally derived energy balance was reviewed on the basis of its physics in the BCE process and compared with new proposed energy balance equations in terms of obtained the enthalpy of vaporization (Δ H vap) values of salt solutions from BCE experiments. Based on the analysis of derivation and Δ H vap values comparison, it is demonstrated that the original balance equation has high accuracy and precision, within 2% over 19-55 °C using improved systems. Also, the experimental and theoretical techniques used for determining Δ H vap values of salt solutions were reviewed for the operation conditions and their accuracies compared to the literature data. The BCE method, as one of the most simple and accurate techniques, offers a novel way to determine Δ H vap values of salt solutions based on its energy balance equation, which had error less than 3%. The thermal energy required to heat the inlet gas, the energy used for water evaporation in the BCE and the energy conserved from water vapor condensation were estimated in an overall energy balance analysis. The good agreement observed between input and potential vapor condensation energy illustrates the efficiency of the BCE system. Typical energy consumption levels for thermal desalination for producing pure water using the BCE process was also analyzed for different inlet air

  1. The energy balance within a bubble column evaporator (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Shahid, Muhammad; Pashley, Richard M.


    Bubble column evaporator (BCE) systems have been studied and developed for many applications, such as thermal desalination, sterilization, evaporative cooling and controlled precipitation. The heat supplied from warm/hot dry bubbles is to vaporize the water in various salt solutions until the solution temperature reaches steady state, which was derived into the energy balance of the BCE. The energy balance and utilization involved in each BCE process form the fundamental theory of these applications. More importantly, it opened a new field for the thermodynamics study in the form of heat and vapor transfer in the bubbles. In this paper, the originally derived energy balance was reviewed on the basis of its physics in the BCE process and compared with new proposed energy balance equations in terms of obtained the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔH vap) values of salt solutions from BCE experiments. Based on the analysis of derivation and ΔH vap values comparison, it is demonstrated that the original balance equation has high accuracy and precision, within 2% over 19-55 °C using improved systems. Also, the experimental and theoretical techniques used for determining ΔH vap values of salt solutions were reviewed for the operation conditions and their accuracies compared to the literature data. The BCE method, as one of the most simple and accurate techniques, offers a novel way to determine ΔH vap values of salt solutions based on its energy balance equation, which had error less than 3%. The thermal energy required to heat the inlet gas, the energy used for water evaporation in the BCE and the energy conserved from water vapor condensation were estimated in an overall energy balance analysis. The good agreement observed between input and potential vapor condensation energy illustrates the efficiency of the BCE system. Typical energy consumption levels for thermal desalination for producing pure water using the BCE process was also analyzed for different inlet air


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.


    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  3. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water. (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L


    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  4. Aqueous origins of bright salt deposits on Ceres (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.


    Bright materials have been reported in association with impact craters on Ceres. The abundant Na2CO3 and some ammonium salts, NH4HCO3 and/or NH4Cl, were detected in bright deposits within Occator crater with Dawn near infrared spectroscopy. The composition and appearance of the salts suggest their aqueous mobilization and emplacement after formation of the crater. Here we consider origins of the bright deposits through calculation of speciation in the H-C-N-O-Na-Cl water-salt type system constrained by the mass balance of observed salts. Calculations of chemical equilibria show that initial solutions had the pH of ∼10. The temperature and salinity of solutions could have not exceeded ∼273 K and ∼100 g per kg H2O, respectively. Freezing models reveal an early precipitation of Na2CO3·10H2O followed by minor NaHCO3. Ammonium salts precipitate near eutectic from brines enriched in NH4+, Cl- and Na+. A late-stage precipitation of NaCl·2H2O is modeled for solution compositions with added NaCl. Calculated eutectics are above 247 K. The apparently unabundant ammonium and chloride salts in Occator's deposits imply a rapid emplacement without a compositional evolution of solution. Salty ice grains could have deposited from post-impact ballistic plumes formed through low-pressure boiling of subsurface solutions. Hydrated and ammonium salts are unstable at maximum temperatures of Ceres' surface and could decompose through space weathering. Occator's ice-free salt deposits formed through a post-depositional sublimation of ice followed by dehydration of Na2CO3·10H2O and NaHCO3 to Na2CO3. In other regions, excavated and exposed bright materials could be salts initially deposited from plumes and accumulated at depth via post-impact boiling. The lack of detection of sulfates and an elevated carbonate/chloride ratio in Ceres' materials suggest an involvement of compounds abundant in the outer solar system.

  5. Stacking layered structure of polymer light emitting diodes prepared by evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution for improving carrier balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Youichi; Shakutsui, Masato; Fujita, Katsuhiko


    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with staking layered structures are prepared by the evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution (ESDUS) method, which has enabled forming a polymer layer onto another polymer layer even if both polymers are soluble in a solvent used for the preparation. By this method, polymers having various HOMO and LUMO levels can be stacked as a hole transport layer, an emitting layer and an electron transport layer as commonly employed in small molecule-based organic light emitting diodes. Here we demonstrated that a PLED having a tri-layer structure using three kinds of polymers showed significant improvement in quantum efficiency compared with those having a single or bi-layer structure of corresponding polymers.

  6. Influence of the Composition of the Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkacz, J.; Slouková, K.; Minda, J.; Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.


    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 465. ISSN 2075-4701 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium alloy * AZ31 * AZ61 * HBSS * HBSS+ * EIS * potentiodynamic test Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2016

  7. Significance of the application of oral rehydration solution to maintain water and electrolyte balance in infants with ileostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Vladimir


    Full Text Available Introduction. Ileostomy represents a necessary procedure to solve various surgical diseases in children. As the result of increased fluid loss and colonic exclusion in its regulation, it is often followed, particularly during the first months after birth, by chronic dehydration and failure to thrive. Objective. The aim of the paper was to present our experience related to the application of oral rehydration solution (ORS to compensate the intestinal loss of water and electrolytes in infants with ileostomy. Methods. Treatment was performed with ORS containing 65 mmol/L of sodium in five infants aged 1.5-8 months (3.8±2.46 months with dehydration and undernutrition after ileostomy performed in the first five days after birth. Results. After rehydration, the continual application of ORS in the daily dosage of 63.90±25.03 ml/kg, i.e. approximately matching the volume of intestinal content elimination (57.00±19.23 ml/kg, resulted in all infants in optimal water and electrolyte homeostasis, and in further course also in the improvement of their nutritional status (p=0.023. Conclusion. Our experience indicates that continual application of reduced sodium content of ORS in the approximate equal quantity of intestinal content loss represents the method of choice in water and electrolyte homeostasis maintenance in infants with ileostomy.

  8. Balancing electrical and optical losses for efficient Si-perovskite 4-terminal solar cells with solution processed percolation electrodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Ramírez Quiroz, César Omar


    The unprecedented efficiency upraise of perovskite-based photovoltaics has sparked the interest in semi-transparent devices, particularly for tandem structures. Despite promising reports regarding efficiency and reduced parasitic absorption, many devices still rely on processes from the gas phase, compromising both applicability and cost factors. Here, we report all-solution perovskite solar cells with improved infrared transparency ideally suited as top-cell for efficient multi-junction device configurations. We demonstrate the functionality of Copper (I) thiocyanate as antireflective layer and selective contact between the transparent conductive oxide and the perovskite as key factor. This concept allows us to fabricate an opaque device with steady state efficiency as high as 20.1%. By employing silver nanowires with robust environmental stability as bottom electrode, we demonstrate different regimes of device performance that can be described through a classical percolation model, leading to semi-transparent solar cells with efficiencies of up to 17.1%. In conjunction with the implementation of an infrared-tuned transparent conductive oxide contact deposited on UV-fused silica, we show a full device average transmittance surpassing 84% between 800 and 1100 nm (as opposed to 77% with PEDOT:PSS as selective contact). Finally, we mechanically staked optimized perovskite devices on top of high performing PERL and IBC silicon architectures. The imputed output efficiency of the 4-terminal measured perovskite-silicon solar cell was 26.7% and 25.2% for PERL-perovskite and IBC-perovskite, respectively.

  9. Sea salt


    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.


    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  10. Characterization of the deviation to the ideality of concentrated actinide and lanthanide salt solutions: contribution of the Bimsa theory; Caracterisation de l'ecart a l'idealite de solutions concentrees de sels d'actinide et de lanthanide: contribution de la theorie Bimsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruas, A


    The aim of this work is to describe the mean stoichiometric activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients or water activities of aqueous actinide nitrate salt solutions up to high concentration. These sets of data are required for a better control of the equilibria occurring in liquid-liquid extraction processes. Experimental acquisition of these thermodynamic properties, in the case of some actinide nitrates, is possible and was conducted before.But, many actinide salt solutions cannot be experimentally handled up to high concentration because of unstable oxidation state or very high radioactivity. As a consequence, a suitable predictive theory is necessary for the description of these nitrate salt solutions (such as Am (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Cm (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}). The BIMSA ('Binding Mean Spherical Approximation') was chosen for this purpose. This theory, unlike other methods, uses a set of microscopic parameters that have some physical meaning, for the description of macroscopic thermodynamic properties (osmotic coefficients, activity coefficients).The following manuscript is divided by 4 chapters, corresponding to 4 articles accepted in the scientific journal 'Journal of Physical Chemistry'. Chapter 1 first reviews the basic thermodynamic concepts before describing the issues involved in acquiring actinides binary data. An approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions, the notion of fictive binary data, is described. Within this approach, the activity coefficient of an aqueous phase constituent depends on two parameters: the water activity of the system and total concentration of dissolved constituents. As a first application, new fictive binary data of uranyl nitrate are proposed from measurements on the ternary system UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.Chapter 2 gives the main principles of the BIMSA theory. It shows also preliminary promising results obtained when modeling lanthanide(III) salt properties. Then

  11. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Adamantane Containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt-type Cationic Surfactants: Hydrocarbon-based, Fluorocarbonbased and Bola-type. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Okada, Mari; Matsuoka, Keisuke


    Quaternary ammonium salt-type cationic surfactants with an adamantyl group (hydrocarbon-type; C n AdAB, fluorocarbon-type; C m F C 3 AdAB, bola-type; Ad-s-Ad, where n, m and s represent hydrocarbon chain lengths of 8-16, fluorocarbon chain lengths of 4-8, and spacer chain length of 10-12) were synthesized via quaternization of N, N-dimethylaminoadamantane and n-alkyl bromide or 1, n-dibromoalkane. Conductivity and surface tension were measured to characterize the solution properties of the synthesized adamantyl group-containing cationic surfactants. In addition, the effects of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chain lengths and spacer chain length between headgroups on the measured properties were evaluated by comparison with those of conventional cationic surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of C n AdAB and Ad-s-Ad was 2/5 of that for the corresponding conventional surfactants C n TAB and bola-type surfactants with similar number of carbons in the alkyl or alkylene chain; this was because of the increased hydrophobicity due to the adamantyl group. A linear relationship between the logarithm of CMC and the hydrocarbon chain length for C n AdAB was observed, as well as for C n TAB. The slope of the linear correlation for both surfactants was almost the same, indicating that the adamantyl group does not affect the CMC with variations in the hydrocarbon chain length. Similar to conventional surfactants C n TAB, the hydrocarbon-type C n AdAB is highly efficient in reducing the surface tension of water, despite the large occupied area per molecule resulting from the relatively bulky structure of the adamantane skeleton. On the other hand, the bola-type Ad-s-Ad resulted in increased surface tension compared to C n AdAB, indicating that the curved chain between adamantyl groups leads to poor adsorption and orientation at the air-water interface.

  12. Plasma acetate, gluconate and interleukin-6 profiles during and after cardiopulmonary bypass: a comparison of Plasma-Lyte 148 with a bicarbonate-balanced solution. (United States)

    Davies, Paul G; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Morgan, Thomas J; Presneill, Jeffrey J; Kruger, Peter S; Thomas, Bronwyn J; Roberts, Michael S; Mundy, Julie


    As even small concentrations of acetate in the plasma result in pro-inflammatory and cardiotoxic effects, it has been removed from renal replacement fluids. However, Plasma-Lyte 148 (Plasma-Lyte), an electrolyte replacement solution containing acetate plus gluconate is a common circuit prime for cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB). No published data exist on the peak plasma acetate and gluconate concentrations resulting from the use of Plasma-Lyte 148 during CPB. Thirty adult patients were systematically allocated 1:1 to CPB prime with either bicarbonate-balanced fluid (24 mmol/L bicarbonate) or Plasma-Lyte 148. Arterial blood acetate, gluconate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured immediately before CPB (T1), three minutes after CPB commencement (T2), immediately before CPB separation (T3), and four hours post separation (T4). Acetate concentrations (normal 0.04 to 0.07 mmol/L) became markedly elevated at T2, where the Plasma-Lyte group (median 3.69, range (2.46 to 8.55)) exceeded the bicarbonate group (0.16 (0.02 to 3.49), P Plasma-Lyte 0.35 (0.00 to 1.84) versus bicarbonate 0.17 (0.00 to 0.81)). Normal circulating acetate concentrations were not restored until T4. Similar gluconate concentration profiles and inter-group differences were seen, with a slower T3 decay. IL-6 increased across CPB, peaking at T4, with no clear difference between groups. Use of acetate containing prime solutions result in supraphysiological plasma concentrations of acetate. The use of acetate-free prime fluid in CPB significantly reduced but did not eliminate large acetate surges in cardiac surgical patients. Complete elimination of acetate surges would require the use of acetate free bolus fluids and cardioplegia solutions. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12610000267055.

  13. Phosphate Salts (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  14. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  15. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.


    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes (United States)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle


    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  17. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers. (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J


    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  18. Multi-3,3'-Bicarbazole-Substituted Arylsilane Host Materials with Balanced Charge Transport for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. (United States)

    Sun, Dianming; Zhou, Xiaokang; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhongjie; Ma, Dongge; Yan, Shouke


    A series of 3,3'-bicarbazole (mCP)-functionalized tetraphenylsilane derivatives (SimCPx), including bis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)diphenylsilane (SimCP2), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)methylsilane (SimCP3-CH3), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)phenylsilane (SimCP3-Ph), and tetrakis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)silane (SimCP4), serving as bipolar blue hosts for bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl-N,C2']iridium(III) (FIrpic), have been synthesized by incorporating different ratios of mCP subunits into a central silicon atom. All of the SimCPx derivatives have wide bandgaps and high triplet energies because of the indirect linkage by silicon between each mCP subunit. The good solubility and high thermal and morphological stability of SimCPx are beneficial for forming amorphous and homogeneous films through solution processing. Density functional theory simulations manifest the better bipolar characteristics for SimCPx using three and four mCP units rather than the represented bipolar host SimCP2. As a result, SimCP4 presents the best electron-transporting ability for charge balance. Consequently, the lowest driving voltage of 4.8 eV, and the favorable maximum efficiencies of 14.2% for external quantum efficiency (28.4 cd A(-1), 13.5 lm W(-1)), are achieved by solution-processed, SimCP4-based blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes as the highest performance among SimCPx, in which 32% improved device efficiencies compared to that of SimCP2 are obtained. It is inspiring to develop efficient bipolar hosts for blue phosphors by just incorporating monopolar carbazole into arylsilanes in two steps.

  19. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  20. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.


    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  1. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.


    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  2. Notable effects of metal salts on UV-vis absorption spectra of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopheroxyl radicals in acetonitrile solution. The complex formation between tocopheroxyls and metal cations. (United States)

    Mukai, Kazuo; Kohno, Yutaro; Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi


    The measurements of the UV-vis absorption spectra of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopheroxyl (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•)) radicals were performed by reacting aroxyl (ArO(•)) radical with α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-TocH), respectively, in acetonitrile solution including three kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiClO(4), NaClO(4), and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) (MX or MX(2)), using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The maximum wavelengths (λ(max)) of the absorption spectra of the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•) located at 425-428 nm without metal salts increased with increasing concentrations of metal salts (0-0.500 M) in acetonitrile and approached some constant values, suggesting (Toc(•)···M(+) (or M(2+))) complex formations. Similarly, the values of the apparent molar extinction coefficient (ε(max)) increased drastically with increasing concentrations of metal salts in acetonitrile and approached some constant values. The result suggests that the formations of Toc(•) dimers were suppressed by the metal ion complex formations of Toc(•) radicals. The stability constants (K) were determined for Li(+), Na(+), and Mg(2+) complexes of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•). The K values increased in the order of NaClO(4) metal salt. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having a smaller ionic radius of the cation and a larger charge of the cation gave a larger shift of the λ(max) value, a larger ε(max) value, and a larger K value. The result of the DFT molecular orbital calculations indicated that the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•) radicals were stabilized by the (1:1) complex formation with metal cations (Li(+), Na(+), and Mg(2+)). Stabilization energy (E(S)) due to the complex formation increased in the order of Na(+) complexes, being independent of the kinds of Toc(•) radicals. The calculated result also indicated that the metal cations coordinate to the O atom at the sixth position of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•) radicals.

  3. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  4. Induced Mesocrystal-Formation, Hydrothermal Growth and Magnetic Properties of α-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles in Salt-Rich Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik; Larsen, Jacob; Varón, Miriam


    Iron oxide nanoparticles are widely prevalent in our aqueous environment (e. g., streams, seawater, hydrothermal vents). Their aggregation and crystal growth depend on their chemical surroundings, for instance just a change in pH or salt concentration can greatly affect this. In turn this influen......Iron oxide nanoparticles are widely prevalent in our aqueous environment (e. g., streams, seawater, hydrothermal vents). Their aggregation and crystal growth depend on their chemical surroundings, for instance just a change in pH or salt concentration can greatly affect this. In turn...... this influences their properties, mobility, fate, and environmental impact. We studied the growth of α-Fe2O3 (hematite), starting from 8 nm hematite particles in weakly acidic (HNO3) aqueous suspension with different states of particle aggregation, using salt (NaCl and NaH2PO4) to control their initial...... alignment, the particles did not merge and coalesce. Rather they remained stable as mesocrystals until heat-treated. In turn, the addition of NaCl significantly increases the rate of growth during hydrothermal treatment, probably because the nanoparticles, due to the chain formation, are already aligned...

  5. Solution- and solid-state conformations of C(α)-alkyl analogues of methylphenidate (Ritalin) salts: avoidance of gauche(+)gauche(-) interactions. (United States)

    Steinberg, Avital; Froimowitz, Mark; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Glaser, Robert


    Alkyl analogues of methylphenidate (Ritalin) salts are slow onset, long duration dopamine reuptake inhibitors with a potential use as a cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy. X-ray crystallographic studies and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations strongly suggest that avoidance of sterically unfavorable gauche(-)gauche(+) orientations effectively influences both the C(α)-alkyl side chain conformation and the formation of a predominant rotamer about the CH-CH bond ligating piperidine and C(Ar)R moieties. The favored CH-CH rotamer in D(2)O and in CD(2)Cl(2) of the pharmacologically interesting i-Bu and CH(2)-cyc-Pnt (RS,RS)-salts has the same antiperiplanar arrangement that was found in the crystal structures, although there clearly is a fast equilibrium involving smaller amounts of synclinal partners. While the rotamer in the (RS,SR)-i-Bu HCl crystal structure exhibits a synclinal orientation for the vicinal pair of adjacent methine protons, the weighted time-averaged arrangement for these protons becomes almost completely antiperiplanar when the crystals are dissolved in D(2)O. Increased steric congestion around the CH-CH bond in the analogous N-methyl tertiary ammonium salts seems to augment the quantity of the preferred rotamer within the mixture. The stereochemistry of the species observed via NMR seems to arise from specific combinations of N-methyl orientation and avoidance of sterically unfavorable gauche(-)gauche(+) arrangements.

  6. Salt Intake: ¿Risk or Need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Nicolás Diez y Martínez de la Cotera


    Full Text Available A literary review on salt intake and its uses throughout the different stages in the history of mankind was conducted. It addresses issues related to salt concentrations in the human body, its physiological functions that are essential for homeostatic control, as well as the complications when salt levels are below or over the physiological limits. Different studies were analyzed including the contradictions they all present on the damage that salt intake can cause to human health. Population groups are defined as salt sensitive (SS and salt resistant (SR according to study that was conducted as well as to the possible causes for their variations. Conclusions are drawn on the risks and benefits of salt intake. Intervention is recommended for balanced consumption, both for individuals and for populations.

  7. Evaluation of chloride-ion-specific electrodes as in situ chemical sensors for monitoring total chloride concentration in aqueous solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.


    Two commercially available chloride-ion-specific electrodes (CLISEs), a solid-state type and a membrane type, were evaluated as potential in situ chemical sensors for determining total chloride ion concentration in mixed sodium chloride/potassium chloride/hydrochloric acid solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations. Because the response of the solid-state CLISE was closer than was the response of the membrane-type CLISE to the theoretical response predicted by the Nernst equation, the solid-state CLISE was selected for further evaluation. A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the chloride system and the corresponding CLISE response to concentration changes suggested four methods by which the CLISE could be used either as a direct, in situ sensor or as an indirect sensor through which an analysis could be performed on-line with a sample extracted from the process solution

  8. Balance Problems (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  9. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Boegly, W.J.; Bradshaw, R.L.; Empson, F.M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E.G.; Tamura, T.


    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author) [fr

  10. Bath Salts (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  11. Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 4


    Apr 27, 2012 ... Effects of neutral salt (NaCl) and alkaline salt (NaHCO3) stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and ...... J. Northeast. Forest. Univ., 37: 29-32. (in Chinese). Yang CW, Chong JN, Li CY, Kim CM, Shi DC, Wang DL (2007). Osmotic adjustment and ion balance traits of an alkali resistant halophyte.

  12. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.


    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  13. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.


    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  14. Mechanism for salt scaling (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  15. Cesium and its analogs, rubidium and potassium, in rhombohedral [NaZr2(PO4)3 type] and cubic (langbeinite type) phosphates: 2. Properties: behavior on heating, in aqueous solutions, and in salt melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, A.I.; Orlova, V.A.; Buchirin, A.V.; Korchenkin, K.K.; Beskrovnyj, A.I.; ); Demarin, V.T.


    The properties (behavior on heating, in aqueous solutions, and in salt melts) of orthophosphates A 2 RM(PO 4 ) 3 , A 2 B 0.5 Zr 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 , and ABR 2 (PO 4 ) 3 [A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Mg, Sr, Ba; R = Ga, Fe, Cr, Ln (Ce-Lu)] crystallizing in the structure of langbeinite mineral (cubic system, space group P2 1 3, Z = 4) were studied and compared with those of NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 type phosphates. The thermal transformations of the structure and the influence of temperature on the distortion of the framework-forming polyhedra were examined. The volatilization of cesium, in particular, from the solid phase in the course of its formation, was evaluated. The rates of cesium and barium leaching at 90 and 95 deg C were determined [ru

  16. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  17. Complexability of o-bisguanidinobenzenes with arsenic and phosphoric acids in solution and solid states, and the potential use of their immobilized derivatives as solid base ligands for metal salts and arsenic acid. (United States)

    Ito, Tomoya; Suda, Koji; Kumamoto, Takuya; Nakanishi, Waka; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Seki, Hiroko; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ogura, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T


    The role of o-bisguanidinobenzenes (BGBs) as new Brønsted base ligands for arsenic and phosphoric acids was examined. In solution state, complexation was evaluated by Job's plot in (1)H NMR experiment, indicating a 1:1 complex formation, whereas in solid state crystalline structures of complexes obtained were addressed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and/or solid state (13)C NMR experiment, in which 1:2 complexes between the BGB and the acid components were normally formed. Based on these results, Merrifield and Hypogel resin-anchored BGBs were designed and prepared as the corresponding polymer-supported host ligands. Evaluation of their coordination ability with metal salts (ZnCl(2) and CoCl(2)) and arsenic acid in aqueous media by ICP-MS showed that the latter Hypogel resin-anchored BGBs acted as effective immobilized base ligands.

  18. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.


    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  19. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin


    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  20. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.


    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  1. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S


    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  2. Decomposition of aspirin in the solid state in the presence of limited amounts of moisture II: Kinetics and salting-in of aspirin in aqueous acetic acid solutions. (United States)

    Carstensen, J T; Attarchi, F


    The solubility of aspirin in saturated solutions of salicylic acid (and vice versa) was studied in 0 to 16 M aqueous solutions of acetic acid. The solubilities, when expressed in molarity, go through a maximum at an acetic acid concentration of approximately 12 M. The temperature dependence of the solubilities is such that the logarithm of the solubility is linear in reciprocal absolute temperature. The calculated enthalpies are of the order of 11 kcal/mol. The kinetics of aspirin decomposition was also studied at the different acetic acid concentrations, and it was found that the second-order hydrolysis rate constant is fairly independent of acetic acid concentration. Aspirin decomposition follows an Arrhenius equation and has an activation energy of 18 kcal/mol.

  3. Effect of Film Diffusion on the Ion-Exchange Kinetics of a Tracer Ion in Nafion-117 Membrane from a Mixture of Salt Solution. (United States)

    Naik, Apurva N; Agarwal, Chhavi; Chaudhury, Sanhita; Goswami, A


    The ion-exchange kinetics of a tracer ion (Cs + and Ba 2+ ) in presence of a bulk ion (Na + /H + ) has been measured in Nafion-117 membrane for a range of concentrations of NaCl/HNO 3 using the nonstationary radiotracer method. A systematic increase in the ion-exchange rate and decrease in the partition coefficients of the tracer ions between membrane and solution have been observed with the increase in bulk ion concentration. The sigmoidal nature of experimental profiles indicates film-diffusion-controlled kinetics even for well-stirred solutions. In the absence of an existing analytical or numerical solution, a simple empirical approach has been proposed to find the variable membrane surface concentration and has been used to solve the membrane diffusion equation by the finite difference method. The fitting of the experimental curves with a single diffusion coefficient for Cs + /Ba 2+ has been achieved. The exchange rate has been found to be independent of the stirring speed beyond a limiting speed.

  4. Balancing Acts (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T. S.; Richards, W. R.; Kelly, L. S.


    TA3 ascites tumor cells maintained in vitro as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution (physiological saline) were found to undergo time-dependent degenerative processes leading to alterations in both membrane characteristics and tumor transplantation properties. A 30% decrease in the negative cellular surface charge density occurred within 2 hr. when TA3 cells were incubated in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 °C. A similar reduction in negative surface charge density occurred within 0.5 hr. when the medium was maintained at 37 °C. This time-dependent reduction in surface charge was prevented when cellular metabolism was blocked either by maintaining the medium at 4 °C. or by adding 1 mM cyanide ion to a 23 °C medium. TA3 cells incubated as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 °C also exhibited a large 9 time-dependent reduction in proliferative capacity in isogeneic LAF1/J hosts, as indicated by an increase in the tumor dose for 50% mortality (TD50). Lowering the temperature of the medium to 4 °C was observed to slow the onset of the degenerative processes that lead to a decreased transplantability of TA3 cells. The modification in growth properties of TA3 cells maintained in vitro was found to be attributable in part to an alteration in tumor histocompatibility. This effect was demonstrated by comparing the tumor growth kinetics and TD50 values in normal hosts versus hosts that had been immunosuppressed by whole-body irradiation. Following the in vitro maintenance of TA3 cells, nigrosin dye exclusion tests were performed as a means of assessing cell viability. Evidence obtained in this series of experiments indicated that vital staining is an inadequate criterion for judging either the extent of cell membrane damage or the loss of cellular proliferative capacity.

  6. Salt Dependence of the Radius of Gyration and Flexibility of Single-stranded DNA in Solution probed by Small-angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Lipfert, Jan; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian


    Short single-stranded nucleic acids are ubiquitous in biological processes and understanding their physical properties provides insights to nucleic acid folding and dynamics. We used small angle x-ray scattering to study 8-100 residue homopolymeric single-stranded DNAs in solution, without external forces or labeling probes. Poly-T's structural ensemble changes with increasing ionic strength in a manner consistent with a polyelectrolyte persistence length theory that accounts for molecular flexibility. For any number of residues, poly-A is consistently more elongated than poly-T, likely due to the tendency of A residues to form stronger base-stacking interactions than T residues.

  7. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd Thin–Long Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U


    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40°C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  8. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about C. to about C.

  9. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; hide


    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  10. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris


    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl− and NO3−isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4−/NO3− ratios and NO3− isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3−/ClO4− in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3−, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70–200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age

  11. Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior. (United States)

    Llamas, Sara; Mendoza, Alma J; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G


    Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]≤1×10(-3) mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Extraction of lanthanides ions (III) from aqueous solution by sodium salt of the N(4-amino-benzoate)-propyl-silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamero, R.C.


    The silica gel 60 of specific superficial area 486 m 2 .g -1 was modified chemically with the ligand 4-amino benzoate of sodium in water-ethanol environment (l:L). The adsorptions of metallic ions were from water solutions at approximately 2 x 10 -3 M of chloride of Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III) and Ho(III). In these experiments we could see that the system gets the equilibrium of adsorption rapidly and that the pH of the environment has a great influence on the process of adsorption, being that the number of metal mols adsorpted in the matrix varied between 10,00 and 17,00 x 10 -5 mols. g -1 with a pH of approximately 5 for all the lanthanides, where the adsorption curves reach equilibrium. (author)

  13. Strategies of two tropical woody species to tolerate salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Melo Lustosa


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the leaf primary metabolism in two woody species, Sterculia foetida and Bombacopsis glabra. Both species have seeds rich in oil and they are largely found in regions with irregularities in water availability. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse from seeds. At 140 days after emergence, 50% of the plants were subjected to salt stress for 23 days, daily receiving 100 mM of NaCl solution. In both species, leaf stomata conductance and water potential decreased quickly under salt stress. The two species showed different strategies in photosynthetic pigment concentration and components of nitrogen metabolism. S. foetida kept the pigment concentration unchanged after 23 days of stress, while B. glabra increased concentration of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. S. foetida showed a high leaf concentration of K+ in stressed plants and a Na+/K+ ratio without differences when compared to control. Thus, S. foetida presented a better ionic balance, while B. glabra invested in photoprotection. Therefore, both species present potential to be planted in Brazilian Northeast, where water deficit and salt stress are challenging for annual crops.

  14. Cesium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid: Comparison of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    acidity and lowest solubility in reaction media in comparison with the other cesium content salts. KEYWORDS. Polyoxometalates, cesium ... insoluble salt of HPA is cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid,. CsxH3-xPW12O40 (CsxPW), a ... of Cs2CO3, very fine particles (precipitates) were formed to make the solution milky.


    Gruen, D.M.


    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  16. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads


    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  17. Solution of hydraulic nets, by means of the application of the pattern of balance of nodes and the method of linealization of equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Rincon, Paulo Cesar; Granados Jorge Armando, Barrera Hector


    The dimension of nets of fluids distribution is a common problem to different areas of the engineering, as the chemistry and the civil, present in the design of aqueducts, distribution systems of domiciliary gas, nets against fire and plants of chemical transformation. This work presents a model for its simulation, by means of the application of the balance of nodes and the theory of linealization of equations, it allows to know a complex net, in which they can be present, accessories, bombs, control valves, aspersion mouthpieces and process equipment. It is applicable to open, closed nets or combinations of two

  18. The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands. (United States)

    Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M


    Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is

  19. [Striking the work-life balance]. (United States)

    Dumas, Marc


    Solutions for finding a satisfactory balance between home life and work lie in the organisation of work and the work environment. Line managers in particular have a key role to play in helping their staff maintain this balance.

  20. Balancing Act (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.


    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. Balance Disorders (United States)

    ... disorder can profoundly affect daily activities and cause psychological and emotional hardship. What are the symptoms of ... that help with balance but are destroyed by aging, medications, infections, or trauma can someday be regrown ...

  3. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions (United States)

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele


    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  4. Tensiometric, fluorescence and 1H NMR study of mixed micellization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salt of ibuprofen in the presence of non-ionic surfactant in aqueous/urea solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Khan, Farah; Sheikh, Mohmad Shafi; Azum, Naved; Asiri, Abdullah M.


    Highlights: • Interaction between (IBF + TX-100) mixtures has been investigated. • (IBF + TX-100) mixtures exhibit synergistic behavior. • Urea increases the surface charge of the micelles resulting halt of the micelles formation. • N agg , K sv and dielectric constant of mixed systems have also been evaluated. • 1 H NMR data suggested that IBF and TX-100 interacts through hydrophobic as well as hydrophillic interaction. - Abstract: The desirable surface/bulk properties for specific applications of drug sodium salt of ibuprofen (IBF) and Triton X-100 (TX-100) can be achieved by adjusting mainly the composition of these systems. The interactions of anionic drug IBF with non-ionic surfactant TX-100 micelles have been investigated using tensiometry, fluorometry and 1 H NMR in aqueous as well in 250 mmol⋅kg −1 urea solutions. Different theoretical models like Clint, Rubingh, and Rosen, etc. were utilized to get information about the nature of interaction between these two in bulk and at the interface. These models disclose that the non-ideal behavior with attractive interaction in bulk and at the interface exists. The steady-state fluorescence quenching study was employed to evaluate micelle aggregation numbers (N agg ), which signify the involvement of surfactant was forever higher compared to IBF. Stern–Volmer binding constants (K sv ), micropolarity (I 1 /I 3 ) and dielectric constant (D exp ) of the mixtures are also obtained using fluorescence method. By the addition of urea raise in the surface charge of the micelles was observed followed by halt of the micellization of drug and surfactant as well as their mixture, therefore cmc values increases followed by decrease in aggregation number. The 1 H NMR resonance intensity variations were paralleled by upfield shifts in the resonance frequencies, due to an increased shielding of IBF happening from closeness of the non-ionic TX-100 surfactant.

  5. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.


    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  6. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade


    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  7. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence (United States)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.


    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  8. Long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 application to restore a balanced vaginal ecosystem: a promising solution against HPV-infection. (United States)

    Palma, Ettore; Recine, Nadia; Domenici, Lavinia; Giorgini, Margherita; Pierangeli, Alessandra; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti


    Over recent years, a growing interest has developed in microbiota and in the concept of maintaining a special balance between Lactobacillus and other bacteria species in order to promote women's well-being. The aim of our study was to confirm that vaginal Lactobacilli long-lasting implementation in women with HPV-infections and concomitant bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis might be able to help in solving the viral infection, by re-establishing the original eubiosis. A total of 117 women affected by bacterial vaginosis or vaginitis with concomitant HPV-infections were enrolled at Department of Gynecological Obstetrics and Urological Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy between February 2015 and March 2016. Women were randomized in two groups, standard treatment (metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for 7 days or fluconazole 150 mg orally once a day for 2 consecutive days) plus short-term (3 months) vaginal Lactobacillus implementation (group 1, short probiotics treatment protocol group, n = 60) versus the same standard treatment plus long-lasting (6 months) vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 administration (group 2, treatment group, n = 57). After a median follow up of 14 months (range 9-30 months) the chance to solve HPV-related cytological anomalies was twice higher in probiotic long-term users (group 2) versus short probiotics implementation group (group 1) (79.4% vs 37.5%, p = 0.041). Moreover, a total HPV-clearance was shown in 11.6% of short schedule probiotics implementation patients compared to a percentage of 31.2% in vaginal Lactobacilli long term users (p = 0.044), assessed as negative HPV-DNA test documented at the end of the study period. The consistent percentage of clearance of PAP-smear abnormalities and HPV-clearance obtained in long-term treatment group has been interestingly high and encouraging. Obviously, larger and randomized studies are warranted to confirm these encouraging results, but we believe that eubiosis

  9. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson


    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  10. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension


    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  11. Overexpression of OrbHLH001, a putative helix-loop-helix transcription factor, causes increased expression of AKT1 and maintains ionic balance under salt stress in rice. (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Fei; Ma, Yan; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan


    The basic helix-loop-helix family of proteins, which function as transcription factors, have been intensively studied in plants and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of these factors contributing to stress tolerance is unknown. Here, we report on the overexpression of OrbHLH001 from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) conferring salt tolerance in transgenic rice plants. The expression of OrbHLH001 was tissue specific, mainly in phloem tissues throughout the plant. Ion assay with the scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that NaCl stress has a greater influence on Na(+) efflux and K(+) influx in OrbHLH001-overexpressed plants than the wild type. OrbHLH001 protein can induce the expression of OsAKT1 to regulate the Na(+)/K(+) ratio in OrbHLH001-overexpressed plants by specifically binding to an E-box motif in the promoter region of OsAKT1. The mechanism may have potential use in rice molecular breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus in south-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P Vasilakis

    Full Text Available Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms than currently (operating wind farms, equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW. Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW, cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2% caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten

  13. Enthalpy of solution of biuret in various aqueous electrolyte solutions and in an urea solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hisashi; Murakami, Sachio (Osaka City Univ. (Japan))


    Enthalpies of biuret which is simplest amido acid and does not have hydrophobic group, in various aqueous solutions and in urea solution were measured at 298.15K to clarify the influence of salt on polymer conformal changes of organism or structure and functions of membrane. The isoperibol calorimeter where the quartz thermometer was used as the thermal sensor, was used in the measurement. The performance of this calorimeter was tested by comparing measurements with values in references. From the analysis of enthalpies of biuret solutions, following results of solute-solute-solvent interactions could be obtained: the rate where biuret destroys water structure is smaller in salt solutions than in aqueous solutions and the tendency depends on the ion size; ion-water interaction weakens owing to the ion-biuret interaction in salt solution of biuret; and water molecules are made free. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt. (United States)


    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is designated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155...

  15. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla


    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  17. Molten salts and nuclear energy production (United States)

    Le Brun, Christian


    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  18. SALT4: a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity code for thermomechanical analysis in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    SALT4 is a two-dimensional analytical/displacement-discontinuity code designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. This code was developed by the University of Minnesota. This documentation describes the mathematical equations of the physical system being modeled, the numerical techniques utilized, and the organization of the computer code, SALT4. The SALT4 code takes into account: (1) viscoelastic behavior in the pillars adjacent to excavations; (2) transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock; and (2) excavation sequence. Major advantages of the SALT4 code are: (1) computational efficiency; (2) the small amount of input data required; and (3) a creep law consistent with laboratory experimental data for salt. The main disadvantage is that some of the assumptions in the formulation of SALT4, i.e., temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars. The SALT4 code can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermal and thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. SALT4 can also be used to verify fully numerical codes. This is similar to the use of analytic solutions for code verification. Although SALT4 was designed for analysis of bedded salt, it is also applicable to crystalline rock if the creep calculation is suppressed. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  19. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake


    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun


    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  20. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting (Ruud)


    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  1. Hydrologic connections between environmental and societal change at the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah (United States)

    Bowen, B. B.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Liu, T.; Bernau, J. A.; Horel, J.


    The Bonneville Salt Flats (BSF) is an ephemeral and valued salt pan in northwestern Utah where a century of land speed racing and potash mining have created a complex and intertwined social and hydrologic system. The character of BSF changes on daily, weekly, monthly, annual, and geologic time scales in response to fluctuations in water balance, solute flux, and groundwater flow which is impacted by both local meteorology and water management associated with potash mining. In addition, the texture of the salt surface is changed by land use including racing activities, which impacts water fluxes through the crust. Ongoing research is focused on characterizing physical changes in the BSF environment and attributing observed changes in the landscape to specific processes and drivers. Five years of field observations and sampling, analyses of satellite imagery dating back the 1980s, and geochemical analysis of surface brines have shown that spatiotemporal changes in surface water and fluctuations in the surface salt footprint are linked to both climate and land use. Climate data over the last 30 years are examined to identify annual patterns in surface water balance at BSF to identify annual and seasonal climate constraints on flooding, evaporation, and desiccation cycles. A new weather station installed in the Fall of 2016 in the middle of BSF allows for unprecedented analyses of halite surface dynamics. Spatiotemporally dispersed stable isotope analyses of BSF surface brine samples constrain brine sources and evolution. An understanding of the processes that change the surface composition and texture through time inform interpretation of subsurface saline deposits at BSF. The wide range of temporal and spatial scales of observation help to guide to best management practices of this iconic natural resource.

  2. Ice Multiplication by Crystal Growth?Ice growing from the vapor along with tiny amounts of salt solution sheds free ice crystals, at -5C and saturation with respect to liquid water, in quiescent conditions. This is a more appealing explanation for the Hallett-Mossop effect than rime splintering, if it occurs primarily at temperatures near -5C. (United States)

    Knight, C. A.


    Ice growing from the vapor, at -5C and liquid water supersaturation, often sheds crystals when it grows along with a small amount of salt solution. The experiments are done with single crystals growing in a temperature-controlled chamber with 5 ml of water in the bottom to maintain and control supersaturation, and the new crystals are detected when they fall into and nucleate the water in the bottom. Crystal growth is initiated by inserting into the growth chamber a pipet tip that contained a few microliters of very dilute salt solution that had been supercooled to -5C and nucleated at the tip. Growth from the vapor ensues, with condensation directly onto ice and onto whatever salt solution is exposed. The results are not completely reproducible, no doubt because the starting details of the exposure of ice and solution is not controllable. However, the shedding of crystals often occurs with starting NaCl concentrations of the order of 0.01 wt. percent, and almost never occurs with "pure" water. The shedding events themselves have not been identified, and an attractive hypothesis for how the shedding of ice occurs has not been found at the time of writing this abstract. By the time of the AGU meeting it is hoped that enough experiments will have been performed in order to say whether this effect is found only near -5C. If it requires a temperature near -5C then it seems to be an attractive explanation of the Hallett-Mossop process. It also, of course, is hoped that an attractive hypothesis for the mechanism of the shedding will have been found.

  3. Nitrate salt immobilization process development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Peter, K.G.


    The waste nitrate salts generated at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) were determined to be unacceptable in their present form for shipment to and storage at the Nevada Test Site, according to the recently implemented Waste Acceptance Criteria. A reduction in the dispersibility and oxidizing potential of the salt was necessary. Various methods of immobilization were investigated to determine the waste form with the highest possible waste loading and the most cost effective processing. Portland cement was selected as the most effective binder (in terms of cost and performance), with a 55 wt % waste loading and a 1.5 water-to-cement ratio. A nitrate salt immobilization process has been installed in the liquid waste processing building. The process uses dry nitrate salts from the existing spray dryer, spray dryer feed solution, and Portland cement. The resulting waste grout is packaged in a plastic lined, corrugated fiberboard tri-wall box, and shipped to the Nevada Test Site for burial

  4. Measurement and Accurate Interpretation of the Solubility of Pharmaceutical Salts. (United States)

    He, Yan; Ho, Chris; Yang, Donglai; Chen, Jeane; Orton, Edward


    Salt formation is one of the primary approaches to improve the developability of ionizable poorly water-soluble compounds. Solubility determination of the salt candidates in aqueous media or biorelevant fluids is a critical step in salt screening. Salt solubility measurements can be complicated due to dynamic changes in both solution and solid phases. Because of the early implementation of salt screening in research, solubility measurements often are performed using minimal amount of material. Some salts have transient high solubility on dissolution. Recognition of these transients can be critical in developing these salts into drug products. This minireview focuses on challenges in salt solubility measurements due to the changes in solution caused by self-buffering effects of dissolved species and the changes in solid phase due to solid-state phase transformations. Solubility measurements and their accurate interpretation are assessed in the context of dissolution monitoring and solid-phase analysis technologies. A harmonized method for reporting salt solubility measurements is recommended to reduce errors and to align with the U.S. Pharmacopeial policy and Food and Drug Administration recommendations for drug products containing pharmaceutical salts. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  6. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels


    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova


    Full Text Available To the salting process of fish many studies are devoted, both in experimental and in theoretical terms. Study of features of fish salting in historical terms can be divided into 3 groups. One group of researchers believes that osmotic pressure has a major influence during the salting process. Another group attributed this process to the influence of molecular diffusion. The third group considers that during this process takes place both osmosis and diffusion. Determination of the main characteristics (salinity, diffusion coefficients, time of salting, etc. is a very time-consuming task. This leads to the idea of searching for innovative research methods. Current state of science, in addition to theoretical solutions points to the possibility to determine the basic characteristics of salting and applying methods associated with the interaction of ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation with matter. In our studies, we have been producing laser beam scanning of salt solution and fish meat thickness. Scattered radiation is determined by the salt concentration, diffusion coefficients, the size of the diffusing particles. This method is called a photon correlation spectroscopy. It has been applied in our work. The dependence of the scattered light intensity on the concentration of sodium chloride solution (brine has been investigated. According to diffusion coefficient a diffusion in solution to herring skin a conclusion was made that salt solution obtains fractal structure and its size was determined. Also we determined diffusion coefficients depending on the temperature in the layers. The layers are brine-leather, leather, and herring meat thickness. The process of diffusion-osmotic equilibrium revealed at temperatures of 10-12 ° C. Suggested the possibility of higher quality of fish salting at low temperatures. On the basis of the selfsimilar solution of the differential diffusion equation, a formula for calculating time salting fish was obtained

  8. Effect of Salt Forms of Chitosan on In Vitro Permeability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of chitosan (CS) salt forms and pH condition on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayer for enhanced permeability. Methods: Solutions (2 %w/v) of four different salt forms of CS-aspartate (CS-A), CS-ethylene diamine tetraacetate (CS-EDTA), ...

  9. A history of salt. (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G


    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  10. Worth its salt? (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  11. Influence of the reprocessing on molten salt reactor behaviour


    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Mathieu, L.; Heuer, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; Le Brun, C.; Liatard, E.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Méplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Wilson, J.


    International audience; The Molten Salt Reactor is one of the systems studied as a Generation IV reactor. Its main characteristic is the strong coupling between neutronics and salt reprocessing. Such nuclear reactors use a liquid fuel which is also the coolant. Elements produced during the reactor's operation, like Fission Products (FP) or TransUranians, modify the neutronic balance of the reactor by capturing neutrons. As the fuel is liquid, samples can be extracted and reprocessed to remove...

  12. Water-bearing explosive containing nitrogen-base salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunglinson, C.; Lyerly, W.M.


    A water-bearing explosive composition consists of an oxidizing salt component, a fuel component, and water. A sensitizer is included having an oxygen balance more positive than -150%, and consisting of a salt of an inorganic oxidizing acid and of an acyclic nitrogen base having no more than 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to the basic nitrogen and up to 3 carbons per basic nitrogen, and/or of a phenyl amine. 41 claims.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of nonpolarizable inorganic salt solution interfaces: NaCl, NaBr, and NaI in transferable intermolecular potential 4-point with charge dependent polarizability (TIP4P-QDP) water (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A.; Patel, Sandeep


    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid-vapor interface of 1M salt solutions of nonpolarizable NaCl, NaBr, and NaI in polarizable transferable intermolecular potential 4-point with charge dependent polarizability water [B. A. Bauer et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 359 (2009)]; this water model accommodates increased solvent polarizability (relative to the condensed phase) in the interfacial and vapor regions. We employ fixed-charge ion models developed in conjunction with the TIP4P-QDP water model to reproduce ab initio ion-water binding energies and ion-water distances for isolated ion-water pairs. The transferability of these ion models to the condensed phase was validated with hydration free energies computed using thermodynamic integration (TI) and appropriate energy corrections. Density profiles of Cl-, Br-, and I- exhibit charge layering in the interfacial region; anions and cation interfacial probabilities show marked localization, with the anions penetrating further toward the vapor than the cations. Importantly, in none of the cases studied do anions favor the outermost regions of the interface; there is always an aqueous region between the anions and vapor phase. Observed interfacial charge layering is independent of the strength of anion-cation interactions as manifest in anion-cation contact ion pair peaks and solvent separated ion pair peaks; by artificially modulating the strength of anion-cation interactions (independent of their interactions with solvent), we find little dependence on charge layering particularly for the larger iodide anion. The present results reiterate the widely held view of the importance of solvent and ion polarizability in mediating specific anion surface segregation effects. Moreover, due to the higher parametrized polarizability of the TIP4P-QDP condensed phase {1.31 Å3 for TIP4P-QDP versus 1.1 Å3 (TIP4P-FQ) and 0.87 Å3 (POL3) [Ponder and Case, Adv. Protein Chem. 66, 27 (2003)]} based on ab initio

  14. Lesson "Balance in Nature (United States)

    Chapanova, V.


    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  15. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide. (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H


    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg ( P  salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P  salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P  salt-fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178  μ mol /24 hrs P  salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Keeping Your Balance (United States)

    ... Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance Balance is very important for people with osteoporosis. Your ... all play an important role in maintaining your balance and preventing broken bones. Medical conditions and medicines ...

  17. Salt sensitivity, endogenous ouabain and hypertension (United States)

    Hamlyn, John M.; Blaustein, Mordecai P.


    Purpose of review Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) exert long-term effects on salt and blood pressure homeostasis. Here we discuss recent observations on mechanisms of salt sensitivity that involve endogenous ouabain and novel pathways in the brain and discuss their possible relationship to arterial and renal function in hypertension. Recent findings Chronic elevation of brain sodium promotes sustained hypertension mediated by central endogenous ouabain and the Na+ pump α-2 catalytic subunit. The intermediary pressor mechanism in the brain involves aldosterone biosynthesis, activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and increased epithelial sodium channel activity. In the periphery, elevated plasma CTS raise contractility and blood pressure by augmentation of sympathetic nerve responses, increasing arterial Ca2+ signaling and blunting nitric oxide production in the renal medulla and collecting ducts. Summary Endogenous ouabain in the brain appears to play a critical role in salt sensitivity and hypertension. In the periphery, the J-shaped relationship of plasma endogenous ouabain in response to short-term changes in salt balance in humans raises the possibility that endogenous ouabain contributes to the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with both low and high salt intakes. PMID:23207724

  18. Precision Flow and Salinity Mass Balance Assessments Across the Merced-San Joaquin River Confluence Zone (United States)

    Fisher, J. C.; Pai, H.; Amaya, S. V.; Butler, C.; Harmon, T. C.


    Net surface water-groundwater losses and gains may be estimated from flow gauges if they are adequately spaced such that flow differences are discernible. However, mapping of losses/gains on increasingly smaller scale river reaches is becoming important from the perspective of assessing non-point source pollution, ecological restoration efforts, and related issues. This work describes the deployment and testing of the tethered robotic system known as NIMS RD which can be used for precise determination of coupled flow and solute distributions and mass balances in complex flow regimes. The system is demonstrated at the confluence of the relatively high salinity San Joaquin River and its tributary, the relatively low salinity Merced River. Two upstream and one downstream transects are scanned repeatedly using a NIMS RD system. The resulting two-dimensional velocity and salinity distributions are integrated to provide estimates for flow and salt loads, which are then used to perform mass balances over the confluence zone. The resulting flow mass balance resulted in a best-estimate of 0.15 m3/s groundwater input over the confluence zone, which was reasonable in comparison to a previous investigation. Sensitivity analysis on the key flow adjustment needed to perform the mass balance indicated that changes ranging from a loss of 0.2 m3/s to a gain of 0.5 m3/s were possible. The quantitative nature of the salinity balance was compromised by the lack of NIMS RD data for the key transect at the optimal time for the calculation, and resulted in an unrealistically high estimate of salt input from groundwater. The precision of the NIMS RD results for a given transect at specific times points to the usefulness of this approach to obtain high resolution flow and pollutant loading estimates in complex flow regimes. The uncertainty of the results points to the need to perform the measurements under stationary conditions or synchronously using additional equipment.

  19. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.


    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  20. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.


    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Energy balance climate models (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.


    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  2. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.


    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  3. [Salt and cancer]. (United States)

    Strnad, Marija


    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  4. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  5. Limiting salt crystallization damage in lime mortar by using crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van


    Salt crystallization is a recurrent cause of damage in porous building materials. Lime-based mortars, which were widely used in construction of ancient masonry, are especially prone to salt damage, due to their low mechanical strength. Existing solutions to tackle salt damage in mortars have been

  6. Mucin secretion by the human colon cell line LS174T is regulated by bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkspoor, J. H.; Mok, K. S.; van Klinken, B. J.; Tytgat, G. N.; Lee, S. P.; Groen, A. K.


    We recently reported that bile salts play a role in the regulation of mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. In this study we have examined whether bile salts also influence mucin secretion by the human epithelial colon cell line LS174T. Solutions of bile salts were applied to

  7. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.H.


    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  8. Simple Cell Balance Circuit (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.


    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  9. Proposed Equation to Estimate the Total Dissolved Salts in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqer A. Ali


    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is pediment a new equation which can be used to obtain the total dissolved salts in the sand. This equation enables us to obtain the total dissolved salts by finding density of the watery solution resulting from dissolve any sample in distilled water. This equation shows very good results, so in this paper a new method is proposed to find the total dissolved salts by applying this equation which derived in this research without the need to use usual methods in finding those total dissolved salts. In this study, the proposed method uses the density variation between distilled water and the watery solution which is taken from the sand sample dissolved with distilled water. This proposed method will make the test of total dissolved salts more easily and quickly applied. The proposed method is equal or exceed in its reliability on other testing methods.

  10. A Reduced Model for Salt-Finger Convection in the Small Diffusivity Ratio Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Han Xie


    Full Text Available A simple model of nonlinear salt-finger convection in two dimensions is derived and studied. The model is valid in the limit of a small solute to heat diffusivity ratio and a large density ratio, which is relevant to both oceanographic and astrophysical applications. Two limits distinguished by the magnitude of the Schmidt number are found. For order one Schmidt numbers, appropriate for astrophysical applications, a modified Rayleigh–Bénard system with large-scale damping due to a stabilizing temperature is obtained. For large Schmidt numbers, appropriate for the oceanic setting, the model combines a prognostic equation for the solute field and a diagnostic equation for inertia-free momentum dynamics. Two distinct saturation regimes are identified for the second model: the weakly driven regime is characterized by a large-scale flow associated with a balance between advection and linear instability, while the strongly-driven regime produces multiscale structures, resulting in a balance between energy input through linear instability and energy transfer between scales. For both regimes, we analytically predict and numerically confirm the dependence of the kinetic energy and salinity fluxes on the ratio between solutal and thermal Rayleigh numbers. The spectra and probability density functions are also computed.

  11. Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assey Vincent D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania. Methods We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing. Results The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm, with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p Conclusion Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.

  12. Free energy landscape of a minimalist salt bridge model. (United States)

    Li, Xubin; Lv, Chao; Corbett, Karen M; Zheng, Lianqing; Wu, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei


    Salt bridges are essential to protein stability and dynamics. Despite the importance, there has been scarce of detailed discussion on how salt bridge partners interact with each other in distinct solvent exposed environments. In this study, employing a recent generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) method, we enabled efficient molecular dynamics simulation of repetitive breaking and reforming of salt bridge structures within a minimalist salt-bridge model, the Asp-Arg dipeptide and thereby were able to map its detailed free energy landscape in aqueous solution. Free energy surface analysis shows that although individually-solvated states are more favorable, salt-bridge states still occupy a noticeable portion of the overall population. Notably, the competing forces, e.g. intercharge attractions that drive the formation of salt bridges and solvation forces that pull the charged groups away from each other, are energetically comparable. As the result, the salt bridge stability is highly tunable by local environments; for instance when local water molecules are perturbed to interact more strongly with each other, the population of the salt-bridge states is likely to increase. Our results reveal the critical role of local solvent structures in modulating salt-bridge partner interactions and imply the importance of water fluctuations on conformational dynamics that involves solvent accessible salt bridge formations. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  13. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion. (United States)


    soluble oxides that relations like eq. (3) are significant. The oxides of several metal oxides have been found to be amphoteric , i.e., their solution...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR

  14. Dependence of osmotic pressure on solution properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, S.J.


    Hydrostatic pressure, temperature, salt concentration, and the chemical composition of the salt are parameters affecting solution properties. Pressure and temperature have little effect on osmosis, but osmotic pressure variations due to type of dissolved salt may be significant, especially at high concentrations. For a given salt solution, concentration variations cause large differences in osmotic pressure. A representative difference in concentration across a clay layer in a relatively shallow groundwater system might be 100 to 1,000 ppm. When expressed as ppm NaCl, this difference could cause a head difference of 0.8 to 8 meters of water if one of the rock bodies were closed to fluid escape

  15. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  16. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.


    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  17. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.


    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  18. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.


    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  19. Water and salt balances of two shallow groundwater cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , groundwater table depth, artificial drainage volumes, and electrical conductivity of irrigation water, groundwater and drainage water. Simulations of evaporation and transpiration were done with the SWAMP model. Based on soil water and ...

  20. Salt balance and mixing in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    ), National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa for the purpose of evaluating the profiles of mixing, both vertical and horizontal. The surface salinity field is found to be controlled primarily by the circulation in the surface layer. The coastal...

  1. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.


    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  2. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya


    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  3. What Are Bath Salts? (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  4. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes. (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz


    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC, catalase (CAT: EC, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC, and glutathione reductase (GR: EC, in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  5. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.


    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  6. Thermodynamic Properties of 1:1 Salt Aqueous Solutions with the Electrolattice Equation of State Propriétés thermophysiques des solutions aqueuses de sels 1:1 avec l’équation d’état de réseau pour électrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuber A.


    Full Text Available The electrolattice Equation of State (EOS is a model that extends the MattediTavares-Castier EOS (MTC EOS to systems with electrolytes. This model considers the effect of three terms. The first one is based on a lattice-hole model that considers local composition effects derived in the context of the generalized Van der Waals theory: the MTC EOS was chosen for this term. The second and the third terms are the Born and the MSA contributions, which take into account ion charging and discharging and long-range ionic interactions, respectively. Depending only on two energy interaction parameters, the model represents satisfactorily the vapor pressure and the mean ionic activity coefficient data of single aqueous solutions containing LiCI, LiBr, LiI, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, KBr, KI, CsCl, CsBr, CsI, or RbCI. Two methods are presented and contrasted: the salt-specific and the ion-specific approaches. Therefore, the aim of this work is to calculate thermodynamic properties that are extensively used to design, operate and optimize many industrial processes, including water desalination. L’équation d’état, dite électrolattice, est un modèle qui étend l’équation d’état de Mattedi-Tavares-Castier à des systèmes avec électrolytes. Ce modèle prend en compte l’effet de trois termes. Le premier terme est basé sur les trous dans le réseau en considérant les effets de la composition locale, étude effectuée dans le cadre de la théorie généralisée de Van der Waals : l’équation d’état de Mattedi-Tavares-Castier a été choisie pour ce premier terme. Les deuxième et troisième termes sont les contributions de Born et du MSA. Ils tiennent compte du chargement et du déchargement des ions, et des interactions ioniques à longue distance, respectivement. Le modèle n’ayant besoin que de deux paramètres d’interaction énergétique, il modélise de manière satisfaisante la pression de vapeur et le coefficient d’activité ionique

  7. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 23, 2010 ... Most crop plants do not grow well under high pH-levels. Salt stress also leads to deterioration of soil structure and hinders desirable air-water balance essential for biological processes ... (2) Specific ion toxicity due to high concentration of sodium and .... considerable nutrient imbalances and deficiencies.

  8. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine


    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl 2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO 4 layer formation. • MgSO 4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO 3 induced the formation of MgCO 3 as a degradation product

  9. Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants during bacterial interaction against soil salinity. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Baek, Kwang Hyun


    Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  10. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.


    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  11. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges


    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.


    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  12. Salt stabilizer for preventing chlorine depletion and increasing shelf-life of potable water - A concept (United States)

    Copeland, E. J.; Edgerley, R. H.


    Proposed concept, based on law of mass action uses addition of salt to increase chlorine ions produced in sodium hydrochlorite solutions, thereby increasing solution shelf-life. This technique is not costly. Usefulness will be determined by acceptability of salt in product undergoing long shelf-life.

  13. Sodium transport and distribution in sweet pepper during and after salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.


    In hydroponic systems often saline water is used in nutrient solutions. Transpiration leads to a steady increase of the salt concentration. To avoid unfavourable salt conditions, solutions are renewed, regularly. So, plants are exposed to varying sodium concentrations. In this paper, the sodium

  14. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  15. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W


    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  16. O sal como solução? políticas de saúde e endemias rurais no Brasil (1940-1960 Salt as solution? health policies and endemic rural diseases in Brazil (1940-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Hochman


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e comparar as políticas acerca do uso do sal no tratamento de duas doenças graves que assolaram a Amazônia e as áreas rurais do Brasil durante o período desenvolvimentista: o bócio endêmico e a malária. Apesar de serem doenças muito diferentes - a primeira é uma doença carencial, e a segunda uma doença parasitária - a luta dos médicos e nutricionistas para tornar obrigatória a iodação do sal de cozinha consumido no país inspirou a idéia de um sal misturado com cloroquina, a ser distribuído livremente em zonas de malária, onde o uso de DDT (Dicloro-Difenil-Tricloroetano não seria eficaz. O que seria um método simples - e, portanto, eficaz - para controlar e até mesmo eliminar tais doenças, o uso do sal de cozinha como veículo para fornecer iodo e uma droga antimalárica para a população, esbarra em fatores cognitivos, econômicos, sociais e culturais. Algumas variáveis contribuem para a análise histórica desses programas de saúde: o consenso quanto à etiologia da doença, o grau de institucionalização da comunidade de especialistas e a sua organização, a importância da doença na agenda das organizações internacionais de saúde, o locus de decisão política, a existência de uma liderança científica envolvida na formulação e gestão das políticas de saúde, e os padrões de consumo das populações-alvo.The article main objective is to analyze and compare the policies surrounding the use of salt in the treatment of two major diseases that raging in rural areas and the Amazon in Brazil during the national-developmentist period: the endemic goiter and malaria. Although they are very different diseases, the first is a carential disease and the second a parasitic disease, the struggle of doctors and nutritionists for the obligatory iodisation of table salt consumed in the country inspired the proposal of a cooking salt mixed with chloroquine and its free distribution in

  17. Protein diffusion in polyelectrolyte solutions (United States)

    Khandai, Santripti; Jena, Sidhartha S.


    The diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in non-dilute polyelectrolyte solutions of Poly-L-lysine was studied using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The effect of background charges on probe diffusion of GFP was studied with varying ionic strength of the solution. With increase in polyelectrolyte concentration, increase in solution viscosity and decrease in probe diffusion coefficient was observed. At the same time, we observed the diffusion coefficient increased with increase in salt concentration, while solution viscosity decreased, indicating a competition between electrostatic force between background and probe and viscosity drag. When the probe diffusion coefficient was compared with the predicted Stokes-Einstein (S-E) relation, strong positive deviations were observed for all the solutions with highest deviation observed for solution with zero salt concentration.

  18. Salt Rejection of Non-Ionic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, P.; Stannett, V.


    A modified solution-diffusion model for the description of salt and water transport through homogeneous membranes is introduced. It is compared with the current solution-diffusion model and the combined flow-diffusion model for the description of transport under reverse osmosis conditions. The ad...

  19. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.


    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  20. Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.


    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  1. Eolian transport, saline lake basins, and groundwater solutes (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.


    Eolian processes associated with saline lakes are shown to be important in determining solute concentration in groundwater in arid and semiarid areas. Steady state mass balance analyses of chloride in the groundwater at Double Lakes, a saline lake basin in the southern High Plains of Texas, United States, suggest that approximately 4.5 × 105 kg of chloride is removed from the relatively small (4.7 km2) basin floor each year by deflation. This mass enters the groundwater down the wind gradient from the lake, degrading the water quality. The estimates of mass transport were independently determined by evaluation of solutes in the unsaturated zone and by solute mass balance calculations of groundwater flux. Transport of salts from the lake was confirmed over a short term (2 years) by strategically placed dust collectors. Results consistent with those at Double Lake were obtained from dune surfaces collected upwind and downwind from a sabkha near the city of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The eolian transport process provides an explanation of the degraded groundwater quality associated with the 30–40 saline lake basins on the southern half of the southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico and in many other arid and semiarid areas.

  2. Research Paper Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of silicon (Si) application on cut rose (Rosa xhybrida L.) 'Hot Lady' under two levels of salt stress. Four Si concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) as Si were combined with a 25 mM NaCl (EC 3.8) level in the nutrient solution supplied to ...

  3. Mineral resource of the month: salt (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.


    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  4. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.


    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  5. Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt (United States)

    Gougar, Mary Lou D.

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other

  6. What Drives Saline Circulation Cells in Coastal Aquifers? An Energy Balance for Density-Driven Groundwater Systems (United States)

    Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.


    We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical

  7. Low cost balancing unit design (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek


    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  8. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng


    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  9. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.


    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  10. Infants' and Children's Salt Taste Perception and Liking: A Review. (United States)

    Liem, Djin G


    Sodium is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is widely used as sodium chloride (table salt) in (processed) foods and overconsumed by both children and adults, placing them at risk for adverse health effects such as high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. The current review focusses on the development of salt taste sensitivity and preferences, and its association with food intake. Three -to- four month old infants are able to detect and prefer sodium chloride solutions over plain water, which is thought to be a biological unlearned response. Liking for water with sodium chloride mostly decreases when infants enter early childhood, but liking for sodium chloride in appropriate food contexts such as soup and snack foods remains high. The increased acceptance and preference of sodium chloride rich foods coincides with infants' exposure to salty foods, and is therefore thought to be mostly a learned response. Children prefer higher salt concentrations than adults, but seem to be equally sensitive to salt taste. The addition of salt to foods increases children's consumption of those foods. However, children's liking for salt taste as such does not seem to correlate with children's consumption of salty foods. Decreasing the exposure to salty tasting foods during early infancy is recommended. Salt plays an important role in children's liking for a variety of foods. It is, however, questionable if children's liking for salt per se influences the intake of salty foods.

  11. Bacterial growth tolerance to concentrations of chlorate and perchlorate salts relevant to Mars (United States)

    Al Soudi, Amer F.; Farhat, Omar; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.


    The Phoenix lander at Mars polar cap found appreciable levels of (per)chlorate salts, a mixture of perchlorate and chlorate salts of Ca, Fe, Mg and Na at levels of ~0.6% in regolith. These salts are highly hygroscopic and can form saturated brines through deliquescence, likely producing aqueous solutions with very low freezing points on Mars. To support planetary protection efforts, we have measured bacterial growth tolerance to (per)chlorate salts. Existing bacterial isolates from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma (NaCl-rich) and Hot Lake in Washington (MgSO4-rich) were tested in high concentrations of Mg, K and Na salts of chlorate and perchlorate. Strong growth was observed with nearly all of these salinotolerant isolates at 1% (~0.1 M) (per)chlorate salts, similar to concentrations observed in bulk soils on Mars. Growth in perchlorate salts was observed at concentrations of at least 10% (~1.0 M). Greater tolerance was observed for chlorate salts, where growth was observed to 2.75 M (>25%). Tolerance to K salts was greatest, followed by Mg salts and then Na salts. Tolerances varied among isolates, even among those within the same phylogenetic clade. Tolerant bacteria included genera that also are found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Substantial microbial tolerance to (per)chlorate salts is a concern for planetary protection since tolerant microbes contaminating spacecraft would have a greater chance for survival and proliferation, despite the harsh chemical conditions found near the surface of Mars.

  12. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.


    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  13. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  14. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Viden om forbrugernes holdning til og købsintention for saltreducerede fødevarer er central, i forhold til industriens udvikling af nye produkter og...... af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt...

  15. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton


    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  16. Transport phenomena during nanofiltration of concentrated solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald


    In most scientific studies on nanofiltration either the development of new membrane materials or the characterization of membranes is reported. In the latter case most studies use single solute salt or sugar solutions and/or investigate nanofiltration of solutions with mixtures of ions at low

  17. Method and apparatus for producing green salt (UF/sub 4/) from uranium and uranium alloy pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, E.N.


    A method is described of producing green salt (UF/sub 4/) from uranium-bearing metal pieces comprising: dissolving the uranium-bearing metal pieces in a first aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid and at least 0.5% but no more than 2% fluoboric acid to provide a second aqueous solution which includes uranium (U/sup +4/), chloride ions and hydrochloric and fluoboric acids; adding hydrofluoric acid to the second aqueous solution to precipitate green salt out of the second solution and provide a third aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid; and separating the green salt from the third aqueous solution

  18. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.


    Sonnenberg, A


    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  19. Should we eat less salt? (United States)

    Delahaye, François


    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumptionsalt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake. (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim


    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.