WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of power

  1. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela;

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and...... the real time imbalances are minimized with automatic generation controller and the programmed to regulate active power reserves....

  2. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Anca Daniela HANSEN; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the s...

  3. Historical Changes In The Balance Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Tămaș

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Humanity crosses a period of historical discontinuity on the socio-politic and economic plan. The major changing vector is represented by the emerging economies, whose development high rates made them become the main contributor to the global growth. One of the principal consequences of this transition is the remodeling of the world’s order, the change in the global balance of powers, through the transition from the uni-polar world dominated by the United States of America to the multi-polar world in which emerging powers’ position is, more and more, taken into account. The progress registered by those emerging economies requires the reviewing of some theories, concepts and principles that orientate the economic and political contemporary practice.

  4. Learning Responsibility and Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefika Sümeyye Çam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to determine teacher perspectives on learning responsibility and balance of power. The research design is case study which was conducted on four primary school teachers. The data were collected with semi-structured interviews and the data obtained were analyzed with categorical analysis, a type of content analysis. The findings suggest that teachers think that learner should be at the center of teaching with LCT and they are incapable of applying learner-center teaching. It has been found that the class size and loaded teaching programs prevent them to apply LCT. Therefore, there have been some recommendations about the LCT by the researchers of the study.

  5. Design of power balance SRAM for DPA-resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keji, Zhou; Pengjun, Wang; Liang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    A power balance static random-access memory (SRAM) for resistance to differential power analysis (DPA) is proposed. In the proposed design, the switch power consumption and short-circuit power consumption are balanced by discharging and pre-charging the key nodes of the output circuit and adding an additional short-circuit current path. Thus, the power consumption is constant in every read cycle. As a result, the DPA-resistant ability of the SRAM is improved. In 65 nm CMOS technology, the power balance SRAM is fully custom designed with a layout area of 5863.6 μm2. The post-simulation results show that the normalized energy deviation (NED) and normalized standard deviation (NSD) are 0.099% and 0.04%, respectively. Compared to existing power balance circuits, the power balance ability of the proposed SRAM has improved 53%. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LQ14F040001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274132, 61234002), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  6. Net energy balance of tokamak fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The net energy balance for a tokamak fusion power plant was determined by using a PWR power plant as reference system, replacing the fission-specific components by fusion-specific components and adjusting the non-reactor-specific components to altered conditions. For determining the energy input to the fusion plant a method was developed that combines the advantages of the energetic input-output method with those of process chain analysis. A comparison with PWR, HTR, FBR, and coal-fired power plants is made. As a result the net energy balance of the fusion power plant turns out to be more advantageous than that of an LWR, HTR or coal-fired power plant and nearly in the same range as FBR power plants. (orig.)

  7. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2016-01-01

    generation control, where coordinated control strategy between combined heat and power plants and wind power plant enhances the secure power system operation. The developed algorithm emulating the control room response, to deal with real-time power imbalance, is applied and investigated on the future Danish......Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed and...

  8. Balance Sheet and Analysis of Reactive Power Demand in the Polish Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Kot

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the balance sheet and the reactive power demand of the Polish Power System. Reactive power balance sheets were made for the specific operating conditions of the system: the last winter peak, summer peak and summer off peak load. The basis of the study was load flow models and selected load flow calculation results. In addition, changes in demand for active and reactive power in recent years were presented.

  9. Generalized balanced power diagrams for 3D representations of polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Brieden, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the grain structure of polycrystalline material is an important task in material science. The present paper introduces the concept of generalized balanced power diagrams as a concise alternative to voxelated mappings. Here, each grain is represented by (measured approximations of...

  10. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  11. Nuclear energy: A balance of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Forum was attended by public information officers of the Member States' atomic energy commissions and agencies; public relations and information representatives of the international nuclear industry, including vendors, utilities and information dispersal groups; scientific societies; and trade associations. The Forum provided an international opportunity for those working in nuclear energy public information programmes to learn from one another, and to exchange ideas and methods on how best to demystify this form of energy and reach the public for better general understanding of the issues involved. The described report of the Forum consists of two parts. One is designed to represent the conclusions, recommendations and specific activities from the strategy sessions. It is followed by examples provided by the participants. An individual section is intended as a ready resources for up-to-date information on non-proliferation and radiation and health. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presentations

  12. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  13. The possibilities of combined heat and power production balancing large amounts of wind power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate Finnish future energy system with large amounts of CHP (combined heat and power) and wind power. The Nordic countries have ambitious wind power targets, which means a substantial need for balancing power. One third of electricity in Finland is produced by CHP, and a large amount of nuclear power is running constantly as base load. There is significant correlation in wind power patterns across a large geographical area in Northern Europe, so the interconnected networks don't solve the balancing problem completely. A precautionary principle is to have ability to balance the electricity production and consumption on a national level. CHP with thermal storages could be economical and technically easy option for balancing. This alternative has been largely neglected in European studies. We simulate future wind power by upscaling existing hourly data. The economically optimal storage size was here found to be from the current 0.3% up to 30% of the total annual heat demand, depending on the wind power share and carbon trade price. We find that the use of economically optimal thermal storage can increase CHP production by 15% in the case of wind energy providing 24% of the total electricity production in Finland. - Highlights: • Large wind power share necessitates heat storages in CHP (combined heat and power) systems. • CHP with storages replaces condensing power and increases the system efficiency. • Without storages the system efficiency decreases. • High wind power share and emission trade price favour large storages. • Optimal storage size is from current 0.3% of the annual district heat use to even 30%

  14. Competitive balance in sports leagues and the paradox of power

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Szymanski

    2006-01-01

    It is generally thought that competitive equilibrium in sports leagues involves too little competitive balance (the strong dominate the weak too much- a more even contest would be more attractive). However, it is possible to sow in a standard logit contest model that the reverse is true – the strong do not win “enough”- i.e. more wins by the strong team would increase attendance or revenues. This is consistent with Hirshleifer’s paradox of power. However, this is only true so long as the stro...

  15. Pump Storage Hydropower for delivering Balancing Power and Ancillary Services - A Case Study of Illvatn Pump Storage Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Norang, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    The power markets in Europe are changing rapidly. The drastic shift towards renewable energy and interconnection between power markets has brought with it challenges related to power balance and grid stability. Consumption and generation of electric power needs to be at balance at all times and a secure and reliable power system requires sensitivity to multiple time scales. Increased demand for balancing energy and ancillary services has the potential of making pump storage projects in Norway...

  16. Power loss measurement of implantable wireless power transfer components using a Peltier device balance calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining heat losses in power transfer components operating at high frequencies for implantable inductive power transfer systems is important for assessing whether the heat dissipated by the component is acceptable for implantation and medical use. However, this is a challenge at high frequencies and voltages due to limitations in electronic instrumentation. Calorimetric methods of power measurement are immune to the effects of high frequencies and voltages; hence, the measurement is independent of the electrical characteristics of the system. Calorimeters have been widely used to measure the losses of high power electrical components (>50 W), however it is more difficult to perform on low power components. This paper presents a novel power measurement method for components dissipating anywhere between 0.2 W and 1 W of power based on a heat balance calorimeter that uses a Peltier device as a balance sensor. The proposed balance calorimeter has a single test accuracy of ±0.042 W. The experimental results revealed that there was up to 35% difference between the power measurements obtained with electrical methods and the proposed calorimeter. (paper)

  17. The New China and the New Regional Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bueno Martínez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The People’s Republic of China has turned 50. Many things have changed since that first day of October when the Great Leader solemnly declared the proclamation of the birth of a new nation. More than that, though, what he proclaimed that day was the return ofChinese pride - the Chinese people had finally arisen after having knelt before the Western powers for the last century. The end of the Second World and its aftermath facilitated the Communistís triumph in China. The end of the Cold War left in its wake a wide range ofuncertainties and hopes in the zone, the Pacific, where the different Asian powers finally have much to say and decide on regarding the fate of the world as a whole. This new multipolarity has led to the rise of a new balance of power throughout Asia. The Korean peninsulaand Taiwan continue being the most dangerous flash points for conflict, albeit more controlled ones given the tragic consequences that could unfold if they developed into armed conflicts. This article provides a brief analysis of the roles that the leading powers play in the zone within both the regional and global contexts. Among these powers is, obviously, China, viewed in comparison with its neighbor and maximum rival for occupying a dominant role, the Japanese empire. Meanwhile, the two superpowers have seen their influence vary considerably in this area for different reasons: Moscow, in full political decline and economic chaos, with its nuclear arsenal intact; and Washington, with its puzzling and shifting policy towards China, and its military presence in the zone that is both unwanted yet desired by all except Beijing and Pyongyang. The relations among these countries will mark the future of a large part of the planet and that of most of its inhabitants.

  18. Ecological balance of power generation from sewage gas; Oekobilanz Klaergasverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchetti, C.; Bienz, P.; Pridal, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the ecological balance made for the production of electrical power from biogas that is produced in waste water treatment plants. The study was needed as the basis for deciding if power thus generated could be certified to the strict 'Naturemade Star' standards. This label is used to designate 'green' power. The report briefly describes the processes usually used in the treatment of sewage sludge, the energy-intensive aerobic and anaerobic digestion, which produces biogas. The ecological factors of the two processes were assessed using the Eco-Indicator 99 tool. The results are discussed, which showed that a typical modern waste water treatment plant is significantly better as far as energy is concerned than older examples of plant (e.g. those built in 1995) as far as ecological impact is concerned. Also, the study addresses other forms of biogas use, like, for example, its use as a fuel for vehicles.

  19. The Power of Balance: Transforming Self, Society, and Scientific Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Torbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We feel privileged to republish portions of The Power of Balance: Transforming Self, Society, and Scientific Inquiry. Originally published by SAGE in 1991, the book’s copyright has reverted to the author, who wished to share our selection of excerpts as a contribution to this special issue’s theme. Torbert’s body of work has always been about fostering “the development of politics and the political,” at each of the scales highlighted in the book’s title, as well as in all of the domains in which he has served. As he wrote in the original preface to the book, the work was 20 years in the making, and now, nearly 20 years after that, we wish for at least some portions of this classic work to be back in circulation.[1] The “power of balance” as conceived by Torbert represents an integral paradigm of principles, theory, and praxis. Deployed, the paradigm is one that can indeed inform and shape the development of self, society, and scientific inquiry. To explicate that fulsome vision, the book’s fifteen chapters develop the themes of three sections: Theory and Strategy, Heart and Practice, and Vision and Method. Here, we have excerpted from several chapters in Theory and Strategy, and from one chapter in Vision and Method.This means, of course, that we present but a small fraction of this integral classic, leaving out all of the rich, in-depth illustrations, including the author's learning practice as he first attempted to enact the principles. Yet, we hope even this abbreviated form of The Power of Balance supports at least two goals: to offer deployable insights and practices for developing politics and the political; and to take root as part of a foundational canon for integral political thought, research, and praxis. How we readers deploy these principles in our own actions will determine the degree to which self, society, and scientific inquiry transform. [1] Editor’s note: We reproduce this work with the author’s permission

  20. Energy balances for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of a power plant is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the plant over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the plant. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power plant in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power plant in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power plants in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation plant near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power plant; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power plant; a 500 MW coal-fired power plant; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power plant. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power plants, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. In between the photovoltaic plants and the fossil-fuel-fired plants are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude

  1. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found that the...... wind farm is able to play a proactive role regarding downward regulation and thereby increase profits....

  2. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  3. Power Balance of a Hybrid Power Source in a Power Plant for a Small Propulsion Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Bataller Planes, Elena; Lapena Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Ortí, Fortunato; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; García Suárez, Oscar; Moreno González, Felix Antonio; Portilla Berrueco, Jorge; Torroja Fungairiño, Yago; Vasic, Miroslav; Huerta Oliveres, Santa Concepción; Trocki, M.; Zumel Vaquero, Pablo; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes two different architectures for a hybrid power source comprising a PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell and a Li ion battery. The hybrid power source feeds the propulsion motor of an all electrical aircraft, the Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator. The architectures are an unregulated and a regulated hybrid power source. The regulation is achieved by means of a controllable series boost converter (SBC) connected in series with the fuel cell. Both architectures have been ...

  4. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  5. Power Quality Enhancement Using Power Balance Theory Based DSTATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jampana Bangarraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DSTATCOM (Distributed Static Compensator is used for current harmonic mitigation, Power Factor Correction (PFC, reactive power compensation, load balancing and neutral current compensation in the Power Distribution System (PDS. In this paper, the power balance theory based DSTATCOM is used for power quality enhancement like current harmonic mitigation, power factor correction (PFC, reactive power compensation, load balancing and neural current compensation and load balancing. A non-isolated star/delta transformer is to reduce dc-link voltage v_(dc of Voltage Source Converter (VSC and neutral current compensation. The reference source currents can be extracted quickly by using proposed power balance theory. The proposed power balance theory based DSTATCOM is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK under PFC and ZVR (Zero Voltage Regulation operations.

  6. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  7. Synthetic methods for beam to beam power balancing capability of large laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To account for output power balancing capability of large laser facilities, a synthetic method with beam to beam root-mean-square is presented. Firstly, a conversion process for the facilities from original data of beam powers to regular data is given. The regular data contribute to the normal distribution approximately, and then a corresponding simple method of root-mean-square for beam to beam power balancing capability is given.Secondly, based on theory of total control charts and cause-selecting control charts, control charts with root-mean-square are established which show short-term variety of power balancing capability of the facilities. Mean rate of failure occurrence is also defined and used to describe long-term trend of global balancing capabilities of the facilities. Finally, advantages of the intuitive and efficient diagnosis for synthetic methods are illustrated by analysis of experimental data. (authors)

  8. Power balance and characterization of impurities in the Maryland Spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Maryland Spheromak is a medium size magnetically confined plasma of toroidal shape. Low T{sub e} and higher n{sub e} than expected contribute to produce a radiation dominated short-lived spheromak configuration. A pyroelectric radiation detector and a VUV spectrometer have been used for space and time-resolved measurements of radiated power and impurity line emission. Results from the bolometry and VUV spectroscopy diagnostics have been combined to give the absolute concentrations of the major impurity species together with the electron temperature. The large amount of oxygen and nitrogen ions in the plasma very early in the discharge is seen to be directly responsible for the abnormally high electron density. The dominant power loss mechanisms are found to be radiation (from impurity line emission) and electron convection to the end walls during the formation phase of the spheromak configuration, and radiation only during the decay phase.

  9. Power balance and characterization of impurities in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Spheromak is a medium size magnetically confined plasma of toroidal shape. Low Te and higher ne than expected contribute to produce a radiation dominated short-lived spheromak configuration. A pyroelectric radiation detector and a VUV spectrometer have been used for space and time-resolved measurements of radiated power and impurity line emission. Results from the bolometry and VUV spectroscopy diagnostics have been combined to give the absolute concentrations of the major impurity species together with the electron temperature. The large amount of oxygen and nitrogen ions in the plasma very early in the discharge is seen to be directly responsible for the abnormally high electron density. The dominant power loss mechanisms are found to be radiation (from impurity line emission) and electron convection to the end walls during the formation phase of the spheromak configuration, and radiation only during the decay phase

  10. The relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booysen, Marc Jon; Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Watson, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral balance is critical to kicking accuracy in football. In order to design interventions to improve dynamic balance, knowledge of the relationships between dynamic balance and specific neuromuscular factors such as eccentric strength and power is essential. Therefore, the aim was to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers. The Y-balance test, eccentric isokinetic strength testing (knee extensors and flexors) and the countermovement jump were assessed in fifty male footballers (university (n = 27, mean age = 20.7 ± 1.84 years) and professional (n = 23, mean age = 23.0 ± 3.08 years). Spearman Rank Order correlations were used to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance. Multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, mass, stature, playing experience and competitive level was performed on significant relationships. Normalised reach score in the Y-balance test using the non-dominant leg for stance correlated with (1) eccentric strength of the non-dominant leg knee extensors in the university group (r = 0.50, P = 0.008) and (2) countermovement jump height in the university (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and professional (r = 0.56, P = 0.006) football groups, respectively. No relationships were observed between eccentric strength (knee flexors) and normalised reach scores. Despite the addition of potential confounders, the relationship of power and dynamic balance was significant (r = 0.52, P ability to generate power correlates moderately with dynamic balance on the non-dominant leg in male footballers. PMID:26153432

  11. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates the...

  12. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. PMID:26922122

  13. Does Culture Shape the Balance of Power in Multinational Companies ? The Case of the EADS Group

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeyer, Christoph; Mayrhofer, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of culture on the evolution of power relationships in multinational companies. The empirical study is based on a longitudinal analysis of the EADS Group (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), which resulted from the merger of French company Aérospatiale-Matra, German company DASA and Spanish company CASA. The findings show that the balance of power depends not only on contextual factors and individual strategies, but also on cultural factors. The ana...

  14. Discontinuation of the peaceful use of nuclear power and a balanced economic situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) serves to terminate, in a legislative approach, the use of nuclear power for energy generation. The federal government considers the use of nuclear power 'economically unreasonable' irrespective of the fact that nuclear power makes important contributions to the protection of the climate and, above all, to safe, cost-efficient, and non-polluting supplies of power. Opting out of the use of nuclear power raises the question of the consequences this step has for the power economy and the economy as a whole. Giving up nuclear power in electricity generation would affect the objectives of a safe, economic, and non-polluting energy supply. In view of the outstanding importance of energy supply to the whole economy, the - constitutional - question arises whether opting out of the use of nuclear power not only jeopardizes the supply of energy, but may result even in a disruption of the balance of the entire economy in the sense of Art. 109, Para. 2 of the German Basic Law, under which the federation and the federal states are obliged to bear in mind the requirements of a balanced overall economy. In a differentiated interpretation of Article 109, Para. 2 of the Basic Law, the government is required, also outside of budget management aspects, to refrain from measures upsetting the balance of the entire conomy. Inter alia, this could have the consequence of not opting out of the peaceful use of nuclear power. It is up to the competent government agencies to decide on measures to control this development. For this purpose, a number of variants are available which may range between stretching out the period of time of the opt-out procedure and giving up this opt-out altogether. (orig.)

  15. A power balance model for handcycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; De Koning, Jos J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the applicability of the power balance model to elite handcycling and to obtain values for gross efficiency (GE). Methods. Four members of the Dutch Paralympic team performed trials on a 250-m indoor track. Velocity (v) and power output (PO) were measured in conjunction with

  16. A study on laser power balance in a multi-step ionization process of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on rate equation a theoretical study on laser power balance in a resonance multi-step ionization process of atoms has been presented in this paper. The calculation results made for a typical three-level atom show that there is an optimization laser power assignment when the total pumping laser power is limited, and under the optimization laser power assignment the ionization probability of a three-level atom can reach its maximum value. This conclusion is very different from that obtained under saturation excitation conditions. The method used here can be applied to more complicated multi-step ionization process of atoms. (authors)

  17. Analysis of Balancing Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis elaborates on the rules for power balancing, provides a method for quantifying balancing requirements and examines the effect of future changes on balancing. Chapter 2 elaborates on system balancing and the different actors and entities in the electricity delivery system. The necessity and implementation of power balancing are explained. Also different subsequent markets (i.e., day-ahead markets, intraday markets and imbalance settlement systems) and options to trade electricity are discussed. As the research focusses mainly on the Netherlands, properties of the Dutch imbalance settlement system are analyzed. Based on this framework an in-depth analysis of imbalances and calls for balancing capacity with the corresponding prices is given. This shows the incentives to minimize the amount of imbalance in the system and to participate in the imbalance settlement system. Chapter 3 elaborates on the level of aggregation that the entities, involved in the imbalance settlement system, in electricity markets can have. Based on current market rules, incentives to either grow or shrink and by aggregating more or less entities are discussed. The level of aggregation will directly influence the functioning of the imbalance settlement system. It is shown that larger aggregations benefit more from the canceling out of imbalances. The imbalances of the Netherlands and Belgium have been aggregated to illustrate the possible benefits of aggregating multiple national imbalance settlement systems. The increased penetration of renewable generation strongly influences the planning and operation of the power system. As many renewable energy generators have a fluctuating power output, several methods are discussed in chapter 4 that can be used to classify and quantify the balancing requirements to counteract these fluctuations. Chapter 4 discusses the multiple existing classes of balancing capacity and the corresponding methods to quantify their needs. Due to the

  18. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  19. Shifting balance of power in experimental particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Bibliometrics': the analysis of publication and citation data: indicates that Europe has taken the lead from the US in experimental high-energy physics, which raises the question of how the US should respond

  20. Shifting balance of power in experimental particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, J.; Martin, B.R.; Skea, J.E.F.; Peacock, T.; Minchin, N.; Crouch, D.

    1986-11-01

    'Bibliometrics': the analysis of publication and citation data: indicates that Europe has taken the lead from the US in experimental high-energy physics, which raises the question of how the US should respond.

  1. On power-counting renormalizability of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity with detailed balance

    CERN Document Server

    Vernieri, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We consider the version of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity where "detailed balance" is consistently implemented, such as to limitate the huge proliferation of couplings in the full theory and to obtain an healthy dynamics at low-energy. Since a superpotential which is third-order in spatial derivatives is not sufficient to guarantee the power-counting renormalizability of the spin-0 graviton, then one needs to go an order beyond in derivatives, building up a superpotential up to fourth-order spatial derivatives. Here, we perturb the action to quadratic order around flat space, and show that power-counting renormalizability of the spin-0 graviton is achieved only by setting to zero a specific coupling of the theory, while the spin-2 graviton is always power-counting renormalizable for any choice of the couplings. This result raises serious doubts about the use of detailed balance.

  2. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  3. Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries for balancing wind power forecast error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stroe, Ana-Irina;

    2015-01-01

    Wind power plant operators are often faced with extra charges when their power production does not match the forecasted power. Because the accuracy of wind power forecasts is limited, the use of energy storage systems is an attractive alternative even when large-scale aggregation of wind power is...... considered. In this paper, the economic feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for balancing the wind power forecast error is analysed. In order to perform a reliable assessment, an ageing model of lithium-ion battery was developed considering both cycling and calendar life. The economic analysis considers two...... different energy management strategies for the storage systems and it is performed for the Danish market. Analyses have shown that the price of the Li-ion BESS needs to decrease by 6.7 times in order to obtain a positive net present value considering the present prices on the Danish energy market. Moreover...

  4. Power play in television: a political economy analysis of power balances in broadcasting markets

    OpenAIRE

    Evens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the focus is on the (evolving) configurations of power and control in broadcaster-to-distributor markets. Technological developments, as well as changes in the institutional framework, are in the process of fundamentally transforming legacy TV business models and have transferred power to ‘gatekeepers’ which derive a dominant position by controlling competitive bottlenecks. Since technology shocks might disrupt established power relationships in television, interactions ...

  5. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2013-01-01

    problem is formulated as a centralized large-scale optimization problem but is then decomposed into smaller subproblems that are solved locally by each unit connected to an aggregator. For large-scale systems the method is faster than solving the full problem and can be distributed to include an arbitrary......A power balancing strategy based on Douglas-Rachford splitting is proposed as a control method for largescale integration of flexible consumers in a Smart Grid. The total power consumption is controlled through a negotiation procedure between all units and a coordinating system level. The balancing...

  6. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%.

  8. Shifting the Balance of Power in Collective Bargaining: Australian Law, Industrial Action and Work Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Shae McCrystal

    2006-01-01

    The Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005 (Cth) effects significant changes to the provisions of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (Cth) governing industrial action in the federal workplace relations system. This paper examines these changes, situating them in the context of the historical relationship between law and industrial action in Australia, and evaluating the impact of the changes on the balance of power in voluntary collective bargaining. The paper argues that the Wor...

  9. Sport, Media and Sponsor: the Shifting Balance of Power in the Sports Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Rosita; Meenaghan, Tony; O'Sullivan, Paul

    1997-01-01

    As sport has become an important social and economic activity it is increasingly the subject of management analysis. This article adopts a network perspective to examine developments in the sports network. In particular, it examines relationships between network "actors" such as corporate sponsors, media and the owners of sport and analyses the changing balance of power in the sports network. Key media drivers of change in the network such as cable and satellite television, pay-per-view and d...

  10. Influence of Forecast Accuracy of Photovoltaic Power Output on Capacity Optimization of Microgrid Composition under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Akihito; Kato, Takeyoshi; Shimakage, Toyonari; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A microgrid (MG) is one of the measures for enhancing the high penetration of renewable energy (RE)-based distributed generators (DGs). If a number of MGs are controlled to maintain the predetermined electricity demand including RE-based DGs as negative demand, they would contribute to supply-demand balancing of whole electric power system. For constructing a MG economically, the capacity optimization of controllable DGs against RE-based DGs is essential. By using a numerical simulation model developed based on a demonstrative study on a MG using PAFC and NaS battery as controllable DGs and photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) as a RE-based DG, this study discusses the influence of forecast accuracy of PVS output on the capacity optimization. Three forecast cases with different accuracy are compared. The main results are as follows. Even with no forecast error during every 30 min. as the ideal forecast method, the required capacity of NaS battery reaches about 40% of PVS capacity for mitigating the instantaneous forecast error within 30 min. The required capacity to compensate for the forecast error is doubled with the actual forecast method. The influence of forecast error can be reduced by adjusting the scheduled power output of controllable DGs according to the weather forecast. Besides, the required capacity can be reduced significantly if the error of balancing control in a MG is acceptable for a few percentages of periods, because the total periods of large forecast error is not so often.

  11. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  12. Hybrid wind power balance control strategy using thermal power, hydro power and flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gelazanskas, Linas; Baranauskas, Audrius; Gamage, Kelum; Azubalis, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    The increased number of renewable power plants pose threat to power system balance. Their intermittent nature makes it very difficult to predict power output, thus either additional reserve power plants or new storage and control technologies are required. Traditional spinning reserve cannot fully compensate sudden changes in renewable energy power generation. Using new storage technologies such as flow batteries, it is feasible to balance the variations in power and voltage within very short...

  13. Power balance in highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, G G [Osram Sylvania, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    Discrepancies reported in the literature between numerical predictions and experimental measurements in low-pressure Hg discharges at high current densities are considered. Elements of a one-dimensional fluid model and recent spectroscopic and Langmuir probe measurements are combined in a semi-empirical way to individually examine components of the positive column power balance and the discharge conductivity. At a Hg vapour pressure of 0.81 Pa (6.1 mTorr) and a current density of 300 mA cm{sup -2}, previous discrepancies in the power balance and discharge conductivity are simultaneously resolved by assuming a higher electron density than that obtained from the Langmuir probe measurements. This conclusion is supported by independent measurements of ion density reported in a companion paper. The importance of radial cataphoresis under these conditions, particularly with regard to radiation transport, is highlighted. This work is of particular interest for the design of fluorescent lamps operating at high current densities.

  14. Forecasted balance sheet of the power supply and demand equilibrium in France. 2007 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformably with the law from February 10, 2000, RTE, the French power transportation network is liable for establishing, at least every two year, a pluri-annual forecasted balance sheet of the power supply and demand equilibrium. Its aim is to identify the unbalance risks between the power consumption and the available generation means. To perform this technical expertise, RTE establishes some forecasts of domestic power consumption which are compared to the known perspectives of evolution of the production means. Two main changes have been taken into consideration in this analysis: the improvement of the energy efficiency, and the decay of power consumption in the big industry. Therefore, the new reference scenario indicates a consumption growth of 1.3% per year up to 2010 and 1% only for the next decade, i.e. 534 TWh of annual power consumption for 2020. On the offer side, several projects of new production means (mainly gas combined cycles) have been accepted during the last two years which represent more than 13000 MW of additional power. On the other hand, the decommissioning of several old fossil fuel power plants is foreseen for 2015 and represent 4400 MW. The offer based on decentralized production means is changing too, mainly thanks to the development of the wind power industry. In order to reach the supply-demand equilibrium, an acceptability threshold for failure duration has been defined by the public authorities and is limited to 3 hours per year. According to the reference scenario, the security of supplies in France seems to be reasonably assured for the next five years to come. A complement of 10500 MW will be necessary to meet the demand foreseen for 2020. (J.S.)

  15. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power; Balance de planta de la CLV con aumento del 15 % de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  16. Control System of Substance and Energy Balances of Combined Heat-and-Power Plants Applying the Least Squares Adjustment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Rusinowsk

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The set of substance and energy balance equations of water and steam collectors, together with the balance of boilers and turbines (including the regeneration system is the base of the control system of the exploitation of a combined heat-and power plant. The initial values of this system are the results of measurements in the course of exploitation. Due to inevitable errors in the measurements the substance balances display discrepancies between the balance of steam and the balance of the feed water, and the calculated technical indices are uncertain. In order to increase the reliability of the results of the technical analysis of exploitation and to co-ordinate the balance equations we may use the least squares adjustment method. It may be applied on the condition that we have a sufficient surplus of measuring data. The number of balance equations must be higher than the number of unknown values. This makes it possible to apply the criterion of least squares warranting a maximum of the reliability function in an n dimensional. space of errors (n - number of measuring data. This method has been applied in the balance systems of the combined heat-and-power generating plant.

  17. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  18. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW−1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW−1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  19. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  20. Balancing the roles of humans and machines in power plant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of factors are leading to a re-examination of the balance between the roles of the operators and the machine in controlling nuclear power plants. Some of these factors are: the advent of new and advanced computer technologies; increased plant complexity, placing heavy workloads and stress on the control room operator; and increasing concerns about the role of human reliability in industrial mishaps. In light of the changing control aspects, we examine the meaning of automation, we discuss a proposed model of the control process, the concept of control within a few defined reactor states, a decision-making sequence; and we identify some possible problem areas in implementing new control technologies. Significant benefits should come from the new control methods and these opportunities should be exploited as soon as prudence allows, taking great care that the safety of the plants is improved

  1. Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan R.; Heussen, Kai; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    , the model is verified on the basis of the existing energy mix on Bornholm as an islanded energy system. Future energy scenarios for the year 2030 are analysed to study a feasible technology mix for a higher share of wind power. Finally, the results of the hourly simulations are compared to dynamic......Energy system analyses on the basis of fast and simple tools have proven particularly useful for interdisciplinary planning projects with frequent iterations and re-evaluation of alternative scenarios. As such, the tool “EnergyPLAN” is used for hourly balanced and spatially aggregate annual...... analyses of energy scenarios. For the relatively fast dynamics of electrical energy systems, additional requirements need to be formulated to justify the technical feasibility of the respective scenario. In this article, the comparison is made of energy scenarios for the Danish island of Bornholm. First...

  2. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS pe

  3. Balancing power among academic and community partners: the case of El Proyecto Bienestar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Julie

    2008-06-01

    Balancing power among academic and community partners, addressing community-identified needs, and strengthening community capacity are ethical values unique to community-based participatory research (CBPR). Negotiation of these values in one CBPR environmental justice project was evaluated to advance the environmental and occupational health of a Hispanic agricultural community in central Washington State. Data were collected through document review and participant observation. Applied conversation and discourse analysis were used to interpret the data. Within the organization, farmworkers primarily served an advisory role. Facilitation style influenced how participants negotiated environmental justice. Research goals were advanced in the project, but no direct actions were taken to improve farmworker health. Implementing CBPR's ethical values requires a willingness to confront institutional and interpersonal challenges, and offers a vision of research that builds knowledge and strengthens communities. PMID:19385743

  4. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author)

  5. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  6. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  7. CONSEQUENCES OF A SHIFT IN THE POWER BALANCE FOR THE MARKET OF SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits van den BERG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with some observations on changes in the power balance between clients and suppliers in the service industry. The main forces between these changes are more information in the hands of clients (by use of internet and personal experiences and less information received by suppliers (by less contact with potential clients because of cost reduction. These changes can be translated into the replacement of a demand oriented market by a demand driven market. For suppliers of services to individuals in such a market two aspects are highly relevant. First the client will formulate his wishes in a kind of "Terms of Reference" and the supplier has to search for interesting requests. This instead of the client searching on internet or somewhere else for the best standard offer. In the second place the client will formulate his wishes often in a way that a single enterprise cannot deliver what is wanted. In order to survive chains of enterprises have to be formed. I mentioned a few of the vulnerable points of chains, points which need to have attention in the contract between the links of the chain.

  8. Balancing Power Output and Structural Fatigue of Wave Energy Converters by Means of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of electricity produced by wave energy converters (WECs, the benefit of selling electricity as well as the investment costs of the structure has to be considered. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the control strategy for a WEC with respect to both energy output and structural fatigue loads. Different active and passive control strategies are implemented (proportional (P controller, proportional-integral (PI controller, proportional-integral-derivative with memory compensation (PID controller, model predictive control (MPC and maximum energy controller (MEC, and load time-series resulting from numerical simulations are used to design structural parts based on fatigue analysis using rain-flow counting, Stress-Number (SN curves and Miner’s rule. The objective of the methodology is to obtain a cost-effective WEC with a more comprehensive analysis of a WEC based on a combination of well known control strategies and standardised fatigue methods. The presented method is then applied to a particular case study, the Wavestar WEC, for a specific location in the North Sea. Results, which are based on numerical simulations, show the importance of balancing the gained power against structural fatigue. Based on a simple cost model, the PI controller is shown as a viable solution.

  9. Power balance in the divertor-tokamak DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power balances of Ohmically and radio-frequency (RF) heated plasmas including a boundary (scrape-off layer) plasma are investigated in the divertor-tokamak DIVA. First, methods of measurement of the boundary plasma are described. These are applied to the divertor plasma in the case of Ohmic heating. The results clarify characteristics of the boundary plasma of a conventional tokamak. The scaling law for the boundary plasma is derived in consideration of the power balance including the boundary plasma. Heat flux to material surfaces is investigated in detail; the relationship between heat flux, particle flux and electron velocity distribution is clarified. Gross power balance is investigated by measurements of total heat flux to the wall and total radiation loss including charge-exchange loss. These results provide experimental evidence for the above scaling law. Finally, power balance during the Ion-Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating is described. Optimum heating conditions of the ICRF heating in the two-ion hybrid regime are surveyed. For the optimum heating conditions, gross power balance including the boundary plasma is considered, in which the heating efficiency is derived. Radial profile of the RF-heating power, the ratio of the heating power to each species and the transport of RF-heated ions are clarified in the power balance. (author)

  10. Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010; Norges effekt- og energibalanse frem mot aar 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekke, K.

    1996-12-31

    The present conference paper deals with the Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010 based on the rate of domestic energy consumption, development of new power plants, and international supply agreements. The efficiency of power transmission compared to the level of delivered energy in the Norwegian power grid within the period from 1975 to 1992 has increased from 83% to 91% with an equivalency of 5.5 TWh. Aspects in connection with the long-range programme are discussed. 12 figs.

  11. Thermal power calibrations of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor by the calorimetric and the heat balance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first nuclear reactor was built, a number of methodological variations have been evolved for the calibration of the reactor thermal power. Power monitoring of reactors is done by means of neutronic instruments, but its calibration is always done by thermal procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the thermal power calibration carried out on March 5th, 2009 in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor. It was used two procedures: the calorimetric and heat balance methods. The calorimetric procedure was done with the reactor operating at a constant power, with primary cooling system switched off. The rate of temperature rise of the water was recorded. The reactor power is calculate as a function of the temperature-rise rate and the system heat capacity constant. The heat balance procedure consists in the steady-state energy balance of the primary cooling loop of the reactor. For this balance, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the water flow in the primary cooling loop were measured. The heat transferred through the primary loop was added to the heat leakage from the reactor pool. The calorimetric method calibration presented a large uncertainty. The main source of error was the determination of the heat content of the system, due to a large uncertainty in the volume of the water in the system and a lack of homogenization of the water temperature. The heat balance calibration in the primary loop is the standard procedure for calibrating the power of the IPR-R1 TRIGA nuclear reactor. (author))

  12. Estimates of the climatological land surface energy and water balance derived from maximum convective power

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kleidon; Renner, M.; Porada, P.

    2014-01-01

    The land surface energy- and water balances are tightly coupled by the partitioning of absorbed solar radiation into terrestrial radiation and the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation and runoff. Evaporation forms the critical link between these two balances. Its rate is strongly affected by turbulent exchange as it provides the means to efficiently exchange moisture between the heated, m...

  13. Estimates of the climatological land surface energy and water balance derived from maximum convective power

    OpenAIRE

    Kleidon, A.; M. Renner; P. Porada

    2014-01-01

    The land surface energy and water balances are tightly coupled by the partitioning of absorbed solar radiation into terrestrial radiation and the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation and runoff. Evaporation forms the critical link between these two balances. Its rate is strongly affected by turbulent exchange as it provides the means to efficiently exchange moisture between the heated, moist surface and t...

  14. Description of self-synchronization effects in distributed Josephson junction arrays using harmonic analysis and power balance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, J.; Gronberg, L.; Helisto, P.; Seppa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Power generation and synchronisation in Josephson junction arrays have attracted attention for a long time. This stems from fundamental interest in nonlinear coupled systems as well as from potential in practical applications. In this paper we study the case of an array of junctions coupled to a distributed transmission line either driven by an external microwave or in a self-oscillating mode. We simplify the theoretical treatment in terms of harmonic analysis and power balance. We apply the ...

  15. Oil Price Fluctuation Reflects International Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇燕; 管清友

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the oil economy,economists have yet to build a perfect analytical framework for the oil market.Over a period of time,oil price fluctuates according to the supply and demand of the international market.In the long run,however,given the political nature of oil,oil price fluctuation is also dependent on the power balance between oil consumer and producer countries.History has proven that the world energy landscape is constantly in a process of change and evolution,which underlies the increasing oil price uncertainty in the long run.From the perspective of the world energy landscape and its evolution,this article applies international political-economic methodology in addressing the energy security issues facing China,with the purpose of offering recommendations for further areas of energy research.

  16. Power balance control using evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described a nonlinear optimization problem to enable independent system operators (ISOs) to make least-cost decisions for the activation of ancillary services. A self-organizing migration algorithm (SOMA) based on the competitive-cooperative behavior of intelligent creatures solving a common problem was tested on 2 scenarios based on real values obtained from a transmission system operator (TSO) in the Czech Republic. The 6 hour datasets were used to demonstrate the prediction of error between production and consumption. The characteristics and capacity of the ancillary services were used as system and operating constraints for the optimization. History values from the datasets were then simulated. The SOMA algorithm then searched for solutions to minimize the cost function. Scenarios for a short and long outage of a large generating unit were used to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to balance power in the system. 4 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. On the diversity enhancement and power balancing of per-subcarrier antenna selection in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under a power balancing constraint. Applying transmit antenna selection and discrete rate adaptive modulation using M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) according to the channel variation per subcarrier, we develop an optimal antenna selection scheme in terms of maximum spectral efficiency where all the possible grouping to send the same information bearing signals in a group of subcarriers are searched and the groups of subcarriers to provide the frequency diversity gain are formed. In addition, we propose a suboptimal method to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal method. The suboptimal scheme consider only the subcarriers under outage and those are combined sequentially until it meets a required SNR. Numerical results show that the proposed suboptimal method with diversity combining outperforms the optimal antenna selection without diversity combining introduced in [1], especially for low SNR region and offers the spectral efficiency close to that of the optimal method with diversity combining, while maintaining lower complexity. ©2010 IEEE.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE HARMONIC LOSSES WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN UNBALANCED SYSTEM LOSSES USING BALANCED ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan İNAN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The losses in the power systems should be low as possible as. Saving energy instead of loses (kWh in power utilities can supply much more energy to the consumers. The lower losses the more energy is saved and thus the power system becomes more economical. In recent years, the increasing number of applications and power ratings of the devices which have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics cause voltage waveform distortion and additional losses. While evaluating losses considering harmonics will provide more contribution to obtain more accurate results. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method has been presented to predict the harmonic losses in unbalanced power systems by using the data from balanced power system with nonlinear loads.

  19. Maintenance management balancing performance maintenance and cost balance at reinforced concrete constructions of the fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life elongation of concrete constructions (CCs) is a very important needs for supporting future safe supply of electric power. However, some CCs constructed and used for a long term at fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations had reduction of their required performance by deterioration based on environmental and using conditions represented by salt-damage. As such constructions are anxious to increase in future, it is necessary to keep reliability of their establishments by providing desired rehabilitation to persist supplying effect of their facilities. On the other hand, as it is also essential to progress keeping and reducing cost of power generation together with development of recent liberalization of electric power, it is an important subject how to keep their performance maintenance and cost balance. Therefore, here were outlined on required performance setting method, inspection method, long-term deterioration forecasting and evaluating methods, selection method of countermeasure scenarios minimizing LCC, inspection period setting method, introduction of database and deterioration forecasting system, and so on, to economically maintain and manage already built reinforced concrete constructions at suitable materials and places to elongate their lives. (G.K.)

  20. Balancing corporate power: a new Federalist paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, C

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to govern their increasingly complex organizations, chief executives in some of today's largest corporations are turning to one of the world's oldest political philosophies-federalism. Given that organizations are seen more and more as minisocieties, the prospect of applying political principles to management makes a great deal of sense. Federalism is particularly appropriate because it offers a well-recognized system for dealing with paradoxes of power and control: the need to make things big by keeping them small; to encourage autonomy but within bounds; and to combine variety and shared purpose, individuality and partnership, local and global. As London Business School professor Charles Handy explains it, federalism responds to these paradoxes by balancing power among those in the center of the organization, those in the centers of expertise, and those in the center of the action--the operating businesses. The centers of federal organizations meet regularly, but they do not need to live together. Doing so would concentrate too much power in one place, whereas federalism gets its strength and energy from spreading responsibility across many decision points. Guided by five principles, federalism avoids the risks of autocracy and the overcontrol of a central bureaucracy. It ensures a measure of democracy and creates a "dispersed center" that is more a network than a place. That's why Asea Brown Boveri CEO Percy Barnevik calls his sprawling "multi-domestic" enterprise of 1,100 separate companies and 210,000 employees a federation. It succeeds because the independent bits, be they individuals, clusters, or business units, know they are part of the greater whole. PMID:10122692

  1. Predictive assessment of the Ukrainian power industry fuel balance structure progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Voinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing structure of the fuel balance in Ukraine does largely determine high prices of such energy products as the electricity and the heat. The main reason lies in the fact that approximately 40% of the fuel balance represents the expensive imported liquid and gaseous fuels. Of course, such balance structure significantly affects the energy security of Ukraine. The article analyzes the three main directions of this situation possible normalization: replacing the imported gas with relatively inexpensive domestic coal burned at boilers and innovative coal-fired burner systems, especially in the low-temperature boilers with fluidized bed furnaces; replacement of imported fuel with respectively cheap pyrolysis gas obtained from the domestic low-grade brown coal; organization of domestic production of shale gas, which industrial production is scheduled for 2020. These promising directions of the national energetics’ fuel balance development can be considered as a priority part of the national tasks of increasing the country’s energy independence.

  2. An evaluation of the power-to-gas concept in the balancing energy marker; Eine Bewertung der Regelenergievermarktung im Power-to-Gas-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Junker, Julian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The integration of the increasing share of fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system requires more options in flexibility. A promising attempt is the power-to-gas concept (PtG) which allows the production of hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG) from electricity and the storage in caverns or existing gas storage facilities. However, an economic operation in Germany is not expected before 2030, when the amount of surplus energy, mainly generated in wind parks, will be sufficient. Currently, a hardly analyzed aspect is the potential commercialization of the flexible electrolysis as controllable load on the electricity balancing market. This offers opportunities to generate additional revenues and to obtain cheap electricity in the form of balancing energy. The present article has been designed to analyze this aspect and to examine the impact of a potential commercialization of balancing energy on the gas production costs within the PtG concept. At first, the current legal framework, the funding instruments of SNG and the differences between the notion 'Speichergas' and 'Biogas' will be outlined. An overview of the current balancing market will be given and the development of prices on the secondary balancing market will be evaluated as well as expected market trends will be presented. The following calculation of gas production costs, which result from applying an optimal proposal strategy on the secondary balancing market, is model-based and uses historical data. Three scenarios are defined and examined, and the impact of variable electricity prices is analyzed. The electricity balancing market is profitable and offers many opportunities for PtG plants. The results show a decrease of SNG production costs by up to 74 % to 46,9 Euro/MWh. As for the hydrogen, the production costs amount to approximately 25,8 Euro/MWh which equals a cost reduction of up to 81 % compared to conventional PtG plants without commercialization of

  3. Balancing Type I Risk and Loss of Power in Ordered Bonferroni Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cani, John S.

    1984-01-01

    While Bonferroni procedures control the risk of Type I errors, their cost is loss of power. Ordered Bonferroni procedures conserve power for more important tests while sacrificing power for less important tests. Both costs and benefits should be considered when choosing weights for individual tests and the overall level of Type I error protection.…

  4. Balance of power theory, implications for the U.S., Iran, Saudi Arabia, and a new arms race

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Randall G.

    2008-01-01

    As a study in the Bush Doctrine of preventive warfare, the conflict in Iraq has been of great interest. However, the unintended consequences and the impact on regional instability also demand attention. There is a balance of power struggle taking place between Iran and Saudi Arabia which, because of Iran's nuclear ambitions, has drawn the attention of the international community and the ire of the United States. As a result, policy makers in Washington are compelled to determine a course of ...

  5. Designing of RF Single Balanced Mixer with a 65nm CMOS Technology Dedicated to Low Power Consumption Wireless Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmou, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The present work consists of designing a Single Balanced Mixer(SBM) with the 65 nm CMOS technology, this for a 1.9 GHz RF channel, dedicated to wireless applications. This paper shows; the polarization chosen for this structure, models of evaluating parameters of the mixer, then simulation of the circuit in 65nm CMOS technology and comparison with previously treated. Keywords: SBM Mixer, Radio Frequency, 65 nm CMOS Technology, Non-Linearity, Power Consumption.

  6. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model

    OpenAIRE

    Moxnes JF; Sandbakk Ø; Hausken K

    2013-01-01

    John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Human Movement Science Program, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the s...

  7. Broad climatological variation of surface energy balance partitioning across land and ocean predicted from the maximum power limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-07-01

    Longwave radiation and turbulent heat fluxes are the mechanisms by which the Earth's surface transfers heat into the atmosphere, thus affecting the surface temperature. However, the energy partitioning between the radiative and turbulent components is poorly constrained by energy and mass balances alone. We use a simple energy balance model with the thermodynamic limit of maximum power as an additional constraint to determine this partitioning. Despite discrepancies over tropical oceans, we find that the broad variation of heat fluxes and surface temperatures in the ERA-Interim reanalyzed observations can be recovered from this approach. The estimates depend considerably on the formulation of longwave radiative transfer, and a spatially uniform offset is related to the assumed cold temperature sink at which the heat engine operates. Our results suggest that the steady state surface energy partitioning may reflect the maximum power constraint.

  8. Impact of Iran's Nuclear Program, on Turkey s National Security (In light of the Theory of Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoudnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nuclear program of the Islamic Republic of Iran It is always have been followed global and regional responses and objections. But after the election of Ahmadinejad as president of Iran and his willingness to advance the nuclear program, Western opposition to this trend intensified to the point where many of issuing sanctions against Iran. Among the countries that have been tried as a mediator between Iran and the International Union of Europe and the United States (5 +1 will act and encourage the parties to resolve the dispute diplomatically, Turkey. Considering this background, this paper attempts to link the Iranian nuclear program and Turkey's national security in light of the balance of power theory can be analyzed. The findings confirm the assumption that Turkey's concerns about Iran's nuclear program in the context of possible changes in the regional balance of power in the Islamic Republic's pursuit of nuclear energy is the analysis and evaluation, This is because the Turkish success in achieving the goals defined in the context of the challenges faced by policy-oriented Neo-Ottomans

  9. Power and Signal Integrity and Electromagnetic Emission; the balancing act of decoupling, planes and tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The noise voltage in the reference or ground of a printed circuit board is often the cause of unwanted radiated emission. Power supply planes attribute to the noise voltage. By replacing the power supply planes by tracks, the noise voltage in the reference or ground can be considerably reduced, whic

  10. The effects of strength and power training on single-step balance recovery in older adults: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamukoff DN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Derek N Pamukoff,1 Eric C Haakonssen,1 Joseph A Zaccaria,1 Michael L Madigan,2 Michael E Miller,3 Anthony P Marsh1 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Center for Gerontology, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC USA Abstract: Improving muscle strength and power may mitigate the effects of sarcopenia, but it is unknown if this improves an older adult's ability to recover from a large postural perturbation. Forward tripping is prevalent in older adults and lateral falls are important due to risk of hip fracture. We used a forward and a lateral single-step balance recovery task to examine the effects of strength training (ST or power (PT training on single-step balance recovery in older adults. Twenty older adults (70.8±4.4 years, eleven male were randomly assigned to either a 6-week (three times/week lower extremity ST or PT intervention. Maximum forward (FLeanmax and lateral (LLeanmax lean angle and strength and power in knee extension and leg press were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Fifteen participants completed the study (ST =7, PT =8. Least squares means (95% CI for ΔFLeanmax (ST: +4.1° [0.7, 7.5]; PT: +0.6° [–2.5, 3.8] and ΔLLeanmax (ST: +2.2° [0.4, 4.1]; PT: +2.6° [0.9, 4.4] indicated no differences between groups following training. In exploratory post hoc analyses collapsed by group, ΔFLeanmax was +2.4° (0.1, 4.7 and ΔLLeanmax was +2.4° (1.2, 3.6. These improvements on the balance recovery tasks ranged from ~15%–30%. The results of this preliminary study suggest that resistance training may improve balance recovery performance, and that, in this small sample, PT did not lead to larger improvements in single-step balance recovery compared to ST. Keywords: resistance

  11. The role of nuclear power technology in balancing energy policy objectives - A UK perspective on a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy review aimed to balance the following objectives: Safety Security of supply Environmental acceptability Afford ability With a clear view of UK energy policy objectives, it is possible to assess the performance of new nuclear power technology in terms of its ability to meet these criteria. It is also possible to examine the extent of likely further improvements from nuclear technologies currently under development. Although nuclear appears to be an excellent match for the requirements of UK energy policy, there are currently no plans to build nuclear stations in the UK to replace the current fleet, much of which is scheduled to close over the next two decades. This paper examines in more detail how nuclear power performs in meeting energy policy objectives and identifies the key barriers facing utilities and investors who might be contemplating nuclear power. It also demonstrates how these can all be addressed equitably and without subsidy for the industry

  12. Share of hydro-electric power in the world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotillon, J. (Electricite de France, 75 - Paris)

    1982-01-01

    The following are discussed: the consequences of the differing nature of renewable and non-renewable energy sources, the outlook for hydro-electric power generation by the years 2000 and 2050, whether the distance to sites is a handicap, whether the development of micro-stations is difficult, pumping vis-a-vis conventional hydro-electric facilities, the scale of equipment and the main channels for the transmission of water power. The trend of energy, electricity and hydro-electric power since the beginning of the century are compared: four times more capacity than that of the hydro-electric developments built to date must be harnessed. In addition, the share of hydroelectric in electricity generation in 1971 is the same as the planned share of nuclear power generation in 1990.

  13. Market Evaluation of Hybrid Wind-Storage Power Systems in Case of Balancing Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    SANDU RODICA; Mercier, Arnaud; GATZEN Christoph; ELMS Nick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the economics of a wind power farm in France with a long-term market perspective, considering high shares of wind energy, constraints set on the energy variability, and the removal of support schemes such as feed-in tariffs. The contractual agreement with a compressed air energy storage facility (CAES) would create a hybrid wind-storage system that would allow a wind power operator to reduce the intermittency of its output and to provide flexibility to the system. The ...

  14. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder; Hoffmann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation ...

  15. A New Balance of Power Between Suppliers and Retailers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing; Niemi, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    The last twenty years has witnessed substantial changes in retailing across most European countries. Private labels (PL) has become increasingly important strategic tool for European retailers to gain market share, loyalty of customers and reinforce the bargaining power toward suppliers and countervailing power against manufacturing brands. (Bonfrer and Chintagunta, 2004; Hansen et al., 2006; Groznik et. al. 2010 EU commission, 2011). The combination of recession and a retail food price spike...

  16. Politic alternation in Baja California: Toward a new balance of powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtémoc López Guzmán

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the National Action Party (PAN won the governor elections in the State of Baja California in 1989, Mexico experienced the inauguration of a political alternation in a governor’s office, which brought about the smashing of the myth that it was impossible for the PRI to share power at that level. The scarce forums won or surrendered by the party ever present in power, allowed the opposition to confront and criticize the centralization of power and the neutralization of representation, that is, rather than offering its voters nationalistic discourses, the opposition parties joined the cause of the anti-centralist resent, particularly present in the northern part of the country, and discredited the decaying relationship between the legislative and the executive powers (the presidency, both at a federal and states levels. In view of these considerations, the possibilities of setting the foundations for a new horizontal and vertical relationship among powers in the state of Baja California, which during the last ten years has been governed by the National Action Party, are discussed in this essay.

  17. Estimated status of the power supply and demand balance in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the estimated status made by the energy transportation network (RTE) is to quantify the additional power generation means to put into service in the forthcoming years according to 3 reference scenarios of power consumption. These scenarios take into consideration different factors like: the growth of consumption, the energy conservation, the development of renewable energy sources, the building of the EPR reactor, the implementation of new fossil-fuel power plants, the decommissioning of old coal-fired power plants etc.. In all cases, the power generation means to be developed must be both peak-type means (combustion turbines for instance) and semi-base means (gas combined cycles for instance). These estimated needs are based on a system failure risk of 3 hours/year as an average. Finally, this status stresses on the need for specific reinforcement means of the supply security in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (PACA) and Bretagne (Brittany) regions and also in island systems. (J.S.)

  18. Dynamic scheduling of electric vehicle charging under limited power and phase balance constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Arauzo, Alejandro; Puente Peinador, Jorge; González, Miguel A.; Varela Arias, José Ramiro; Sedano Franco, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We confront the problem of scheduling the charge of electric vehicles, under limited electric power contract, with the objective of maximizing the users’ satisfaction. The problem is motivated by a real life situation where a set of users demand electric charge while their vehicles are parked. Each space has a charging point which is connected to one of the lines of a three-phase electric feeder. We first define the problem as a Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction Problem (DCSP) with Optimization...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN COMBINED WITH VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE CONTROL AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  20. Cogeneration as a means of integrating renewable energy sources. Development of the balancing power market; KWK als Baustein zur Integration erneuerbarer Energien. Erschliessung des Regelleistungsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steck, Michael; Beer, Michael [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Henle, Markus [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Arndt, Ulli [EWE AG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Cogeneration plants can help to level fluctuations of power supply from renewable energy sources. The balancing power will bring profits in the market. The authors analyze the dynamic performance and economic efficiency of industrial-scale cogeneration plants, as well as the possibility of pooling several small-scale cogeneration units for integrated operation.

  1. Distributed Real-Time Power Balancing in Renewable-Integrated Power Grids with Storage and Flexible Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Sun; Dong, Min; Liang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale integration of renewable generation directly affects the reliability of power grids. We investigate the problem of power balancing in a general renewable-integrated power grid with storage and flexible loads. We consider a power grid that is supplied by one conventional generator (CG) and multiple renewable generators (RGs) each co-located with storage,and is connected with external markets. An aggregator operates the power grid to maintain power balance between supply and dem...

  2. Power and particle balance during neutral beam injection in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed boundary plasma measurements on TFTR have been made during a NBI power scan in the range Ptot = 1MW--20MW in the L-mode regime. The behavior of the plasma density left-angle ne right-angle, radiated power Prad, carbon and deuterium fluxes ΓC, ΓD, and Ζeff can be summarized as, left-angle ne right-angle ∝ Ptot1/2, Prad, ΓC, ΓD ∝ Ptot, and Ζeff ∼ constant. It is shown that central fuelling by the neutral beams plays a minor role in the particle balance of the discharge. More important is the NBI role in the power balance. The TFTR data during NBI originate primarily at the graphite limiter

  3. The role of the American media in covering nuclear power: where is the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides some conclusions on media coverage of the nuclear power industry that we, at the Media Institute, have reached in the course of exhaustive study of the subject. I will focus on the American media - why it covers this industry in the manner it does, what this means to our political policymaking process and what the American nuclear industry should be doing, but is not doing, to ensure that the public is receiving accurate and unbiased information. The Media Institute is an independent research organization which monitors and analyses media coverage of business and economic issues. It is supported by a wide range of corporations, foundations and individuals. It does not take a position for or against nuclear power, but it has published several thorough analyses of television evening news coverage of the nuclear industry in America. While techniques of content analysis were used in these studies to quantify the subject matter being presented to the viewer, no attempt was made to analyse or comment upon the merits of the issue itself. If asked to summarize American television coverage of the nuclear industry, I would say that it tends to be superficial, inadequate and, perhaps worst of all, biased and sensational. (author)

  4. The directive on ''internal market of electric power'': a satisfactory balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european directive on the ''internal market for electric power'' has allowed for the first time the implementation of harmonized regulations among european partners concerning the operation of electric utilities and systems in Europe, while taking into consideration the subsidiarity principles to which France is very much attached and finding an equilibrium between the status-quo based on national or regional monopolies and a global deregulation inspired by ultra-liberal views coming from Britain or the US. The main consequences on France's energy policy and organization are discussed

  5. Changing the balance of power – Worldwide air force`s capability turbulences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEČAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In past Century, the air power had undergone a significant journey. In its humble beginnings during WWI an airplane proved itself a perspective and highly capable new weapon. WWII demonstrated the importance of air superiority for waging a global warfare. The Cold War mastered technologies enabling air power to be not only a weapon a mass destruction but also a surgical tool. On one hand, an aircraft has become a state of art technology, yet on the other hand a cost for its development, procurement, and servicing grew into an astronomic levels. Therefore, since mid 1970s there have been trends to shift airpower from quantity into quality, which has gained a new moment with the end of the Cold War. Starting with the first Gulf War, in past two decades demonstrated a growing importance of a multirole fighter aircraft that is able to carry out a full specter of missions for minimal costs. When analyzing five most potent airpowers of the 21st century, we can witness that this is the trend is on and it will surely continue in future.

  6. Analysis of Heat Balance on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using Multi-Stage Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1100MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure.

  7. Is direct marketing a risk factor? Inaccurate forecasting of power generation from renewables raises the demand for balancing power; Risikofaktor Direktvermarktung? Durch ungenaue Prognosen bei der Einspeisung von gruenem Strom steigt der Bedarf an Regelleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    Since the amendment of the EEG in January 2012, enormous amounts of electric power from renewable energy sources are marketed directly, i.e. outside the control of power supply grid owners and operators that formerly sold the electric power in the stock exchange. Inaccurate prognoses made by the direct marketers as well as their marketing strategies have increased the demand for balancing power and made critical situations in the power grid even more difficult.

  8. Network stability is a balancing act of personality, power, and conflict dynamics in rhesus macaque societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda McCowan

    Full Text Available Stability in biological systems requires evolved mechanisms that promote robustness. Cohesive primate social groups represent one example of a stable biological system, which persist in spite of frequent conflict. Multiple sources of stability likely exist for any biological system and such robustness, or lack thereof, should be reflected and thus detectable in the group's network structure, and likely at multiple levels. Here we show how network structure and group stability are linked to the fundamental characteristics of the individual agents in groups and to the environmental and social contexts in which these individuals interact. Both internal factors (e.g., personality, sex and external factors (e.g., rank dynamics, sex ratio were considered from the level of the individual to that of the group to examine the effects of network structure on group stability in a nonhuman primate species. The results yielded three main findings. First, successful third-party intervention behavior is a mechanism of group stability in rhesus macaques in that successful interventions resulted in less wounding in social groups. Second, personality is the primary factor that determines which individuals perform the role of key intervener, via its effect on social power and dominance discrepancy. Finally, individuals with high social power are not only key interveners but also key players in grooming networks and receive reconciliations from a higher diversity of individuals. The results from this study provide sound evidence that individual and group characteristics such as personality and sex ratio influence network structures such as patterns of reconciliation, grooming and conflict intervention that are indicators of network robustness and consequent health and well-being in rhesus macaque societies. Utilizing this network approach has provided greater insight into how behavioral and social processes influence social stability in nonhuman primate groups.

  9. On the Use of Balanced Score Cards and Safety Indices in the Operations Management of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use at nuclear power plants of balanced score cards including a safety index as one of its measures has been investigated with the purpose to add to the knowledge about how the use of this method affects safety. Measures and associated targets are widely used in the management of companies and organizations. This tends to make management concentrate on activities which are amenable for measurements. Surrogate measures are often used when it is difficult to measure the quality which is of primary interest. 'Balance score cards' is a management method. With the vision and the strategy as starting points, company activities are described within the framework of four perspectives: 'Financial', 'Customer', 'Process' and 'Learning and Growth'. Critical success factors are identified and measures and targets established. There is within the nuclear community a strong interest in defining measures for nuclear safety and possibly also to establish safety targets. However, as a concept, safety is not easy to define. Even more difficult is the establishment of a clear definition of an adequate level of safety. Nonetheless, there is a general understanding of what attributes a nuclear power plant should have in order to operate safely. Based on this general understanding a number of surrogate measures for nuclear safety, safety indicators, have been defined. A safety index is based on a combination of a set of measures for selected safety indicators. There are a number of problems associated with the use of safety indexes one of them being that an unfavourable development of one indicator could be hidden by the positive development of another indicator. Safety indexes are used at the Forsmark and Ringhals nuclear power plants. The use of safety indexes is only one of several methods used to monitor the safety. Safety indexes as currently used primarily provide historical information. Due to the nature of the safety indexes, they do not appear to be effective as measures

  10. The role of radial particle flow on power balance in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of radial particle flow on the power flowing across the last closed flux surface (separatrix) in DIII-D [Luxon et al., International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1986), Vol. I, p. 159] is considered. The perpendicular thermal diffusivity at the separatrix is near 1 m2/s in low confinement operation (L-mode), and 0.1 m2/s in high confinement (H-mode). The particle diffusivity is about one-fourth of the thermal diffusivity producing radial particle fluxes of the order of kilo-amperes. The particle flux is 10 to 100 times the particle input from neutral beam sources, consistent with core fueling being dominated by neutral recycling. The radial particle flux scales with the neutral pressure in the private flux region, suggesting the core is fueled predominantly from neutrals which recycle from the divertor, through the private flux, and into the core near the singular point where the poloidal field is zero (X-point). There is significant core power loss associated with the large particle flux across the separatrix. The electron temperature measured at the top of the edge pedestal in H-mode operation scales inversely with the particle flux. In turn, the core energy confinement scales with the pedestal temperature, and hence inversely with the particle flux. The results presented here indicate the global particle confinement time is between 0.5 and 2 times the global energy confinement time. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics. thinsp

  11. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  12. EBT reactor characteristics consistent with stability and power balance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent EBT reactor study that includes both ring and core plasma properties and consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters

  13. Validation of the thermal balance of Laguna Verde turbine under conditions of extended power increase; Validacion del balance termico de turbina de Laguna Verde en condiciones de aumento de potencia extendido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Garcia de la C, F. M., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present work is a continuation of the task: Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt) in which the modeling of the vapor cycle of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was realized with PEPSE code (Performance Evaluation of Power System Efficiencies). Once reached the conditions of nominal operation of extended power increase, operating both units to 2371 MWt; after the tests phase of starting-up and operation is necessary to carry out a verification of the proposed design of the vapor cycle for the new operation conditions. All this, having in consideration that the vapor cycle designer only knows the detail of the prospective performance of the main turbine, for all the other components (for example pumps, heat inter changers, valves, reactor, humidity separators and re-heaters, condensers, etc.) makes generic suppositions based on engineering judgment. This way carries out the calculations of thermal balance to determine the guaranteed gross power. The purpose of the present work is to comment the detail of the validation carried out of the specific thermal balance (thermal kit) of the nuclear power plant, making use of the design characteristics of the different components that conform the vapor cycle. (Author)

  14. Compiler-directed power optimization of high-performance interconnection networks for load-balancing MPI applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuejun; YI Huizhan; QU Xiangli; ZHOU Haifang

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption of parallel computers has been becoming the obstruction to higher-performance systems.In this paper,we focus on power optimization of highperformance interconnection networks for MPI applications in high-performance parallel computers.Compared with the past history-based work,we propose the idea of compilerdirected power-aware on/off network links.There are some idle intervals for network links during the execution of parallel applications,at which the links still consume large amounts of energy.Using on/off network links,compiler first divides load-balancing MPI applications into the communication intervals and the computation intervals,and then inserts the on/off instruction into the applications to switch the link state.To avoid the time overhead of state switching,we use a time estimation technique to analyze the computation time,and insert the on instruction before reaching the communication intervals.Results from simulations and experiments show that the proposed compiler- directed method can reduce energy consumption of interconnection networks by 20~70%,at a loss of less than 1% network latency and performance degradation.

  15. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Man S.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central playe...

  16. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder;

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  17. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder;

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  18. The Power of Role Design: Balancing the Principals Financial Responsibility with the Implications of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented Management by Objectives (MBO) complemented with school-based management (SBM) fairly rapidly. Although these countries are considered something of a benchmark of stability, research on principals reveals that they experience high levels of stress and that this is associated with poorer job performance.…

  19. Tipping the Balance of Power : Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media in politics has changed the relationship between political journalists and politicians. Especially Twitter has developed into a regular news beat. Journalists use it to build relationships with politicians and quote their tweets in coverage. For many politicians, tweeting

  20. Power balance equation in electron beam evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the electron beam evaporation process, the total power P of the gun is used, for a part Pvap to generate the vapor stream and for the rest to cover three main power losses Pconv, Pebs and Prad due respectively to three parasite phenomena: turbulent thermal convection in the molten pool, electron back scattering and heat radiation from the vapor emitting surface. It results in a four component power balance equation and the aim of this paper is to solve this equation. The various scaling laws governing each of the four terms are used and the equation is solved by the standard iteration method. Results are given for evaporation of alumina with a 5 kW electron beam. The influence of an applied magnetic field on the evaporation rate is then studied. 3 figs., 5 refs

  1. On the diversity enhancement and power balancing of per-subcarrier transmit antenna selection in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider multicarrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under a power-balancing constraint. Applying transmit antenna selection and discrete rate-adaptive modulation using M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) according to the channel variation per subcarrier, we develop an optimal transmit antenna selection scheme in terms of the maximum spectral efficiency, where all the possible groupings for sending the same information-bearing signals in a group of subcarriers are searched, and the groups of subcarriers for providing the frequency diversity gain are formed. In addition, we propose a suboptimal method for reducing the computational complexity of the optimal method. The suboptimal scheme considers only the subcarriers under outage, and these subcarriers are sequentially combined until the required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is met. Numerical results show that the proposed suboptimal method with diversity combining outperforms the optimal antenna selection without diversity combining, as introduced in the work of Sandell and Coon, particularly for low-SNR regions, and offers the spectral efficiency close to the optimal method with diversity combining while maintaining lower complexity. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. CAN THE POWER BALANCE® BRACELET IMPROVE BALANCE, FLEXIBILITY, STRENGTH, AND POWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porcari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are constantly searching for something that will give them a competitive edge. Performance jewelry is one of the latest products on the market designed to improve athletic performance. The most common claims are that wearing this performance jewelry will improve flexibility, balance, and strength. There is considerable marketing of these products, including testimonial evidence by high profile athletes, in support of the purported benefits. In demonstrations designed to validate the performance enhancing benefits of these products, however, companies typically conduct the testing in the following sequence: The first trial is done without the bracelet on and the second trial is performed with the bracelet on. Invariably, subjects perform better on the second trial. This brings into questions whether the improvement on the second trial is due to 1 a benefit of the bracelet, 2 the fact the subjects were warmed-up (Maud et al., 2006a; 2006b, 3 subjects being habituated to the task (Benson and Friedman, 1996; Wright et al., 2009, or 4 a placebo effect (Beedie and Foad, 2009.One of the most popular performance enhancing bracelets currently on the market is sold by Power Balance® (www.powerbalance.com. The Power Balance® bracelet has two dime-sized holograms; one on either side of the bracelet. The holograms within the Power Balance® bracelet are designed to "resonate with and respond to the natural energy field of the body". This purportedly improves flexibility, balance, and strength. To our knowledge, no randomized, double- blind, placebo trials have ever been conducted evaluating the validity of these claims. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wearing of the Power Balance® bracelet can improve trunk flexibility, balance, strength, and lower body power.Forty-two NCAA Division III athletes (22M: 20.1 ± 1.4 years, 1.82 ± 6.4 m, 82.0 ± 12.6 kg; 20F: 19.5 ± 1.3 years, 1.66 ± 6. 8 m, 63.2 ± 8.1 kg completed four

  3. Balance of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants of the Czech Republic and assessment of their influence on neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to give to professional public out of nuclear energetics a general image on extent and means of balancing of activities of radionuclides discharged from Dukovany NPP and Temelin NPP as well as on mean of determination of per capita dose commitment of population in vicinity of Dukovany and Temelin including assessment of draw of authorized limits. The general comparison of selected parameters of Czech and other (western type) NPPs are also given in the paper. (authors)

  4. Corruption Networks and the Balance of Power in Egypt's Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Hassan; Ahmed Tahoun; Daron Acemoglu

    2013-01-01

    A key question for Egypt's long-term economic and political prospects of is whether the "rent-seeking coalition" consisting of a network of National Democratic Party (NDP) members and military officers has been truly uprooted by the fall of Mubarak's regime. One possibility is that this network, having shed the Mubarak family, will re-create itself, centering this time on high-ranking members of the military or on the Muslim Brotherhood. We investigate this possibility by examining the behavi...

  5. Network Stability Is a Balancing Act of Personality, Power, and Conflict Dynamics in Rhesus Macaque Societies

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne A.; Capitanio, John P.; Jackson, Megan E.; Cameron, Ashley N.; Seil, Shannon; Atwill, Edward R.; Fushing, Hsieh

    2011-01-01

    Stability in biological systems requires evolved mechanisms that promote robustness. Cohesive primate social groups represent one example of a stable biological system, which persist in spite of frequent conflict. Multiple sources of stability likely exist for any biological system and such robustness, or lack thereof, should be reflected and thus detectable in the group's network structure, and likely at multiple levels. Here we show how network structure and group stability are linked to th...

  6. Balancing computing power and storage demands is the goal of Virginia Tech CAREER project

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Ali R. Butt, an assistant professor of computer science in Virginia Tech's College of Engineering, has received a $400,000 Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award, which is the National Science Foundation's most prestigious award for creative junior faculty who are considered to be future leaders in their academic fields.

  7. Predictive Power-balance Modeling of PEGASUS and NSTX-U Local Helicity Injection Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) with outer poloidal-field (PF) induction for solenoid-free startup is being studied on PEGASUS, reaching Ip PEGASUS LHI plasmas are created near the outboard injectors with aspect ratio (A) ~ 5-6.5 and grow inward to fill the confinement region at A PEGASUS. Comparison of model predictions with time-evolving magnetic equilibria is in progress for model validation. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  8. Analysis of Power Balancing with Fuel Cells & Hydrogenproduction Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    vehicles have lower costs than all the configurations of hydrogen fuel cells vehicles, also in hybrid solutions. This is the case in all the energy systems analysed towards 100 % renewable energy systems as well as for low, medium and high fuel prices. Thus the battery electric vehicles are less vulnerable......, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO2-emissions are also the lowest for the battery electric vehicles in the current and future energy systems. For both the battery electric vehicles as well as the...... plug-in hybrid battery-hydrogen fuel cell vehicles it is important that the electricity demand is flexible. In the dump charge situation the potential to reduce the fuel consumption, CO2-emissions and to integrate fluctuating renewable energy is improved with the ability to charge at times with wind...

  9. Revenue Sharing in Professional Sports Leagues : For the Sake of Competitive Balance or as a Result of Monopsony Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues a

  10. Designing of RF Single Balanced Mixer with a 65 nm CMOS Technology Dedicated to Low Power Consumption Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Mahmou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work consists of designing a Single Balanced Mixer (SBM with the 65 nm CMOS technology, this for a 1.9 GHz RF channel, dedicated to wireless applications. This paper shows; the polarization chosen for this structure, models of evaluating parameters of the mixer, then simulation of the circuit in 65nm CMOS technology and comparison with previously treated.

  11. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  12. Balancing the Power Consumption Speed in Flat and Hierarchical WSN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesham Abusaimeh; Shuang-Hua Yang

    2008-01-01

    A combination of a cluster tree routing protocol and an Ad hoc on demand vector (AODV) routing protocol is used in the latest ZigBee standard wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. However, the AODV routing protocol has no means by which to take into consideration the power consumption of the nodes during the routing process. Therefore, a new approach is proposed in this paper to balance the power consumption speed and to distribute the responsibilities of routing among fiat wireless sensor nodes and the three levels of hierarchical wireless sensor nodes. These three levels are based on the three types of devices, which are used in the ZigBee standard: the coordinator, the touters, and the end devices. In this paper, we have compared the original AODV routing protocol with our extension approach for the distribution of power consumption. Based on the simulation results, our new approach has achieved better performance in terms of increasing the lifetime of the fiat wireless sensor network, the personal area network (PAN)coordinator, the touters, and the whole network of the hierarchical wireless sensor network. Additionally, it has better performance in terms of distributing the power consumption among the key nodes of the wireless sensor network.

  13. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  14. Power generation from bio methane. Requirements of the EEG 2012 and balancing in gas infrastructure; Verstromung von Biomethan. Anforderungen des EEG 2012 und gaswirtschaftliche Bilanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, Steffen; Bredow, Hartwig von [von Bredow Valentin Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Six years ago, the first biogas infeed plant was connected to the natural gas distribution system. The infeed of biogas progressed beyond the nursery stage. The infeed of bio methane significantly is promoted by the renewable energy law. One fundamental requirement for the promotion with respect to the Renewable Energy Law is the generation of the power to be remunerated by means of the exclusive use of biomass. The Renewable Energy Law EEG 2012 contains the new requirement, that furthermore the transport of biogas from its production until removal has to be documented by means of a mass balance. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the requirements of the EEG 2012 and the balancing in gas infrastructure with respect to the power generation from biomass.

  15. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  16. Demand-Supply Balancing Capability Analysis for a Future Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi; Fukutome, Suguru

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics and higher share of nuclear generation, the issue of supply-demand balancing capability should be evaluated and fixed in a future power system. Improvement of existing balancing measures and new technologies such as demand activation and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply-demand analysis should have the capability to evaluate the balancing capability and balancing counter measures. This paper presents a new analysis methodology of activated demand model and evaluation of supply-demand balancing capability for a long-range power system demand-supply analysis model, ESPRIT. Model analysis was made to verify the new methodology of the tool including day-ahead scheduling of a heat pump water heater, an EV/PHEV and a battery.

  17. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Osugi,1 Jun Iwamoto,2 Michio Yamazaki,1 Masayuki Takakuwa3 1Department of Rehabilitation, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group, ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly. Keywords: whole body vibration exercise, squat training, body balance, walking velocity, muscle power

  18. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand......Through a parametric time-series analysis of eight years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the...... balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...

  19. Modeling and simulating an electrical grid subsystem for power balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for power balance analysis in Smart Grids where the physical behavior of different electrical devices is modeled at unit level, and the collective load and generation curves can later be obtained by aggregation. In this way, new behaviors, flexibilities and intelligent...... strategies for power consumption and generation can be easily introduced at the user-level and the system-level impact analyzed on the aggregated profiles. The future aim is to investigate bottom-up balancing strategies, where units with a flexible energy band can react independently to power balance signals...

  20. A thrust balance for low power hollow cathode thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hanging thrust balance has been designed, manufactured and tested at the University of Southampton. The current design allows for direct steady thrust measurements ranging from 0.1 to 3 mN but this can be easily extended to measure thrust in a different range. Moreover the chosen balance design and the thrust measurement procedure allow for the cancellation of thermal drifts. The thrust balance was tested with a T6 hollow cathode thruster providing measurements with an uncertainty of about 9.7%. The thrust data were compared to those obtained with another direct thrust balance and they are in quantitative agreement—the maximum difference being only 6%. (paper)

  1. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    OpenAIRE

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy are considered very closed. London and New York, of course, also represent the economic superpowers whose markets they cover—New York for the US and London not just for the UK but also for most of c...

  2. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO2. ► Wind power could save 800 million m3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  3. Balancing of Offshore Wind Power in Mid-Norway: Implementation of a load frequency control scheme for handling secondary control challenges caused by wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Gleditsch, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with governmentally announced greenhouse gas emission reductions goals and to consolidate an independent and stable electric power and energy supply, Norway must increase its installed renewable energy based power generation capacity. Profitability estimations, today s available technical solutions and regulations concerning preservation of natural resources leave construction of new small hydro power plants behind as the most plausible alternative together with constructio...

  4. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  5. Charge-Balanced Minimum-Power Controls for Spiking Neuron Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Dasanayake, Isuru; Li, Jr-Shin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal control of phase models for spiking neuron oscillators. We focus on the design of minimum-power current stimuli that elicit spikes in neurons at desired times. We furthermore take the charge-balanced constraint into account because in practice undesirable side effects may occur due to the accumulation of electric charge resulting from external stimuli. Charge-balanced minimum-power controls are derived for a general phase model using the maximum principle, ...

  6. A personal computer-based on-line balance-of-plant performance monitoring and analysis system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line computerized system for balance-of-plant performance monitoring and analysis has been developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. This system was developed on an IBM PC/AT and implemented at Taiwan Power Company's Chinshan nuclear power station. Test data acquisition and processing, as well as on-line performance monitoring and analysis, are the major functions of the system. The whole system is actuated on an integrated, menu-driven environment presented in either a Chinese or an English mode. It can carry out turbine cycle performance monitoring and analysis during normal operation. It yields cost-benefit analysis results of component degradation after finding out the thermal deficiency or lost power generation problems

  7. Storage for a secure power supply from wind and sun. How much balancing and storage is necessary to establish a secure power supply meeting the demand of consumers using only renewable energies and what are the major influences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Matthias [Ingenieurbuero Matthias Popp, Wunsiedel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The capacity required for storage plants to balance between weather depending electricity production and the consumption of electricity can be determined for all European countries using available data of wind speed, solar irradiation and electricity demand. In the form of load divergence and storage emptying curves sustainable calculation methods were developed for this purpose. The good availability of data in Germany enables to compare the actual wind and solar power feeds with the calculated values. Thereby the applied calculation methods were validated.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  9. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme is presented for preventing violations of control signal constraints in a class of coupled systems. The scheme is an add-on solution to the existing control system; it works like a fault tolerant scheme, by accommodating the problem then occurring. The proposed scheme recom...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  10. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  11. Radiocarbon mass balance for a Magnox nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First comprehensive assessment of C-14 arisings in a Magnox nuclear power station. • C-14 production in graphite and coolant gas quantified by activation modelling. • Principal C-14 production pathway is via C-13 with a small contribution from N-14. • C-14 mass balance model provides a basis for analyses on other reactors. - Abstract: Nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom is based principally on graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors. The mass of irradiated graphite associated with these reactors, including material from associated experimental, prototype and plutonium production reactors, exceeds 96,000 tonnes. One of the principal long-lived radionuclides produced during graphite irradiation is radiocarbon (C-14). Its potential as a hazard must be taken into account in decommissioning and graphite waste management strategies. While C-14 production processes are well-understood, radionuclide distributions and concentrations need to be characterised. A common misconception is that generic statements can be made about C-14 precursors and their location. In fact, the composition of the original manufactured material, the chemical environment of the graphite during service and its irradiation history will all influence C-14 levels. The analysis presented here provides the first assessment of the principal C-14 activation pathways for a UK Magnox reactor. Activation modelling has been used to predict C-14 production rates in both the graphite core and the carbon dioxide coolant over a selected period of operation and the results compared with monitored site C-14 discharges. Principal activation routes have been identified, which should inform future graphite waste management strategies relating to radiocarbon

  12. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  13. Influence of Forecast Accuracy of Photovoltaic Power Output on Facility Planning and Operation of Microgrid under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sone, Akihito; Shimakage, Toyonari; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A microgrid (MG) is one of the measures for enhancing the high penetration of renewable energy (RE)-based distributed generators (DGs). For constructing a MG economically, the capacity optimization of controllable DGs against RE-based DGs is essential. By using a numerical simulation model developed based on the demonstrative studies on a MG using PAFC and NaS battery as controllable DGs and photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) as a RE-based DG, this study discusses the influence of forecast accuracy of PVS output on the capacity optimization and daily operation evaluated with the cost. The main results are as follows. The required capacity of NaS battery must be increased by 10-40% against the ideal situation without the forecast error of PVS power output. The influence of forecast error on the received grid electricity would not be so significant on annual basis because the positive and negative forecast error varies with days. The annual total cost of facility and operation increases by 2-7% due to the forecast error applied in this study. The impact of forecast error on the facility optimization and operation optimization is almost the same each other at a few percentages, implying that the forecast accuracy should be improved in terms of both the number of times with large forecast error and the average error.

  14. Current Control and Energy Balancing of a Square-Wave Powered 1AC-3AC Modular Multilevel Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Schnarrenberger, Mathias; Kammerer, Felix; Gommeringer, Mario; Kolb, Johannes; Braun, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new control method for a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) fed by a push-pull converter via a medium frequency (MF) transformer. Application of this topology is a universal high-precision 3AC voltage source for a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulator with a frequency range from DC up to almost the medium frequency. Advantages are high efficiency, very low harmonic distortion and high dynamics of the output voltage which can be used e.g. for simulation of electrical machin...

  15. Power supply operations in France: flexibility of sectors, calls on the network and supply-demand balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to live up to its various briefs, the French electricity board chose, during the 1970-1980 period, to place its bets on nuclear power. With some generating stations in operation for almost 40 years, the ageing of equipment and networks is giving thrust to choosing new orientations. But, meanwhile, the economic, technical and regulatory framework has considerably changed, making the overall choice extremely complex. A full understanding of the stock has become indispensable in order to evaluate the opportunities and pitfalls in modifying it. (authors)

  16. Hand reach star excursion balance and power tests: do they predict overhead throwing performance of elite level female handball players?

    OpenAIRE

    Sæland, Fredrik Oksum

    2015-01-01

    Background: Throwing performance is an important factor for scoring goals in handball. Mobility and power are two physical factors considered to be important for producing high ball speed. Evidence in the literature for a relationship between mobility tests and throwing performance, and power tests and throwing performance, are scarce and variable. One explanation for the variable and poor relationship to throwing performance could be that the conventional mobility and power te...

  17. Continuous thermal balance monitoring for IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor power determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with thermal balance calculation for real time power level determination of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. It is also shown the development of a supervision software (Visual Basic) of operation parameters. The assembled data acquisition system allows data analysis during reactor operation, giving a reliable measurement of reactor power, and the organization of a data base allows a back-up surveillance of reactor operation whenever necessary. Results obtained from temperature and primary flow are shown in a continuous form and also the Data Base implementation for further studies and analysis of energy balance behavior of the many reactor components. Besides it is planned to manage N-16 activity measurement channel (monitoring) for comparison of acquired data results for thermal calculations. The results of this acquisition and related thermal balance calculations are shown in a continuous shape (On-Line) by means of windows operational system using Visual Basic VB6 software for development. (author)

  18. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  19. Angra-1: Balance of an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of experience got during the construction of Angra-1 nuclear power plant which had built by FURNAS CENTRAIS ELETRICAS S.A. is done. It is analyzed the problems in level of management, including technology transfer. A balance of the real costs and benefits from the definition of the specifications to energy generation is done. (M.C.K.)

  20. Balancing automation and human action in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 130 participants, representing 28 Member States and 3 international organizations, reviewed recent developments and discussed directions for future efforts in the area of balancing automation and human control in NPPs. During the symposium, 41 papers and 12 posters were presented covering the wide spectrum of activities in the area. In recent years very rapid progress in the development of automation technology has produced drastic reductions in the cost of equipment. Care has to be taken to establish a reasonable balance in NPP design and operation between automation and human control so as to ensure both maximum safety and availability. Balancing problem was discussed for all tasks, i.e. operation, maintenance and testing, including all levels from information processing to full automation. Validation, verification and training aspects were specifically considered. The Proceedings of the Conference is divided into 8 sessions: invited papers (3 papers); conceptions and achievements in automation (7 papers); safety implication of automation (6 papers); computerized operator support, part 1 (5 papers), part 2 (6 papers); man-machine interaction (9 papers); human factors consideration in automation (9 papers); accident management in automation (8 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Dynamic power balance for nonlinear waves in unbalanced gain and loss landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The presence of losses in nonlinear photonic structures is a crucial issue for modern applications. Active parts are introduced for wave power compensation resulting in unbalanced gain and loss landscapes where localized beam propagation is, in general, dynamically unstable. Here we provide generic sufficient conditions for the relation between the gain-loss and the refractive index profiles in order to ensure efficient wave trapping and stable propagation for a wide range of beam launching conditions such as initial power, angle of incidence and position. The stability is a consequence of an underlying dynamic power balance mechanism related to a conserved quantity of wave dynamics.

  2. THREE-PHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROLLER FOR BALANCED AND UNBALANCED NON-LINEAR LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.NAGESWARA RAO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The active power filter produces equal but opposite harmonic currents to the point of connection with the nonlinear load. This results in a reduction of the original distortion and correction of the power factor. A threephase insulated gate bipolar transistor based current controlled voltage source inverter with a dc bus capacitor is used as an active filter. The firing pulses to the shunt active filter will be generated by using sine PWM method. The models for three-phase active power filter controller for balanced and unbalanced non-linear load is made and is simulated using Matlab/simulink software.

  3. Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar-powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat. This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFCs), and heat pumps. To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified. By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated. It was found that the area of a solar cell of a distributed system could be reduced by 12% as compared to a central system. -- Highlights: → A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was planned. → The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, PEM-FCs, and heat pumps. → Operation of a concentrated system and a distributed system. → Investigate of the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment.

  4. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  5. Power Balancing Aggregator Design for Industrial Consumers Using Direct Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Samira; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Demand side management in the future smart grid requires new players in the electricity markets. We assume a player, the so-called aggregator which aims to utilize the flexibility in large-scale consumers with thermal energy storage. An aggregator design is proposed to mange the power consumption of flexible demands during a certain period of time. The setup consists of an MPC-like controller to optimally operate the consumption units for upward and downward regulating power provision. To han...

  6. Assessment of perioperative fluid balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbaširević V.; Marković D.; Vlajković G.; Sinđelić R.

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid ther...

  7. Wind Turbines and Heat Pumps. Balancing wind power fluctuations using flexible demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to overcome portfolio imbalance for traders of variable power from wind we have built an 'Imbalance Reduction System' (IRS) and performed a real-world field test with it, in which imbalance is minimized within a real-time electricity market portfolio, consisting of wind power and industrial and residential consumers and producers (Combined Heat and Power for district heating; residential heat pumps; industrial cold store; emergency generators). IRS uses the PowerMatcher concept, a coordination system for supply and demand of electricity in a which multi-agent system is combined with microeconomic principles. IRS appears to offer opportunities for embedding less predictable generators such as wind power more smoothly in the portfolio. We describe the context and operation of the Imbalance Reduction System and discuss a number of results from the performed field test. Also we introduce a business model for the balance responsible party, based on the e3-value method.

  8. Wind Turbines and Heat Pumps. Balancing wind power fluctuations using flexible demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to overcome portfolio imbalance for traders of variable power from wind we have built an 'Imbalance Reduction System' (IRS) and performed a real-world field test with it, in which imbalance is minimized within a real-time electricity market portfolio, consisting of wind power and industrial and residential consumers and producers (Combined Heat and Power for district heating; residential heat pumps; industrial cold store; emergency generators). IRS uses the PowerMatcher concept, a coordination system for supply and demand of electricity in a which multi-agent system is combined with microeconomic principles. IRS appears to offer opportunities for embedding less predictable generators such as wind power more smoothly in the portfolio. We describe the context and operation of the Imbalance Reduction System and discuss a number of results from the performed field test. Also we introduce a business model for the balance responsible party, based on the e3-value method

  9. Water balance test and water saving analysis of a thermal power plant%火力发电厂水平衡测试及节水分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚琳; 冯礼奎; 于志勇; 曹求洋

    2011-01-01

    为查清全厂用水现状,确定各用水系统之间用水量的定量关系及全厂各用水系统的合理用水量,对某火力发电厂4×600 MW超临界机组的取水、用水、排水、耗水进行了测定,根据测试结果进行水平衡计算和用水状况分析,提出电厂节水和综合利用的建议.结果表明,该厂地下管网泄漏严重,并且废水回收、处理系统管理维护存在不足,理论上在现取水总量的基础上可节水42.9%,具有很大的节水潜力,为制定节水措施提供了依据.%For the sake of finding out the current situation of water utilization in a thermal power plant, confirming the quantitative relationship among different water utilization systems and determining rational water consumption for each system, the water intake, utilization, drainage and consumption of the 4 x 600 MW ultra-supercritical unit in the said plant was tested. According to the water balance calculation and the analysis of water utilization situation, some advices about water saving and synthetic utilization of power plant were proposed. The results showed that, as there were serious leakage of the underground pipe network and many shortcomings of the management and maintenance of the wastewater collection and treatment system existed in the said power plant, the water saving potential of the plant was huge, and in theory, about 42.9% of the current water consumption could be saved. The analysis results provided the basis for the establishment of water-saving measures.

  10. Charge-Balanced Minimum-Power Controls for Spiking Neuron Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Dasanayake, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal control of phase models for spiking neuron oscillators. We focus on the design of minimum-power current stimuli that elicit spikes in neurons at desired times. We furthermore take the charge-balanced constraint into account because in practice undesirable side effects may occur due to the accumulation of electric charge resulting from external stimuli. Charge-balanced minimum-power controls are derived for a general phase model using the maximum principle, where the cases with unbounded and bounded control amplitude are examined. The latter is of practical importance since phase models are more accurate for weak forcing. The developed optimal control strategies are then applied to both mathematically ideal and experimentally observed phase models to demonstrate their applicability, including the phase model for the widely studied Hodgkin-Huxley equations.

  11. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  12. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  13. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  14. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  15. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  16. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  17. Power cycle heat balance software for personal computer (PC)2TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the PC-based power cycle balance of plant software (PC)trademark (Power Cycle on Personal Computer). It is designed to assist nuclear, fossil, and industrial power plants so that steam cycles can be simulated, analyzed and optimized. First, the cycle model is developed on the screen. The elements of the power cycle are taken from a tool box containing all components of a modern power cycle. The elements are connected by using a mouse. The next step is the input of the design values of the components or data taken from performance tests. This entire input sequence is guided by the program. Based on the input data, the physical behavior of each component is simulated according to established physical rules. Part load operation or other off-design conditions can be calculated. The program is designed for use by power plant engineers and power engineering firms to optimize new power cycles, perform problem-solving analyses, optimize component retrofit, and train power plant engineers and operators. It also can be used by universities to educate engineering students

  18. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under the power balancing constraint, which is defined as the constraint that the power on each antenna should be limited under a certain level due to the linearity of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced complexity in comparison with the optimal antenna selection scheme. More specifically, in order to solve the subcarrier imbalance across the antennas, we operate a two-step reallocation procedure to minimize the loss of spectral efficiency. We also provide an analytic lower bound on the spectral efficiency for the proposed scheme. From selected numerical results, we show that our suboptimal scheme offers almost the same spectral efficiency as the optimal one. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Global Power Balance in Non-Stationary Discharge Phases in the COMPASS Tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Josef; Imríšek, Martin; Kovařík, Karel; Weinzettl, Vladimír

    Prague : MATFYZPRESS, 2014 - (Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.), s. 204-210 ISBN 978-80-7378-276-4. - (WDS). [Annual Conference of Doctoral Students – WDS 2014 /23./. Prague (CZ), 03.06.2014-05.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * global power balance * power through separatrix * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.mff.cuni.cz/veda/konference/wds/proc/proc-contents.php?year=2014

  20. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV low-power (LP integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulatorusing the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  1. [Assessment of perioperative fluid balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelić, R; Vlajković, G; Marković, D; Bumbasirević, V

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid therapy and resuscitation. Fluid balance is the crucial factor in the maintenance of haemodynamic stability, tissue oxygenation and organ function. When the haemodynamic monitoring is applied in a rigorous and consistent manner, it reduces mortality and length of stay as well as costs incurred. There are a number of tests which describe the effectiveness of the invasive haemodynamic monitoring procedures usage. Since the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) had been introduced into clinical practice it was considered as a golden standard for cardiac output measurements, haemodynamic and fluid balance assessment. Nevertheless, in previous 10 years new minimally invasive and noninvasive simple techniques for haemodynamic monitoring and patient's hydroelectricity status evaluation have been developed. They can replace PAC under different clinical circumstances and some of these techniques PMID:19504992

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  3. Balance of a race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With their atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the USA ended the second World War. One year later, efforts to have the development of atomic weapons controlled by an international authority were abandoned because of a veto by the Soviet Union. The final goal of this effort would have been the destruction of all atomic weapons. For 35 years, politicians have talked about disarmament and have, at the same time continued to arm with nuclear weapons. (orig.)

  4. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of official documents and white papers pertaining to the two web-portals The Policy Grid Project and FEED that are launched by the UK and the EU respectively. The aim of the portals is to filter and synthesize information relevant for policy discussions and thereby...... improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social...... Construction of Technology' and it shows how the framing of the portals and the concrete digital choices taken in relation to the infrastructure are influenced by the social intentions of relevant social groups as well as by the technical limitations on computers abilities to process semantic data...

  5. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal...... processes, including the differentiation, maturation, stabilization, and plasticity of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Here, we review the most recent results regarding the structure and function of these cell adhesion molecules....

  6. Power Allocation for Balancing Spectrum Efficiency and Power Consumption in Cognitive Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Tang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the QoS requirement of secondary users and not to affect the outage probability of primary user in cognitive relay networks, we propose two optimal power allocation models: (1 maximizing the transmission rate of secondary users; (2 minimizing the total power consumption. Theory analysis shows that two optimal power allocation models conflict between spectrum efficiency and power consumption. Furthermore, an optimal power allocation model which joints the transmission rate and the total power consumption in cognitive relay networks is proposed. By using the Lagrangian method, the optimization algorithm for this model is designed. The proposed algorithm can achieve the trade-off between the transmission rate and the total power consumption by varying the weight. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively adjust the transmission rate and the total power consumption of secondary users.

  7. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA)

  8. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  9. Algorithms for striking material and energy balances in calculating the technical-and-economic indicators of thermal power plant equipment based on the ill-posed problem regularization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduhovsky, G. V.; Zhukov, V. P.; Barochkin, E. V.; Zimin, A. P.; Razinkov, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The problem of striking material and energy balances from the data received by thermal power plant computerized automation systems from the technical accounting systems with the accuracy determined by the metrological characteristics of serviceable calibrated instruments is formulated using the mathematical apparatus of ridge regression method. A graph theory based matrix model of material and energy flows in systems having an intricate structure is proposed, using which it is possible to formalize the solution of a particular practical problem at the stage of constructing the system model. The problem of striking material and energy balances is formulated taking into account different degrees of trustworthiness with which the initial flow rates of coolants and their thermophysical parameters were determined, as well as process constraints expressed in terms of balance correlations on mass and energy for individual system nodes or for any combination thereof. Analytic and numerical solutions of the problem are proposed in different versions of its statement differing from each other in the adopted assumptions and considered constraints. It is shown how the procedure for striking material and energy balances from the results of measuring the flows of feed water and steam in the thermal process circuit of a combined heat and power plant affects the calculation accuracy of specific fuel rates for supplying heat and electricity. It has been revealed that the nominal values of indicators and the fuel saving or overexpenditure values associated with these indicators are the most dependent parameters. In calculating these quantities using different balance striking procedures, an error may arise the value of which is commensurable with the power plant thermal efficiency margin stipulated by the regulatory-technical documents on using fuel. The study results were used for substantiating the choice of stating the problem of striking material and fuel balances, as well as

  10. TMRBAR power balance code for tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised version of the tandem mirror multi-point code TMRBAR developed at LLNL has been used to examine various reactor designs using MARS-like ''c'' coils. We solve 14 to 16 non-linear equations to obtain the densities, temperatures, plasma potential and magnetic field on axis at the cardinal points. Since ICRH, ECRH, and neutral beams may be used to stabilize the central cell, various combinations of rf and neutral beam powers may satisfy the physics. To select a desired set of physics parameters, we use nonlinear optimization techniques. Whit these routines, we minimize or maximize a physics variable subject to the physics constraints being satisfied. For example, for a given fusion power we may find the minimum length needed to have an ignited central cell or the maximum fusion Q. Finally, we have coupled this physics model to the LLNL magnetics-MHD code. This code runs the EFFI magnetic field generator and uses TEBASCO to calculate 1-D MHD equilibria and stability

  11. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  12. Thermal-wave balancing flow sensor with low-drift power feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system using a low-drift power-feedback signal was implemented applying thermal waves, giving a sensor output independent of resistance drift and thermo-electric offset voltages on interface wires. Kelvin-contact sensing and power control is used on heater resistors, thereby inhibiting the influence of heater resistance drift. The thermal waves are detected with a sensing resistor using a lock-in amplifier and are mutually cancelled by a thermal-wave balancing controller. Offset due to thermal gradient across the chip and resistor drift are eliminated by the lock-in amplifier and power controller, and therefore do not influence the sensor output signal. A microchannel thermal-wave balancing flow sensor with integrated Al resistors has successfully been fabricated. The thermal flow sensor is capable of measuring water flow rates with nl ⋅ min−1 precision, up to about 500 nl ⋅ min−1 full scale. Measurement results are in good agreement with a dynamic model of the flow sensor. Drift measurements show the sensor output signal to be compensated for resistance drift and thermal gradient across the chip. (paper)

  13. Pulverised fuel balancing at a power station's quadrafurcator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pulverised fuel (P.F) conveying pipe work of coal fired power stations there are numerous places where the P.F and air mixture needs to be split. However, air/fuel mixture stratification occurs due to the different routes the P.F takes through the pipe-work, resulting in uneven splits. Therefore, there is a need to design changes to provide control of the split. Before this can be done the nature of splitting must be investigated. This entails an examination of the air/solid split, as well as P.F. distribution up and downstream of the junction. The formation of flow discontinuities, such as particle ropes in bends, are of particular interest as it is these structures that are often responsible for bad splitting. The present work employs Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) to model the formation of particle ropes and then simulate what happens to them when they enter the splitter junction. The splitter under scrutiny for this paper is a quadrafurcator. The model employs a Lagrangian model for the particle tracking. The model also takes into account, through coupled discrete phase iterations, the effects of the particles on the flow. (author)

  14. On Water Balance of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problems concerning the water balance of the Black Sea. According to the new data river discharge is determined on the basis of which component elements of water balance are adjusted. (authors)

  15. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether they...... result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  16. Energy balances of OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewable and waste presented in energy balances. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. In the 1997 edition, key indicators have been provided back to 1960 instead of 1971 as in the previous editions. (author)

  17. Power Balancing Aggregator Design for Industrial Consumers Using Direct Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Demand side management in the future smart grid requires new players in the electricity markets. We assume a player, the so-called aggregator which aims to utilize the flexibility in large-scale consumers with thermal energy storage. An aggregator design is proposed to mange the power consumption...

  18. Power Balance Modeling and Validation for ST Startup Using Local Helicity Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2015-11-01

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) uses localized current injectors for routine Ipstartup on the Pegasus ST. A power-balance model is under development for predictive Ip t using helicity-balance to quantify LHI's effective current drive, Veff. Analytic formulas for low-A plasma inductance and vertical field are used to account for the inductive effects of dynamic shape evolution. These formulas are being validated against magnetic reconstructions of LHI discharges with varied shape evolutions. Initial results match experimental Ip t within 20 kA with assumed shaping and average resistivity (Spitzer, Te = 60 eV). Geometric effects and inductive drive provide 2.0 V along with Veff = 0.3 V to balance 1.1 V of resistive losses and 1.2 V inductive reactance to ramping Ip. The model is especially sensitive to resistivity when Testartup in NSTX-U will require increased area (Ainj >= 40 cm2) LHI systems that play a larger role in current drive than geometric effects, with Veff dropping from >10 V to on-par with inductive effects. This regime is accessed in Pegasus at Ip ≅ 300 kA. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.

  19. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  20. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  1. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  2. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  3. The balanced tensor product of module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Christopher L.; Schommer-Pries, Christopher; Snyder, Noah

    2014-01-01

    The balanced tensor product M (x)_A N of two modules over an algebra A is the vector space corepresenting A-balanced bilinear maps out of the product M x N. The balanced tensor product M [x]_C N of two module categories over a monoidal linear category C is the linear category corepresenting C-balanced right-exact bilinear functors out of the product category M x N. We show that the balanced tensor product can be realized as a category of bimodule objects in C, provided the monoidal linear cat...

  4. Mixing local and distributed reactive power control for balancing inverters' effort in grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco García, Manel; Martí Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomàs, Jaume; Castilla Fernández, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Reactive power control methods have been proven to be a successful technique for maintaining voltages of photo-voltaic (PV) distributed generators (DG) within the admissible limits without enforcing to reduce the production of active power. Usually the control goal is achieved at the expenses of stressing PV inverters unequally. As a consequence, inverters deteriorate at different velocities. This paper presents a mixed local and distributed control strategy that aims at balancing the e...

  5. Theoretical analysis of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-xin; SUI Zhan; CHEN Fu-shen; LI Ming-zhong; WANG Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    In this letter,a theoretical model of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser is presented.The characteristic of the laser with Yb doped double clad fiber is analyzed numerically.It is concluded that high output laser power can be obtained by selecting output coupling mirror with lower reflectivity,improving Yb doped concentration and choosing fiber length. This result can help us to design radiation balanced fiber laser.

  6. Ten Major Events of Chinese Power Industry in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periodical Office of China Power Enterprise Manage; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power supply and demand was almost balanced The construction of the Chinese power industry got excellent results in 2006 again. The power supply and demand was roughly balanced throughout the country.

  7. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman; Schmidt, George R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary model for spacecraft propulsion performance analysis based on nuclear gain and subsystem mass-power balances are presented in viewgraph form. For very fast missions with straight-line trajectories, it has been shown that mission trip time is proportional to the cube root of alpha. Analysis of spacecraft power systems via a power balance and examination of gain vs. mass-power ratio has shown: 1) A minimum gain is needed to have enough power for thruster and driver operation; and 2) Increases in gain result in decreases in overall mass-power ratio, which in turn leads to greater achievable accelerations. However, subsystem mass-power ratios and efficiencies are crucial: less efficient values for these can partially offset the effect of nuclear gain. Therefore, it is of interest to monitor the progress of gain-limited subsystem technologies and it is also possible that power-limited systems with sufficiently low alpha may be competitive for such ambitious missions. Topics include Space flight requirements; Spacecraft energy gain; Control theory for performance; Mission assumptions; Round trips: Time and distance; Trip times; Vehicle acceleration; and Minimizing trip times.

  8. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  9. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  10. Culture and Household Decision Making: Balance of Power and Labor Supply Choices of US-born and Foreign-born Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Oreffice, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how spouses' cultural backgrounds mediate the role of intra-household bargaining in the labor supply decisions of foreign-born and US-born couples, in a collective-household framework. Using data from the 2000 US Census, I show that the hours worked by US-born couples, and by those foreign-born coming from countries with gender roles similar to the US, are significantly related to common bargaining power forces such as differences between spouses in age and non-labor i...

  11. Corporate Citizenship and Stakeholder Engagement : Maintaining an Equitable Power Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Ihugba, Bethel Uzoma; Osuji, Onyeka K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an engagement oriented corporation-stakeholder relationship in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programmes. It is a proposition which poses the two connected questions of how to move from solely public relation driven stakeholder management to social development oriented stakeholder participation (engagement) and how Stakeholder Engagement can be measured. On the backdrop of Arnstein’s (1969) citizenship participation model and reasons for Stakeholder Engagement frame...

  12. High-Temperature Thermal Storage System for Solar Tower Power Plants with Open-Volumetric Air Receiver Simulation and Energy Balancing of a Discretized Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kronhardt, Valentina; Alexopoulos, Spiros; Reißel, Martin; Sattler, Johannes; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Hänel, Matthias; Doerbeck, Till

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of a high-temperature storage system for an existing solar tower power plant with open volumetric receiver technology, which uses air as heat transfer medium (HTF). The storage system model has been developed in the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink®. The storage type under investigation is a packed bed thermal energy storage system which has the characteristics of a regenerator. Thermal energy can be stored and discharged as required via the HTF air. ...

  13. Powering up the biogeochemical engine: The impact of exceptional ventilation of a deep meromictic lake on the lacustrine redox, nutrient, and methane balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Felix Lehmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Lugano North Basin has been meromictic for several decades, with anoxic waters below 100m depth. Two consecutive cold winters in 2005 and 2006 induced exceptional deep mixing, leading to a transient oxygenation of the whole water column. With the ventilation of deep waters and the oxidation of large quantities of reduced solutes, the lake's total redox-balance turned positive, and the overall hypolimnetic oxygen demand of the lake strongly decreased. The disappearance of 150 t dissolved phosphorous (P during the first ventilation in March 2005 is attributed to the scavenging of water-column-borne P by newly formed metal oxyhydroxides and the temporary transfer to the sediments. The fixed nitrogen (N inventory was reduced by ~30% (~1000 t. The water-column turnover induced the nitratation of the previously NO3--free deep hypolimnion by oxidation of large amounts of legacy NH4+ and by mixing with NO3--rich subsurface water masses. Sediments with a strong denitrifying potential, but NO3--starved for decades, were brought in contact with NO3--replete waters, invigorating benthic denitrification and rapid fixed N loss from the lake in spite of the overall more oxygenated conditions. Similarly, a large microbial aerobic CH4 oxidation (MOx potential in the hypolimnion was capitalized with the ventilation of the deep basin. Almost all CH4, which had been built up over more than 40 years (~2800 t, was removed from the water column within 30 days. However, boosted MOx could only partly explain the disappearance of the CH4. The dominant fraction (75% of the CH4 evaded to the atmosphere, through storage flux upon exposure of anoxic CH4-rich water to the atmosphere. As of today, the North Basin seems far from homeostasis regarding its fixed N and CH4 budgets, and the deep basin's CH4 pool is recharging at a net production rate of ~66 t y-1. The size of impending CH4 outbursts will depend on the frequency and intensity of exceptional mixing events in

  14. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.)

  15. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  16. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  17. White Paper No 37 (2000-2001). On the hydroelectric power and the power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This White Paper from The Norwegian Government discusses various aspects of a development of the Saltfjellet - Svartisen area, suggests how to treat development issues more efficiently and elucidates why the energy policy must place stronger emphasis on the dangers involved in a minimum run-off year. The Government proposes that further hydropower development of the Saltfjellet-Svartisen area should not take place since the best projects have already been completed. The Government is prepared to show more consideration for untouched nature than has been customary in planning new hydropower development. To secure a safe supply of energy, the Government concentrates on (1) Simplifying the executive work on new development projects, (2) Preparing construction of gas power plants, (3) Domestic use of natural gas for energy, (4) Intensifying the work on improving the efficiency of energy production and energy use, (5) Providing for a well-functioning power market

  18. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  19. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  20. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  1. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  2. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  3. Mathematical Model for Power Quantity Analysis of Heating Unit Based on Energy Balance Method%基于能量平衡法的供热机组电量分析数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王漪; 薛永锋; 张敏; 王聪

    2014-01-01

    辽宁电网供热季节电网调峰压力巨大,在保证供热质量的前提下尽可能降低供热机组电负荷,并合理安排电量计划,可最大限度地消纳风电。文中基于供热机组“以热定电”在线监测系统,提出了能量平衡法。通过对进出汽轮机的能量进行平衡计算,确定不同采暖抽汽热量和工业抽汽热量下机组发电量的关系,可以准确计算出一段时间内机组在给定的采暖抽汽热量和工业抽汽热量下的最大电量和最小电量范围。通过实际应用验证了该方法的准确性和实用性。%Given the huge pressure on peak regulation of Liaoning power grid in the heating season,the methods of reducing the heating unit electric load as far as possible on the premise of guaranteeing the quality of heating,and rationally arranging the electricity plan,can achieve maximum wind power accommodation.Based on the on-line monitoring system of ordering power by heat of heating units,an energy balance method is put forward.Through the balance calculation of the energy entering or exhausted from the steam turbine,and the determination of the unit power generation relationship with different heating and industrial extraction steam quantities of heat,the maximum and minimum power generation can be accurately calculated with a given heating and industrial extraction steam quantity of heat.The accuracy and practicality of the model of ordering power by heat is verified through practical application.

  4. Balanced Scorecard as Part of Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Balogh

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard has become one of the most popular and successful instrument for managing the organizations’ performance. This article sets the place of the balanced scorecard within the performance measurement system within the organizatin and presents, as an example, a way of implementing this method and establishing a composite index of performance.

  5. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  6. 高补偿度串补对无功平衡及电压分布的影响研究%Influence of Series Capacitors of High-degree Compensation on Reactive Power Balance and Voltage Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊珊; 覃琴; 秦晓辉; 王义红; 周勤勇

    2015-01-01

    Series capacitors of high-degree compensation possess application prospect in power system, which can reinforce transmission capacity of AC lines and are strongly adaptive to the uncertainty in power source development plan. From the aspect of reactive power balance and voltage distribution, the feasibility of series capacitors of high-degree compensation in UHV power system is proposed, which is illustrated on the “Mengxi Waisong” UHV project. Results show that reactive power compensation capacity of substation has not been the main limiting factor of high-degree compensation. However, maximum voltage along the UHV transmission line has been an important restricting factor. In order to suppress the fundamental frequency steady overvoltage, distributed disposition of series capacitors on both sides is better than the centralized disposition scheme.%高补偿度串补在电网中具有应用前景,既能充分发挥交流通道输电能力,还对电源开发进度的不确定性具有较强的适应性。从系统无功平衡及电压分布的角度,论证高补偿度串补在特高压电网中应用的可行性。以“蒙西外送”特高压工程为分析实例,结果表明,变电站无功补偿容量并未成为制约串补度提高的主要因素,但沿线最高电压会成为制约串补度提高的重要因素,此时采用串补分散布置较之集中布置方案更有利于抑制工频稳态过电压。

  7. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the...

  8. THE PROBLEM OF MONITORING AND BALANCING OF VEHICLE BATTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Inshakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of electrochemical energy storage units is becoming more common, and they are subject to new requirements for increasing the time of electrical supply for power equipment. In some cases, batteries serve as the main electric power unit working under reserved electric load and on the electric drive of the vehicle. The article discusses the features of using batteries as a part of electrical equipment for the agricultural vehicles. When creating high-capicity batteries trhrough connecting some batteries in series and parallel circuits, there are a number of features caused by variations of the parameters of the elements. Materials and Methods The object of research is methods of monitoring and balancing touch batteries are connected in series and there is no possibility or desirability of their disconnection for individual balancing. In the development of methods and devices used in general engineering approaches to the development of technical devices. Results It is necessary to find the causes affecting the energy characteristics and service life of the battery to increase it. During research we have found a need for monitoring and control of battery status, which allow solving the problems of divergence of containers, the internal resistance and leakage of individual batteries. Temperature of the battery is an important indicator to control it. Balancing the battery system and monitoring systems are needed to provide a uniform charge of individual cells, regardless of the variation parameters. Discussion and Conclusions There are different variants of balancing systems, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. The article gives examples of the construction of five alignment sys¬tems stress on the individual cells of the battery. The criteria for selection for the current passive balancing method using shunt resistors, and are a diagram of an improved pas¬sive way of balancing. Considered and the basic advantages and

  9. The impact of microgeneration upon the Dutch balancing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The share of microgeneration (power generation at the level of households and small businesses) in the Dutch electricity system continues to grow. Over time, this development may pose a threat to the reliability and efficiency of the Dutch electricity balancing market. We investigated possible chang

  10. Tokamak plasma power balance calculation code (TPC code) outline and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a detailed description on the TPC code, that calculates the power balance of a tokamak plasma according to the ITER guidelines. The TPC code works on a personal computer (Macintosh or J-3100/ IBM-PC). Using input data such as the plasma shape, toroidal magnetic field, plasma current, electron temperature, electron density, impurities and heating power, TPC code can determine the operation point of the fusion reactor (Ion temperature is assumed to be equal to the electron temperature). Supplied flux (Volt · sec) and burn time are also estimated by coil design parameters. Calculated energy confinement time is compared with various L-mode scaling laws and the confinement enhancement factor (H-factor) is evaluated. Divertor heat load is predicted by using simple scaling models (constant-χ, Bohm-type-χ and JT-60U empirical scaling models). Frequently used data can be stored in a 'device file' and used as the default values. TPC code can generate 2-D mesh data and the POPCON plot is drawn by a contour line plotting program (CONPLT). The operation manual about CONPLT code is also described. (author)

  11. High power operation of λ ∼ 5.2–11 μm strain balanced quantum cascade lasers based on the same material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique based on composite quantum wells for design and growth of strain balanced Al0.63In0.37As/Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), emitting in 5.2–11 μm wavelength range, is reported. The strained Al0.63In0.37As provides good electron confinement at all wavelengths, and strain balancing can be achieved through composite wells of Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As for different wavelength. The use of these fixed composition materials can avoid the need for frequent calibration of a MBE reactor to grow active regions with different strain levels for different wavelengths. Experimental results for QCLs emitting at 5.2, 6.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 11 μm exhibit good wall plug efficiencies and power across the whole wavelength range. It is shown that the emission wavelength can be predictably changed using the same design template. These lasers are also compatible with a heterogeneous broadband active region, consisting of multiple QCL cores, which can be produced in a single growth run.

  12. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Nonlinear Distortion Mechanisms and Efficiency of Balanced-Armature Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joe

    soft magnetic materials has also been developed, since it is of great importance to understand what kind of linear and nonlinear transformations the magnetic materials impose on the signal. In hearing aid applications the power efficiency of the loudspeaker is important because every reduction in power...... the linearity of the magnetic material is therefore of great importance. This thesis describes the inherent nonlinear parameters of the balanced-armature loudspeaker and demonstrates how the nonlinearity of these parameters may be reduced by design. A sim- ple technique for incorporating magnetic...... consumption will help prolong battery life and thereby reduce the frequency of necessary service checks. A great deal of the power consumed in a hearing aid goes into the amplifier that drives the loudspeaker. If the efficiency of the balanced-armature loudspeaker can be improved, the operation time of the...

  14. French electric power balance sheet and RTE's technical results for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's preliminary technical results for the year 2004: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, market development, infrastructures performance and evolution, environmental aspects. A second part is devoted to a presentation of the actors of the electricity market, while a third part presents the results of the 2004 RTE's clients survey

  15. Comparison of Dynamic Balance in Collegiate Field Hockey and Football Players Using Star Excursion Balance Test

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. Methods A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instruct...

  16. The Future of Economic Power

    OpenAIRE

    Malanciuc Bogdan Simion

    2014-01-01

    The importance of power in the development of society is undeniable. The power relations between national economies are more and more important and should be considered in every international economics analysis. Economic power has become the bedrock of both the military and the political power. Today the balance of economic power is shifting. The emerging states (China in the first place) are now demanding a greater role in global politics, challenging the existing international order dominat...

  17. Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, James; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the potential role of electric vehicles in an electricity network with a high contribution from variable generation such as wind power. Electric vehicles are modelled to provide demand management through flexible charging requirements and energy balancing for the network. Balancing applications include both demand balancing and vehicle-to-grid discharging. This study is configured to represent the UK grid with balancing requirements derived from wind generation calculated from weather station wind speeds on the supply side and National Grid data from on the demand side. The simulation models 1000 individual vehicle entities to represent the behaviour of larger numbers of vehicles. A stochastic trip generation profile is used to generate realistic journey characteristics, whilst a market pricing model allows charging and balancing decisions to be based on realistic market price conditions. The simulation has been tested with wind generation capacities representing up to 30% of UK consumption. Results show significant improvements to load following conditions with the introduction of electric vehicles, suggesting that they could substantially facilitate the uptake of intermittent renewable generation. Electric vehicle owners would benefit from flexible charging and selling tariffs, with the majority of revenue derived from vehicle-to-grid participation in balancing markets.

  18. A Preliminary Analysis of Roh Moo-hyun's "Balancer Diplomacy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an important state of Northeast Asia, the influence of ROK's diplomatic conception and policies on regional security situation should never be underestimated. In 2005, President Roh Moo-hyun stressed that "ROK should be a balancing power in Northeast Asia"and claimed that "the map of influence in Northeast Asia will be changing with ROK's strategic selection." All these have aroused high attention in international society. This article tries to examine and analyze the main contents of the ROK's "balancer diplomacy,"the causes of the formulation of the policy and its influence as well.

  19. Comparison of energy balances in public buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Avguštin, Nejc

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with a comparative analysis of energy balance of public buildings before and after energy renovation. Most of the energy renovations of public buildings in Slovenia between 2010 and 2015 was co-financed by the Cohesion Fund of the European Union. The analysis is based on the calculations of energy balances of the buildings before and after renovation. The calculations were carried out by designers prior to submitting the project application for subsidy. We had ...

  20. A method for balancing the fluctuation of wind power by hybrid energy storage system%混合储能平抑风电功率的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凯; 徐长奎

    2015-01-01

    Due to the random changes in wind speed , the fluctuation of the output power of wind farm is large , which may affect the stability of power system when wind farm is merged into a grid .A method for balancing fluctu-ant wind power was proposed to solve this problem .This method is based on a hybrid energy storage system .Firstly, the fluctuation power of wind power output is decomposed , then according to the characteristics of the fluctuating power , a battery and a super capacitor are taken as the energy storage device;secondly , the operation control mode of the energy storage system is designed , which can exchange power precisely and efficiently with wind power sys-tem, so as to make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating command;finally, a simulation is car-ried out under the environment of Matlab/Simulink .The simulation shows that the method can effectively stabilize the fluctuating output power of the wind farm , make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating com-mand stably , and the battery and the super capacitor bring into play their own advantages , therefore extending the service life of battery .%由于风速变化的随机性,风电场的输出功率波动性较大,导致风电场并网会对电力系统稳定性造成影响。为了克服风电输出的波动性问题,提出一种基于混合储能装置平抑风电功率波动的控制方法。首先,对风电输出波动功率进行分解,针对波动功率的特点选择蓄电池和超级电容作为储能装置;其次,设计储能系统的运行控制方式,使其能与风电场进行快速的功率交换,使得风电场输出功率跟踪发电指令;最后,在MATLAB/SIMULINK环境下进行仿真验证。仿真结果表明该方法能够有效地平抑处理风电场输出波动功率,使得风电场输出功率稳定地跟踪发电指令,蓄电池和超级电容各自发挥优势,延长了蓄电池使用寿命。

  1. Energy balance of algal biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Milledge, J.J.; Heaven, S.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic energy balance model was successfully developed for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of micro-algal biomass from raceways. The energy balance model was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of production scenarios, and to identify the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output of the model demonstrated that no single method of harvesting studied (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation), produced a sufficiently gr...

  2. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  3. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  4. Connectivity Analysis of Cyclically Balanced Fuzzy Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jicy; Sunil Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of connectivity and cycle connectivity play an important role in fuzzy graph theory. In this article, cyclic cutvertices, cyclic bridges and cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs are discussed. It is proved that a vertex in a fuzzy graph is a cyclic cutvertex if and only if it is a common vertex of all strong cycles with maximum strength. Also a cyclic cutvertex cannot be a fuzzy endvertex in a fuzzy graph. A characterization of cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs is obtained. Cyclic ver...

  5. Climate change and balance of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a global climate agreement, countries employ local policies to curb pollution and introduce clean energy. These policies limit domestic consumption of a traded energy source but increase exports thus improving a country’s energy balance and its balance of trade. While focusing on US energy policy, we show this phenomenon for both petroleum products and for coal.

  6. Balance of safety versus economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper looks at the strength of the case for improving safety over and above those safety standards which are currently accepted for the majority of current nuclear power plant, and assesses the cost premium that has to be paid for advanced designs with enhanced safety features. The risks associated with current nuclear plant have already been reduced to very low levels, and further preventative measures, whose cost would be out of proportion to the remaining risks, should be challenged. In this respect two issues need to be addressed: 'What is the premium to be paid for enhanced safety?' and 'How safety is safe enough?'. For a given reactor size, the premium for introducing enhanced safety in an 'advanced' reactor could be of the order of 20 %. For early plants in a series the premium would be significantly higher, due in part to the need to recover the FOAK costs. The recommendations of INSAG-3 would seem to be a good basis for defining 'What is Safe Enough' and improvements over and above these risk levels should be unnecessary unless they can be achieved at very low cost. It is concluded that the best of the current 'basic' designs are acceptably safe and the availability of 'advanced' designs should not preclude the future licensing of 'basic' designs, provided that they have introduced cost effective modifications which reflect the lessons learned from TMI and technological advances such as the use of micro-processors in control and protection systems. 'Advanced' designs have their place where the price level for electricity is higher, or become higher as environmental pressures (carbon tax) or scarcity of fossil fuels force up the price of electricity. In addition a utility may favour an 'advanced' design because they place value on its higher security of investment and the improved operational performance that has been introduced in developing the advanced designs. (authors)

  7. Mass-balance parameters derived from a synthetic network of mass-balance glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Paul, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Glacier mass-balance parameters such as the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) play an important role when working with large glacier samples. While the number of observational mass-balance series to derive such parameters is limited, more and more modeled data are becoming available. Here we explore the possibilities of analyzing such ‘synthetic’ mass-balance data with respect to mass-balance parameters. A simplified energy-balance model is driven by bias-corrected regional climate model output...

  8. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  9. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  10. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  11. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  12. Optimal power allocation for downstream xDSL with per-modem total power constraints : Broadcast Channel Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Vincent Le; Verlinden, Jan; Guenach, Mamoun

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the duality between Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Multiple Access Channels (MAC) and MIMO Broadcast Channels (BC) has been established under a total power constraint. The same set of rates for MAC can be achieved in BC exploiting the MAC-BC duality formulas while preserving the total power constraint. In this paper, we describe the BC optimal power allo- cation applying this duality in a downstream x-Digital Subscriber Lines (xDSL) context under a total power constraint for all modems over all tones. Then, a new algorithm called BC-Optimal Spectrum Balancing (BC-OSB) is devised for a more realistic power allocation under per-modem total power constraints. The capacity region of the primal BC problem under per-modem total power constraints is found by the dual optimization problem for the BC under per-modem total power constraints which can be rewritten as a dual optimization problem in the MAC by means of a precoder matrix based on the Lagrange multipliers. We show that the duality gap betwe...

  13. METHOD OF FORECASTING THE BALANCE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ю. КОВАЛЕНКО

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  On the basis of the analysis of works of the Ukrainian and foreign scientists in the field of financial forecasting the drawing up technique the forecast balance of the enterprise which, unlike others, assumes an estimation of the future financial condition of the enterprise and revealing of structural changes of the forecast balance is devel-oped. It is shown advantages of use of the most universal methods of forecasting, such, as a method of a share of incomes of sales, a method of financial factors. Technique application is considered on an example of the commercial enterprise.

  14. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  15. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  16. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  17. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response

    OpenAIRE

    Sipp, Amy R.; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clust...

  18. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  19. The unifying power of sustainable development; towards balanced choices between people, planet and profit in agricultural production chains and rural land use: the role of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Klijn, J.A.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Schans, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    This position paper presents an overview of the origin and meaning of the concept of sustainable development in various domains and their interrelationships, expressed as the People-Profit-Planet triangle. The role of Wageningen UR and its position in society is clarified: the three P domains are re

  20. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Osugi T; Iwamoto J; Yamazaki M; Takakuwa M

    2014-01-01

    Tomohiro Osugi,1 Jun Iwamoto,2 Michio Yamazaki,1 Masayuki Takakuwa3 1Department of Rehabilitation, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat t...

  1. Water balance of Slovenia 1971 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water is becoming more and more valuable natural resource. The increasing water demand and climate changes are making water a precious and not always available valuable. The water balance is the most appropriate way to make a full overview of water cycle in Slovenia, to find general information about hydrological characteristics of drainage basins, precipitation, evaporation and runoff. The article presents the methodology and the results of the Water balance project of Slovenia. Slovenia has the geographical position at the juncture of 4 main European georegions: The Alps, the Panonian Basin, the Mediterranean and the Dinaric Mountains. This makes the territory very diverse also from a hydrological point of view. Our major watershed divides the precipitation runoff into two watershed areas - the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea. Due to this watershed almost all the Slovenia's rivers have headwaters in our territory. Water balance is calculation of water inputs and outputs over the defined area. The basic elements of the water balance include all the inflows and outflows for a given basin and serve for the computation of the water regime of a catchment area. It is defined by the parameters precipitation (P), evaporation (E), discharge (Q) and the change of the water reserves (dS). Main results of the water balance elements for the 1971 - 2000 period for Slovenia are: Average annual precipitation in Slovenia is 1579 mm, average annual evapotranspiration is 717 mm and calculated runoff is 862 mm. Compared to water amounts in the World, where the average precipitation is 750 mm, evapotranspiration is 480 mm and runoff is 270 mm, Slovenia shows an abundance of water quantities. Also the runoff coefficient with 55 % is much higher as 36 % of the world. The major questions remain if we are capable to live with this water amounts within the limits of sustainable development and what will be the effects of climate change to water balance.

  2. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

  3. Analysis of deficiencies in the presentation of the balance sheet and profit and loss account

    OpenAIRE

    AMBRŮZOVÁ, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    The goal is to determine deficiencies that limit the explanatory power of balance sheet and profit and loss, to analyze these shortcomings and develop a proposal of possible solutions to minimize these shortcomings.

  4. Ant-based power efficient, adaptive, reliable, and load balanced (A-PEARL) routing for smart metering networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Rajani

    2011-06-01

    The future of metering networks requires adaptation of different sensor technology while reducing energy exploitation. In this paper, a routing protocol with the ability to adapt and communicate reliably over varied IEEE standards is proposed. Due to sensor's resource constraints, such as memory, energy, processing power an algorithm that balances resources without compromising performance is preferred. The proposed A-PEARL protocol is tested under harsh simulated scenarios such as sensor failure and fading conditions. The inherent features of A-PEARL protocol such as data aggregation, fusion and channel hopping enables minimal resource consumption and secure communication.

  5. Connectivity Analysis of Cyclically Balanced Fuzzy Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jicy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of connectivity and cycle connectivity play an important role in fuzzy graph theory. In this article, cyclic cutvertices, cyclic bridges and cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs are discussed. It is proved that a vertex in a fuzzy graph is a cyclic cutvertex if and only if it is a common vertex of all strong cycles with maximum strength. Also a cyclic cutvertex cannot be a fuzzy endvertex in a fuzzy graph. A characterization of cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs is obtained. Cyclic vertex connectivity and cyclic edge connectivity of fuzzy graphs are also discussed.

  6. Integration of large scale wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsen, Troels [Inopower A/S (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Since 2006, the Danish TSO Energinet.dk, has got large power consumption systems available for balancing the power grid during large Wind Power in feed situations. In 2011 a total of 250 MW electro boilers are installed. The power for the electro boilers is traded on the Nordpool power exchange in the day a head market and the ancillary services markets. (orig.)

  7. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100 and they randomly divided into control (n-25 & training group (n-25.The training group were given eight weeks of training ( for first two weeks on floor & next six weeks on wobble board & training was given five times a week for first four weeks & three times a week for next four weeks while the control group performed their regular training under the supervision of a physiotherapist . Pre (0 week & post ( 8 weeks measurements of static & dynamic balance & triple hop distance were noted for both groups. Results: The pre and post test readings of BESS score shows significant improvement. Similarly, there is a significant improvement in m-SEBT score in all three positions. Pre and post test readings for the triple hop distance shows equal improvement for both control & training group. Discussion & Conclusion: This study concluded that wobble board balance training program is an effective mean for improvement of static & dynamic balance in male collegiate basketball athletes.

  8. Review of Potential Wind Tunnel Balance Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Williams, Quincy L.; Phillips, Ben D.; Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathon D.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews design, manufacture, materials, sensors, and data acquisition technologies that may benefit wind tunnel balances for the aerospace research community. Current state-of-the-art practices are used as the benchmark to consider advancements driven by researcher and facility needs. Additive manufacturing is highlighted as a promising alternative technology to conventional fabrication and has the potential to reduce both the cost and time required to manufacture force balances. Material alternatives to maraging steels are reviewed. Sensor technologies including piezoresistive, piezoelectric, surface acoustic wave, and fiber optic are compared to traditional foil based gages to highlight unique opportunities and shared challenges for implementation in wind tunnel environments. Finally, data acquisition systems that could be integrated into force balances are highlighted as a way to simplify the user experience and improve data quality. In summary, a rank ordering is provided to support strategic investment in exploring the technologies reviewed in this manuscript.

  9. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  10. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  11. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability and...... unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility....... Next, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented...

  12. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  13. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  14. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  15. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  16. Effectiveness of taping and bracing in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Sykaras, Evaggelos; Costa, Frosoula; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2002-04-01

    Taping and bracing are thought to be effective methods in restricting the ankle's joint motion and assisting prevention of injuries. Research evidence suggests that taping and bracing enhance both the mechanical support and the proprioception of the ankle. However, there is little research concerning the influence of taping and bracing on sport performance. Research has mainly examined tasks with demands on the frontal plane. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of taping and bracing on the performance of a task with demands on the frontal plane. A sample of 30 physical education students (Mage=21.9 yr.) performed a balance task requiring estimation of balance and both right and left deviations. The subjects performed the balance task on four different conditions, with tape, with Swede-O (a lace-up, boot style stabilizer), with Aircast (an inflatable cast), and without any stabilizer. There were no significant differences among the conditions. These findings indicate that taping and bracing do not have negative effects on balance in the frontal plane. This study created concerns regarding the appropriate stabilizer for different tasks, bilateral coordination after the application of a stabilizer, and the influence of psychological factors on prevention of injury. PMID:12027354

  17. HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL BALANCE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a functional design aspects of the economic agent is an economic entity, which aims at producing goods and services, for which exercise economic functions of consumption, distribution, investment and divestiture and financing.Main indicators of functional balance are functional working capital or net working capital globally, need working capital for exploration and exploitation and outside the Treasury functional. Also, to achieve financial equilibrium phases are rendered functional.

  18. Hybrid Energy Storage System and Control System for Balance and Inhibition of Wind Power Fluctuation in Power Output%用于平抑风电波动功率的混合储能系统及其控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程莎莎; 张琦; 黄湘源

    2013-01-01

    The output power of a wind power system is with intermittence and randomness, so it will seriously have impacts on power quality when the system was connected into power grid. This paper raised a new type of hybrid energy storage system based on super-capacitor and storage battery, so as to meet the demand of balance and inhibition of wind power in lfuctuation. The useful life of the system was prolonged by controlling the processes of charging and discharging for hybrid energy storage system and the charging and discharging efifciency were improved. Via decomposition of wind power lfuctuation, a new type of control model was adopted to set up a power informa-tion data bank. According to the real-time wind power and energy storage elements state, the information data bank was searched to get the relevant control algorithm method. The multi-lfuctuation power control plan of wind power system was simpliifed, to have shortened control time. Simulation result shows that the raised hybrid energy storage system and its control plan are feasible and the output power of wind power can meet real-time dispatch requirements of power system after balanced and inhibited.%风电系统输出功率具有波动性和随机性,并网时将严重影响电能质量。提出了一种基于超级电容器和蓄电池的新型混合储能系统,以满足平抑风电波动功率的需求。通过对混合储能系统充放电过程的控制,延长系统的使用寿命,提高充放电效率。对风电波动功率进行分解,通过采用一种新型的控制模型,建立功率信息库,根据实时风电功率及储能元件的状态,检索信息库,得到充放电控制器相应的控制算法,简化了风力发电系统多种波动功率的控制方案,缩短控制时间。仿真结果表明,所提出的混合储能系统及其控制方案是可行的,平抑后的风电输出功率可以满足电力系统实时调度的要求。

  19. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  20. Governmental and industry roles and responsibilities with regard to international marriage brokers: equalizing the balance of power between foreign fiances and spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Leslye E; Sarangapani, Hema

    2007-05-01

    The unregulated nature of the international marriage broker (IMB) industry endangers women by denying them information necessary to make informed choices with respect to their intended U.S.-based citizen spouses. This article (a) provides an overview of the contemporary IMB industry, including a discussion of reasons underlying women's choices to use IMB agencies to meet and marry U.S.-based spouses, (b) discusses how this industry's marketing of marriages potentially endangers many women recruits, and (c) offers an update and analysis of new provisions under U.S. immigration law that strengthen protections available for women who immigrate as fiancés and spouses of U.S. citizens, including those in marriages arranged by IMBs. PMID:17478672

  1. Will the balance of power shift among native eastern Pacific estuary ecosystem engineers with the introduced bopyrid isopod parasite orthione griffenis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, the bay ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, and eelgrass, Zostera marina are endemic ecosystem engineers that define the ecological structure and function of estuaries along the Pacific coast of the US as significantly as do marshes...

  2. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  3. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  4. 中国、拉丁美洲与全球力量平衡%China,Latin America and the Balance of Global Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿尔弗雷多·托罗·哈[委

    2016-01-01

    China has been actively promoting an international economic order according to its interests.But with impres-sive consistency of purpose,China is givingway to a parallel globalisation that may strongly weaken the economic order dominated by the West.Simultaneously to the above begins to glimpse the emergence of a geopoliticalorder of global out-reach,upstream of the United States.The confluence between China and Russia is the driving force of this process and, like that in the former case,the intrinsicreason is linked to the Western arrogance in relation to the sensitivities and aspi-rations of these two countries.This political-economic duality is likely to generate a major drag inthe developing world force,given the great influence exerted by China over a significant part of this.In this context,the stance that could ar-rive to take the countries of LatinAmerica and the Caribbean,region historically considered by the United States as its "backyard",would be particularly significant.%中国一直在积极推动建立符合自身利益的国际经济新秩序。中国所倡导的全球化是一种平行的全球化,伴随着对西方主导的经济秩序的大幅削弱。与此同时,一种违背美国愿望的地缘政治秩序,也开始显现出来。中俄两国是推动这种秩序的发动机。西方世界对中俄两国的意志和诉求所采取的傲慢态度是导致中俄在地缘政治上联手的根本原因。鉴于中国对大多数发展中国家具有很大影响力,这种政治-经济双重秩序的形成,显然会对发展中国家产生强大的作用力。在此背景下,历史上被视为“美国后花园”的拉美和加勒比国家,可能采取什么态度就显得尤为重要。

  5. Security Constrained Economic Dispatch Considering Balance of Electric Power and Energy%考虑电力电量平衡的安全约束经济调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽磊; 周京阳; 潘毅; 闫翠会; 崔晖; 李伟刚

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the benefit balance of all parties, smart grid generation schedule requires the ability to take into consideration of many inconsistent factors such as security and economy, energy saving and emission reduction, efficiency and fairness. So it is the purpose to make optimization decision of generation schedule as a whole program under the condition of system security. On the basis of comprehensive consideration of energy saving, emission reduction, security and unified dispatch's requirements, the security constrained economic dispatch model considering balance of electric power and energy was established. It is the multi-objective optimization model whose objectives are the minimum cost of power generation and the contract quantity minimum deviation. After each objective was fuzzy, the model was converted to multi-objective sliding model. And, the concept of objective function satisfaction and licensing factor were introduced to reflect the importance of multiple conflicting objectives. Sequential quadratics programming based QP-free algorithm was applied to calculate and the results show that this method is effective. The information for decision-making can be provided to decision makers by licensing factor. The algorithm is flexible and elastic, consistent with power grid security and fairness.%智能电网调度发电计划要求能够统筹考虑安全与经济、节能与减排、效率与公平等诸多因素,以实现兼顾各方利益,满足系统安全的整体发电计划的优化决策.为此,在综合考虑节能减排、安全以及传统意义上“三公”要求的基础上,建立了考虑电力电量平衡的安全约束经济调度模型,它是以发电成本最小和合同电量偏差最小的多目标优化模型,在对各个目标进行模糊化后,将其转化为多目标滑动模型,并引入了目标函数满意度及许可度因子的概念,用以反映多个相互矛盾目标的重要程度.采用基于序列二次规划的序

  6. 平衡风功率波动的需求响应调度框架与策略设计%Framework and Strategy Design of Demand Response Scheduling for Balancing Wind Power Fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建国; 杨胜春; 王珂; 曾丹; 毛文博; 耿建

    2014-01-01

    Fast increase of intermittent energy such as wind energy is presenting great challenges to the traditional operation and control of power grids.To solve this problem,firstly,the fluctuation characteristic of wind power and the load characteristic of demand response (DR) are analyzed.Based on that,the overall technical framework of DR scheduling is proposed.Then,a multi-agent scheme is given.Furthermore,the multi-time scale rolling coordinated scheduling strategy which combines day-ahead scheduling,hours-ahead scheduling and real-time dispatch is studied.The effectiveness of the scheme,model and strategy proposed are demonstrated by simulation results on the IEEE 3 9 bus system.The experiments also show that the appropriate DR scheduling is feasible to balance the fluctuation of wind power and provides more peak-shaving and reserve service for grid-connection of new energy.%以风电为代表的间歇性电源的快速增长对电网传统发电跟踪负荷的运行控制模式提出重大挑战。为解决该问题,首先分析了风功率的波动特性和需求侧负荷响应特性,在此基础上提出需求响应调度的总体技术框架,建立了需求响应的多代理架构,设计了日前、日内到实时多时间尺度滚动协调的需求响应调度策略。IEEE 39节点算例分析结果验证了所述模型、框架和策略的有效性,表明配置合理的需求响应可有效平衡风功率波动,为新能源并网提供更多调峰、备用服务。

  7. Multi-Objective Reservoir Optimization Balancing Energy Generation and Firm Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To maximize annual power generation and to improve firm power are important but competing goals for hydropower stations. The firm power output is decisive for the installed capacity in design, and represents the reliability of the power generation when the power plant is put into operation. To improve the firm power, the whole generation process needs to be as stable as possible, while the maximization of power generation requires a rapid rise of the water level at the beginning of the storage period. Taking the minimal power output as the firm power, both the total amount and the reliability of the hydropower generation are considered simultaneously in this study. A multi-objective model to improve the comprehensive benefits of hydropower stations are established, which is optimized by Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II. The Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower System (TGCHS is taken as the study case, and the Pareto Fronts in different search spaces are obtained. The results not only prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, but also provide operational references for the TGCHS, indicating that there is room of improvement for both the annual power generation and the firm power.

  8. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    OpenAIRE

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-01-01

    Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and ...

  9. Landslides: a question of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students the mechanics of mass movements

  10. Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

  11. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  12. Physical activity level, musculoskeletal fitness,balance, strength and power performance in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The link between physical activity and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels where physical activity level has been measured objectively in association with self-reported health, musculoskeletal fitness and balance variables in older men and women. Also, little is known about the functional adaptive responses of older adults to pow...

  13. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Sultan, Benjamin; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of European grasslands (EU-28 plus Norway and Switzerland), including CO2 , CH4 and N2 O, is estimated using the new process-based biogeochemical model ORCHIDEE-GM over the period 1961-2010. The model includes the following: (1) a mechanistic representation of the spatial distribution of management practice; (2) management intensity, going from intensively to extensively managed; (3) gridded simulation of the carbon balance at ecosystem and farm scale; and (4) gridded simulation of N2 O and CH4 emissions by fertilized grassland soils and livestock. The external drivers of the model are changing animal numbers, nitrogen fertilization and deposition, land-use change, and variable CO2 and climate. The carbon balance of European grassland (NBP) is estimated to be a net sink of 15 ± 7 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) during 1961-2010, equivalent to a 50-year continental cumulative soil carbon sequestration of 1.0 ± 0.4 Pg C. At the farm scale, which includes both ecosystem CO2 fluxes and CO2 emissions from the digestion of harvested forage, the net C balance is roughly halved, down to a small sink, or nearly neutral flux of 8 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) . Adding CH4 and N2 O emissions to net ecosystem exchange to define the ecosystem-scale GHG balance, we found that grasslands remain a net GHG sink of 19 ± 10 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) , because the CO2 sink offsets N2 O and grazing animal CH4 emissions. However, when considering the farm scale, the GHG balance (NGB) becomes a net GHG source of -50 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) . ORCHIDEE-GM simulated an increase in European grassland NBP during the last five decades. This enhanced NBP reflects the combination of a positive trend of net primary production due to CO2 , climate and nitrogen fertilization and the diminishing requirement for grass forage due to the Europe-wide reduction in livestock numbers. PMID:26059550

  14. Power balance in ELMO Bumpy Torus: bulk electrons and ions in a 37 kW discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The power balance of the bulk electrons and ions in discharges with 37 kW of applied microwave power in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is examined in a zero-dimensional model using data on the intensity and linewidth of the molecular and atomic hydrogen emission. At least 60% of the applied power is ultimately dissipated by processes involving the neutral particles, including dissociation of molecules, ionization of and radiation from atoms, and heating of cold electrons produced during atomic ionization. The molecular influx rate and the density of atoms are used independently to determine the bulk electron particle confinement time, and an upper bound estimate is made of the diffusional power loss from the bulk plasma electrons. Parameters derived from the basic spectroscopic data presented in this paper include the neutral atom density 2 - 5x10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/, incident molecular flux 3 - 5x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, bulk ion temperature approx. =3 eV, and particle confinement time <1.1 ms. The bulk electron energy confinement time is 0.7 ms or less in the standard operating regime. Published data on the nonthermal electron and ion populations in the plasma are used to evaluate approximately the overall energy flow in the discharge. 54 refs.

  15. Power balance in ELMO Bumpy Torus: bulk electrons and ions in a 37 kW discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power balance of the bulk electrons and ions in discharges with 37 kW of applied microwave power in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is examined in a zero-dimensional model using data on the intensity and linewidth of the molecular and atomic hydrogen emission. At least 60% of the applied power is ultimately dissipated by processes involving the neutral particles, including dissociation of molecules, ionization of and radiation from atoms, and heating of cold electrons produced during atomic ionization. The molecular influx rate and the density of atoms are used independently to determine the bulk electron particle confinement time, and an upper bound estimate is made of the diffusional power loss from the bulk plasma electrons. Parameters derived from the basic spectroscopic data presented in this paper include the neutral atom density 2 - 5x1010 cm-3, incident molecular flux 3 - 5x1015 cm-2s-1, bulk ion temperature approx. =3 eV, and particle confinement time <1.1 ms. The bulk electron energy confinement time is 0.7 ms or less in the standard operating regime. Published data on the nonthermal electron and ion populations in the plasma are used to evaluate approximately the overall energy flow in the discharge. 54 refs

  16. BALANCE OF NITROGEN IN ROKIETNICA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Rauba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the survey data was calculated nitrogen balance method “on the surface of the field” on farms within the catchment area of the Rokietnica river in Podlaskie. Based on the analysis of the results obtained, it was found that almost half of all farms participating in the survey, exceeds the safe limit of the positive difference in the balance sheet in accordance with the Code of Good Agricultural Practice. It was also a positive correlation between the measured values of the concentrations of nitrate (V and the amount of waste manure and mineral fertilizers on farms, reflecting the migration of unused nitrogen in the soil profile and the component of pollution of surface waters.

  17. Super Debt: Managing America's Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Benjamin J

    2005-01-01

    The second Bush Administration will face many demanding challenges in foreign economic policy – the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks, regional and bilateral trade negotiations, poor-country debt problems, rising energy prices, the competitive threat of China, and more. But most demanding of all will be the critical issue of America's balance of payments. Persistent external deficits have led to an unprecedented growth of foreign debt for the United States, now in excess of $3 trillion...

  18. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg;

    2013-01-01

    investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  19. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  20. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260

  1. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    1987-01-01

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  2. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  3. Sensitive Quantitative Assessment of Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, Willilam H.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) has become a standard technique for objectively quantifying balance control performance, diagnosing the nature of functional impairments underlying balance disorders, and monitoring clinical treatment outcomes. We have long used CDP protocols to assess recovery of sensory-motor function in astronauts following space flight. The most reliable indicators of post-flight crew performance are the sensory organization tests (SOTs), particularly SOTs 5 and 6, which are sensitive to changes in availability and/or utilization of vestibular cues. We have noted, however, that some astronauts exhibiting obvious signs of balance impairment after flight are able to score within clinical norms on these tests, perhaps as a result of adopting competitive strategies or by their natural skills at substituting alternate sensory information sources. This insensitivity of the CDP protocol could underestimate of the degree of impairment and, perhaps, lead to premature release of those crewmembers to normal duties. To improve the sensitivity of the CDP protocol we have introduced static and dynamic head tilt SOT trials into our protocol. The pattern of postflight recovery quantified by the enhanced CDP protocol appears to more aptly track the re-integration of sensory-motor function, with recovery time increasing as the complexity of sensory-motor/biomechanical task increases. The new CDP protocol therefore seems more suitable for monitoring post-flight sensory-motor recovery and for indicating to crewmembers and flight surgeons fitness for return to duty and/or activities of daily living. There may be classes of patients (e.g., athletes, pilots) having motivation and/or performance characteristics similar to astronauts whose sensory-motor treatment outcomes would also be more accurately monitored using the enhanced CDP protocol. Furthermore, the enhanced protocol may be useful in early detection of age-related balance disorders.

  4. THE ROLE OF MEAT IN BALANCED NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Salobir

    2000-01-01

    Meat is a rich source of nutrients which human nutrition often lacks. It is a rich and important source of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and also long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moderate intake of lean meat enables easier composition of balanced diet. On the other hand, excessive meat intake supersedes from the diet foodstuffs which supply dietary fibers, vitamins, and also non-vitamin antioxidant active substances and minerals. Not meat itself but imbalanced nutrition wi...

  5. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Jovanovic; Zdravko Krivokapić

    2015-01-01

    BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields) (finance, users, business processes, learning and development) where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodolo...

  6. Properties of Cross-Impact Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Weimer-Jehle, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    CIB matrices are N x N hypermatrices, the elements of which are m x n matrices. They are used in Cross-Impact Balance Analysis, a concept applied in social sciences, management sciences, scenario analysis and technology foresight to identify plausible configurations of qualitatively defined impact networks. Cross-Impact Balance Analysis (CIB) offers an opportunity for qualitative systems analysis without complex mathematics. Although CIB doesn't confront its user with too much mathematics, the background of the method and its algorithm can be scrutinized by mathematical means, thus revealing an extensive set of useful properties which are described and proved in this article. Among them are four laws of invariance, a treatise on several special cases of CIB matrices, and the proof that CIB analysis is equivalent to a universal computer (a Turing machine).

  7. Reactive power balance in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, John Eli; Hylle, Per;

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is generated by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. Most of them are connected to the distribution systems. In periods with high wind speeds, large flows of reactive power have been observed between the 150kV and the 60 kV systems. The tra...... been validated by comparing measurements which have not been used as an input for the model with simulated values. The reactive power losses in different components have been analyzed in situations with high reactive power surplus and deficit of the system....

  8. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  9. Wind farm balance of plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consisted of a detailed investigation of the infrastructure required for the construction and operation of a windfarm in the UK. Costing of the equipment and installation was carried out for three UK sites, with different physical characteristics. A literature survey was carried out to determine current practice in the siting of turbines within windfarms in Europe and the USA. Wind turbines were then laid out on the sites selected for study. Requirements and costs for roads, foundations and site buildings, site electrical system and grid connection, the supervisory control and data acquisition system were discussed and evaluated. A comparison between the balance of plant costs for the 33-metre MS-3 400 kW wind turbine and the 50-metre LS-2 1 MW wind turbine was made for each area of study. Overall balance of plant costs was reviewed, with an investigation of the cost components which are most sensitive to variations. The balance of plant costs averaged over the three sites were 13.0 p/kWh/annum for the MS3 windfarms and 10.6 p/kWh/annum for the LS-2 windfarms. Maps of the sites under investigation, design drawings and tables of costs are included to give supporting information to the text. (author)

  10. Balancing of sulfur storage in maize seed

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yongrui; Wang Wenqin; Messing Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A balanced composition of amino acids in seed flour is critical because of the demand on essential amino acids for nutrition. However, seed proteins in cereals like maize, the crop with the highest yield, are low in lysine, tryptophan, and methionine. Although supplementation with legumes like soybean can compensate lysine deficiency, both crops are also relatively low in methionine. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of methionine accumulation in the seed could be a b...

  11. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein–Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  12. Entropy of balance - some recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxåback Gerd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entropy when applied to biological signals is expected to reflect the state of the biological system. However the physiological interpretation of the entropy is not always straightforward. When should high entropy be interpreted as a healthy sign, and when as marker of deteriorating health? We address this question for the particular case of human standing balance and the Center of Pressure data. Methods We have measured and analyzed balance data of 136 participants (young, n = 45; elderly, n = 91 comprising in all 1085 trials, and calculated the Sample Entropy (SampEn for medio-lateral (M/L and anterior-posterior (A/P Center of Pressure (COP together with the Hurst self-similariy (ss exponent α using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. The COP was measured with a force plate in eight 30 seconds trials with eyes closed, eyes open, foam, self-perturbation and nudge conditions. Results 1 There is a significant difference in SampEn for the A/P-direction between the elderly and the younger groups Old > young. 2 For the elderly we have in general A/P > M/L. 3 For the younger group there was no significant A/P-M/L difference with the exception for the nudge trials where we had the reverse situation, A/P Eyes Open. 5 In case of the Hurst ss-exponent we have for the elderly, M/L > A/P. Conclusions These results seem to be require some modifications of the more or less established attention-constraint interpretation of entropy. This holds that higher entropy correlates with a more automatic and a less constrained mode of balance control, and that a higher entropy reflects, in this sense, a more efficient balancing.

  13. Design of the KRISS watt balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Woo, Byung-Chill; Lee, Kwang-Cheol; Choi, Kee-Bong; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-04-01

    We report the design of the KRISS watt balance, which includes a magnet, a guiding stage and a coil position measurement system. The KRISS watt balance incorporates a closed-type cylindrical permanent magnet and a motion guiding stage. For the magnet, a flux shunt is used to reduce flux changes due to temperature variations. A piston gauge is used to achieve linearity in the motion guiding stage. In the weighing mode, the residual force between the weight of the test mass and the Lorentz force generated in a coil is measured by a commercial weighing cell. In the dynamic mode, a linear motor in the motion guiding stage vertically translates the coil and the weighing cell. The in-plane motion of the coil is measured by position sensors, and the out-of-plane motion is measured by single-pass homodyne interferometers.

  14. Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T G

    2016-07-01

    Increased global demand for adequate protein nutrition against a backdrop of climate change and concern for animal agriculture sustainability necessitates new and more efficient approaches to livestock growth and production. Anabolic growth is achieved when rates of new synthesis exceed turnover, producing a positive net protein balance. Conversely, deterioration or atrophy of lean mass is a consequence of a net negative protein balance. During early life and periods of growth, muscle mass is driven by increases in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout life, muscle mass is further influenced by degradative processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Multiple signal transduction networks guide and coordinate these processes alongside quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetics, hormones, and environmental stimuli each influence proteostasis control, altering capacity and/or efficiency of muscle growth. An overview of recent findings and current methods to assess muscle protein balance and proteostasis is presented. Current efforts to identify novel control points have the potential through selective breeding design or development of hormetic strategies to better promote growth and health span during environmental stress. PMID:27345321

  15. The vestibular control of balance after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, J. F.; Playford, E. D.; Day, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine vestibular control of balance in those who recovered the ability to stand after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke.Methods: Sixteen patients with MCA stroke were compared with 10 age matched controls. Two additional patients were studied with isolated corticospinal tract lesions, one each at the level of the pons and medulla. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while patients stood with their eyes closed and he...

  16. Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    David Norton and I introduced the Balanced Scorecard in a 1992 Harvard Business Review article (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The article was based on a multi-company research project to study performance measurement in companies whose intangible assets played a central role in value creation (Nolan Norton Institute, 1991). Norton and I believed that if companies were to improve the management of their intangible assets, they had to integrate the measurement of intangible assets into their manageme...

  17. Simulation of Reactive Power Imbalances in the Transmission Power Grid Threatened by the Problem of Voltage Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lis; Mirosław Łabuzek

    2013-01-01

    The reactive power balance in the transmission power grid depends on the reactive power produced by the power stations and the value generated by the capacitive power lines and static compensators. Reactive transmission losses become greater than shunt capacitive generation at the turning-point of voltage stability. Then lowering bus voltages drive EPS into voltage collapse point. The paper presents the balance of reactive power depending on the power demand growth, which is then used to esti...

  18. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  19. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  20. Radiation balance of soybeans grown in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an experimental study of the radiation balance over a growing soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) crop at a tropical agricultural experimental station, Jaboticabal (22°15′S 48°18′W), São Paulo, Brazil. Incoming shortwave radiation, S, net radiation, R, and the shortwave reflection coefficient, α, were measured over this crop from November 1976 to April 1977, and net longwave radiation, L, was deduced from the radiation balance equation. Hourly variation of the radiation components, S, αS, R and L, are presented for 4 nearly clear sky-days during the different growing crop periods. The diurnal variation of α is also presented for these 4 days. The mean daily albedo values for this vegetative surface were between 0.12 and 0.26, and inversely related to the vegetation height. A regression analysis of the radiation balance equation has been made, and the heating coefficient, β, and the longwave exchange coefficient, λ, obtained. The results of the study indicate that both β and λ are found to be descriptively helpful parameters in agricultural meteorology. Predicted regression equations for net radiation from shortwave radiation are presented for the different periods

  1. Balanced activity scorecard – combination of activity based costing and activity based management with balanced scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Kuchta; Radoslaw Rynca

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a proposal of the Activity Balance Scorecard (ABSC). It is a combination of Activity Based Costing and a modification of Activity Based Management. Contrary to the traditional cascading of the Balanced Scorecard to organisational structures, ABSC is constructed directly for activities or tasks. These activities or tasks should be selected on the basis of ABC results – as it is them which give the information the share of which tasks in the cost structure is high. The ABSC w...

  2. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit;

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC) of...

  3. Effects of hypothalamic neurodegeneration on energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wanting Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc, neuropeptides that promote positive or negative energy balance, respectively, through their opposing effects on melanocortin receptor signaling. In previous studies, Pomc mutant mice became obese, but Agrp mutant mice were surprisingly normal, suggesting potential compensation by neuronal circuits or genetic redundancy. Here we find that Pomc-ablation mice develop obesity similar to that described for Pomc knockout mice, but also exhibit defects in compensatory hyperphagia similar to what occurs during normal aging. Agrp-ablation female mice exhibit reduced adiposity with normal compensatory hyperphagia, while animals ablated for both Pomc and Agrp neurons exhibit an additive interaction phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the roles of hypothalamic neurons in energy balance regulation, and provide a model for understanding defects in human energy balance associated with neurodegeneration and aging.

  4. Balanced Design of Safety Systems of CAREM Advanced Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plants must meet the performance that the market and the population demand in order to be part of the electricity supply industry.It is related mainly with the results of reactor's economy and safety.New advances in the methodology developed for reactor economic optimization analyzing its safety at an early engineering stage, aiming at balancing these important features of the design, are presented in this work.In particular, the coupling that appears when dimensioning the Emergency Injection System, the Residual Heat Removal System and the containment height of CAREM reactor is described.The new models appended to the computer code that embodies the methodology to balance de designs are shown.Finally the results obtained with the optimizations when applying it are presented.Furthermore, a criterion to establish the maximal diameter for acceptable breaks in RPV's penetrations arises from this work.The application of the methodology and the computer code developed turns out to prove the advantages they provide to reactor design so that the plants are properly balanced and optimized

  5. Construction of a new watt balance with the goal to realize the kilogram in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamminger, Stephan; Haddad, Darine; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon; Newell, David; Pratt, Jon

    2015-04-01

    A watt balance is a mechanical device that compares mechanical power to electrical power. Since electrical power is measured using quantum physics by employing the Josephson effect and the Quantum Hall effect, electrical power can be measured as a product of a known factor, two frequencies, and the Planck constant h. Mechanical power is given by mgv , where m is the mass of a weight, g the local acceleration, and v the velocity. Hence, the watt balance provides a link between mass and Planck's constant. Currently several watt balances worldwide are employed to measure h. A redefinition of the international system of units (SI) is currently in discussion and may become reality as early as 2018. In the new SI, the numerical value of the Planck constant will be fixed and the watt balance is a means to realize the unit of mass. Researchers at NIST are preparing for a new SI and we have started in 2011 with plans to design a new watt balance capable of realizing the kilogram with relative uncertainties of a few parts in 108. Construction of the new watt balance has started in 2014. In my talk, I will show some of the latest results achieved with this apparatus.

  6. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in...

  7. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields (finance, users, business processes, learning and development where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodology of the choice of indicators. This paper particularly emphasizes a possibility of implementation of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process as methods of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM inmplementation of BSC.

  8. Reliability model of a wind tunnel balance system

    OpenAIRE

    AHANGAR, M. R. Hassani; KANGAVARI, M. R.; VAHEDI, Khodadad

    2011-01-01

    Balance is one of the most significant and commonly used measurement instruments in wind tunnels. It is thus critical that this instrument is fault-tolerant and reliable. To help in the design of dependable balance systems, one must model and analyze the system from this perspective. We achieved this by considering the structure of a typical balance system and the types of errors it may encounter during operation. We estimated the failure rates of the components of the balance syst...

  9. WORK LIFE BALANCE OF WOMEN AND LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sangita Deota

    2014-01-01

    For the past years the conversation about women and leadership has revolved around challenges of Work-Life-Balance which most of the time actually means “Work-Family-Balance”. Woman hardly make it to the top of the companies not because of their personal choice but because of the fact that lots of ambitious women make them off the path of leadership. Women are also gently but firmly avoided while deciding about future leaders, this is mainly because their work and family invariably clash. By ...

  10. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING MEANING OF INTERMEDIATE MANAGEMENT BALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding intermediate management balances as a pay instrument of production factors and financing future activities. Paper debate intermediate management balances determination and interpretation.

  11. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.11 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.11 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a...

  12. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of...

  13. Sensory mechanisms of balance control in cerebellar disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of evidence exists to suggest that the cerebellum has an important role in the integration of vestibular, proprioceptive and visual sensory signals. Human bipedal balance depends on sensory integration and balance impairment is a common feature of cerebellar disease. I test the hypothesis that disrupted sensori-motor processing is responsible for balance impairment in cerebellar disease. Balance control in subjects with pure cerebellar disease (SCA6) was compared with matched healthy...

  14. Balancing Control of AIT Leg Exoskeleton Using ZMP based FLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Aphiratsakun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the use of Zero Moment Point (ZMP concept for balancing control of the Asian Institute of Technology Leg EXoskeleton-I (ALEX-I. ALEX-I has been developed to assist patients who suffer from paraplegia or immobility due to the loss of power on lower limbs. The balanced posture set-points (joint trajectories under ZMP criterion are generated offline. The ZMP based set points are provided as the desired postures to ALEX-I. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC determines the modified set points based on postures balancing sensed by loadcells. Ground Contact Point (GCP is used to find the \\"ZMP-like in real time\\". GCP data is obtained by placing 4 loadcells forming a force plate on each foot of ALEX-I. This GCP data is then compared with the reference ZMP. Uncertainties of the model parameters, backlash, and joint tolerance are considered as disturbance. The differences of ZMP and GCP on x-z plane are used as the inputs to the FLC. The 4 outputs from FLC are the compensated angles of left and right ankles joints in roll and pitch axes that make the actual ZMP locate in the convex hull of the supporting area.

  15. BMER - Balanced Mitigation of Earthquake Responses - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic isolation of structures and equipment has been the focus of intense attention this last decade. The published documents are too numerous to list here. Strictly speaking seismic isolation is not feasible. What isolation, as presently practiced, does is to move the system frequency away from the acceleration amplification range of earthquake motions to the velocity or displacement regimes. Thus, isolation simply changes an acceleration problem to a displacement problem. Under these circumstances what can really be achieved is an explicit trade-off between acceleration and displacement responses. Hence, the title of the paper, Balanced Mitigation of Earthquake Responses - BMER

  16. Physiological aspects of fluid and electrolyte balance

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Dileep N.

    2003-01-01

    The intake of water and electrolytes is inseparable from feeding by natural or artificial means and careful attention to salt and water balance is a vital component of perioperative care and of nutritional support. Nutritional support with water and sodium restriction in post-intensive care patients with oedema, dilutional hypoalbuminaemia and fluid excess of 10 L, cleared oedema over 7-10 days, with a 1 g/L rise in serum albumin for every kg loss in weight. Return of gastrointestinal func...

  17. The energy balance of the Tolmin Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Tuma, Matija; Sekavčnik, Mihael; Drole, Miran

    2015-01-01

    The energy balance of the Tolmin municipality Tolmin is presented in this paper. All types of energy coming from renewable and nonrenewable sources, which are within or crossing the borders of the municipality, are precisely analyzed. The energy supply is studied in terms of the type of energy source and consumer. A comparison is made with the data that applies to the whole Slovenia. V članku je obravnavana energijska bilanca v občini Tolmin. Podrobneje so raziskane vse vrste energij, obno...

  18. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.)

  19. The Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Seth A; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-01-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying depths. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  20. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  1. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Baines, Kevin H.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  2. Competing effects of social balance and influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field pc such that for a weak external field (p pc ), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  3. Competing Effects of Social Balance and Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, P; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2015-01-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field $p_c$ such that for a weak external field ($p$$$$p_c$), there is only one (stable) fixed point which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasi-stationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yonghao; McCrory, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Hunt, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Impaired standing balance has a detrimental effect on a person's functional ability and increases their risk of falling. There is currently no validated system which can precisely quantify center of pressure (COP), an important component of standing balance, while being inexpensive, portable and widely available. The Wii Balance Board (WBB) fits these criteria, and we examined its validity in comparison with the 'gold standard'-a laboratory-grade force platform (FP). Thirty subjects without lower limb pathology performed a combination of single and double leg standing balance tests with eyes open or closed on two separate occasions. Data from the WBB were acquired using a laptop computer. The test-retest reliability for COP path length for each of the testing devices, including a comparison of the WBB and FP data, was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (BAP) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Both devices exhibited good to excellent COP path length test-retest reliability within-device (ICC=0.66-0.94) and between-device (ICC=0.77-0.89) on all testing protocols. Examination of the BAP revealed no relationship between the difference and the mean in any test, however the MDC values for the WBB did exceed those of the FP in three of the four tests. These findings suggest that the WBB is a valid tool for assessing standing balance. Given that the WBB is portable, widely available and a fraction of the cost of a FP, it could provide the average clinician with a standing balance assessment tool suitable for the clinical setting. PMID:20005112

  5. Static balancing behaviour of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Brüstle, Fabian; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of physiological control of the craniomandibular system during force-controlled biting: in intercuspation, restricted by predetermined anatomic-geometrical conditions [i.e. biting in intercuspation (BIC)]; and on a hydrostatic system [i.e. auto-balanced static equilibrium of the mandible (BAL)], in which the mandible is balanced under unrestricted occlusal conditions. For 20 healthy subjects, the spatial positions of the condyles, the lower molars, and the incisal point were measured, and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the musculus masseter and musculus temporalis anterior were recorded bilaterally, during force-controlled biting (50, 75, 100 N) on a hydrostatic device. The results were compared with those obtained during BIC. During BAL, the neuromuscular system stabilizes one condyle, so it behaves as a virtual fulcrum, and all available biomechanical degrees of freedom of the opposite side are used to achieve a bilaterally equal vertical distance between the upper and lower dental arches. The variability of the positions of the molars was significantly smaller than for the condyles. The EMG co-contraction ratios calculated for homonymous muscle regions revealed significant differences between BIC and BAL, specifically, greater symmetry during BAL with substantial asymmetry of approximately 25% remaining. In conclusion, the results revealed precise neuromuscular control of the position of the lower dental arch; this information might form the basis for interference-free tracking of the mandible in intercuspation under different conditions. PMID:26446049

  6. Analysis of Financial Position Based on the Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial position based on the balance sheet is mainly aimed at assessing the extent to which financial structure chosen by the firm, namely, financial resources, covering the needs reflected in the balance sheet financed. This is done through an analysis known as horizontal analysis balance sheet financial imbalances.

  7. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h. Po....... Postoperative pain, assessed repeatedly during the initial 48 h, was prevented during rest, mobilization from the supine to the sitting position and during walking, in all but one patient; slight pain was observed intermittently during coughing in four patients....

  8. Resolution of the 15N balance enigma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enigma of soil nitrogen balance sheets has been discussed for over 40 years. Many reasons have been considered for the incomplete recovery of 15N applied to soils, including sampling uncertainty, gaseous N losses from plants, and entrapment of soil gases. The entrapment of soil gases has been well documented for rice paddy and marshy soils but little or no work appears to have been done to determine entrapment in drained pasture soils. In this study 15N-labelled nitrate was applied to a soil core in a gas-tight glovebox. Water was applied, inducing drainage, which was immediately collected. Dinitrogen and N-2 were determined in the flux through the soil surface, and in the gases released into the glovebox as a result of irrigation or physical destruction of the core. Other components of the N balance were also measured, including soil inorganic-N and organic-N. Quantitative recovery of the applied 15N was achieved when the experiment was terminated 484 h after the 15N-labelled material was applied. Nearly 23% of the 15N was recovered in the glovebox atmosphere as N2 and N2O due to diffusion from the base of the soil core, convective flow after irrigation, and destructive soil sampling. This 15N would normally be unaccounted for using the sampling methodology typically employed in 15N recovery experiments. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  9. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the Ra, the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the Rc is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  10. 女子皮艇运动员静态平衡能力与核心力量浅析%An analysis to static balance ability and core power of female kayak athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿明南; 丛长江

    2014-01-01

    以辽宁省女子皮艇队运动员和营口市水上运动学校女子青少年运动员各15名为研究对象,采用Best Poise V1.0平衡能力测试系统和八级腹桥测试评分,分别测试运动员的静态平衡能力和核心力量,考察不同水平运动员平衡能力和核心力量的差别,为女子皮艇运动员的核心力量训练提供参考。%15 Liaoning female kayaking players and 15 female players in Yingkou City Aquatic sports school are tested with Best Poise V1.0 balance system and 8 levels abdominal bridge to study their balance ability and core strength. The aim of this study is to find if there are significant differences on balance ability and core strength in different level players, and give some suggestions and reference on core strength training to the coaches.

  11. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  12. Dynamic balance of unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄森林; 刘占生; 苏杰先

    2003-01-01

    The formula is derived for calculating correction weights from motion equations of unsymmetrical ro-tor-bearing system. Two trial weights are required in two trial operations for ea ch balancing plane, and forwardprecession of trial responses are used to calculate the correction weights. Comparative experiments between thismethod and the conventional method are carried out on the test bench. Moreover, this method was used to bal-ance a 600 MW generator-bearing system, it decreased the balancing time and improved the balance accuracy.This method has been proved valid for balancing unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system.

  13. The Improvement of Joule Balance NIM-1 and the Design of New Joule Balance NIM-2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengkun; He, Qing; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng; Xu, Jinxin; Li, Shisong; Li, Chen; Wnag, Gang; Zeng, Tao; Bai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The development of the joule balance method to measure the Planck constant, in support of the redefinition of the kilogram, has been going on at the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM) since 2007. The first prototype has been built to check the feasibility of the principle. In 2011, the relative uncertainty of the Planck constant measurement at NIM is $7.7\\times10^{-5}$. Self-heating of the coils, swing of the coil, are the main uncertainty contributions. Since 2012, some improvements have been made to reduce these uncertainties. The relative uncertainty of the joule balance is reduced to $7.2\\times10^{-6}$ at present. The Planck constant measured with the joule balance is $h=6.6261041(470)\\times10^{-34}$Js. The relative difference between the determined h and the CODATA2010 recommendation value is $5\\times10^{-6}$. Further improvements are still being carried out on the NIM-1 apparatus. At the same time, the design and construction of a brand new and compact joule balance NIM-2 are also in progres...

  14. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  15. The North American power delivery system: Balancing market restructuring and environmental economics with infrastructure security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American electric power system was developed over the last 100 years without a conscious awareness and analysis of the system-wide implications of its current evolution under the forces of deregulation, system complexity, power-market impacts, terrorism, and human error. The possibility of power delivery beyond neighboring areas was a distant secondary consideration. Today, the North American power network may realistically be considered to be the largest machine in the world. With the advent of deregulation and competition in the electric power industry, new ways are being sought to improve the efficiency of that network without seriously diminishing its reliability and security. Controlling a heterogeneous, widely dispersed, yet globally interconnected system is a serious technological problem in any case. It is even more complex and difficult to control it for optimal efficiency and maximum benefit to the ultimate consumers while still allowing all its business components to compete fairly and freely. In this paper we present an overview of key issues and the context in which the electricity infrastructure is being operated under the above forces along with a strategic vision extending to a decade, or longer, that would enable more secure and robust systems operation, security monitoring, and efficient energy markets. (author)

  16. Trends and Challenges of India’s Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Dr Jomon

    2013-01-01

    Balance of Payments (BoP), being a record of the monetary transactions over a period with the rest of the world, reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners and all payments and obligations received from foreigners. In this sense, the balance of payments is one of the major indicators of a country's status in international trade. BoP accounting serves to highlight a country's competitive strengths and weaknesses and helps in achieving balanced economic-growth. It can significantly af...

  17. Dynamic model of frequency control in Danish power system with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the impact of large scale integration of wind power in future power systems when 50% of load demand can be met from wind power. The focus is on active power balance control, where the main source of power imbalance is an inaccurate wind speed forecast. In this study, a Danish...... power system model with large scale of wind power is developed and a case study for an inaccurate wind power forecast is investigated. The goal of this work is to develop an adequate power system model that depicts relevant dynamic features of the power plants and compensates for load generation...

  18. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  19. A Conceptual Framework for the Progression of Balance Exercises in Persons with Balance and Vestibular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, BN; Carender, WJ; Lin, CC; Alsubaie, SF; Kinnaird, CR; Sienko, KH; Whitney, SL

    2016-01-01

    There is little information in peer-reviewed literature to specifically guide the choice of exercise for persons with balance and vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a rationale for the establishment of a progression framework and propose a logical sequence in progressing balance exercises for persons with vestibular disorders. Our preliminary conceptual framework was developed by a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists and engineers with extensive experience with people with vestibular disorders. Balance exercises are grouped into six different categories: static standing, compliant surface, weight shifting, modified center of gravity, gait, and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Through a systematized literature review, interviews and focus group discussions with physical therapists and postural control experts, and pilot studies involving repeated trials of each exercise, exercise progressions for each category were developed and ranked in order of degree of difficulty. Clinical expertise and experience guided decision making for the exercise progressions. Hundreds of exercise combinations were discussed and research is ongoing to validate the hypothesized rankings. The six exercise categories can be incorporated into a balance training program and the framework for exercise progression can be used to guide less experienced practitioners in the development of a balance program. It may also assist clinicians and researchers to design, develop, and progress interventions within a treatment plan of care, or within clinical trials. A structured exercise framework has the potential to maximize postural control, decrease symptoms of dizziness/visual vertigo, and provide “rules” for exercise progression for persons with vestibular disorders. The conceptual framework may also be applicable to persons with other balance-related issues.

  20. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs

  2. The Global Challenge: A Matter of Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Argues that global challenge created by the pressure for change requires educators to understand the balance between continuity and constant change dependence and independence, individualism and community, homogeneity and heterogeneity. To achieve balanced learning and development, education should place greater emphasis on continuity,…

  3. The distribution of the electric current in a watt-balance coil

    OpenAIRE

    Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Massa, Enrico; Mana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In the watt balance experiments, separate measurements of the magnetic and electromotive forces in a coil in a magnetic field enable a virtual comparison between mechanical and electric powers to be carried out, which lead to an accurate measurement of the Planck constant. This paper investigates the three-dimensional nature of the coil-field interaction and describes the balance operation by a continuous three-dimensional model.

  4. THE ROLE OF MEAT IN BALANCED NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Salobir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich source of nutrients which human nutrition often lacks. It is a rich and important source of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and also long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moderate intake of lean meat enables easier composition of balanced diet. On the other hand, excessive meat intake supersedes from the diet foodstuffs which supply dietary fibers, vitamins, and also non-vitamin antioxidant active substances and minerals. Not meat itself but imbalanced nutrition with too much fat and saturated fatty acids and deficient intake of ω-3 fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals, minerals and dietary fiber present a risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because of its distinct and high nutritional value meat preserves its role in a rational human nutrition

  5. THE ROLE OF MEAT IN BALANCED NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Salobir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich source of nutrients which human nutrition often lacks. It is a rich and important source of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and also long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moderate intake of lean meat enables easier composition of balanced diet. On the other hand, excessive meat intake supersedes from the diet foodstuffs which supply dietary fibers, vitamins, and also non-vitamin antioxidant active substances and minerals. Not meat itself but imbalanced nutrition with too much fat and saturated fatty acids and deficient intake of ω-3 fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals, minerals and dietary fiber present a risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because of its distinct and high nutritional value meat preserves its role in a rational human nutrition.

  6. Effects of asymmetric sitting on spinal balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee Soon; Oh, Jong Chi; Won, Sung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of two common asymmetric sitting positions on spinal balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven healthy subjects in their twenties were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Asymmetric positions of resting the chin on a hand and crossing the legs were performed by each group for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the subjects lay in the supine position again and spinal imbalance was measured using a device. [Results] After 1 hour of resting with the chin on a hand, sagittal imbalance, coronal imbalance, pelvic obliquity and lordosis angle presented spinal imbalance worsening of 1 hour of crossing legs, sagittal imbalance, pelvic torsion showed in mainly learned spinal imbalance living. [Conclusion] Good posture could be an innate ability, however it through habits. So this study is meaningful from the perspective of the importance of good posture. PMID:27065291

  7. Balancing Costs for Large Wind Farms. The Influence of Short-term Forecasting and the Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large wind farms have to contribute to the power balance of the transmission system. Typically, the rules for balance control and nomination of power injection contain financial incentives for the submission of realistic nominations. This paper quantifies the influence of different nomination strategies, the regulatory framework and short-term forecasting of wind power generation on the balancing costs for a large wind farm. The results show that a penalizing imbalance tariff can impose very high costs to wind farm operators, especially when the nomination is not based on short-term predictions. With a linear imbalance tariff that is independent of the amount of imbalance, the imbalance costs become less volatile and well correlated with the spot price of electricity. Finally, the transmission system operator's need for regulating power for balancing unforeseen wind power variations can be significantly reduced by the application of short-term predictions and the introduction of suited nomination strategies.

  8. Workload Balancing on Heterogeneous Systems: A Case Study of Sparse Grid Interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Muraraşu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core parallelism and accelerators are becoming common features of today’s computer systems, as they allow for computational power without sacrificing energy efficiency. Due to heterogeneity, tuning for each type of compute unit and adequate load balancing is essential. This paper proposes static and dynamic solutions for load balancing in the context of an application for visualizing high-dimensional simulation data. The application relies on the sparse grid technique for data compression. Its performance critical part is the interpolation routine used for decompression. Results show that our load balancing scheme allows for an efficient acceleration of interpolation on heterogeneous systems containing multi-core CPUs and GPUs.

  9. Energy Balance in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, P. M.; Burns, J. M.

    2005-04-01

    We review different physical mechanisms that are likely to play a significant role in determining the detailed thermal state of gas in clusters of galaxies. Mergers are the dominant process impacting clusters and these collisions significantly perturb the cluster state. The continual loss of energy from the gas to radiation must also be accounted for and cooling gas can drive several positive feedback mechanisms. From simple energy arguments, AGN are likely to make a significant contribution to balance the energy lost from cluster cores. We also explore additional positive feedback mechanisms including supernovae feedback and thermal conduction. If AGN are the sole feedback mechanism, what are to be made of clusters that lack evidence for AGN activity yet have canonical cool cores? As cluster samples with high-resolution X-ray data grow larger, it is likely to be the properties of relaxed, cool-core clusters that will be the best guides to numerical simulations.

  10. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... significant rise in the time such sporting assets spend on sport. Yet, attempting a professional career in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. The study presented in this paper explores how 15- to 19-year-old Danish football talents...... so far as school makes no positive difference to their career opportunities as footballers, school and other potential regions in the players’ life space have nowhere near the same socializing significance as the basic underlying assumption in the football culture: 100 percent dedication. In this way...

  11. Analyze and Improve Lifetime in 3L-NPC Inverter from Power Cycle and Thermal Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Qunjing;

    2014-01-01

    load voltage is applied to reduce power cycle and switching losses. And then, three-level active neutral point-clamped topology is taken into account to wake the most thermo stressed device. In order to validate the improve lifetime method in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has......Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) topology is becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional one in high-voltage and high-power application. Studies show that the power cycling mean time to failure (MTTF) of the semiconductor bond wire in 3L-NPC inverter system may be very short...

  12. Dynamic modeling and control of DFIG-based wind turbines under balanced network conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, Cyrous; Hajizadeh, Amin; Mehdipour, Iman

    2016-01-01

    The performance of wind power station is researched by utilizing a detailed model which includes a wind turbine (WT), doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and power electronic devices. In the initial stage, a comprehensive review and definition of each part of this system are presented. Then...... dynamic modeling and simulation of a sample power system are carried out. The operation of a DFIG coupled with WT under balanced condition of a power grid is investigated and stationary reference frame is utilized for analysis of a wind energy conversion system. At the second step, a wind power station is...

  13. Partitioning of unstructured meshes for load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many large-scale engineering and scientific calculations involve repeated updating of variables on an unstructured mesh. To do these types of computations on distributed memory parallel computers, it is necessary to partition the mesh among the processors so that the load balance is maximized and inter-processor communication time is minimized. This can be approximated by the problem, of partitioning a graph so as to obtain a minimum cut, a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Graph partitioning algorithms are discussed that give good but not necessarily optimum solutions. These algorithms include local search methods recursive spectral bisection, and more general purpose methods such as simulated annealing. It is shown that a general procedure enables to combine simulated annealing with Kernighan-Lin. The resulting algorithm is both very fast and extremely effective. (authors) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Adams, JD, Kavouras, SA, Robillard, JI, Bardis, CN, Johnson, EC, Ganio, MS, McDermott, BP, and White, MA. Fluid balance of adolescent swimmers during training. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 621-625, 2016-Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg; p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state. PMID:26907836

  15. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  16. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim DH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dohyung Lim,1 ChoongYeon Kim,2 HoHyun Jung,1 Dukyoung Jung,3 Keyoung Jin Chun21Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Advanced Biomedical Engineering Lab, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea; 3R&D Team, Senior Products Industrial Center, Busan, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft’s Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m2, with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05 with a large Pearson’s correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion–extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4° (0.40<γ<0.74 (P>0.05. Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation motion (γ<0.40 (P<0.05. These findings show that clinical and dynamic accuracy can be achieved using the Kinect

  17. Energy balances of OECD countries, 1973-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of energy problems requires a comprehensive presentation of basic statistics in original units such as tons of coal and kilowatt hours of electricity. The usefulness of such basic data, can be considerably improved by expressing them in a single common unit suitable for uses such as estimation of total energy requirements, forecasting and the study of substitution and conservation. The first major attempt by the OECD to meet such requirements was the publication of Energy Balances of OECD Countries 1960/1974 in April 1976. This provided standardized energy balance sheets expressed in a common unit of tons of oil equivalent for all OECD countries. The energy balances in the present volume for the years 1973-1975, are based on data recently published in 'Energy Statistics 1973-1975'. The only exception is 'non-commercial fuels' which come from national sources. The methodology used is essentially the same as that used in producing the first volume, but some minor changes have been made to accomodate revisions in the content and presentation of the basic statistics and to provide more detail on final consumption by sector. The approach adopted in converting the basic data to a common unit is that sometimes known as a 'partial substitution model'. In this model coal and gas are expressed in terms of the quantity of oil which gives the same amount of heat, whereas hydro and nuclear electricity are expressed in terms of the hypothetical amount of oil which would be needed to produce the same amount of electricity in existing conventional thermal power plants

  18. The adjusted churn: an index of competitive balance for sports leagues based on changes in team standings over time

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mizak; Anthony Stair; John Neral

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an index called the adjusted churn, designed to measure competitive balance in sports leagues based on changes in team standings over time. This is a simple yet powerful index that varies between zero and one. A value of zero indicates no change in league standings from year to year and therefore minimal competitive balance. A value of one indicates the maximum possible turnover in league standings from year to year and therefore a high level of competitive balance. Appl...

  19. User-calibration of Mettler AT200 analytical balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical implementing procedure (TIP) is to describe the calibration of the Mettler AT200 analytical balance or similar type balance (henceforth called the balance). This balance is used for activities of the Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) ''Metal Barrier Selection and Testing'' (SIP-CM-01, WBS nr. 1.2.2.5.1). In particular, it will be used for Activity E-20-50, ''Long-Term Corrosion Studies.'' The balance will be used for weighing test specimens and reagent chemicals. However, it is not limited to these uses. The calibration procedures consist of activating the internal (self) calibration of the apparatus, and weighing and recording of traceable standards. The balance is equipped with self (internal) calibration and linearization capabilities. It has an internal (built in) set of weights which are used for self calibration. The standard weights are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  20. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  1. Balancing and energetic evaluation of waste treatment procedures; Bilanzierung und energetische Bewertung von Verfahren zur Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Verbrennung, Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung; Scholz, Reinhard [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the balancing and energetic evaluation of waste treatment procedures. Especially, this contribution consists of three main chapters: (1) System limits; (2) Mass balances, material balances and energy balances; (3) Characteristic values.

  2. A Balanced Power Consumption Algorithm Based on Enhanced Parallel Cat Swarm Optimization for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed of a set of sensor nodes. It is deemed suitable for deploying with large-scale in the environment for variety of applications. Recent advances in WSN have led to many new protocols specifically for reducing the power consumption of sensor nodes. A new scheme for predetermining the optimized routing path is proposed based on the enhanced parallel cat swarm optimization (EPCSO) in this paper. This is the first leading precedent that the EPCSO is emp...

  3. The Final Accounts and Statement of Balances in a Company

    OpenAIRE

    Kočová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The topic of my graduation thesis is "The Final Accounts and Statement of Balances in a Company". The aim of this graduation thesis is a representation of process of the final accounts and statement of balances in a particular company. The graduation thesis has two parts. In the first part are defined the basic concepts which are included in the final accounts and in the statement of balances. I deal with an individual preparation work in the statement of balances for instance, a stock taking...

  4. Ways to improve conceptual aspects of balancing the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodon Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the various concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different periods by different countries in order to balance state budget. There are analyzed positive parts and deficiencies at legislative level of different concepts concerning budgetary balance and as a result are developed a series of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova

  5. Dynamical Models Explaining Social Balance and Evolution of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; De Leenheer, P

    2013-01-01

    In social networks with positive and negative links the dominant theory of explaining its structure is that of social balance. The theory states that a network is balanced if its triads are balanced. Such a balanced network can be split into (at most) two opposing factions with positive links within a faction and negative links between them. Although inherently dynamical, the theory has long remained static, with a focus on finding such partitions. Recently however, a dynamical model was introduced which was shown to converge to a socially balanced state for certain symmetric initial conditions. Here we show this does not hold for general (non-symmetric) initial conditions. We propose an alternative model and show that it does converge to a socially balanced state generically. Moreover, in a basic model of evolution of cooperation of indirect reciprocity, the alternative model has an evolutionary advantage compared to the earlier model. The principal difference between the two models can be understood in term...

  6. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The long-term carbon balance (NBP of grasslands is estimated by combining scarce multi-year eddy-covariance observations at ecosystem observation sites where information on carbon inputs and harvesting removals is available. Following accounting for carbon leached to rivers, we estimated grasslands to be net carbon sinks of 74±10 g C m−2 yr−1. Uncertainties arise from the small number of sites and the short measurement period. Only 11 sites, out of a total of 20 grassland sites in Europe where eddy covariance systems are installed, were set-up for estimating NBP. These 11 selected sites are representative of intensive management practice and we lack information on disturbance history, such as plowing. This suggests that the grassland NBP estimate is likely biased towards overestimating the sink, compared to the European average. Direct measurements of Net Primary Productivity (NPP are not possible in grasslands given permanent biomass removal by grazing and mowing, uncertainties in rhizodeposition and production of volatile organic carbon compounds lost to the atmosphere. Therefore, the grassland process-based ecosystem model PASIM was used to estimate the spatial-temporal distribution of NPP, providing a European average value of 750±150 g C across extensively grazed, intensively grazed pastures, and forage production systems. In Europe the NPP of grasslands seems higher than that of croplands and forests. The carbon sequestration efficiency of grasslands, defined as the ratio of NBP to NPP, amounts to 0.09±0.10. Therefore, per unit of carbon input, grasslands sequester 3–4 times more carbon in the soil than forests do, making them a good candidate for managing onsite carbon sinks. When using the 100 yr greenhouse warming potential for CH4 and N2O, their emissions due to management of grasslands together offset roughly 70–80% of the carbon sink. Uncertainties on the European grassland

  7. Variability of surface mass balance in the Mizuho Plateau, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhide, SATOW

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the data of surface mass balance along the traverse routes in 1968-1983,mean and variation of the annual balance were obtained in the Mizuho Plateau, Antarctica. A year-to-year variation of the surface mass balance showed a general increase during the period of the measurement. The climatic effect and the effect of surface microrelief, such as sastrugi and dunes, on the mass balance variability were assessed. The former prevailed in a high accumulation zone of the coastal regi...

  8. Securitization and the Balance Sheet Channel of Monetary Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Uluc Aysun; Ralf Hepp

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that the balance sheet channel of monetary transmission works mainly through U.S. bank holding companies that securitize their assets. This finding is different, in spirit, from the widely-found negative relationship between financial development and the strength of the lending channel of monetary transmission. Focusing on the balance sheet channel, and using bank-level observations, we find that securitized banks are more sensitive to borrowers' balance sheets and that monet...

  9. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, M S; Laessoe, U; Caserotti, Paolo; Nielsen, O B F; Aagaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknown...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  10. Comparison and analysis of energy storage technology to balance fluctuation of wind power output%平抑风电出力波动储能技术比较及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张川; 杨雷; 牛童阳; 张梦瑶

    2015-01-01

    Wind power output fluctuation affects its efficiency and power system security. Using energy storage device can reduce the influence of the wind power output fluctuation. The characteristics and efficiency of different energy storage technologies are researched in order to find the available devices for stabilizing wind power output fluctuation. This paper collects and studies various technical parameters of existing energy storage devices, and makes technical and economic comparison of the methods connected to the grid, functions and scale effect. By use of a lot of data analysis and the findings of other related topics, this paper finds out that power grid is the only energy storage system can gather a huge ability of regulate, which is currently the most effective and economical energy storage system. Ultimately it proves that China should develop wind power in the three-north region on a large scale to reduce pollution in energy industry and enhance energy security, while the construction of large power grid is the way of the development of wind power in China.%风电出力波动影响到其利用效率及电网安全,若利用储能设备可以减轻风电出力波动的影响。开展不同储能技术的特性和效能研究,目的是找到可用的平抑风电出力波动的设备。收集并研究了现有技术下储能设备的技术参数,并对其接入电网的方式、效能及规模效应等方面进行分析和技术经济对比。经过大量的数据分析,借助其他相关课题的研究成果,发现电网是唯一可聚集巨大调节能力的储能系统,也是目前最有效、最经济的储能系统。最终论证了中国减轻能源行业污染、增强能源安全,应该大规模开发三北的风电,而建设大电网才是我国开发大风电的出路。

  11. The Penobscot River, Maine, USA: a Basin-Scale Approach to Balancing Power Generation and Ecosystem Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rose Day

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although hydropower is a source of low-carbon energy, without careful consideration and management, dams have the potential to degrade river ecosystems and the goods and services they provide to society. Today, a broad range of hydropower interests and stakeholders are seeking approaches to hydropower development and operation that are more environmentally and socially sustainable. The Penobscot River Restoration Project ('the Project' illustrates that basin-scale approaches can provide a broader set of solutions for balancing energy and riverine environmental resources than can be achieved at the scale of individual projects. The Penobscot basin is the largest in Maine and historically supported culturally and economically significant populations of migratory fish. These migratory fish populations declined dramatically following the construction of a series of hydropower dams on the main stem river and major tributaries in the early 20th century. The Project, negotiated between a power company (PPL Corporation and a coalition including the Penobscot Indian Nation, resource agencies, and nongovernmental conservation organizations, features the removal of two main stem dams on the lower Penobscot and improved fish passage at the dams that remain. Because of various capacity and/or operational changes, power production will be increased at the remaining dams and total hydropower energy production from the basin will be maintained or increase slightly. The Project is expected to expand considerably the proportion of the basin accessible to migratory fish and contribute to significant increases in fish populations. The Project illustrates that a basin-scale approach can potentially yield more comprehensive solutions for sustainable hydropower than can be achieved at the project scale, and we recommend that such large-scale planning processes can improve the sustainability of both regulatory licensing of existing dams as well as the planning of

  12. Targets of balancing selection in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrés, Aida M; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit;

    2009-01-01

    to maintaining phenotypic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, its prevalence and specific targets in the human genome remain largely unknown. We have analyzed the patterns of diversity and divergence of 13,400 genes in two human populations using an unbiased single-nucleotide polymorphism...... data set, a genome-wide approach, and a method that incorporates demography in neutrality tests. We identified an unbiased catalog of genes with signatures of long-term balancing selection, which includes immunity genes as well as genes encoding keratins and membrane channels; the catalog also shows...... enrichment in functional categories involved in cellular structure. Patterns are mostly concordant in the two populations, with a small fraction of genes showing population-specific signatures of selection. Power considerations indicate that our findings represent a subset of all targets in the genome...

  13. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  14. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests that the......We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance...

  15. Environmental Isotope Balance of Lake Tiberias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable isotope composition and tritium content of Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galillee or Lake Kinneret) has been monitored for over ten years. The 18O concentration in the upper water mass undergoes a yearly cycle of average amplitude of Δδ18O = 0.5%o. The hypolimnion follows the change at much reduced amplitude. Deuterium concentrations change in a similar manner obeying the relationship ΔδD = 5.3 x Δδ18O. The mean yearly isotope composition shifts up to ± 1.5% (for 18O) as a result of hydrological inbalances between water gain and losses. Detailed balance calculations based on available hydrological and climatic data were made and their reliability discussed. In particular, the effect of vertical stratification and the magnitude of separation coefficients was explored. It is shown that controlled evaporation experiments can give more pertinent data on the exchange fluxes of both tritium and stable isotopes than calculations based on time-averaged humidity data. From such evaporation experiments using thermostatted pans, effective isotope fractionation factors for 18O and deuterium evaporation were determined and shown to depend on the degree of atmospheric turbulence and the stability in the surface layer. (author)

  16. Localization of New Balance brand marketing strategy for Chinese markets

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    As a major international sport brand, New Balance Athletic Shoes Company was standstill after accessing to Chinese markets. The deviation in brand positioning and range selection has resulted in low sell-thru rate; the neglect on channel building and store image investment has resulted in a slow expansion. This thesis researched how New Balance Company can get success and how they find adopted strategy for the development of New Balance in China. This thesis described the current situatio...

  17. Uncertainties and re-analysis of glacier mass balance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, M.; E. Thibert; Huss, M.; Stumm, D.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Nuth, C.; S. U. Nussbaumer; G. Moholdt; A. Mercer; Mayer, C.; Joerg, P. C.; P. Jansson; B. Hynek; Fischer, A.; Escher-Vetter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until present, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without error considerations. In this study, we propose a framework for re-analyzing glacier mass balance series including conceptual and ...

  18. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. PMID:27179885

  19. Posters: balancing overkill and freedom of expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Internal Communication and HR Department

    2014-01-01

    The number of posters put up at CERN to inform, engage and invite is growing quickly, and they are taking over an ever-increasing number of walls, doors, pillars and glass panels. In the interests of freedom of information, no official restrictions are in place, but we are nonetheless obliged to maintain a fair balance. Here we discuss this issue.   Posters clamour for our attention, becoming more and more invasive and often eternal as they are never taken down... While the need to inform and to be informed is a legitimate one, we also have to respect our workplace. It’s no surprise that walls or pillars (sometimes freshly painted) at junctions in corridors that are busy at peak times are seen as ideal targets by people who want to publicise their events or activities, but this abundance, or overabundance, of posters is sometimes seen as vandalism of communal areas. What's more, the posters themselves are sometimes vandalised: comments, sometimes offensive, may be added and the...

  20. INTEGRATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko M. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and possibilities of use of the balanced scorecard for successful realization of corporate strategy are considered in this article. The most important results of research of integration of the quality management system in information system of the enterprise with use of the balanced scorecard are discussed

  1. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated by......Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish...... combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and...

  2. Applications of Balance Theory to Faculty Effectiveness: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Limbu, Yam B.; Xu, Bing; Fischbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of the potential role of balance theory and student liking (affect) of instructors as tools for marketing professors in assisting student learning. The nature of balance theory and evidence of the learning impact of affect toward instructors are discussed. An empirical test of the theory is provided, and…

  3. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psyc...

  4. 12. national conference of Czechoslovak power specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XIIth national conference of Czechoslovak power specialists was held in Bratislava from October 5 to 7, 1983. Of the total number of 32 papers 12 were incorporated in the INIS system, i.e., such which dealt with the development of the nuclear power complex and the rationalization of sources and the use of heat in the Czechoslovak energy balance. (E.S.)

  5. Eco-balance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP); Oekobilanz eines Vakuum-Isolations-Paneels (VIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonhardt, U.; Binz, A.; Wohler, M.; Dott, R. [Institut fuer Energie - Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R. [ESU-services, Uster (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Institute for Energy at the University of Applied Sciences in Muttenz and ESU Services in Uster, Switzerland, presents the results of an eco-balance made on the ecological impact of vacuum insulation panels. These panels are being used more and more instead of bulky, traditional insulation materials. The three eco-balance models used - Eco-Indicator 99, Ecological Scarcity UBP 97 and Cumulative Energy Use KEA - are introduced. Comparisons were made between vacuum insulation systems and glass-fibre and polystyrene insulation materials. The methods used are described and the results of the eco-balance analyses made are presented for the three types of insulation. In an appendix to the report, the influence of power generation methods and transport services on the eco-balance is discussed.

  6. 基于功率平衡及时滞补偿相结合的双级式变流器协调控制%Coordinated Control of Two-stage Power Converters Based on Power Balancing and Time-delay Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成山; 李霞林; 郭力

    2012-01-01

    As the key units for energy resources integration and power conversion, two-stage power converters containing DC/DC and DC/AC modules have been experiencing wide application in PV, the lithium battery energy storage systems and other distributed generations (DGs) and microgrids, which require coordinated control to ensure their operation stable. In this paper, the parameters of DC/DC and DC/AC controllers were designed respectively via classical control theory; in addition, the small-signal stability analysis was presented through eigenvalue theory based on the state-space model; moreover, a combination feedforward method of power balancing and time-delay compensation (a first derivative element) had been proposed, with the purpose to eliminate/minimize the DC bus voltage fluctuations and impact on the DC bus capacitor. Experimental results indicate that the system dynamic and steady performances obtained are consistent with the theoretical analysis, and the improved feedforward compensation method can effectively suppress transient voltage fluctuations and impact on the DC bus capacitor, and speed up system dynamic response.%在光伏、锂电池储能等分布式发电系统及微网中,包含DC/DC和DC/AC两级功率变换模块的双级式功率变流器作为能量汇集和交换的核心设备而得到广泛应用,其协调控制则是保证系统稳定运行的关键.首先利用经典控制理论从动态性能方面分别对前后级控制器参数进行设计;然后在全系统状态空间小信号模型基础上,利用特征值理论进行稳定性分析;最后为抑制暂态时直流母线电压冲击和波动,提出基于功率平衡和时滞补偿(一阶微分环节)相结合的前馈补偿方法.实验结果表明,采用本文提出的控制器设计和分析方法获得的系统动态与稳态性能和理论分析一致;应用该前馈补偿方法,能有效抑制暂态时直流母线电压冲击和波动,提高系统动态响应.

  7. Balanced gait generations of a two-legged robot on sloping surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pandu Ranga Vundavilli; Dilip Kumar Pratihar

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, dynamically balanced gait generation problem of a 7-DOF two-legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on the concept of static balance, which is different from the well-known semi-inverse method and then checked for its dynamic balance calculated using the concept of Zero-Moment Point (ZMP). Lagrange–Euler formulation is attempted for the determination of joint torques. Average power consumption at each joint is then determined based on the computed torques. Moreover, the variations of dynamic balance margin and average power consumption are studied for both ascending and descending through the sloping surface. Both of them are found to be more for the ascending gait generation compared to those for the descending case. The effects of variations of the slope have also been studied on the average dynamic balance margin and power consumption for both the cases.

  8. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, whileoverlooking the coordination of the energy storage units to maintain the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed metho...

  9. Landscape-Scale water balance of cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the temporal and spatial distribution of the components of the water balance of a production field is necessary to manage agronomic inputs. Furthermore, factors that determine crop yield require knowledge of the energy, water, nutrient and carbon balance and their interaction. The in...

  10. INDICATORS OF BALANCED SCORECARD FOR IT-CONSULTING COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonov Egor Nikolaevich

    2012-01-01

    Justification for using the balanced scorecard for IT consulting companies in the sphere of information technologies and the search for suitable indicators for balanced scorecard is the main purpose of work. Results of this work - Indicators, which are used to measure the project implementation effectiveness of consulting companies in information technology. The results can be used to develop practical recommendations for IT consulting companies.

  11. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo;

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agre...

  12. Energy Balance of the Santa Catarina State - Series 1980 -1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: economic aspects; supply and demand of energy by source 1980-1996; energy consumption by sector 1980/1996; energy interchange; and balance of the transformation centers 1980/1996

  13. Dynamics of supercapacitor bank with uncontrolled active balancer for engine starting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analytic performance of an open-loop operated supercapacitor balancer is revealed. • Natural balancing is shown to be always attained. • Excessive currents arise when the initial voltage misbalance is significant. - Abstract: In this paper, analytical investigation of an actively balanced open-loop operated supercapacitor bank is presented. Supercapacitor unit is utilized for 28 V auxiliary power unit diesel engine starting, allowing relieving the battery from multiple starting stresses. Dynamical equations of the system based on a synchronous bidirectional buck-boost converter are developed by splitting the solution into zero-input and zero-state responses. It is revealed that the system, which is typically nonlinear because of buck-boost converter presence, becomes linear when operated in open loop. Moreover, natural balancing is achieved when the converter is operated with 50% duty cycle. It is shown that balancing time is independent on initial conditions while system damping strongly depends on parasitic resistances especially in practical case of large capacitors and small inductance. Inductor current peak value and balancing time are obtained analytically and validated by simulations. It is revealed that while natural balancing is always achieved, excessive currents may arise when the initial voltage misbalance is significant. In addition, it is shown that one-switching-cycle averaged model is in close agreement with detailed switched model. The presented findings are fully supported by extended simulations

  14. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-31

    Many states are deploying renewable generation sources at a significant rate to meet renewable portfolio standards. As part of this drive to meet renewable generation levels, significant additions of wind generation are planned. Due to the highly variable nature of wind generation, significant energy imbalances on the power system can be created and need to be handled. This report examines the impact on the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) region for a 2019 expected wind scenario. One method for mitigating these imbalances is to utilize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as assets to the grid. PHEVs and BEVs have the potential to meet this demand through both charging and discharging strategies. This report explores the usage of two different charging schemes: V2GHalf and V2GFull. In V2GHalf, PHEV/BEV charging is varied to absorb the additional imbalance from the wind generation, but never feeds power back into the grid. This scenario is highly desirable to automotive manufacturers, who harbor great concerns about battery warranty if vehicle-to-grid discharging is allowed. The second strategy, V2GFull, varies not only the charging of the vehicle battery, but also can vary the discharging of the battery back into the power grid. This scenario is currently less desirable to automotive manufacturers, but provides an additional resource benefit to PHEV/BEVs in meeting the additional imbalance imposed by wind. Key findings in the report relate to the PHEV/BEV population required to meet the additional imbalance when comparing V2GHalf to V2GFull populations, and when comparing home-only-charging and work-and-home-charging scenarios. Utilizing V2GFull strategies over V2GHalf resulted in a nearly 33% reduction in the number of vehicles required. This reduction indicates fewer vehicles are needed to meet the unhandled energy, but they would utilize discharging of the vehicle battery into the grid. This practice currently results in the

  15. FACTORS OF STEADY AND BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidi A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the need of identification and classification of the most relevant factors of the sustainable balanced development of the regional economic system (RES. Substantial filling of the category "sustainable balanced development" which is accepted within the real research is designated. On the basis of the analysis of the classifications of factors of the sustainable balanced development of economy of the region presented in scientific literature their discrepancy modern is established to conditions of globalization of the economy causing increase of a role of foreign economic activity of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in ensuring their long-term competitiveness. Proceeding from the last, within the classification of factors of the sustainable balanced development of RES offered by authors the following their groups are allocated: global, national, regional. For each of the designated groups we substantiated the set of relevant factors

  16. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; ptests seem to assess different components of balance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.). PMID:26514832

  17. Balanced Scorecard and Balanced Scorecard for processes and activities – case study of a car dealer

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Kuchta; Radoslaw Rynca

    2008-01-01

    W artykule przedstawiono studium przypadku wykorzystania zrownowazonej karty dzialania (ZKD), bedacej przeniesieniem idei BSC na poziom procesow i dzialan. ZKD bylaby budowana dla tych procesow i dzialan, ktorych koszt wyliczony za pomoca metody rachunku kosztow dzialan jest wysoki. ZKD bylaby takze narzedziem wspierajacym poprawe efektywnosci procesow i dzialan zachodzacych w przedsiebiorstwie.The article presents a case study of balanced scorecard for processes and activities in a car deale...

  18. Water balance and exploitation of the hydropower potential of water courses; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water-economic balance compares the discharge characteristics of water streams with the existing need of discharge (99 % of need is satisfied). The needed discharges are represented by the use of water in the economic sector and by what is called the minimum balance discharge, which must remain in the stream because of ecological reasons. The streams were classified into three categories: (1) Active streams - discharges larger than 110 % of the needed discharges. Increased use of water is possible. (2) Tense streams - the discharges are at the level of 90 -100 % of the required discharges. Regulative measures of water consumption are needed occasionally. (3) Passive streams - the discharges cover less than 90 % of the requirements on the discharges needed. Apart from the regulative measures in water supply, economising of water should be the issue of permanent concern in all consumer groups and the measures oriented to increased potential of water resources in dry spells should be implemented. Exploitation of water streams for production of energy is represented by the hydroelectric power stations of Slovakia. Three kinds of hydroelectric power stations are distinguished: hydroelectric power station, re-pumping hydroelectric power stations, and small hydroelectric power stations performing more than 0.5 MW. Hydroelectric power stations produce in average around 4,600 GWh of electric power, which is 20 % of the total electric power produced. (authors)

  19. The contribution of each leg to bipedal balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a task that healthy adult humans perform effortlessly throughout the day. However, when people age, or when they develop a neurological disease (e.g. Parkinson’s disease; PD) the risk of a fall increases, showing the complexities of maintaining balance. In this thesis, I inves

  20. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  1. Desensitization of a balance with Langmuir binding of weights

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzara, R

    2003-01-01

    A balance is described with Langmuir binding of weights to each side. This simple physical system, when coupled with a previously derived equation for the equivalent displacement of weight that perturbs the equilibrium of a balance, models two-state, receptor systems in pharmacology for receptor activation. Surprisingly, this system also shows desensitization similar to many drug-receptor systems. Although understanding the biophysics behind receptor signaling is an important endeavor by itself, this analogy with a simple balance may bring new insights into other areas of physics as well.

  2. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  3. Assessing seniors' user experience (UX) of exergames for balance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Ystmark, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    Exergames technologies are increasingly used to help people achieve their exercise requirements including balance training. However, little is known about seniors' user experience of exergame technology for balance training and what factors they consider most important for using the exergames. Th...

  4. Suppression of the critical current of a balanced SQUID

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppinen, Antti; Manninen, Antti J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Peltonen, Joonas T.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the magnetic flux dependence of the critical current of a balanced SQUID with three Josephson junctions in parallel. Unlike for ordinary dc SQUIDs, the suppression of the critical current does not depend on the exact parameters of the Josephson junctions. The suppression is essentially limited only by the inductances of the SQUID loops. We demonstrate a critical current suppression ratio of higher than 300 in a balanced SQUID with a maximum critical current...

  5. Balanced and optimal bianisotropic particles: Maximizing power extracted from electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ra'di, Younes

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce the concept of "optimal particles" for strong interactions with electromagnetic fields. We assume that a particle occupies a given electrically small volume in space and study the required optimal relations between the particle polarizabilities. In these optimal particles, the inclusion shape and material are chosen so that the particles extract the maximum possible power from given incident fields. It appears that for different excitation scenarios the optimal particles are bianisotropic chiral, omega, moving, and Tellegen particles. The optimal dimensions of the resonance canonical chiral and omega particles are found analytically. Such optimal particles have extreme properties in scattering (for example, zero backscattering or invisibility). Planar arrays of optimal particles possess extreme properties in reflection and transmission (e.g., total absorption or magnetic-wall resonance), and volumetric composites of optimal particles realize, for example, such extreme materials as the chiral...

  6. Energy balance and the origin of Kleiber's law

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Fernando J; Moya, Andrés; Luque, Bartolo

    2014-01-01

    In 1932, Max Kleiber found that the basal metabolic rate of animals seemed to vary as a power law of their body mass with exponent 3/4, but this law is still a matter of controversy. Although some researchers support that 2/3 should be the correct value for the exponent, most of them accept Kleiber's 3/4 value and justify this choice on the basis of research on fractal structures. However some studies show that it is not a pure power law, introducing more doubts about its origin. Here we show that the origin of Kleiber's law is the balance between the energy lost as heat and the energy efficiently used by the organism to maintain its metabolism. Our model is based on the fact that a fraction of the energy income is not converted into heat and this consideration has a radical effect in the shape of the law. The different slope observed in animals and plants is due to their different surface-to-volume ratio. Compared with previous attempts of explanation, our model is very simple, it is biologically sound and s...

  7. Balancing of sulfur storage in maize seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yongrui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A balanced composition of amino acids in seed flour is critical because of the demand on essential amino acids for nutrition. However, seed proteins in cereals like maize, the crop with the highest yield, are low in lysine, tryptophan, and methionine. Although supplementation with legumes like soybean can compensate lysine deficiency, both crops are also relatively low in methionine. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of methionine accumulation in the seed could be a basis for breeding cultivars with superior nutritional quality. Results In maize (Zea mays, the 22- and 19-kDa α-zeins are the most prominent storage proteins, nearly devoid of lysine and methionine. Although silencing synthesis of these proteins through RNA interference (RNAi raises lysine levels in the seed, it fails to do so for methionine. Computational analysis of annotated gene models suggests that about 57% of all proteins exhibit a lysine content of more than 4%, whereas the percentage of proteins with methionine above 4% is only around 8%. To compensate for this low representation, maize seeds produce specialized storage proteins, the 15-kDa β-, 18-kDa and 10-kDa δ-zeins, rich in methionine. However, they are expressed at variant levels in different inbred lines. A654, an inbred with null δ-zein alleles, methionine levels are significantly lower than when the two intact δ-zein alleles are introgressed. Further silencing of β-zein results in dramatic reduction in methionine levels, indicating that β- and δ-zeins are the main sink of methionine in maize seed. Overexpression of the 10-kDa δ-zein can increase the methionine level, but protein analysis by SDS-PAGE shows that the increased methionine levels occur at least in part at the expense of cysteines present in β- and γ-zeins. The reverse is true when β- and γ-zein expression is silenced through RNAi, then 10-kDa δ-zein accumulates to higher levels. Conclusions Because methionine

  8. The relaxing ori-ter balance of Mycoplasma genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma are wall-less bacteria with small genomes, which are thought to have resulted from massive genome reductive processes, during which the ori-ter balance may be disrupted. For technical difficulties, ori and ter have been located only in a few Mycoplasma strains. Using the Z curve method, we were able to locate turning points on the Mycoplasma genomes, with the minimum and maximum points co-locating with ori or ter in the reference genomes. Assuming Z curve correctly located ori and ter, we calculated the distances from ori to ter in both directions on the circular genome and calculated the ori-ter balance status. The Mycoplasma genomes were not balanced, possibly as a result of close association of Mycoplasma with hosts, where there would be no other microbes for Mycoplasma to compete with for nutrients, so fastest possible growth related to balanced genomes might not be needed by Mycoplasma, leading to a relaxing ori-ter balance.

  9. The role of nuclear power in Russia's power strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays, nuclear power is the most rapidly developing sector of the Russian power industry. The growing power demand in 1999-2003 (about 17 billion kWh annually) was partly (50%) covered by the increase of NPP-generated power at the annual rate of 9 billion kWh, or 5%. The role of nuclear power in Russia's fuel and power complex (FPC) is very important: it acts as a system-forming, fuel-balancing, tariff-stabilizing, and environment-protecting element. The primary tasks in the advance of national power energetics are as follows: optimization of the fuel and power balance including, in particular, the development of NPP, gas substantiation and increased share of coal at thermal power plants (TPP); compensation for NPP and TPP with the expired service period (extension of service life, reproduction); 50% cover of power demand growth by NPP-generated power; enhanced efficiency of investment in FPC by creating such power complexes as NPP - hydro accumulating power plant, electric heat accumulation and nuclear heat plant (NHP), energobio complexes of low-grade heat, NPP - aluminum production; reduced power generation costs, in particular, through the optimal use of generating capacities (at the maximal loading of NPP); reduced man-caused impact on the environment. The optimal scenario of the Russian economy development envisages the growth of NPP-generated power to 200 billion kWh by 2010 and to 300 billion kWh by 2010. In this case, the NPP total installed capacity shall reach 28 GW by 2010, and 40 GW by 2020, the capacity factor being up to 85%. The enhancement of nuclear power efficiency shall be achieved through the use of both inner (reduced production costs) and outer (expansion of atomic energy sales markets) reserves. Additional growth of NPP production shall be boosted by arranging heat supply to Balakovo, Volgodonsk, and Kursk, as well as by constructing NHP in such large towns as Archangelsk, Voronezh, etc. Enhanced efficiency of capital

  10. A balancing act for renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  11. Intrinsically Safe Robot Arm: Adjustable Static Balancing and Low Power Actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, M.; M. Wisse

    2010-01-01

    We present a design for a manipulator that is intrinsically mechanically safe, i.e. it can not cause pain (let alone damage) to a human being even if the control system has a failure. Based on the pressure pain thresholds for human skin, we derive a pinching safety constraint that limits the actuator torque, and an impact safety constraint that results in a trade-off between mass and velocity. To fulfill all constraints, the manipulator requires a spring balancing system that counteracts grav...

  12. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic stability caused by the interactions among the wideband control of power converters and passive components in an AC power-electronicsbased power system. The impedance-based analytical approach is employed and expanded to a meshed and balanced threephase network w...

  14. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  15. On the control of the Heider balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkaew, S.; Caponigro, M.; Kułakowski, K.; Borzì, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Heider social balance model describes the evolution of the relationships in a social network of humans or animals. This model is built upon the concept of balance of triads consisting of friendly or hostile edges representing the state of the network. In this differential model, a leader is introduced in order to control the system and to drive the social network to a desired relationship state. Further, the stability, the local controllability, and the optimal control through leadership of the Heider model are investigated. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the proposed control strategy to drive the Heider balance model to friendship.

  16. The structure of the radiation balance dependent on synoptic situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the studies was to mark daily variation of the radiation balance components in various weather conditions, in the south of Poland. The structure of the radiation balance components are formed differently in various weather types and the intensity of the individual components depend mainly on the cloudiness, fog and the air humidity. The value of total radiation, which is the sum of the solar radiation consisting of the direct radiation and the distracted one, was of the main importance to the radiation balance. At all observed weather types, short wave radiation fluxes were characterized by considerable daily variability in comparison to long wave fluxes. (author)

  17. Effects of Balance Training on Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the delayed effects of balancetraining program on hemiplegic stroke patients.Methods: A total of 41 ambulatory hemiplegic stroke patients were recruited into thisstudy and randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and trainedgroup. Visual feedback balance training with the SMART Balance Masterwas used in the trained group. Bruunstrom staging of affected limb scoresand Functional Independent Measure (FIM scores of each patient wererecorded. Quantitative balance function was evaluated using the SMARTBalance Master. Data were collected before training and 6 months aftercompleting the training program.Results: Significant improvements in dynamic balance function measurements werefound for patients in the trained group at 6 months after completing the trainingprogram. The ability of self-care and sphincter control also improved forpatients in the trained group. On the other hand, no significant differenceswere found in static balance functions between the trained group and controlgroup at 6 months of follow up. The locomotion and mobility scoring ofFIM also revealed no differences between the groups.Conclusion: Dynamic balance function of patients in the visual feedback training grouphad significant improvements when compared with the control group.Activities of daily living (ADL function in self-care also had significantimprovements at 6 months of follow up in the trained group. The resultsshowed that balance training was beneficial for patients after hemiplegicstroke.

  18. 基于环形耦合策略的带式输送机多机驱动功率平衡的研究%Research on power-balance of multi-motors in belt conveyor based on ring coupling control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟; 李含君

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve the power-balance in multi-motor driving belt conveyor system , the ring coupling control strategy is adopted .Modeling for master-slave control and ring coupling control of a three-motor system which based on the fuzzy PID control model were established in the simulation circumstance of Matlab .Simulation results show that the ring coupling control strategy has higer synchronization accuracy and better dynamic performance ,the control demand for power balance of multi-motors in belt coneyor is satisfied .%针对多电机驱动的带式输送机中出现各电机功率不平衡的问题,提出了一种适用于多电机的基于环形耦合策略的功率平衡控制方案。在采用模糊PID的基础上,对三个电机主从控制和环形耦合控制分别进行了建模,并用M atlab进行仿真。仿真结果表明:采用环形耦合控制策略具有更高的同步精度和更好的动态性能,满足带式输送机功率平衡控制的要求。

  19. Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seung Sohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.

  20. Impact of Health Perception, Balance Perception, Fall History, Balance Performance, and Gait Speed on Walking Activity in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Talkowski, Jaime B; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Disagreement currently exists regarding the contributions of various factors to physical activity in older adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the simultaneous impact of psychological (health perception and balance perception) and physiological (gait speed, fall history, and balance performance) factors on walking activity in older adults.

  1. Development of the NTF-117S Semi-Span Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    A new high-capacity semi-span force and moment balance has recently been developed for use at the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. This new semi-span balance provides the NTF a new measurement capability that will support testing of semi-span test models at transonic high-lift testing regimes. Future testing utilizing this new balance capability will include active circulation control and propulsion simulation testing of semi-span transonic wing models. The NTF has recently implemented a new highpressure air delivery station that will provide both high and low mass flow pressure lines that are routed out to the semi-span models via a set high/low pressure bellows that are indirectly linked to the metric end of the NTF-117S balance. A new check-load stand is currently being developed to provide the NTF with an in-house capability that will allow for performing check-loads on the NTF-117S balance in order to determine the pressure tare affects on the overall performance of the balance. An experimental design is being developed that will allow for experimentally assessing the static pressure tare affects on the balance performance.

  2. The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Accessible to the Lean novice and shop floor employee, The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting explores line balancing and the pre-assembly of components into a finished product in a just-in-time fashion (JIT Kitting). It explains how to use time studies, develop yamazumi charts, discover and eliminate waste, balance your line, and create new standard work content for the shop floor. The book facilitates a clear understanding of the seven deadly wastes (muda) as well as what you can do to eliminate them from your facility. Describing the purpose and use of standard work, it explains how t

  3. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe;

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations in...... the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost...... electrical energy demand is chosen as the studied case. The results show that an optimal operation of PEV in both spot market and regulation market can not only decrease the energy costs for PEV owners, but also significantly decrease the power deviations between West Denmark and Union for the Coordination...

  4. Study on the fuel balance of a DT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium balance in a DT fusion reactor is discussed in this paper. It is pointed out in this discussion that tritium balance in a fusion reactor is largely influenced by such uncertainties as plasma vessel effect, module effect and recovery efficiency of bred tritium required to estimate the overall tritium recovery efficiency and such uncertainties as overall burning efficiency of tritium in the plasma vessel, tritium trapping ratio at the first wall, loss due to β-decay of tritium inventory and designated reactor base tritium breeding ratio required to decide (β)overall to decide tritium balance.

  5. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  6. Zarya Energy Balance Analysis: The Effect of Spacecraft Shadowing on Solar Array Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kolosov, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    The first element of the International Space Station (ISS). Zarya, was funded by NASA and built by the Russian aerospace company Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (KhSC). NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and KhSC collaborated in performing analytical predictions of the on-orbit electrical performance of Zarya's solar arrays. GRC assessed the pointing characteristics of and shadow patterns on Zarya's solar arrays to determine the average solar energy incident on the arrays. KHSC used the incident energy results to determine Zarya's electrical power generation capability and orbit-average power balance. The power balance analysis was performed over a range of solar beta angles and vehicle operational conditions. This analysis enabled identification of problems that could impact the power balance for specific flights during ISS assembly and was also used as the primary means of verifying that Zarya complied with electrical power requirements. Analytical results are presented for select stages in the ISS assembly sequence along with a discussion of the impact of shadowing on the electrical performance of Zarya's solar arrays.

  7. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO2.

  8. Effect of augmenting cholinergic function on gait and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Fling, Brett W.; Gendreau, Anne; Lapidus, Jodi; Fay B. Horak; Chung, Kathy; Nutt, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired mobility and falls are clinically important complications of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major detractor from quality of life for which there are limited therapies. Pathological, neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggest that degeneration of cholinergic systems may contribute to impairments of balance and gait in PD. The proposed trial will examine the effects of augmentation of the cholinergic system on balance and gait. Design The study is a single-site, proof of con...

  9. Spray automated balancing of rotors - How process parameters influence performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, A. J.; Baldwin, R. M.; Fleming, D. P.; Yuhas, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of spray-automated balancing of rotors, and the influence that various operating parameters will have on balancing performance. Spray-automated balancing uses the fuel-air repetitive explosion process to imbed short, discrete bursts of high velocity, high temperature powder into a rotating part at an angle selected to reduce unbalance of the part. The shortness of the burst, the delay in firing of the gun, the speed of the disk and the variability in speed all influence the accuracy and effectiveness of the automated balancing process. The paper evaluates this influence by developing an analytical framework and supplementing the analysis with empirical data obtained while firing the gun at a rotating disk. Encouraging results are obtained, and it is shown that the process should perform satisfactorily over a wide range of operating parameters. Further experimental results demonstrate the ability of the method to reduce vibration levels induced by mass unbalance in a rotating disk.

  10. An evaluation of the transitional Turkish electricity balancing and settlement market: Lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balancing and settlement market is a crucial part of restructured Turkish electricity market. In this framework, the main purpose of this study is to examine whether the prices constituted in the transitional balancing and settlement market reflect the real cost of imbalances. Although it is observed that the prices are not powerful in indicating the real cost of imbalances, Turkey has the opportunity to form a well-functioning market within the context of planned new market structure. Turkey needs to define a proper roadmap reckoning the points mentioned in this paper to be able to achieve her objectives. (author)

  11. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings. PMID:26556091

  12. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2012-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weaknes...

  13. Impact of GDP volatility on current account balances

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Brzozowski; Sadananda Prusty

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of GDP volatility on current account balances for a large sample of developed and developing countries. We extend the standard set of short- and long-term determinants of current accounts to include GDP volatility computed from the annual growth rate of GDP. It turns out that for low income countries the impact of GDP volatility on their current account balances is negative, whereas the reverse is true for high income countries. The intertemporal...

  14. CONNECTED[1,k]-FACTORS OF BALANCE BIPARTITE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rui

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a sufficient condition for abalance bipartite graph to have a connected[1,k]-factor is given, which generalizes a knowncondition of a balance bipartite graph for theexistence of a hamilton-path.

  15. Noise Study of a Heat Balanced Sigma-Delta Bolometer

    OpenAIRE

    Denoual, Matthieu; Brouard, D.; Veith, A; Pouliquen, Mathieu; Attia, Patrick; Allègre, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the modeling of a heat balanced sigma-delta bolometer with Matlab Simulink®. In particular, the noise sources are modeled to enable the evaluation of the output measurement resolution.

  16. Power Balance Control in an AC/DC/AC Converter for Regenerative Braking in a Two-Voltage-Level Flywheel-Based Driveline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína G. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a flywheel as a power handling can increase the energy storage capacity and reduce the number of battery charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the ability of recovering energy of the vehicle during breaking can increase the system efficiency. The flywheel-based all-electric driveline investigated here has its novelty in the use of a double-wound flywheel motor/generator, which divides the system in two different voltage levels, enhancing the efficiency of the electric driveline. The connection of two AC electrical machines (i.e., the flywheel and the wheel motor with different and variable operation frequency is challenging. A power matching control applied to an AC/DC/AC converter has been implemented. The AC/DC/AC converter regenerates the electric power converted during braking to the flywheel machine, used here as power handling device. By controlling the power balance, the same hardware can be used for acceleration and braking, providing the reduction of harmonics and robust response. A simulation of the complete system during braking mode has been performed both in Matlab and Simulink, and their results have been compared. The functionality of the proposed control has been shown and discussed, with full regeneration achieved. A round-trip efficiency (wheel to wheel higher than 80% has been obtained.

  17. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Behera; D. R. Poddar; Mishra, R K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array...

  18. Effects of Balance Training on Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    I-Chun Chen; Pao-Tsai Cheng; Chia-Ling Chen; Shih-Ching Chen; Chia-Ying Chung; Tu-Hsueh Yeh

    2002-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the delayed effects of balancetraining program on hemiplegic stroke patients.Methods: A total of 41 ambulatory hemiplegic stroke patients were recruited into thisstudy and randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and trainedgroup. Visual feedback balance training with the SMART Balance Masterwas used in the trained group. Bruunstrom staging of affected limb scoresand Functional Independent Measure (FIM) scores of each patient w...

  19. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  20. NEW TYPE OF VIBRATION STRUCTURE OF VERTICAL DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dinggen; Cao Jiguang; Chen Chuanyao; Wang Junwen

    2004-01-01

    A new type of vibration structure of vertical dynamic balancing machine is designed, which is based on the analysis for swing frame of a traditional vertical dynamic balancing machine. The static unbalance and couple unbalance can be separated effectively by using the new machine with the new swing frame. By building the dynamics model, the advantages of the new structure are discussed in detail. The modal and harmonic response are analyzed by using the ANSYS7.0. By comparing the finite element modal analysis with the experimental modal analysis, the natural frequencies and vibration modes are found out. There are many spring boards in the new swing frame. Their stiffness is different and assort with each other. Furthermore, there are three sensors on the measurement points. Therefore, the new dynamic balancing machine can measure the static unbalance and couple unbalance directly, and the influence between them is faint. The new structure has the function of belt-strain compensation to improve the measurement precision. The practical result indicates that the new vertical dynamic balancing machine is suitable for inertial measurement of flying objects, and can overcome the shortcomings of traditional double-plane vertical dynamic balancing machines. The vertical dynamic balancing machine with the new vibration structure can be widely used in the future applications. The modeling and analysis of the new vibration structure provide theoretic instruction and practical experience for designing new type of vertical dynamic balancing machines. Based on the design principles such as stiffness-matching, frequency-adjacence and strain-compensation and so on, various new type of vibration structures can be designed.

  1. Power System State of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the state of a polar station's power system can be critical to a successful long-term deployment. Knowing how the system is functioning, prior to service, is key to proper logistics, scheduling and the service performed during a visit. A full record of power system performance is key to proper analysis of the health of the power system. The design of a power system with monitoring is a balance of components to gather information while still trying to keep complexity low. To properly incorporate a system to analyze a stations power system a firm understanding of how the power components function in polar environments as well as communication to data acquisition and / or telemetry is needed. For example designers will need to know how a station's power storage system will change in colder environments then manufactures standard design criteria. This would include the reduced available capacity, change in the mean time between failure and possible new failure modes. This understanding coupled with a system that would collect key information on the state of health of the power system will provide crucial insight in to what service is needed to keep the station functioning.

  2. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per;

    2012-01-01

    The Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) concept is worldwide recognised as a promising solution for decreasing buildings’ energy use. Nevertheless, a consistent definition of the Net ZEB concept is constantly under discussion. One of the points on the Net ZEB agenda is the zero energy balance, in...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The...... results have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance....

  3. ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Kelechi Acha

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s). The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike, Abia Sta...

  4. Early Deprivation Impairs the Development of Balance and Bilateral Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Roeber, Barbara J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined balance and bilateral coordination skills in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to two age-matched groups. One was a group of children who were internationally adopted from foster care (FC). The second group consisted of non-adopted children being raised in their birth families, who served as controls (Control). Both PI and FC children scored lower than control children on balance, whi...

  5. Including "evidentiary balance" in news media coverage of vaccine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher E; Dixon, Graham N; Holton, Avery; McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2015-01-01

    Journalists communicating risk-related uncertainty must accurately convey scientific evidence supporting particular conclusions. Scholars have explored how "balanced" coverage of opposing risk claims shapes uncertainty judgments. In situations where a preponderance of evidence points to a particular conclusion, balanced coverage reduces confidence in such a consensus and heightens uncertainty about whether a risk exists. Using the autism-vaccine controversy as a case study, we describe how journalists can cover multiple sides of an issue and provide insight into where the strength of evidence lies by focusing on "evidentiary balance." Our results suggest that evidentiary balance shapes perceived certainty that vaccines are safe, effective, and not linked to autism through the mediating role of a perception that scientists are divided about whether a link exists. Deference toward science, moreover, moderates these relationships under certain conditions. We discuss implications for journalism practice and risk communication. PMID:25010352

  6. Cost reductions for offshore wind power. Exploring the balance between scaling, learning and R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore wind electricity generation is prospected to increase substantially in the near future at a number of locations, like in the Baltic, Irish and North Sea, and emerge at several others. The global growth of offshore wind technology is likely to be accompanied by reductions in wind park construction costs, both as a result of scaling and learning effects. Since 2005, however, significant cost increases have been observed. A recent surge in commodity prices proves to constitute one of the main drivers of these cost increases. This observation begs the question whether wind turbine manufacturers should return to the laboratory for undertaking R and D that explores the use of alternative materials and bring offshore wind energy closer to competitiveness. It is demonstrated that if one abstracts from material price fluctuations, in particular for metals such as copper and steel, turbine production plus installation cost data publicly available for a series of offshore wind park projects (realized in several European countries since the 1990's) show a cost reduction trend. Hence various other sources of cost increases, such as due to the progressively larger distances from the shore (and correspondingly greater depths at sea) at which wind parks have been (and will be) built, are outshadowed by cost reduction effects. When one expresses the overall cost development for offshore wind energy capacity as an experience curve, a learning rate is found of 3%, which reflects a mixture of economies-of-scale and learning-by-doing mechanisms. Also the impact is quantified on offshore wind power construction costs from the recent tightness in the market for turbine manufacturing and installation services: without the demand-supply response inertia at the origin of this tightness it is estimated that the learning rate would be 5%. Since these learning rates are relatively low - in comparison to those observed for other technologies, and in view of the high current capacity

  7. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung HH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available HoHyun Jung,1 Keyoung Jin Chun,2 Jaesoo Hong,2 Dohyung Lim1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Smart Welfare Technology Research Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2 were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05. The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05. These results

  8. Autophagy is essential for mouse sense of balance

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño García, Guillermo; Fernández Fernández, Álvaro; Cabrera Benítez, María Sandra; Cabanillas Farpón, Rubén; Francisco RODRÍGUEZ; Salvador Montoliu, Natalia; Fueyo Silva, Antonio Manuel; Lundberg, Yunxia W.; Vega Álvarez, José Antonio; Germanà, Antonino; Pérez Freije, José María; López Otín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that is essential for cellular homeostasis and organismal viability in eukaryotes. However, the extent of its functions in higher-order processes of organismal physiology and behavior is still unknown. Here, we report that autophagy is essential for the maintenance of balance in mice and that its deficiency leads to severe balance disorders. We generated mice deficient in autophagin-1 protease (Atg4b) and showed that they had substantial system...

  9. Water and Carbon Balance Modeling: Methods of Uncertainty Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juston, John

    2010-01-01

    How do additional data of the same and/or different type contribute to reducing model parameter and predictive uncertainties? This was the question addressed with two models – the HBV hydrological water balance model and the ICBM soil carbon balance model – that were used to investigate the usefulness of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method for calibrations and uncertainty analyses.  The GLUE method is based on threshold screening of Monte Carlo simulations using so...

  10. Topological regulation of lipid balance in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical information in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient. PMID:24606148

  11. Dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies in dynamic balancing of mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia. The synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept is also covered in detail. The latest advances are described, including different balancing principles, design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia, and synthesizing parallel robots. This is an ideal book for mechanical engineering students and researchers who are interested in the dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots. This book also: ·       Broadens reader understanding of the synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept ·       Reinforces basic principles with detailed coverage of different balancing principles, including input torque balancing mechanisms ·       Reviews exhaustively the key recent research into the design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass a...

  12. Balance Responsibility and Imbalance Settlement in Northern Europe: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, balance responsibility and imbalance settlement are two closely related elements that constitute the heart of a balancing market (which is actually an institutional arrangement establishing market-based balancing). This paper aims to compare balance responsibility and i

  13. Striving for a balance: Nature, power, science and India′s Indira Gandhi, 1917-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    exchanges unify the world, divisions between and within nation states are central to most issues. By looking at a key figure of the latter half of the twentieth century, the article hopes to shed fresh light on how to look at the relations of nature, science, and power.

  14. Snow melt: Evaluation of an energy balance model

    OpenAIRE

    Tvedalen, Anne Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has an ambition of introducing energy balance snow melt modelling in their hydrological models, preferably on a finer resolution than daily in order to account for diurnal variations. In that context the physically based point energy balance model seNorge eb, with precipitation and temperature as input data, was evaluated on 3 and 24 hour resolution in terms of its precision in predicting snow melt rates. Simu- lated snow melt rates d...

  15. Neural Control of Energy Balance: Translating Circuits to Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautron, Laurent; Elmquist, Joel K.; Williams, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights into the neural circuits controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis have rekindled the hope for development of novel treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, many therapies contribute relatively modest beneficial gains with accompanying side effects, and the mechanisms of action for other interventions remain undefined. This Review summarizes current knowledge linking the neural circuits regulating energy and glucose balance with current and potential pharmacother...

  16. Balancing up and downregulation of the C. elegans X chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Alyssa C; Csankovszki, Györgyi

    2015-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, males have one X chromosome and hermaphrodites have two. Emerging evidence indicates that the male X is transcriptionally more active than autosomes to balance the single X to two sets of autosomes. Because upregulation is not limited to males, hermaphrodites need to strike back and downregulate expression from the two X chromosomes to balance gene expression in their genome. Hermaphrodite-specific downregulation involves binding of the dosage compensation complex t...

  17. Five models of players' rule behavior for game balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungkeun; Kim, Mijin

    2012-09-01

    We present a five-part model of players' rule behaviors in a multiplayer online game (utilization, emergence, usefulness, usefulness-balance, and balance-usefulness). The model was identified through a pilot study involving nine expert players. The model fitness was then verified in a main experiment involving eighteen regular players. Our results showed that the utilization (4 players) and emergence (4 players) models were most frequently used, followed by the balance-usefulness (3 players), usefulness (3 players), and usefulness-balance (2 players) models. The coding scheme for this research was built from video observations and a literature review. We suggest this model is applicable for the implementation of a human-like virtual character's artificial intelligence algorithm in the game editors and the server loader for quality assurance. PMID:22817612

  18. Chapter VI. The joined production account, taking and balances of the electric energy, mass remote control and consulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the joined production account (1949-1991), production, taking and balances of the electric energy (production in nuclear power plants are includes), mass remote control and consulting of the Slovak Power-stations, j.s.c. are reviewed

  19. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz;

    2014-01-01

    State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed method has the advantage of avoiding the stability problem existed in traditional methods based on droop gain...... scheduling. Simulation experiment is taken in Matlab on a DC microgrid with two distributed energy storage units. The simulation results show that the proposed method has successfully achieved SoC balance during the load changes while maintaining the DC bus voltage within the allowable range.......Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, while overlooking the coordination of the energy storage units to maintain the...

  20. Modelling of the Flexibility of the Swedish Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis studies the flexibility of Swedish power system. Because of the increase of fuel price and the environmental issues, renewable energy plays an increasingly important role. Sweden parliament has a planning frame of 30 TWh wind power energy per year in 2020. Wind power generation is largely dependent of wind speed. Since wind speed varies all the time and is hard to be predicted, the introduction of wind power will cause variation of power generation which needs to be balance...

  1. Ten years of balanced sampling with the cube method: An appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review and assessment of the use of balanced sampling by means of the cube method. After defining the notion of balanced sample and balanced sampling, a short history of the concept of balancing is presented. The theory of the cube method is briefly presented. Emphasis is placed on the practical problems posed by balanced sampling: the interest of the method with respect to other sampling methods and calibration, the field of application, the accuracy of balancing, the c...

  2. A worldwide analysis of trends in water-balance evapotranspiration

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Ukkola; Prentice, I. C

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the global hydrological cycle, with inevitable consequences for freshwater availability to people and ecosystems. But the attribution of recent trends in the terrestrial water balance remains disputed. This study attempts to account statistically for both trends and interannual variability in water-balance evapotranspiration (ET), estimated from the annual observed streamflow in 109 river basins during "water years" 1961–1999 and two gridd...

  3. A worldwide analysis of trends in water-balance evapotranspiration

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Ukkola; Prentice, I. C

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the global hydrological cycle, with inevitable consequences for freshwater availability to people and ecosystems. But the attribution of recent trends in the terrestrial water balance remains disputed. This study attempts to account statistically for both trends and interannual variability in water-balance evapotranspiration (ET), estimated from the annual observed streamflow in 109 river basins during "water years" 1961–1999 and two gridded precipitat...

  4. The Research of Load Balancing Technology in Server Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available When the network is using many servers to provide network services, it needs a load balancing technique. This article has researched load-balancing technique that is based on Address Translation (NAT and that is direct routing. It is simple to say that load balancing is based on Address Translation that can turn the parallel network services of the different IP addresses into a virtual service that is on an IP address by the NAT method. Direct routing technology program is deployed and running on speed Ethernet or kilo-mega Ethernet; it needn’t to change the original topology. The client sends the data request; the load-balancing device is only responsible for dispatching the request, while the application server will respond back to the client. By comparing the two techniques we can draw the conclusion: Under this load balancing that is direct routing mode, the overall performance of the system does not rely on the performance of the device of load balancing performance itself, but it depends on the performance of the application server itself. It can maximize server performance.

  5. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union, vis-à-vis other major powers, including the United States....

  6. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  7. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production; Introduccion al calculo del balance energetico de la produccion de Biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-11-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Single-Vector Calibration of Wind-Tunnel Force Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of calibrating a wind-tunnel force balance involves the use of a unique load application system integrated with formal experimental design methodology. The Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System (SVS) overcomes the productivity and accuracy limitations of prior calibration methods. A force balance is a complex structural spring element instrumented with strain gauges for measuring three orthogonal components of aerodynamic force (normal, axial, and side force) and three orthogonal components of aerodynamic torque (rolling, pitching, and yawing moments). Force balances remain as the state-of-the-art instrument that provide these measurements on a scale model of an aircraft during wind tunnel testing. Ideally, each electrical channel of the balance would respond only to its respective component of load, and it would have no response to other components of load. This is not entirely possible even though balance designs are optimized to minimize these undesirable interaction effects. Ultimately, a calibration experiment is performed to obtain the necessary data to generate a mathematical model and determine the force measurement accuracy. In order to set the independent variables of applied load for the calibration 24 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 experiment, a high-precision mechanical system is required. Manual deadweight systems have been in use at Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the 1940s. These simple methodologies produce high confidence results, but the process is mechanically complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four weeks to complete. Over the past decade, automated balance calibration systems have been developed. In general, these systems were designed to automate the tedious manual calibration process resulting in an even more complex system which deteriorates load application quality. The current calibration approach relies on a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) methodology, where each independent variable is

  9. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  10. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  11. The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet: sensitivity to climate change as revealed by energy-balance modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change is studied with an energy-balance model of the ice/snow surface, applied at 200 m elevation intervals for four characteristic regions of the ice sheet. Solar radiation, longwave radiation, turbulent heat fluxes and refreezing of melt water in the snow pack are treated separately. The daily cycle is fully resolved. For the climatology chosen as input (mainly from work by A. Ohmura), the, mean specific balance prod...

  12. Human balance, the evolution of bipedalism and dysequilibrium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, John R

    2006-01-01

    A new model of the uniqueness, nature and evolution of human bipedality is presented in the context of the etiology of the balance disorder of dysequilibrium syndrome. Human bipedality is biologically novel in several remarkable respects. Humans are (a) obligate, habitual and diverse in their bipedalism, (b) hold their body carriage spinally erect in a multisegmental "antigravity pole", (c) use their forelimbs exclusively for nonlocomotion, (d) support their body weight exclusively by vertical balance and normally never use prehensile holds. Further, human bipedalism is combined with (e) upper body actions that quickly shift the body's center of mass (e.g. tennis serves, piggy-back carrying of children), (f) use transient unstable erect positions (dance, kicking and fighting), (g) body height that makes falls injurious, (h) stiff gait walking, and (i) endurance running. Underlying these novelties, I conjecture, is a species specific human vertical balance faculty. This faculty synchronizes any action with a skeletomuscular adjustment that corrects its potential destabilizing impact upon the projection of the body's center of mass over its foot support. The balance faculty depends upon internal models of the erect vertical body's geometrical relationship (and its deviations) to its support base. Due to the situation that humans are obligate erect terrestrial animals, two frameworks - the body- and gravity-defined frameworks - are in constant alignment in the vertical z-axis. This alignment allows human balance to adapt egocentric body cognitions to detect body deviations from the gravitational vertical. This link between human balance and the processing of geometrical orientation, I propose, accounts for the close link between balance and spatial cognition found in the cerebral cortex. I argue that cortical areas processing the spatial and other cognitions needed to enable vertical balance was an important reason for brain size expansion of Homo erectus. A novel

  13. The Influence of the Balance of Dispersion and Nonlinearity on the Transmission Quality in Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of the balance of dispersion and nonlinearity on the quality of a transmission system with super Gauss pulse input by altering the input power and adding a section of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The same mechanisms are applied to a 2-channel wave divide multiplex system(WDM) as well. DCF is proved to be a good solution in both situations.

  14. Development of a 5-Component Balance for Water Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of this research/development effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure both static and dynamic forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 90 grams or 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models. The five-component balance was calibrated and demonstrated linearity in the responses of the primary components to applied loads, very low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and F/A-18 models. The data were compared to forces and moments from wind tunnel tests of the same or similar configurations. The comparison showed very good agreement, providing confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multi-component internal balance. The success of the static experiments encouraged the use of the balance for dynamic experiments. Among the advantages of conducting dynamic tests in a water tunnel are less demanding motion and data acquisition rates than in a wind tunnel test (because of the low-speed flow) and the capability of performing flow visualization and force/moment (F/M) measurements simultaneously with relative simplicity. This capability of simultaneous flow visualization and for F/M measurements proved extremely useful to explain the results obtained during these dynamic tests. In general, the development of this balance should encourage the use of water tunnels for a

  15. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming...... increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially...... based rather than funded by subsidies. Consequently the Smart Grid provides a business opportunity for so-called Virtual Power Plants. A Virtual Power Plant is an independent commercial operator, which provides Smart Grid capabilities to flexible consumers. This means that the Virtual Power Plant is the...

  16. Control strategy to balance operation of parallel connected legs of modular multilevel converters

    OpenAIRE

    Pou Félix, Josep; Ceballos Recio, Salvador; Konstantinou, Georgios; Capellá Frau, Gabriel José; Agelidis, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Connecting legs of modular multilevel converters (MMCs) in parallel can assist an MMC-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) to increase its current ratings and hence overall power handling capability. Consequently, each phase of the MMC would be integrated by several legs or sets of upper and lower arms (ULAs). This paper proposes a current control strategy for each ULA in order to ensure balanced current sharing among them. In addition, each ULA has its own circulating current control tha...

  17. Information support for an interregional model of the fuel and energy balance in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the technical and economic indicators of a technology for producing synthetic fuel, the production of electric power and the transport of fuel and energy between regions of the world. Cited are two scenarios of energy demand, which are formulated on the basis of materials from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. The described information is used to construct a linear model of the world's fuel and energy balance. The model is designed for studying the coming part of the fuel and energy balance of regions of the world, the determination of the expedient methods for production and transport of energy and the presentation of the prospects for the development of power engineering in regions of the world until 2030.

  18. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  19. Environmental balance of mining from seafloor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    evaluation and determination of the environmental performances of different dredging equipment, techniques and procedures. Moreover, the new future developments and latest proposals in the dredging industry have been presented. Also, the new proposal to reduce the turbidity and suspended material effect which is the most important environmental impacts during dredging operations has presented. This research work gives a description of underwater mining techniques and different way of evaluating the dredging equipment's in term of environmental, economic and social aspects. Also, this work presents two different methods of evaluation. The first approach is the statistical analyses method by using the modern Fuzzy evaluation concept. The second slant is a mathematical accounting method by using the information from the Egyptian case study, in order to reach the most environmental-friendly dredging techniques by taking into account the economic and social point of views. The final evaluation showed that the suction and bucket ladder dredger are the best choices. The assessment was made after comparing many parameters such as performance, characteristics, working depth, soil types and project area. Also, this work presents two different new practices for extraction of the underwater placer deposits which occur on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The first technique uses floating processing unit in the in situ area, which gets the extracted material and treated it to reduce the transportation costs. The second technique has divided the working area to many stages which make the suction dredger used also for transporting the material into the beach. The pipeline will be the best method of transportation by using the power of suction, which reduce also the transportation costs and also avoid the environmental effects.

  20. High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers based on strain-balanced heterostructures (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, M.; Evans, A.; Slivken, S.; Yu, J. S.; Zheng, J. G.; Dravid, V. P.

    2005-07-01

    Limiting factors for short-wavelength QCL designs are discussed, and a model is described to predict the short-wavelength limit for strain-balanced QCL structures. High performance is predicted at wavelengths as short as 3.0mm based on a conduction band offset of 0.9 eV in the GaInAs/AlInAs materials. Recent work is presented on the growth of strained materials using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy to investigate the model predictions. Advanced material characterization, including HR-STEM, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, and wafer-scale uniformity and repeatability are demonstrated for strain-balanced QCL structures. Laser testing results are presented for QCLs operating at ~4.8mm, and lastly, predictions for further performance improvement at short wavelengths are discussed.