WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of power

  1. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...

  2. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the s...

  3. Learning Responsibility and Balance of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Sefika Sümeyye; Ünal Oruç, Eylem

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to determine teacher perspectives on learning responsibility and balance of power. The research design is case study which was conducted on four primary school teachers. The data were collected with semi-structured interviews and the data obtained were analyzed with categorical analysis, a type of content analysis. The…

  4. Historical Changes In The Balance Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Tămaș

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Humanity crosses a period of historical discontinuity on the socio-politic and economic plan. The major changing vector is represented by the emerging economies, whose development high rates made them become the main contributor to the global growth. One of the principal consequences of this transition is the remodeling of the world’s order, the change in the global balance of powers, through the transition from the uni-polar world dominated by the United States of America to the multi-polar world in which emerging powers’ position is, more and more, taken into account. The progress registered by those emerging economies requires the reviewing of some theories, concepts and principles that orientate the economic and political contemporary practice.

  5. Learning Responsibility and Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefika Sümeyye Çam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to determine teacher perspectives on learning responsibility and balance of power. The research design is case study which was conducted on four primary school teachers. The data were collected with semi-structured interviews and the data obtained were analyzed with categorical analysis, a type of content analysis. The findings suggest that teachers think that learner should be at the center of teaching with LCT and they are incapable of applying learner-center teaching. It has been found that the class size and loaded teaching programs prevent them to apply LCT. Therefore, there have been some recommendations about the LCT by the researchers of the study.

  6. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  7. Economic Integration vs European Balance of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoqing

    2004-01-01

    @@ The fifth round of the EU enlargement on May 1, 2004 turns the long-cherished "utopia" of a unified Europe into reality through a peaceful, economic approach.① This paper attempts to make some explorations on the following issues: Why the option for an economic approach? What changes have taken place in the nature and behavior of the relevant nations? What impact will the event have on European stability and balance?② How will the EU keep equilibrium through systemic mechanisms in case of inter-state disputes so as to lay the political groundwork for a peaceful unification.

  8. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... regulating power bids are activated manually. In this article, an algorithm is developed to simulate the activation of regulating power bids, as performed in the control room, during power imbalance between generation and load demand. In addition, the active power balance is also controlled through automatic...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  9. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...

  10. Balance Sheet and Analysis of Reactive Power Demand in the Polish Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the balance sheet and the reactive power demand of the Polish Power System. Reactive power balance sheets were made for the specific operating conditions of the system: the last winter peak, summer peak and summer off peak load. The basis of the study was load flow models and selected load flow calculation results. In addition, changes in demand for active and reactive power in recent years were presented.

  11. Generalized balanced power diagrams for 3D representations of polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Brieden, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the grain structure of polycrystalline material is an important task in material science. The present paper introduces the concept of generalized balanced power diagrams as a concise alternative to voxelated mappings. Here, each grain is represented by (measured approximations of...

  12. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  13. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

  14. Power spectral density in balance assessment. Description of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syczewska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    One of the methods used in clinical setting to assess the balance function is the measurement of the centre of pressure trajectory (COP). The COP trajectory is strongly dependent on the body centre of mass trajectory (COM), but in case of balance problems the corrective signals influence this dependence. The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of using power spectral density function of the COP vs. COM signal in assessing the amount of correction signals. As the aim was a methodological one, only one healthy adult subject participated in the study. This subject performed five balance tasks of increasing difficulty. The COP trajectory was recorded using the Kistler force plate, and COM trajectory was calculated based on the marker trajectories placed on the subject's body and simultaneously recorded with VICON 460 system. The COM data were subtracted from COP trajectory in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral direction. Next the power spectral density (PSD) was calculated for the new signals. The power spectral density is very low for easiest condition, but increases with the difficulty of task. Moreover, it also provides information in which plane (sagittal or frontal) more correction movements are needed to maintain stability.

  15. Power loss measurement of implantable wireless power transfer components using a Peltier device balance calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Yan; Budgett, David M.; Taberner, Andrew; Hu, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Determining heat losses in power transfer components operating at high frequencies for implantable inductive power transfer systems is important for assessing whether the heat dissipated by the component is acceptable for implantation and medical use. However, this is a challenge at high frequencies and voltages due to limitations in electronic instrumentation. Calorimetric methods of power measurement are immune to the effects of high frequencies and voltages; hence, the measurement is independent of the electrical characteristics of the system. Calorimeters have been widely used to measure the losses of high power electrical components (>50 W), however it is more difficult to perform on low power components. This paper presents a novel power measurement method for components dissipating anywhere between 0.2 W and 1 W of power based on a heat balance calorimeter that uses a Peltier device as a balance sensor. The proposed balance calorimeter has a single test accuracy of ±0.042 W. The experimental results revealed that there was up to 35% difference between the power measurements obtained with electrical methods and the proposed calorimeter.

  16. The New China and the New Regional Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bueno Martínez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The People’s Republic of China has turned 50. Many things have changed since that first day of October when the Great Leader solemnly declared the proclamation of the birth of a new nation. More than that, though, what he proclaimed that day was the return ofChinese pride - the Chinese people had finally arisen after having knelt before the Western powers for the last century. The end of the Second World and its aftermath facilitated the Communistís triumph in China. The end of the Cold War left in its wake a wide range ofuncertainties and hopes in the zone, the Pacific, where the different Asian powers finally have much to say and decide on regarding the fate of the world as a whole. This new multipolarity has led to the rise of a new balance of power throughout Asia. The Korean peninsulaand Taiwan continue being the most dangerous flash points for conflict, albeit more controlled ones given the tragic consequences that could unfold if they developed into armed conflicts. This article provides a brief analysis of the roles that the leading powers play in the zone within both the regional and global contexts. Among these powers is, obviously, China, viewed in comparison with its neighbor and maximum rival for occupying a dominant role, the Japanese empire. Meanwhile, the two superpowers have seen their influence vary considerably in this area for different reasons: Moscow, in full political decline and economic chaos, with its nuclear arsenal intact; and Washington, with its puzzling and shifting policy towards China, and its military presence in the zone that is both unwanted yet desired by all except Beijing and Pyongyang. The relations among these countries will mark the future of a large part of the planet and that of most of its inhabitants.

  17. Ecological balance of power generation from sewage gas; Oekobilanz Klaergasverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchetti, C.; Bienz, P.; Pridal, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the ecological balance made for the production of electrical power from biogas that is produced in waste water treatment plants. The study was needed as the basis for deciding if power thus generated could be certified to the strict 'Naturemade Star' standards. This label is used to designate 'green' power. The report briefly describes the processes usually used in the treatment of sewage sludge, the energy-intensive aerobic and anaerobic digestion, which produces biogas. The ecological factors of the two processes were assessed using the Eco-Indicator 99 tool. The results are discussed, which showed that a typical modern waste water treatment plant is significantly better as far as energy is concerned than older examples of plant (e.g. those built in 1995) as far as ecological impact is concerned. Also, the study addresses other forms of biogas use, like, for example, its use as a fuel for vehicles.

  18. The Power of Balance: Transforming Self, Society, and Scientific Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Torbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The “power of balance” as conceived by Torbert represents an integral paradigm of principles, theory, and praxis. Deployed, the paradigm is one that can indeed inform and shape the development of self, society, and scientific inquiry. To explicate that fulsome vision, the book’s fifteen chapters develop the themes of three sections: Theory and Strategy, Heart and Practice, and Vision and Method. Here, we have excerpted from several chapters in Theory and Strategy, and from one chapter in Vision and Method. This means, of course, that we present but a small fraction of this integral classic, leaving out all of the rich, in-depth illustrations, including the author’s learning practice as he first attempted to enact the principles. Yet, we hope even this abbreviated form of The Power of Balance supports at least two goals: to offer deployable insights and practices for developing politics and the political; and to take root as part of a foundational canon for integral political thought, research, and praxis. How we readers deploy these principles in our own actions will determine the degree to which self, society, and scientific inquiry transform.

  19. The Power of Slightly More than One Sample in Randomized Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-26

    2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The power of slightly more than one sample in randomized load balancing The views...2820 ABSTRACT The power of slightly more than one sample in randomized load balancing Report Title In many computing and networking applications...Symposium on, pages 213–222. IEEE, 1996. [10] M. Mitzenmacher. The Power of Two Choices in Randomized Load Balancing . PhD thesis, University of California

  20. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  1. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    A power balancing strategy based on Douglas-Rachford splitting is proposed as a control method for largescale integration of flexible consumers in a Smart Grid. The total power consumption is controlled through a negotiation procedure between all units and a coordinating system level. The balancing...

  2. A theoretical look at the gender balance of power in the American couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, R L; Coleman, M T

    1989-06-01

    Despite the very rich theoretical literature on marital power, recent empirical investigations on this subject have, in general, relied on disappointing measures of power. The empirically testable model developed in this article is an application of Blumberg's general theory of gender stratification to the contemporary American heterosexual couple. In the model, the authors concur with prior studies that identify economic power as the key variable in the power balance within a marital relationship. Their conceptualization of economic power, however, attempts to reflect the extremely complex nature of marital power. Thus, they offer the notion of overall economic power and then suggest that there are a number of discount factors operating at both the macro and micro levels that affect the power balance, resulting in what is termed net economic power. The fully elaborated model is dynamic, taking into account birth cohort differences, stable versus transitional relationships, and cross-class differences.

  3. Power balance and characterization of impurities in the Maryland Spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Maryland Spheromak is a medium size magnetically confined plasma of toroidal shape. Low T{sub e} and higher n{sub e} than expected contribute to produce a radiation dominated short-lived spheromak configuration. A pyroelectric radiation detector and a VUV spectrometer have been used for space and time-resolved measurements of radiated power and impurity line emission. Results from the bolometry and VUV spectroscopy diagnostics have been combined to give the absolute concentrations of the major impurity species together with the electron temperature. The large amount of oxygen and nitrogen ions in the plasma very early in the discharge is seen to be directly responsible for the abnormally high electron density. The dominant power loss mechanisms are found to be radiation (from impurity line emission) and electron convection to the end walls during the formation phase of the spheromak configuration, and radiation only during the decay phase.

  4. Test-bed Assessment of Communication Technologies for a Power-Balancing Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Pedersen, Rasmus; Hasenleithner, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Due to growing need for sustainable energy, increasing number of different renewable energy resources are being connected into distribution grids. In order to efficiently manage a decentralized power generation units, the smart grid will rely on communication networks for information exchange...... and control. In this paper, we present a Smart Grid test-bed that integrates various communication technologies and deploys a power balancing controller for LV grids. Control performance of the introduced power balancing controller is subsequently investigated and its robustness to communication network cross......-traffic is evaluated. Various scenarios are demonstrated, assessing impact of communication network performance on quality of control....

  5. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  6. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J.J.; Willen, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    2012-01-01

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and mor

  7. A power balance model for handcycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; De Koning, Jos J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the applicability of the power balance model to elite handcycling and to obtain values for gross efficiency (GE). Methods. Four members of the Dutch Paralympic team performed trials on a 250-m indoor track. Velocity (v) and power output (PO) were measured in conjunction with

  8. Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries for balancing wind power forecast error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    is considered. In this paper, the economic feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for balancing the wind power forecast error is analysed. In order to perform a reliable assessment, an ageing model of lithium-ion battery was developed considering both cycling and calendar life. The economic analysis considers two......Wind power plant operators are often faced with extra charges when their power production does not match the forecasted power. Because the accuracy of wind power forecasts is limited, the use of energy storage systems is an attractive alternative even when large-scale aggregation of wind power......, it was found that for total elimination of the wind power forecast error, it is required to have a 25-MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system for the considered 2 MW WT....

  9. Changing Gender Roles, Shifting Power Balance and Long-distance Migration of Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.J.M.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of ‘tied stayer’ (usually the male partner) and ‘tied mover’ (usually the female). Since these concepts

  10. Changing gender roles, shifting power balance and long-distance migration of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of 'tied stayer' (usually the male partner) and 'tied mover' (usually the female). Since these concepts

  11. Shifting balance of power in experimental particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, J.; Martin, B.R.; Skea, J.E.F.; Peacock, T.; Minchin, N.; Crouch, D.

    1986-11-01

    'Bibliometrics': the analysis of publication and citation data: indicates that Europe has taken the lead from the US in experimental high-energy physics, which raises the question of how the US should respond.

  12. Balance of Power in Central and Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    with the Beacon, 1961 [19391), 340. Turkic speaking peoples in those countries as well as Turkey. 2. Fernand Braudel , The Mediterranean and the...and Robert L. Canfield. Braudel , Fernand . The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean Boulder: Westview, 1989. World in the Age of Philip 11. Volume I. New...are means of overcoming the social we might understand the conditions that are giving barrier of distance. "Distance," said Braudel , "is the events

  13. On power-counting renormalizability of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity with detailed balance

    CERN Document Server

    Vernieri, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We consider the version of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity where "detailed balance" is consistently implemented, such as to limitate the huge proliferation of couplings in the full theory and to obtain an healthy dynamics at low-energy. Since a superpotential which is third-order in spatial derivatives is not sufficient to guarantee the power-counting renormalizability of the spin-0 graviton, then one needs to go an order beyond in derivatives, building up a superpotential up to fourth-order spatial derivatives. Here, we perturb the action to quadratic order around flat space, and show that power-counting renormalizability of the spin-0 graviton is achieved only by setting to zero a specific coupling of the theory, while the spin-2 graviton is always power-counting renormalizable for any choice of the couplings. This result raises serious doubts about the use of detailed balance.

  14. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  15. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  16. Balancing of a power-transmission shaft with the application of axial torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Flemming, D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of power transmission shafting for high-speed balancing has shown that when axial torque is applied, the imbalance response is altered. An increase in synchronous excitation always occurs if the axial torque level is altered from the value used during balancing; this was the case even when the shaft was balanced with torque applied. The twisting of the long slender shaft produces a change in the imbalance distribution sufficient to disrupt the balanced state. This paper presents a review of the analytic development of a weighted least squares approach to influence coefficient balancing and a review of experimental results. The analytic approach takes advantage of the fact that the past testing has shown that the influence coefficients are not significantly affected by the application of axial torque. The 3.60-m (12-ft) long aluminum shaft, 7.62 cm (3 in.) in diameter was run through the first flexural critical speed at torque levels ranging from zero-torque to 903.8 N-M (8000 lb-in.) in 112.9 N-M (1000 lb-in.) increments. Good comparison was achieved between predicted and experimental results.

  17. Judicial Control over Althingi: Altered Balance of Powers in the Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Thorarensen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on how the control of the judiciary over the legislature has increased in the last decades and the reasons for altered balance of powers in the Icelandic constitutional system are explored. Earlier theories of parliamentary precedence over other branches of state power are in transition. There is a growing trend towards the balancing of powers, in which the courts monitor that legislation complies with the constitution. A comparison is made with the developments in the constitutional systems of Denmark and Norway which points at the same direction. The European Convention on Human Rights and constitutional amendments in 1995 have affected the interpretation methods of the Icelandic courts and strengthened their supervisory role. Ideas underlying constitutional democracy, rule of law and effective remedies for individuals are prevailing over the idea of preferred position of the legislative power vis-à-vis the judiciary. The courts see it as a constitutional duty to adjudicate whether a legislative act conforms with constitutional human rights. The Supreme Court of Iceland has referred to the wide discretion of the legislature in the field of fiscal powers, such as regarding taxation and the social security system. However, even where legislation aims at the implementation of important political policies, the discretion of Althingi is subject to certain limits. The effective judicial control requires that Althingi must assess carefully whether legislation which limits constitutionally protected human rights conforms with the principles of equality and proportionality.

  18. Balance and muscle power of children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais R. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In certain diseases, functional constraints establish a greater relationship with muscle power than muscle strength. However, in hereditary peripheral polyneuropathies, no such relationship was found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT, to identify the impact of muscle strength and range of movement on the static/dynamic balance and standing long jump based on quantitative and functional variables. METHOD: The study analyzed 19 participants aged between 6 and 16 years, of both genders and with clinical diagnoses of CMT of different subtypes. Anthropometric data, muscle strength of the lower limbs (hand-held dynamometer, ankle and knee range of movement, balance (Pediatric Balance Scale and standing long jump distance were obtained by standardized procedures. For the statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between balance and the muscle strength of the right plantar flexors (r=0.61 and dorsiflexors (r=0.59 and a moderate correlation between balance and the muscle strength of inversion (r=0.41 and eversion of the right foot (r=0.44. For the long jump and range of movement, there was a weak positive correlation with right and left plantar flexion (r=0.20 and r=0.12, respectively and left popliteal angle (r=0.25, and a poor negative correlation with left dorsiflexion (r=-0.15. CONCLUSIONS: The data on the patients analyzed suggests that the maintenance of distal muscle strength favors performance during balance tasks, while limitations in the range of movement of the legs seem not to be enough to influence the performance of the horizontal long jump.

  19. The European system and the Egyptian question 1827-1841 : a study in the theory of balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Sattar El Badri, Mohammed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 289-295. This work aims at explaining the events of the Egyptian Question through the tools of balance of power theory. It is the main hypothesis of this work that the Egyptian Question affected the balance of power in Europe, i.e. Equilibrium, and therefore, was subjecte...

  20. Large scale exchange of balancing power between Norway and Europe: analysis of impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Skjelbred, Hans Ivar

    2012-07-01

    This report is from at study in Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (CEDREN). (The objective of the analysis is to show the impacts on the European power system if Norwegian hydropower is used for large-scale balancing. A special focus in on possible reductions of the CO{sub 2} emissions. A scenario methodology is used to explore different future developments of the power systems. The analysis is performed by the EMPS-model. All expected impacts on the European power system where observed: the Norwegian hydro power system worked as a pump-storage, the surplus in the production, the rationing of the demand and the CO{sub 2} emissions from the European power production were reduced. However, this report must mainly be regarded as preliminary analysis of the impacts of Norway as a 'green battery' for Europe. The work has given increased insight in necessary improvements in the design of the cases for analysis, the use og the EMPS as well as the implementation of the model before it is possible to finally quantify the impacts. The work will be brought further in other projects. (Author)

  1. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  2. Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan R.; Heussen, Kai; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    Energy system analyses on the basis of fast and simple tools have proven particularly useful for interdisciplinary planning projects with frequent iterations and re-evaluation of alternative scenarios. As such, the tool “EnergyPLAN” is used for hourly balanced and spatially aggregate annual......, the model is verified on the basis of the existing energy mix on Bornholm as an islanded energy system. Future energy scenarios for the year 2030 are analysed to study a feasible technology mix for a higher share of wind power. Finally, the results of the hourly simulations are compared to dynamic frequency...... simulations incorporating the Vehicle-to-grid technology. The results indicate how the EnergyPLAN model may be improved in terms of intra-hour variability, stability and ancillary services to achieve a better reflection of energy and power capacity requirements....

  3. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power; Balance de planta de la CLV con aumento del 15 % de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  4. Development of a PEMFC Power System with Integrated Balance of Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, B.; Diffenderfer, C.; Ferguson, S.; Keyser, J.; Miller, M.; Sievers, B.; Ryan, A.; Vasquez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV s) have received increasing attention in recent years as military and commercial users look for means to maintain a mobile and persistent presence in the undersea world. Compact, neutrally buoyant power systems are needed for both small and large vehicles. Batteries are usually employed in these applications, but the energy density and therefore the mission duration are limited with current battery technology. At a certain energy or mission duration requirement, other means to get long duration power become feasible. For example, above 10 kW-hrs liquid oxygen and hydrogen have better specific energy than batteries and are preferable for energy storage as long as a compact system of about 100 W/liter is achievable to convert the chemical energy in these reactants into power. Other reactant forms are possible, such as high pressure gas, chemical hydrides or oxygen carriers, but it is essential that the power system be small and light weight. Recent fuel cell work, primarily focused on NASA applications, has developed power systems that can meet this target power density. Passive flow-through systems, using ejector driven reactant (EDR) flow, integrated into a compact balance of plant have been developed. These systems are thermally and functionally integrated in much the same way as are automotive, air breathing fuel cell systems. These systems fit into the small volumes required for AUV and future NASA applications. Designs have been developed for both a 21" diameter and a larger diameter (LD) AUV. These fuel cell systems occupy a very small portion of the overall energy system, allowing most of the system volume to be used for the reactants. The fuel cell systems have been optimized to use reactants efficiently with high stack efficiency and low parasitic losses. The resulting compact, highly efficient fuel cell system provides exceptional reactant utilization and energy density. Key design variables and supporting test data are

  5. Benefits of active transmit balanced antenna fed by differential power amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Sagor, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Callaghan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A differential amplifier feeding a balanced antenna is investigated experimentally. This approach would suit modern RFIC design rather than using a 50Ω unbalanced connection. As such the balun or power-combining network is eliminated resulting in a compact RF front-end design with wider bandwidth and lower losses. Experimental result shows that this technique promises higher output power compared to conventional feeding approach while using same RFIC and same power supply.

  6. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  7. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS pe

  8. Dynamic Balanced Scorecard for companies in the business field of power supply; Dynamic Balanced Scorecard fuer Unternehmen im Geschaeftsfeld der dezentralen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, M.; Roy, I. [Paderborn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Nachhaltige Energiekonzepte

    2006-06-19

    Due to deregulation and liberalisation of the power market and due to the opting out of the nuclear energy, the decentralized power supply increasingly gains in importance in comparison to the classical power supply. Thus, the entrepreneur who wants to engage in the decentralized power supply needs a management tool for conversion and supervision his strategy. A pertinent means for this already is the Dynamic Balanced Scorecard. By means of an evaluation of a simple balanced scorecard, the entrepreneur realizes his vision and strategy in order to determine the success-critical factors. These success-critical factors are related together in a causal chain. By this, the entrepreneur can recognize, what has to be done in order to act successfully on the market, and in order to secure the success on a long-term basis. The modelling of the Dynamic balanced Scorecard enables the examination of the corporate strategy, before it is implemented in the enterprise. Thus, the entrepreneur saves time and minimizes the corporate risk.

  9. Impact balance-of-system costs on photovoltaic electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, H.; Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.

    1983-03-01

    A simple method based on the balance-of-system (BOS) costs is proposed for computing the allowable solar cell module cost and efficiency for typical applications of photovoltaic electric power systems: microirrigation and a rural electric supply. It is shown that in India the allowable module cost of cell modules with a conversion efficiency of about 5% is about U.S. $2 Wsub(p)/sup -1/ (1980) for microirrigation and about U.S. $0.8 Wsub(p)/sup -1/ for a rural electricity centre. It is further observed that relatively low BOS costs in India and similar places tend to make the allowable module cost become invariant with the efficiency, thus permitting solar cell modules of lower efficiency (5%) to become commercially viable for large-scale applications.

  10. Balancing power among academic and community partners: the case of El Proyecto Bienestar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Julie

    2008-06-01

    Balancing power among academic and community partners, addressing community-identified needs, and strengthening community capacity are ethical values unique to community-based participatory research (CBPR). Negotiation of these values in one CBPR environmental justice project was evaluated to advance the environmental and occupational health of a Hispanic agricultural community in central Washington State. Data were collected through document review and participant observation. Applied conversation and discourse analysis were used to interpret the data. Within the organization, farmworkers primarily served an advisory role. Facilitation style influenced how participants negotiated environmental justice. Research goals were advanced in the project, but no direct actions were taken to improve farmworker health. Implementing CBPR's ethical values requires a willingness to confront institutional and interpersonal challenges, and offers a vision of research that builds knowledge and strengthens communities.

  11. Prediction of Critical Power and W' in Hypoxia: Application to Work-Balance Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Nathan E; Nichols, David S; Skiba, Philip F; Racinais, Sebastien; Périard, Julien D

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a prediction equation for critical power (CP) and work above CP (W') in hypoxia for use in the work-balance ([Formula: see text]) model. Methods: Nine trained male cyclists completed cycling time trials (TT; 12, 7, and 3 min) to determine CP and W' at five altitudes (250, 1,250, 2,250, 3,250, and 4,250 m). Least squares regression was used to predict CP and W' at altitude. A high-intensity intermittent test (HIIT) was performed at 250 and 2,250 m. Actual and predicted CP and W' were used to compute W' during HIIT using differential ([Formula: see text]) and integral ([Formula: see text]) forms of the [Formula: see text] model. Results: CP decreased at altitude (P study are suitable for use with the [Formula: see text] model in acute hypoxia. This enables the application of [Formula: see text] modelling to training prescription and competition analysis at altitude.

  12. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  13. Balancing autonomy and utilization of solar power and battery storage for demand based microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  14. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  15. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  16. T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, G.; Rio, R.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF A SHIFT IN THE POWER BALANCE FOR THE MARKET OF SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits van den BERG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with some observations on changes in the power balance between clients and suppliers in the service industry. The main forces between these changes are more information in the hands of clients (by use of internet and personal experiences and less information received by suppliers (by less contact with potential clients because of cost reduction. These changes can be translated into the replacement of a demand oriented market by a demand driven market. For suppliers of services to individuals in such a market two aspects are highly relevant. First the client will formulate his wishes in a kind of "Terms of Reference" and the supplier has to search for interesting requests. This instead of the client searching on internet or somewhere else for the best standard offer. In the second place the client will formulate his wishes often in a way that a single enterprise cannot deliver what is wanted. In order to survive chains of enterprises have to be formed. I mentioned a few of the vulnerable points of chains, points which need to have attention in the contract between the links of the chain.

  18. Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010; Norges effekt- og energibalanse frem mot aar 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekke, K.

    1996-12-31

    The present conference paper deals with the Norwegian power and energy balance towards the year of 2010 based on the rate of domestic energy consumption, development of new power plants, and international supply agreements. The efficiency of power transmission compared to the level of delivered energy in the Norwegian power grid within the period from 1975 to 1992 has increased from 83% to 91% with an equivalency of 5.5 TWh. Aspects in connection with the long-range programme are discussed. 12 figs.

  19. Balancing Power Output and Structural Fatigue of Wave Energy Converters by Means of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of electricity produced by wave energy converters (WECs, the benefit of selling electricity as well as the investment costs of the structure has to be considered. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the control strategy for a WEC with respect to both energy output and structural fatigue loads. Different active and passive control strategies are implemented (proportional (P controller, proportional-integral (PI controller, proportional-integral-derivative with memory compensation (PID controller, model predictive control (MPC and maximum energy controller (MEC, and load time-series resulting from numerical simulations are used to design structural parts based on fatigue analysis using rain-flow counting, Stress-Number (SN curves and Miner’s rule. The objective of the methodology is to obtain a cost-effective WEC with a more comprehensive analysis of a WEC based on a combination of well known control strategies and standardised fatigue methods. The presented method is then applied to a particular case study, the Wavestar WEC, for a specific location in the North Sea. Results, which are based on numerical simulations, show the importance of balancing the gained power against structural fatigue. Based on a simple cost model, the PI controller is shown as a viable solution.

  20. A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    and on-demand protocols like the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [5], Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing [6], Location-aided Routing (LAR...minimum residual battery power of a node in the route . MMBCR can be implemented on the top of any on-demand routing protocol like DSR, AODV and etc...Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Natarajan Meghanathan1 and Leslie C. Milton2

  1. Oil Price Fluctuation Reflects International Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇燕; 管清友

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the oil economy,economists have yet to build a perfect analytical framework for the oil market.Over a period of time,oil price fluctuates according to the supply and demand of the international market.In the long run,however,given the political nature of oil,oil price fluctuation is also dependent on the power balance between oil consumer and producer countries.History has proven that the world energy landscape is constantly in a process of change and evolution,which underlies the increasing oil price uncertainty in the long run.From the perspective of the world energy landscape and its evolution,this article applies international political-economic methodology in addressing the energy security issues facing China,with the purpose of offering recommendations for further areas of energy research.

  2. On the diversity enhancement and power balancing of per-subcarrier antenna selection in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under a power balancing constraint. Applying transmit antenna selection and discrete rate adaptive modulation using M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) according to the channel variation per subcarrier, we develop an optimal antenna selection scheme in terms of maximum spectral efficiency where all the possible grouping to send the same information bearing signals in a group of subcarriers are searched and the groups of subcarriers to provide the frequency diversity gain are formed. In addition, we propose a suboptimal method to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal method. The suboptimal scheme consider only the subcarriers under outage and those are combined sequentially until it meets a required SNR. Numerical results show that the proposed suboptimal method with diversity combining outperforms the optimal antenna selection without diversity combining introduced in [1], especially for low SNR region and offers the spectral efficiency close to that of the optimal method with diversity combining, while maintaining lower complexity. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Effects of plasma collisionality on power balance and magnetic fluctuations in the T1 reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, G.; Brzozowski, J. H.; Hörling, P.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.; Drake, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of plasma collisionality on power balance and magnetic fluctuations have been studied on the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch. A characteristic minimum in loop voltage is observed as the plasma collisionality decreases. The minimum is caused by an increase in the anomalous input power and coincides with a change of scaling of the magnetic fluctuations and a rapid increase of the electron mean free path. However, the increase of anomalous input power in the low collisional regime appears to have little influence on the total amount of energy stored in the plasma.

  4. Heat flux estimates of power balance on Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, M.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Donovan, D. C.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J.

    2016-11-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a precursor linear plasma device to the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will study plasma material interactions (PMIs) for future fusion reactors. This paper will discuss the initial steps performed towards completing a power balance on Proto-MPEX to quantify where energy is lost from the plasma, including the relevant diagnostic package implemented. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX's performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE HARMONIC LOSSES WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN UNBALANCED SYSTEM LOSSES USING BALANCED ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan İNAN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The losses in the power systems should be low as possible as. Saving energy instead of loses (kWh in power utilities can supply much more energy to the consumers. The lower losses the more energy is saved and thus the power system becomes more economical. In recent years, the increasing number of applications and power ratings of the devices which have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics cause voltage waveform distortion and additional losses. While evaluating losses considering harmonics will provide more contribution to obtain more accurate results. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method has been presented to predict the harmonic losses in unbalanced power systems by using the data from balanced power system with nonlinear loads.

  6. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    recomputes the reference values to the system such that control signal constraint violations are avoided. The new reference values are found using an energy balance of the system. The scheme is intended to handle rarely occurring constraint violations, so the only concern is that the system should be stable...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  7. Balance of power theory, implications for the U.S., Iran, Saudi Arabia, and a new arms race

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Randall G.

    2008-01-01

    As a study in the Bush Doctrine of preventive warfare, the conflict in Iraq has been of great interest. However, the unintended consequences and the impact on regional instability also demand attention. There is a balance of power struggle taking place between Iran and Saudi Arabia which, because of Iran's nuclear ambitions, has drawn the attention of the international community and the ire of the United States. As a result, policy makers in Washington are compelled to determine a course of ...

  8. On balance of power and the balance of power structure%浅谈权力制衡和我国权力制衡结构的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕

    2014-01-01

    The balance of power is an important issue in the study of political science. Since ancient times, there are many political experts expressed their views on this problem.The balance of power is an important guarantee for social equity and justice, to cure the corruption fundamentally, ensure that the reform and opening up and socialist modernization, the key lies in China's political system reform is successful, and the key to success lies in whether the complete realization of contemporary China's balance of power structure.%权力制衡是政治学研究中一个重要的问题。从古至今,有很多政治学家对这个问题发表了自己的看法。权力制衡是社会公平正义的重要保证,要从根本上根治腐败,保证改革开放和社会主义现代化建设事业的顺利进行,关键在于我国政治体制改革是否成功,而成功的关键在于是否彻底实现当代中国权力制衡结构的构建。

  9. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Human Movement Science Program, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%–4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: skiing, power balance, metabolic rate, work rate, air drag, friction coefficient

  10. Impact of Iran's Nuclear Program, on Turkey s National Security (In light of the Theory of Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoudnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nuclear program of the Islamic Republic of Iran It is always have been followed global and regional responses and objections. But after the election of Ahmadinejad as president of Iran and his willingness to advance the nuclear program, Western opposition to this trend intensified to the point where many of issuing sanctions against Iran. Among the countries that have been tried as a mediator between Iran and the International Union of Europe and the United States (5 +1 will act and encourage the parties to resolve the dispute diplomatically, Turkey. Considering this background, this paper attempts to link the Iranian nuclear program and Turkey's national security in light of the balance of power theory can be analyzed. The findings confirm the assumption that Turkey's concerns about Iran's nuclear program in the context of possible changes in the regional balance of power in the Islamic Republic's pursuit of nuclear energy is the analysis and evaluation, This is because the Turkish success in achieving the goals defined in the context of the challenges faced by policy-oriented Neo-Ottomans

  11. Analysis of Power Balancing with Fuel Cells & Hydrogenproduction Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    -in hybrid battery-hydrogen fuel cell vehicles it is important that the electricity demand is flexible. In the dump charge situation the potential to reduce the fuel consumption, CO2-emissions and to integrate fluctuating renewable energy is improved with the ability to charge at times with wind power....... This becomes increasingly important with more wind power, and can already be identified in 2012. The energy system analyses conducted here represents systems with plenty of excess wind power. The results presented above are also true for the 2030 energy system with 50 % wind power and 100 % renewable energy...... for integrating fluctuation renewable energy, also in future high temperature electrolysers. The fuel consumptions and CO2-emissions are larger than for current vehicles until we have more than 50 % wind power in the hydrogen vehicle transport scenarios. Also, if hydrogen is not produced according to the wind...

  12. 3(omega) Power Balance Procedure on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S; Jones, O; Speck, D R; Munro, D; Lerche, R; Salmon, T; Bliss, E; Gates, A; Boyd, B; Auerbach, J; Williams, W; Saroyan, A; Kalantar, D; MacGowan, B; Zacharias, R; Hayman, C; Sacks, R

    2001-01-22

    This document defines the detailed NIF full system shot procedure to obtain 8% power balance as specified by the SDR002 3.2.1.04. Because the 48 quads of the NIF will be set up over a period of five years, obtaining power balance will naturally be accomplished in two steps. First, as each quad is brought online, the four laser beams within each quad will be tuned by setting the PABTS splitter ratios so that each beam will give the same laser power on target during low energy square pulse shots. During the quad activation period all of the technical tools and procedures will be developed that are needed for attaining full laser power balance. After the initial settings of the 48 PABTS, if no other tuning is done the overall NIF power balance is expected to be about <15%. In the second step, an iteration procedure with approximately 18 full laser system shots will be needed to obtain 8% power balance by tuning out the remaining systematic differences among the quads to an acceptable small difference of 2% rms (at 3{omega}). This rms difference is smaller than the expected variation of the injection energy or the amplifier gain, and is also of the same order as the laser energy diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, 8% power balance will require a number of precision measurements that will need accurate calibrations combined with a laser performance model that accounts and corrects for variations of the injection energy and the amplifier gain. This document is intended to specify the procedure and the flow-down of requirements from the system design requirement of 8% power balance. It is further intended to help guide the laser shot planning, the laser controls, and the laser performance operations model groups. It should provide input relevant to power balance tuning for the development of an operations model that includes post-shot analysis (as described in NIF-0046491), shot planning (as described in this memo), and pre-shot analysis.

  13. A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is a simulation-based detailed performance comparison of three different classes of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: stability-based routing, power-aware routing and load-balanced routing. We choose the Flow-Oriented Routing protocol (FORP), the traffic interference based Load Balancing Routing (LBR) protocol and Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR) as representatives of the stability-based routing, load-balancing and power-aware routing protocols respectively. Among the three routing protocols, FORP incurs the least number of route transitions; while LBR incurs the smallest hop count and lowest end-to-end delay per data packet. Energy consumed per node is the least for MMBCR, closely followed by LBR. MMBCR is the most fair in terms of node usage and hence it incurs the largest time for first node failure. FORP tends to repeatedly use nodes lying on the stable path and hence is the most unfair of the three routing protocols and it incurs the smallest valu...

  14. Control of electron energy distribution by the power balance of the combined inductively and capacitively coupled RF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2016-09-01

    The control of electron energy probability function (EEPF) is important to control discharge characteristics in materials processing. For example, O radical density increases by changing the EEPF in O2 plasma, which provides high etching efficiency. The effect of the power balance between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) on the EEPF in Ar and O2 plasmas is investigated with a 1d3v (one-dimensional space and three-dimensional velocity domain) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for the combined inductively and capacitively coupled plasmas. The combined effects of the transverse electromagnetic and the longitudinal electrostatic fields are solved in PIC simulation at the same time. In a pressure range of a few mTorr, high energy electrons (>5 eV) are heated by the capacitive power in the sheath while low energy electrons (power in the bulk region. The EEPF has bi-Maxwellian distribution when the CCP power is dominant, but it changes to Maxwellian-like distribution with increasing inductive power. Finally, the EEPF changes to Druyvesteyn-like distribution when the inductive power is dominant.

  15. Coverage extension and balancing the transmitted power of the moving relay node at LTE-A cellular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, Jaafar A; Yahya, Abid; Ahmad, R Badlishah

    2014-01-01

    The poor capacity at cell boundaries is not enough to meet the growing demand and stringent design which required high capacity and throughput irrespective of user's location in the cellular network. In this paper, we propose new schemes for an optimum fixed relay node (RN) placement in LTE-A cellular network to enhance throughput and coverage extension at cell edge region. The proposed approach mitigates interferences between all nodes and ensures optimum utilization with the optimization of transmitted power. Moreover, we proposed a new algorithm to balance the transmitted power of moving relay node (MR) over cell size and providing required SNR and throughput at the users inside vehicle along with reducing the transmitted power consumption by MR. The numerical analysis along with the simulation results indicates that an improvement in capacity for users is 40% increment at downlink transmission from cell capacity. Furthermore, the results revealed that there is saving nearly 75% from transmitted power in MR after using proposed balancing algorithm. ATDI simulator was used to verify the numerical results, which deals with real digital cartographic and standard formats for terrain.

  16. Politic alternation in Baja California: Toward a new balance of powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtémoc López Guzmán

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the National Action Party (PAN won the governor elections in the State of Baja California in 1989, Mexico experienced the inauguration of a political alternation in a governor’s office, which brought about the smashing of the myth that it was impossible for the PRI to share power at that level. The scarce forums won or surrendered by the party ever present in power, allowed the opposition to confront and criticize the centralization of power and the neutralization of representation, that is, rather than offering its voters nationalistic discourses, the opposition parties joined the cause of the anti-centralist resent, particularly present in the northern part of the country, and discredited the decaying relationship between the legislative and the executive powers (the presidency, both at a federal and states levels. In view of these considerations, the possibilities of setting the foundations for a new horizontal and vertical relationship among powers in the state of Baja California, which during the last ten years has been governed by the National Action Party, are discussed in this essay.

  17. Enhancing the calculation accuracy of performance characteristics of power-generating units by correcting general measurands based on matching energy balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchinnikov, P. A.; Safronov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    General principles of a procedure for matching energy balances of thermal power plants (TPPs), whose use enhances the accuracy of information-measuring systems (IMSs) during calculations of performance characteristics (PCs), are stated. To do this, there is the possibility for changing values of measured and calculated variables within intervals determined by measurement errors and regulations. An example of matching energy balances of the thermal power plants with a T-180 turbine is made. The proposed procedure allows one to reduce the divergence of balance equations by 3-4 times. It is shown also that the equipment operation mode affects the profit deficiency. Dependences for the divergence of energy balances on the deviation of input parameters and calculated data for the fuel economy before and after matching energy balances are represented.

  18. Congress, the FCC and Children's Television Regulation: A Shift in the Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Karen

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the late 1980s appeared to pursue its own agenda of broadcast deregulation, notwithstanding congressional pressures. The apparent power shift is evident in a case study of the interactions between Congress and the FCC on the subject of children's television. In the early 1970s, the FCC tended to…

  19. The electrohydraulic balance of the solar heat storage with autonomous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Marahtanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper emphasizes an increasingly important role of alternative power sources nowadays. At the same time, a solar collector (suntrap is one of the most frequent techniques to use the solar energy. It is an absorber that picks up solar radiation and heats a heat carrier circulating in the close loop. Then the heat is transferred to the heat accumulator that is integrated in the hot-tap water system (HWS.The paper presents a prospective circuit of the solar collector. It differs from the traditional one because, in addition to absorbing panel, it uses photoconverters to generate electric power for the circulating pump. The advantage of this system is that for operation such a solar energy converter has no need in external power sources, i.e. it is autonomous. The need to calculate the essential thermo-physical parameters that ensure no-break system operation was stated as a main objective of the work.The suggested circuit has a photocell panel to convert solar radiation into dc voltage of 12 V. In case of a lack of the solar energy an accumulator battery can be used for feeding. To ensure the no-break supply of power an adaptor is offered.To calculate a density distribution of solar radiation a sine law is offered depending on the time of day and geographical locality. This dependence was used to obtain the expressions for calculating the water temperature in boiler over daytime.Further, the calculations have been done for the operating conditions under which an efficient heat exchange will be provided with the minimum consumption of electric power for the heat carrier circulation in the first loop. For this purpose, a pump power was calculated depending on consumption and hydraulic losses of head in the pipeline. As a minimum required consumption the value has been chosen at which a laminar flow regime changes to the turbulent one because of the most efficient heat exchange being both in collector and in heat accumulator

  20. Dual Decomposition for Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Dual decomposition is applied to power balancing of exible thermal storage units. The centralized large-scale problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems and solved locallyby each unit in the Smart Grid. Convergence is achieved by coordinating the units consumption through a negotiation...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN COMBINED WITH VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE CONTROL AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  2. Thermal Storage Power Balancing with Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The method described in this paper balances power production and consumption with a large number of thermal loads. Linear controllers are used for the loads to track a temperature set point, while Model Predictive Control (MPC) and model estimation of the load behavior are used for coordination....... The total power consumption of all loads is controlled indirectly through a real-time price. The MPC incorporates forecasts of the power production and disturbances that influence the loads, e.g. time-varying weather forecasts, in order to react ahead of time. A simulation scenario demonstrates...

  3. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%-4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing.

  4. Is direct marketing a risk factor? Inaccurate forecasting of power generation from renewables raises the demand for balancing power; Risikofaktor Direktvermarktung? Durch ungenaue Prognosen bei der Einspeisung von gruenem Strom steigt der Bedarf an Regelleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    Since the amendment of the EEG in January 2012, enormous amounts of electric power from renewable energy sources are marketed directly, i.e. outside the control of power supply grid owners and operators that formerly sold the electric power in the stock exchange. Inaccurate prognoses made by the direct marketers as well as their marketing strategies have increased the demand for balancing power and made critical situations in the power grid even more difficult.

  5. Evaluation of Communication Network State Estimators for Adaptive Power-Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Smart Grid applications are going to reach the LV grid assets and households in order to efficiently use the resources in distribution grids. A cost effective way to connect these devices is to utilize the existing network infrastructure or to utilize Power-Line Com- munication (PLC). In this work...... we have show how PLC communication can have significant impairments for load-frequency control operations in the microgrid. Moreover, we have demonstrate how such poor network performance can influence the control performance on a case study of the low voltage grid controller. Further- more, we have...

  6. Evaluation of Communication Network State Estimators for Adaptive Power-Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer;

    2016-01-01

    Smart Grid applications are going to reach the LV grid assets and households in order to efficiently use the resources in distribution grids. A cost effective way to connect these devices is to utilize the existing network infrastructure or to utilize Power-Line Com- munication (PLC). In this work...... we have show how PLC communication can have significant impairments for load-frequency control operations in the microgrid. Moreover, we have demonstrate how such poor network performance can influence the control performance on a case study of the low voltage grid controller. Further- more, we have...

  7. Dependence of the L-H power threshold on magnetic balance and heating method in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.; Biewer, T.; Meyer, H.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Chang, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    H-mode access is a critical issue for next step devices, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is projected to have a modest heating power margin over the projected L-H power threshold (PLH). The importance of a second X-point in setting the value of PLH has been clarified in recent experiments on several tokamaks. Specifically a reduction of PLH was observed when the magnetic configuration was changed from single null (SN) to double null (DN) in the MAST, NSTX, and ASDEX-Upgrade devices [1]. Motivated by these results, detailed PLH studies on NSTX have compared discharges with neutral beam and rf heating, as a function of drsep. Similar PLH values and edge parameters are observed with the two heating methods in the same magnetic configuration, with PLH ˜ 0.6 MW lowest in DN and increasing to ˜ 1.1 MW and 2-4 MW in lower-SN and upper-SN configurations respectively (ion grad-B-drift towards lower X-point). The evolution of the experimental profiles of parameters in L-mode before the L/H transition will be compared with simulations using the XGC code (C.S. Chang). [1] MEYER, H. et al., Nucl. Fusion 46 (2006) 64.

  8. Changing the balance of power – Worldwide air force`s capability turbulences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEČAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In past Century, the air power had undergone a significant journey. In its humble beginnings during WWI an airplane proved itself a perspective and highly capable new weapon. WWII demonstrated the importance of air superiority for waging a global warfare. The Cold War mastered technologies enabling air power to be not only a weapon a mass destruction but also a surgical tool. On one hand, an aircraft has become a state of art technology, yet on the other hand a cost for its development, procurement, and servicing grew into an astronomic levels. Therefore, since mid 1970s there have been trends to shift airpower from quantity into quality, which has gained a new moment with the end of the Cold War. Starting with the first Gulf War, in past two decades demonstrated a growing importance of a multirole fighter aircraft that is able to carry out a full specter of missions for minimal costs. When analyzing five most potent airpowers of the 21st century, we can witness that this is the trend is on and it will surely continue in future.

  9. Power Balance Estimation in Long Duration Discharges on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; I. Kalinnikova, E.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Mitarai, O.; Fukuyama, A.; Takase, Y.; Gao, X.; H., Liu; Qian, J.; Ono, M.; Raman, R.

    2016-11-01

    Fully non-inductive plasma start-up was successfully achieved by using a well-controlled microwave source on the spherical tokamak, QUEST. Non-inductive plasmas were maintained for approximately 3-5 min, during which time power balance estimates could be achieved by monitoring wall and cooling-water temperatures. Approximately 70%-90% of the injected power could be accounted for by calorimetric measurements and approximately half of the injected power was found to be deposited on the vessel wall, which is slightly dependent on the magnetic configuration. The power distribution to water-cooled limiters, which are expected to be exposed to local heat loads, depends significantly on the magnetic configuration, however some of the deposited power is due to energetic electrons, which have large poloidal orbits and are likely to be deposited on the plasma facing components.

  10. Analysis of Heat Balance on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using Multi-Stage Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1100MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure.

  11. Small-scale combined heat and power as a balancing reserve for wind – The case of participation in the German secondary control reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sorknæs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES are being integrated into energy systems worldwide. Due to the nature of these sources, they are found to increase the importance of mechanisms for balancing the electricity system. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP plants based on gas have proven their ability to participate in the electricity system balancing, and can hence be used to facilitate an integration of intermittent RES into electricity systems. Within the EU electricity system, balancing reserves have to be procured on a market basis. This paper investigates the ability and challenges of a small-scale CHP plant based on natural gas to participate in the German balancing reserve for secondary control. It is found that CHP plants have to account for more potential losses than traditional power plants. However, it is also found that the effect of these losses can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of the CHP unit.

  12. Design of battery storage power station for power balance%用于电力平衡的蓄电池储能电站的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彦京; 刘圆圆; 商晓英

    2013-01-01

    利用蓄电池储能电站调整负荷来保持电力平衡,是解决电力供需矛盾的一种有效途径.建立蓄电池储能电站,蓄电池的选型很重要,因为电池是电站的核心元件.根据机组调峰容量比的概念,建立了调荷容量的数学模型,再结合蓄电池组的调荷容量比,以满足电网综合调荷容量比最小为目标,计算出蓄电池组容量.储能电站的设计中,往往忽略蓄电池连接方式的选择问题,通过多种蓄电池组并串联方案的比较,找出最佳的蓄电池组连接方式,完成锂离子蓄电池储能电站的宏观设计.%It is an effective measure to use battery storage power station to regulate load and keep power balance. For setting up battery storage station, the type selection of batteries which are heart components of the power station is important. The mathematical model of load regulation capacity was built according to the ratio of peak regulation capacity. Then, combined with load regulation capacity ratio of batteries, the capacity of batteries was computed to minimize the integrate load regulation capacity ratio of electricity grid. In design of storage power station, the choice of connection mode is often neglected. Through comparing several schemes of serial-parallel batteries, the best scheme was found to finish the whole design of lithium-ion battery storage power station.

  13. Validation of the thermal balance of Laguna Verde turbine under conditions of extended power increase; Validacion del balance termico de turbina de Laguna Verde en condiciones de aumento de potencia extendido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda G, M. A.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Garcia de la C, F. M., E-mail: miguel.castaneda01@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The present work is a continuation of the task: Modeling of the vapor cycle of Laguna Verde with the PEPSE code to conditions of thermal power licensed at present (2027 MWt) in which the modeling of the vapor cycle of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was realized with PEPSE code (Performance Evaluation of Power System Efficiencies). Once reached the conditions of nominal operation of extended power increase, operating both units to 2371 MWt; after the tests phase of starting-up and operation is necessary to carry out a verification of the proposed design of the vapor cycle for the new operation conditions. All this, having in consideration that the vapor cycle designer only knows the detail of the prospective performance of the main turbine, for all the other components (for example pumps, heat inter changers, valves, reactor, humidity separators and re-heaters, condensers, etc.) makes generic suppositions based on engineering judgment. This way carries out the calculations of thermal balance to determine the guaranteed gross power. The purpose of the present work is to comment the detail of the validation carried out of the specific thermal balance (thermal kit) of the nuclear power plant, making use of the design characteristics of the different components that conform the vapor cycle. (Author)

  14. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  15. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  16. Compiler-directed power optimization of high-performance interconnection networks for load-balancing MPI applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuejun; YI Huizhan; QU Xiangli; ZHOU Haifang

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption of parallel computers has been becoming the obstruction to higher-performance systems.In this paper,we focus on power optimization of highperformance interconnection networks for MPI applications in high-performance parallel computers.Compared with the past history-based work,we propose the idea of compilerdirected power-aware on/off network links.There are some idle intervals for network links during the execution of parallel applications,at which the links still consume large amounts of energy.Using on/off network links,compiler first divides load-balancing MPI applications into the communication intervals and the computation intervals,and then inserts the on/off instruction into the applications to switch the link state.To avoid the time overhead of state switching,we use a time estimation technique to analyze the computation time,and insert the on instruction before reaching the communication intervals.Results from simulations and experiments show that the proposed compiler- directed method can reduce energy consumption of interconnection networks by 20~70%,at a loss of less than 1% network latency and performance degradation.

  17. Impact of the Peaking of World Oil Production on the Global Balance of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    A New Caliphate, and Cycle of Fear. It is interesting to notice that all these do not forecast a diminution on the consumerism related to today...economy and politics generate consequences inside the system of the state itself. Consumerism in societies may vanish when confronted by heavy...India, even Russia, try to catch up with the western model. As demographics are a multiplying factor in terms of consumerism , this explains why China

  18. Delicate Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific: The Obama Administration’s Strategic Rebalance and the Transformation of US-China Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUISHENG; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    The rise of China has transformed the global power balance and made the US-China relationship increasingly strategic and complicated.While some Americans are anxious about what China’s great power aspiration means for US interests,many Chinese are concerned about the US intention to keep China down.In this context,many in Beijing believe that the Obama administration’s strategic rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific is bent on hindering China’s rise as a great power.To what extent is the strategic rebalance about China?Is it part of the US strategy to contain China’s rise?Can the US and China function in relative power equality and build a balance of power to maintain peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific?Seeking answers to these important questions,this article argues that the strategic rebalance is a continuation of the long-standing struggle of the US to define its interests in the region.China remains a centerpiece in the rebalance not only because building a cooperative relationship with China is the key for its success,but also because the rebalance has to address the rapidly shifting balance of power in the region where China has emerged as an ever-more influential power.It is in US interests to work with its partners as well as China to construct a regional order based on the balance of power,and rules and institutions capable of allowing China to grow and be secured but not use its new might arbitrarily.

  19. The balance of powers: Redox regulation of fibrogenic pathways in kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Daryl M; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of diverse chronic inflammatory disorders including diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, aging, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with moderate to advanced CKD have markedly increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation that likely contribute to the unacceptable high rates of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in excess of the capacity of cells/tissues to detoxify or scavenge them. Such a state of oxidative stress may alter the structure/function of cellular macromolecules and tissues that eventually leads to organ dysfunction. The harmful effects of ROS have been largely attributed to its indiscriminate, stochastic effects on the oxidation of protein, lipids, or DNA but in many instances the oxidants target particular amino acid residues or lipid moieties. Oxidant mechanisms are intimately involved in cell signaling and are linked to several key redox-sensitive signaling pathways in fibrogenesis. Dysregulation of antioxidant mechanisms and overproduction of ROS not only promotes a fibrotic milieu but leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and further exacerbates kidney injury. Our studies support the hypothesis that unique reactive intermediates generated in localized microenvironments of vulnerable tissues such as the kidney activate fibrogenic pathways and promote end-organ damage. The ability to quantify these changes and assess response to therapies will be pivotal in understanding disease mechanisms and monitoring efficacy of therapy.

  20. The effect of heterogeneous variance on efficiency and power of cluster randomized trials with a balanced 2 × 2 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemme, Francesca; van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F

    2015-10-01

    Sample size calculation for cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with a [Formula: see text] factorial design is complicated due to the combination of nesting (of individuals within clusters) with crossing (of two treatments). Typically, clusters and individuals are allocated across treatment conditions in a balanced fashion, which is optimal under homogeneity of variance. However, the variance is likely to be heterogeneous if there is a treatment effect. An unbalanced allocation is then more efficient, but impractical because the optimal allocation depends on the unknown variances. Focusing on CRTs with a [Formula: see text] design, this paper addresses two questions: How much efficiency is lost by having a balanced design when the outcome variance is heterogeneous? How large must the sample size be for a balanced allocation to have sufficient power under heterogeneity of variance? We consider different scenarios of heterogeneous variance. Within each scenario, we determine the relative efficiency of a balanced design, as a function of the level (cluster, individual, both) and amount of heterogeneity of the variance. We then provide a simple correction of the sample size for the loss of power due to heterogeneity of variance when a balanced allocation is used. The theory is illustrated with an example of a published 2 x2 CRT.

  1. Tipping the Balance of Power : Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd; Bruns, Axel; Skogerbø, Eli; Christensen, Christian; Larsson, Anders Olof; Enli, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media in politics has changed the relationship between political journalists and politicians. Especially Twitter has developed into a regular news beat. Journalists use it to build relationships with politicians and quote their tweets in coverage. For many politicians, tweeting

  2. Tipping the Balance of Power: Social Media and the Transformation of Political Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Broersma, M.; T. Graham

    2016-01-01

    The advent of social media in politics has changed the relationship between political journalists and politicians. Especially Twitter has developed into a regular news beat. Journalists use it to build relationships with politicians and quote their tweets in coverage. For many politicians, tweeting has become a common practice to communicate their viewpoints and to influence public debate by bypassing the news media. Building on previous research on both journalism content and practice, this ...

  3. CAN THE POWER BALANCE® BRACELET IMPROVE BALANCE, FLEXIBILITY, STRENGTH, AND POWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porcari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are constantly searching for something that will give them a competitive edge. Performance jewelry is one of the latest products on the market designed to improve athletic performance. The most common claims are that wearing this performance jewelry will improve flexibility, balance, and strength. There is considerable marketing of these products, including testimonial evidence by high profile athletes, in support of the purported benefits. In demonstrations designed to validate the performance enhancing benefits of these products, however, companies typically conduct the testing in the following sequence: The first trial is done without the bracelet on and the second trial is performed with the bracelet on. Invariably, subjects perform better on the second trial. This brings into questions whether the improvement on the second trial is due to 1 a benefit of the bracelet, 2 the fact the subjects were warmed-up (Maud et al., 2006a; 2006b, 3 subjects being habituated to the task (Benson and Friedman, 1996; Wright et al., 2009, or 4 a placebo effect (Beedie and Foad, 2009.One of the most popular performance enhancing bracelets currently on the market is sold by Power Balance® (www.powerbalance.com. The Power Balance® bracelet has two dime-sized holograms; one on either side of the bracelet. The holograms within the Power Balance® bracelet are designed to "resonate with and respond to the natural energy field of the body". This purportedly improves flexibility, balance, and strength. To our knowledge, no randomized, double- blind, placebo trials have ever been conducted evaluating the validity of these claims. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wearing of the Power Balance® bracelet can improve trunk flexibility, balance, strength, and lower body power.Forty-two NCAA Division III athletes (22M: 20.1 ± 1.4 years, 1.82 ± 6.4 m, 82.0 ± 12.6 kg; 20F: 19.5 ± 1.3 years, 1.66 ± 6. 8 m, 63.2 ± 8.1 kg completed four

  4. THE EAP: A FAILURE OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY OR SHARING A POWER BALANCE IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona TATIASHVILI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses achievements and challenges of the EaP in the prism of EU-Russia asymmetric energy interdependence, as the major factor affecting the successful implementation of the Eastern partnership. To identify whether energy interdependence is the main sphere of interest in the EaP neighbourhood, where EU-Russia common interests intersect in one point or is it a sharing a power balance in “common neighbourhood”?. The research paper reviews major policy documents of the ENP/EaP, in order to analyze to what extent is policy coherent/incoherent towards partner countries. Moreover, the paper evaluates the European neighbourhood external policy instruments (the ENP/EaP from the perspective of three prioritised countries of the Eastern partnership: Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine, including the analysis of the effectiveness of proposed incentives under the ENP/EaP, as sufficient instruments for successful implementation of the Eastern partnership, in the presence of unpredictable external veto player.

  5. Child abuse and the balance of power in parental relationships: an evolved domain-independent mental mechanism that accounts for behavioral variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, W P

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies use zero-order analyses to show a link between child abuse and exposure to "stepfathers." These studies rest on a proposed evolved, domain-specific cognitive mechanism that induces adult males to abuse or kill offspring not their own and, so, contribute directly to reproductive success. However, child abuse may reflect an evolved neurological mechanism that creates behavioral plasticity and adaptability by assigning emotional weights (which in consciousness appear rationalized as costs and benefits) to choice alternatives in all behavioral domains. This mechanism should act as a selective mechanism to create enhanced ability to avoid predation (social exploitation) and to obtain access to resources, given the properties of specific ecosystems, and should control behavioral responses to variation in the balance of power in social relationships. Power equalities should elicit good treatment for both parties; power inequalities, by contrast, should elicit exploitative and coercive behavior on the part of those who hold the balance of power. This paper reports a test of both hypotheses simultaneously, controlling for a standard social science risk factor (growing up in poverty). Once we control for the balance of power in parental relationships, exposure to a stepfather and growing up in poverty show no effect on the intensity of child abuse. Powerful women negotiated affectionate behavior from their partners for both themselves and their children; powerless women's negotiations with partners usually left both themselves and their children open to violence.

  6. On the diversity enhancement and power balancing of per-subcarrier transmit antenna selection in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider multicarrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under a power-balancing constraint. Applying transmit antenna selection and discrete rate-adaptive modulation using M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) according to the channel variation per subcarrier, we develop an optimal transmit antenna selection scheme in terms of the maximum spectral efficiency, where all the possible groupings for sending the same information-bearing signals in a group of subcarriers are searched, and the groups of subcarriers for providing the frequency diversity gain are formed. In addition, we propose a suboptimal method for reducing the computational complexity of the optimal method. The suboptimal scheme considers only the subcarriers under outage, and these subcarriers are sequentially combined until the required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is met. Numerical results show that the proposed suboptimal method with diversity combining outperforms the optimal antenna selection without diversity combining, as introduced in the work of Sandell and Coon, particularly for low-SNR regions, and offers the spectral efficiency close to the optimal method with diversity combining while maintaining lower complexity. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. A Rising China: Shifting the Economic Balance of Power Through Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    become efficient, eradicate corruption , nor be capable of coping with the inevitable downturns in its economy.37 3. Strategic Questions of the U.S...assets themselves. 45 and reputation, consumer losses from fraud , the opportunity costs of service disruptions ‘cleaning up’ after cyber incidents...legislation to fiscally support reinvigoration of the U.S. REE industry in addition to negotiating additional capacity from Australia, Canada, Malaysia

  8. Shifting the Balance of Power within the NHS: A Hybrid Policy as the Third Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bohloli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Health Service (NHS came into existence on 5 July 1948 with the aim of providing a comprehensive range of health services to all in need. After 50 years, it is still a unique example of social engineering. It is the only social service in Britain, which is comprehensive in scope in the sense of looking after the entire population. It is, furthermore, the only service that is organized around an ethical imperative. Finally, it is remarkable for its sheer size, complexity and heterogeneity: with one million employees, drawn from a variety of professions and representing a wide range of skills, it is the largest employer in the country. By international comparison too, the NHS is unique, centrally financed and directed, yet operating in the pluralistic political environment. Yet the NHS has undergone many structural changes since its inception in 1948, and forces for change in the NHS are increasing at an exponential rate. This paper addresses the relationship of health sector reform and large-scale organisational change in England since the election of the Conservative government of 1979. The paper will argue that the degree of change achieved to the organisation and management of NHS is high. It will also be argued that there is a clear similarity and conformity between the policies of the Conservative government and of the New Labour government (elected in 1997 in respect of health organizational reform. I will conclude that New Labour’s ‘third way’ in health reform is a hybrid of the Conservative’s managerial approach in 1979-1997 and Labour’s traditional philosophy of centralisation.

  9. U.S. Security Assistance and Regional Balance of Power: Greece and Turkey, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    induced by the Watergate affair and the imminent resignation of President Richard M. Nixon - it is beyond doubt that EUR, trying to orient itself...caught in the paralysis of the Watergate scandal , and totally unprepared, if not outright unwilling, to actively dissuade Turkish military action as

  10. The Power and Strategic Art of Revise-and-Resubmit: Maintaining Balance in Academic Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    A common decision of journal editors when faced with promising papers is that the author revise-and-resubmit. Responding thoughtfully and strategically to this invitation improves the probability of eventual acceptance dramatically. However, in the rush-to-publish, early-career educational researchers may lack awareness and skill in managing the…

  11. The power of a balanced diet and lifestyle in preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Rachel; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We examine the physiologic changes involved in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as multiple dietary and lifestyle factors that either promote or prevent CVD. Dietary fats (saturated, monounsaturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated, and trans fats), antioxidants, and carbohydrates, as well as alcohol consumption, exercise, smoking, and infections, are evaluated. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials are discussed in light of the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Revenue Sharing in Professional Sports Leagues : For the Sake of Competitive Balance or as a Result of Monopsony Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues a

  13. Simple annulus power balance in EBT-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowski, S.K.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.; Kammash, T.

    1979-09-01

    An essential feature of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept is the presence of a relativistic electron annulus in each of the toroidal mirror sectors. These high beta annuli are formed and sustained by microwave heating and are of sufficient density and temperature that diamagnetic currents produce the necessary minimum in the magnetic field required for MHD stability of the toroidal core plasma. Because electron rings play an important role in confinement characteristics and performance of EBT, the trade-off between the quality of the confinement afforded by the rings and the power required to sustain the rings represents an important problem in a fusion reactor. Theoretical estimates of the microwave power required to sustain the annulus are found to be within a factor of 2 of the experimentally determined value. Scaling projections that are shown for both EBT-I and EBT-S enable one to examine the sensitivity of the annulus electron temperature as a function of core plasma density for various microwave power levels. The results are found to be sensitive to the details of the hot electron distribution function as well as geometric and scaling parameters. Improvements to the model are under way in order to increase its capability and accuracy in assessing the overall power balance.

  14. Balancing the Power Consumption Speed in Flat and Hierarchical WSN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesham Abusaimeh; Shuang-Hua Yang

    2008-01-01

    A combination of a cluster tree routing protocol and an Ad hoc on demand vector (AODV) routing protocol is used in the latest ZigBee standard wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. However, the AODV routing protocol has no means by which to take into consideration the power consumption of the nodes during the routing process. Therefore, a new approach is proposed in this paper to balance the power consumption speed and to distribute the responsibilities of routing among fiat wireless sensor nodes and the three levels of hierarchical wireless sensor nodes. These three levels are based on the three types of devices, which are used in the ZigBee standard: the coordinator, the touters, and the end devices. In this paper, we have compared the original AODV routing protocol with our extension approach for the distribution of power consumption. Based on the simulation results, our new approach has achieved better performance in terms of increasing the lifetime of the fiat wireless sensor network, the personal area network (PAN)coordinator, the touters, and the whole network of the hierarchical wireless sensor network. Additionally, it has better performance in terms of distributing the power consumption among the key nodes of the wireless sensor network.

  15. Power generation from bio methane. Requirements of the EEG 2012 and balancing in gas infrastructure; Verstromung von Biomethan. Anforderungen des EEG 2012 und gaswirtschaftliche Bilanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, Steffen; Bredow, Hartwig von [von Bredow Valentin Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Six years ago, the first biogas infeed plant was connected to the natural gas distribution system. The infeed of biogas progressed beyond the nursery stage. The infeed of bio methane significantly is promoted by the renewable energy law. One fundamental requirement for the promotion with respect to the Renewable Energy Law is the generation of the power to be remunerated by means of the exclusive use of biomass. The Renewable Energy Law EEG 2012 contains the new requirement, that furthermore the transport of biogas from its production until removal has to be documented by means of a mass balance. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the requirements of the EEG 2012 and the balancing in gas infrastructure with respect to the power generation from biomass.

  16. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  17. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  18. Modeling and simulating an electrical grid subsystem for power balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for power balance analysis in Smart Grids where the physical behavior of different electrical devices is modeled at unit level, and the collective load and generation curves can later be obtained by aggregation. In this way, new behaviors, flexibilities and intelligent...... strategies for power consumption and generation can be easily introduced at the user-level and the system-level impact analyzed on the aggregated profiles. The future aim is to investigate bottom-up balancing strategies, where units with a flexible energy band can react independently to power balance signals...

  19. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of eight years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes...... that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only...... the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...

  20. School Leadership--Balancing Power with Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen

    This book examines caring from three perspectives. It opens with a discussion of Nel Noddings's caring tenets--caring is collaborative, situational, reciprocal, and committed--that are seen as necessary for an ethic of caring. A critique of an ethic of caring from the viewpoints of caring with leadership, caring as a "female ethic," caring for a…

  1. Is China turning Latin?: China’s balancing act between power and dependence on the wave of global imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether China has escaped the vulnerabilities of peripheral and dependent late industrialisation in the build up to the current global economic crisis, with reference to structuralist critiques of Latin American industrialisation in the 1960s and examined through China’s balance of payments data. While it would seem that China’s huge surpluses amid sustained growth eliminate any comparative relevance to Latin America, the paper argues that analogous vulnera...

  2. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy a

  3. Network Condition Based Adaptive Control and its Application to Power Balancing in Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Findrik, Mislav; Sloth, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    of the power balancing effort. Such control strategies require communication networks for exchange of control loop information. In this work, we show how a congested communication network can have a dramatic impact on the control performance of such a power balancing controller. To alleviate potential......To maintain a reliable and stable power grid there must be balance between consumption and production. To achieve power balance in a system with high penetration of distributed renewable resources and flexible assets, these individual system can be coordinated through a control unit to become part...... stability issues and increase control performance, an adaptive control design is proposed together with a communication network state estimation algorithm. Extensive simulation studies on a realistic model of a low voltage residential grid, using network traces obtained from a real powerline network, show...

  4. Using the Power Balance Wristband to Improve Students' Research-Design Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Blackhart, Ginette C.; Gialopsos, Brooke M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an exercise involving the power balance wristband (PBW) designed to enhance students' ability to design scientific tests. An instructor demonstrated that the PBW improved a student's balance, strength, and flexibility and invited students to design and conduct a brief scientific test of the PBW. Research methods students who…

  5. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  6. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  7. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  8. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  9. Period-doubling bifurcation in two-stage power factor correction converters using the method of incremental harmonic balance and Floquet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, period-doubling bifurcation in a two-stage power factor correction converter is analyzed by using the method of incremental harmonic balance (IHB) and Floquet theory. A two-stage power factor correction converter typically employs a cascade configuration of a pre-regulator boost power factor correction converter with average current mode control to achieve a near unity power factor and a tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter with voltage feedback control to regulate the output voltage. Based on the assumption that the tightly regulated post-regulator DC—DC Buck converter is represented as a constant power sink and some other assumptions, the simplified model of the two-stage power factor correction converter is derived and its approximate periodic solution is calculated by the method of IHB. And then, the stability of the system is investigated by using Floquet theory and the stable boundaries are presented on the selected parameter spaces. Finally, some experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  10. Period-doubling bifurcation in two-stage power factor correction converters using the method of incremental harmonic balance and Floquet theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fa-Qiang; Zhang Hao; Ma Xi-Kui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,period-doubling bifurcation in a two-stage power factor correction converter is analyzed by using the method of incremental harmonic balance (IHB) and Floquet theory.A two-stage power factor correction converter typically employs a cascade configuration of a pre-regulator boost power factor correction converter with average current mode control to achieve a near unity power factor and a tightly regulated post-regulator DC-DC Buck converter with voltage feedback control to regulate the output voltage. Based on the assumption that the tightly regulated postregulator DC-DC Buck converter is represented as a constant power sink and some other assumptions,the simplified model of the two-stage power factor correction converter is derived and its approximate periodic solution is calculated by the method of IHB.And then,the stability of the system is investigated by using Floquet theory and the stable boundaries are presented on the selected parameter spaces.Finally,some experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  11. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  13. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  14. Tallying the U.S.-China Military Scorecard: Relative Capabilities and the Balance of Power, 1996-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    analysis of Chinese and U.S. military forces and developments—and even less rigorous analysis of how those inventories and systems would perform against...analysis that seeks to fill this gap. The research uses a set of “scorecards” to assess the relative capabilities of U.S. and Chinese forces in...will progressively recede as China’s ability to project power improves. • The United States should adjust operational concepts , force structure, and

  15. Sexual orientation and household decision making. Same-sex couples' balance of power and labor supply choices

    OpenAIRE

    Oreffice, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    I estimate how intra-household bargaining affects gay and lesbian couples¿ labor supplies, investigating their similarity to heterosexual decision-making, in a collective household framework. Data from the 2000 US Census shows that couples of all types exhibit a significant response to bargaining power shifts, as measured by differences between partners in age or non-labor income. In gay, lesbian, and heterosexual cohabiting couples, a relatively young or rich partner has more bargaining powe...

  16. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  17. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market... 20426. The filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary...

  18. Optimal Configuration of Multiple Pump Powers and Wavelengths for Balanced Pre- and Post-pumped Raman Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhui; CHEN Jianping; LI Jianlang; JIANG Wenning; CHEN Junfeng; LI Xin

    2002-01-01

    A novel configuration algorithm for bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier is developed by adopting simulated annealing algorithm. Automatic design of optical fiber Raman amplifier using 10 laser diode pumps with different wavelengths and powers is demonstrated for 64 channels DWDM systems. The resulted gain ripple is less than 2.6 dB in amplification bandwidth of more than 50 nm for a transmission span of more than 300 km. The algorithm can be practically applied to desired signal channel number and gain profile.

  19. Influence of successive badminton matches on muscle strength, power, and body-fluid balance in elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Castanedo, Adrián; Abian, Pablo; Gonzalez-Millan, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players' renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.

  20. Influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin-glycemic balance in experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radelli, Jolanta; Cieslar, Grzegorz; Sieron, Aleksander; Grzybek, Henryk

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the dose-dependent influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in 70 male Wistar rats. The animals were primarily divided into 2 groups: B - irradiated group and C - control one in which sham - irradiation was made. The rats from B - group were irradiated daily for 10 minutes with semiconductive laser emitting the radiation of infrared wavelength 904 nm. Within both groups the animals were divided into subgroups (B I - B VII and CI - C VII) in which the dissections were made on 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 14th day of irradiation and on 5th and 8th day after the end of cycle of irradiation respectively. In all subgroups blood samples were collected to determine the glucose and insulin levels. Parts of the liver and pancreas were taken for histological examination in light microscope and in electron microscope. The lowest, statistically significant glycaemia was observed in the subgroup B V. Significant increase of glycaemia and significantly higher insulin concentration was found only in the subgroup B VI. The I/G ratio increased significantly in the subgroup B V. Lower intensity of paS reaction was presented in subgroups B I, B III, B V, B VI and B VII. The increased amount of paS-positive substances was observed in the I and II zone of liver acinus. Electron microscopic studies of hepatocytes showed: numerous glycogen conglomerations in subgroups B I, B II, B VI and B VII, the extension of RER in B II and B III, light vacuoles in B II, Golgi apparatus and biliary canaliculus expansion in B V and structural changes of several mitochondria - slight swelling or discontinuation of their outer membranes, electron microscopic findings in pancreas cells included: lower number of typical granules in beta and alpha cells as well as Golgi apparatus results it was concluded that the influence of low power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in generally insignificant. It is observed only for higher doses of

  1. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  2. Edge Contact Forces and Quasi-Balanced Power

    OpenAIRE

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Seppecher, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    International audience; We consider continuous media in which contact edge forces are present. Introducing the notion of quasi-balanced contact force distribution, we are able to prove the conjectures by Noll and Virga [1] concerning the representation of contact edge forces. We generalize the Hamel–Noll theorem on the Cauchy postulate. Then we adapt the celebrated tetrahedron construction of Cauchy in order to obtain a representation theorem for stress states. In fact, we show that two stres...

  3. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  4. 英国欧陆均势政策的原因探析%A Tentative Analysis of the Reasons for Britain’s Balance of Power Policy towards Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翔

    2014-01-01

    Balance of power is not only one kind of foreign policy and national behavior,but also a sort of operation state and existing form of international system.In modern international relations in Europe,as the islands country located outside the European continent,for the sake of its own interests,Britain has adopted the balance of power policy to balance and fight against seekers for hegemony,which has become a long-term policy and consistent action.There are profound and complicated reasons for Britain’s viewing balance of power policy as a“golden law”.In order to better understand Britain’s balance of power policy,this paper tries to analyze the British foreign policy,and explore the reasons for Britain’s balance of power policy.%均势既是国家的一种对外政策和对外行为,又是国际体系的一种运行状态和存在形式。几个世纪以来,英国将均势政策视为一种“金科玉律”或国际政治铁律,有着深刻和复杂的根源。在近现代欧洲国际政治中,面对欧洲大陆一系列统治者屡次掀起的追求霸权的狂潮,作为欧洲大陆外缘海岛国家的英国,基于自身的利益考量,采取均势外交政策,制衡和打击霸权追求者成为英国在此期间经久不息和坚持不懈的政策与行动。

  5. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  6. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  7. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Amy R; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4-7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12-30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments.

  8. Power Balancing Aggregator Design for Industrial Consumers Using Direct Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Demand side management in the future smart grid requires new players in the electricity markets. We assume a player, the so-called aggregator which aims to utilize the flexibility in large-scale consumers with thermal energy storage. An aggregator design is proposed to mange the power consumption...... of flexible demands during a certain period of time. The setup consists of an MPC-like controller to optimally operate the consumption units for upward and downward regulating power provision. To handle the uncertainties arise from model mismatch, a series of feedback loop are also considered along...

  9. Application of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Power Balance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power System%混合储能系统在独立光伏发电系统功率平衡中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯世英; 房勇; 孙韬; 彭文雄

    2011-01-01

    提出了将能量密度大、环境友好的磷酸铁锂电池和功率密度高、循环使用寿命长的超级电容组合,构成混合储能系统应用于独立光伏发电系统.以优化系统可靠性及运行状态为目标,设计了控制结构和控制方式.对系统进行仿真分析,结果表明,在光伏电池输出功率存在波动且负载发生脉动的情况下,储能系统能迅速平衡系统瞬时功率,维持系统可靠运行.%In this paper it is proposed to apply a hybrid energy storage system consisting of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery that is environment-friendly and possesses high energy density and super capacitance combination that possesses high power density and long service lifecycle in standalone photovoltaic (PV) power system. Taking the optimization of system reliability and operation states as the object, the control structure of the proposed hybrid energy storage system and its control modes are designed to optimize both system reliability and operation status of the energy storage devices. Simulation analysis of the proposed system is performed and analysis results show that under the fluctuation of PV cell output and pulsating load the instantaneous power can be rapidly balanced by the proposed hybrid energy storage system, thus reliable operation of the proposed system can be sustained.

  10. Is China turning Latin? : China’s balancing act between power and dependence on the wave of global imbalances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether China has escaped the vulnerabilities of peripheral and dependent late industrialisation in the build up to the current global economic crisis, with reference to structuralist critiques of Latin American industrialisation in the 1960s and examined through

  11. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-06

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings.

  12. The U.S.-China Military Scorecard: Forces, Geography, and the Evolving Balance of Power, 1996-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Massive Denial-of-Service Attack on GitHub Tied to Chinese Government,” ArsTechnica, March 31, 2015. 86 By contrast, cyber criminals, who tend to go after...Denial-of-Service Attack on GitHub Tied to Chinese Government,” Ars Technica, March 31, 2015. As June 25, 2015: http://arstechnica.com/security/2015/03...massive-denial-of-service-attack-on- github -tied-to-chinese- government Gorman, Siobhan, “Electricity Grid in U.S. Penetrated by Spies,” Wall Street

  13. Effects of Increased Wind Power Generation on Mid-Norway’s Energy Balance under Climate Change: A Market Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste François

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its huge water storage capacity, Norway has an excess of energy generation at annual scale, although significant regional disparity exists. On average, the Mid-Norway region has an energy deficit and needs to import more electricity than it exports. We show that this energy deficit can be reduced with an increase in wind generation and transmission line capacity, even in future climate scenarios where both mean annual temperature and precipitation are changed. For the considered scenarios, the deficit observed in winter disappears, i.e., when electricity consumption and prices are high. At the annual scale, the deficit behaviour depends more on future changes in precipitation. Another consequence of changes in wind production and transmission capacity is the modification of electricity exchanges with neighbouring regions which are also modified both in terms of average, variability and seasonality.

  14. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  15. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes JF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available John F Moxnes,1 Øyvind Sandbakk,2 Kjell Hausken31Department for Protection, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway; 2Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier’s locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier’s position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.Keywords: air drag, efficiency, friction coefficient, speed, locomotive power

  16. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under the power balancing constraint, which is defined as the constraint that the power on each antenna should be limited under a certain level due to the linearity of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced complexity in comparison with the optimal antenna selection scheme. More specifically, in order to solve the subcarrier imbalance across the antennas, we operate a two-step reallocation procedure to minimize the loss of spectral efficiency. We also provide an analytic lower bound on the spectral efficiency for the proposed scheme. From selected numerical results, we show that our suboptimal scheme offers almost the same spectral efficiency as the optimal one. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  18. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  19. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  20. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  1. Balancing control method by dispersed generators based on H{sub {infinity}} control theory in DC power feeding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Goya, Tomonori; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu [University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, 36-2 Nihonbashi-Hakozakicho Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8513 (Japan); Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University and NPT Center, Suwon City 440-746 (Korea)

    2011-01-15

    Recently, dispersed generators have been installed in distribution network to supply power to commercial facilities. Renewable energy generation contains output power fluctuations and distributed generator produces sluggish response for power demand. In order to overcome these problems, an ultra capacitor energy storage system is used for compensating the instantaneous power imbalance. However, use of a large capacity ultra capacitor energy system increases system cost. In addition, PPSs (Power Producer and Supplier) that own these generators are supposed to achieve 30-min balancing control for stable supply of electric power. This paper proposes a control system to achieve both 30-min balancing control and interconnection point power flow control by using a fuel cell and an ultra capacitor based on the H{sub {infinity}} control theory. Besides, remaining storage energy of the ultra capacitor is controlled to be constant to maintain compensation capability. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is verified by using simulation results. (author)

  2. Power Allocation for Balancing Spectrum Efficiency and Power Consumption in Cognitive Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Tang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the QoS requirement of secondary users and not to affect the outage probability of primary user in cognitive relay networks, we propose two optimal power allocation models: (1 maximizing the transmission rate of secondary users; (2 minimizing the total power consumption. Theory analysis shows that two optimal power allocation models conflict between spectrum efficiency and power consumption. Furthermore, an optimal power allocation model which joints the transmission rate and the total power consumption in cognitive relay networks is proposed. By using the Lagrangian method, the optimization algorithm for this model is designed. The proposed algorithm can achieve the trade-off between the transmission rate and the total power consumption by varying the weight. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively adjust the transmission rate and the total power consumption of secondary users.

  3. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV low-power (LP integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulatorusing the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  4. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV low-power (LP integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Trans conductance Amplifier (OTA in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9 V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulator using the 130 nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  5. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Neha; Suthar, Meenakshi; Soni, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD) principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulator using the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  6. Realization of load balance technology in information system of Ningxia Electric Power Corporation%负载均衡技术在宁夏电力公司信息系统中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对宁夏电力公司信息化建设实践,分析了F5负载均衡设备对服务器的负载均衡的技术特点,提出了负载均衡设备的应用方案,结果表明:F5负载均衡设备在宁夏电力公司信息系统中的的合理使用,有效地提高了系统的运行效率,充分利用了现有资源,实现了信息系统的高可用性和高可靠性。%Aiming at the practice of information system construction in Ningxia Electric Power Corporation, analyzes the technical characteristics of F5 load balance equipment to balance the server' s load, brings forward the application schemes of load balance equipment. The results show that the rational application of F5 load balance equipment in information system of Ningxia Electric Power Corporation effectively improve operation efficiency of the system, make full use of the available resources, realizes the high usability and reliability of information system.

  7. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  8. Using the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    The current study adapts the power balance model to simulate cross-country skiing on varying terrain. We assumed that the skier's locomotive power at a self-chosen pace is a function of speed, which is impacted by friction, incline, air drag, and mass. An elite male skier's position along the track during ski skating was simulated and compared with his experimental data. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature based on the skier's mass, snow conditions, and speed. We regard the fit as good, since the difference in racing time between simulations and measurements was 2 seconds of the 815 seconds racing time, with acceptable fit both in uphill and downhill terrain. Using this model, we estimated the influence of changes in various factors such as air drag, friction, and body mass on performance. In conclusion, the power balance model with locomotive power as a function of speed was found to be a valid tool for analyzing performance in cross-country skiing.

  9. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services.

  10. 电网电压跌落时风机变流器功率平衡控制策略%Power Balance Control of Wind Turbine Converter Under Voltage Sag in Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少林; 李庆; 谭理华; 邵文昌; 王瑞明

    2011-01-01

    风机变流器是风电机组实现低电压穿越的关键部件,其控制性能的提升有利于提高风电机组的低电压穿越能力.基于变流器功率平衡控制思想,提出了网侧变流器改进型负载前馈控制策略,提升了网侧变流器的稳压与能量转移能力,缓和了电网故障期间的系统能量失衡,改善了风机变流器及风电机组的低电压穿越能力.控制系统的小信号模型分析结果表明,上述控制策略的稳压与能量转移能力优于传统控制策略.永磁同步风力发电机组系统仿真进一步证明了上述理论分析的正确性.%Wind turbine converter (WTC) is a key component of wind turbine generation system (WTGS) to implement low voltage tide through (LVRT), so the improvement of its control performance is favorable to enhance LVRT ability of WTGS Based on the thinking of power balance control of convener, an improved load feed-forward control strategy for grid-side converter is proposed to enhance voltage stabilization and energy transfer ability of grid-side converter as well as to mitigate the energy unbalance of power grid during voltage sag and improve LVRT ability of WTC and WTGS. Analysis results of small-signal model for control system show that the ability of voltage stabilization and energy transfer of the proposed control strategy is better than traditional control strategy. The correctness of above-mentioned theoretical analysis is proved by simulation results of diect-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind power system.

  11. Analysis on Reactive Power Balance and Its Configuration for Deyang Converter Station of Debao HVDC Project%德宝直流德阳换流站无功平衡与站内配置分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓鸿强; 王渝红; 明志强; 李兴源; 戴寒光; 何琰

    2012-01-01

    Reactive power balance of converter station exerts a profound influence on the normal operation of AC and DC system. Being a DC link project of Sichuan and Shanxi's "hydro power and thermal power aiding each other", Debao H VDC project optimizes allocation of resource and energy in the two provinces. According to the requirements of reactive power balance when HVDC transmission is in stable operation, and combined with reactive power compensation capacity of AC system,this paper mainly analyzes the configurations of reactive power compensation devices and reactive power consumption under different operation modes. Also the reactive power balance of Deyang converter station as rectifier station and inverter station respectively are studied. Finally, the correctness of reactive power compensation capacity of Deyang converter station and feasibility of its configuration scheme are verified through calculation and digital simulation.%换流站无功平衡对交直流系统的正常运行有着非常重要的影响.德宝直流输电工程是四川和陕西“水火互济”的直流联网工程,优化了两地能源资源配置.根据高压直流输电稳定运行要满足的无功平衡条件,结合交流系统的无功补偿能力,重点分析在不同运行方式下的无功功率消耗和无功补偿装置配置方式,研究德阳换流站分别作为整流站和逆变站运行时的无功平衡,通过计算和数字仿真,验证了德阳换流站的无功补偿容量的正确性和装置配置方案的有效性.

  12. Ten Major Events of Chinese Power Industry in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periodical Office of China Power Enterprise Manage; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power supply and demand was almost balanced The construction of the Chinese power industry got excellent results in 2006 again. The power supply and demand was roughly balanced throughout the country.

  13. A careful balance: multinational perspectives on culture, gender, and power in marriage and family therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Margaret L; Piercy, Fred P

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined how marriage and family therapists from various countries and diverse cultural backgrounds address the intersection of gender, power, and culture in therapy. Twenty participants from 15 countries responded to an Internet survey that included several hypothetical, clinical vignettes not associated with any one particular culture or nationality. Participants selected a vignette based on its similarity to clinical situations they face in practice within their cultural contexts, and provided information about their conceptualizations of gender, culture, and power, along with treatment recommendations. We analyzed data using analytic induction and constant comparison methods. Results indicate the careful balance with which the participants work to engage clients in therapy, respect cultural values and practices, and promote equitable gender relationships.

  14. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  15. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  16. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  17. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  18. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal p...

  19. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  20. Development of posture self-balance mechanism for suspension arm power transmission line inspection robot%吊臂式巡线机器人悬吊姿态自平衡机构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生元; 任立敏; 焦宏章; 李建永; 吕相艳

    2011-01-01

    The research on the posture instability phenomena occurred when the widely applied suspension arm inspection robot is crossing over the cable attachments was carried out, the respective pitching instability self-balance mechanism and side sway instability self-balance mechanism was presented from the point view of mechanism, and the analysis of their operating principles was also conducted. Above self-balance mechanism has been proven to be practical and feasible by theoretical-analysis and experimental testing, laying a solid foundation for the application popularization of power line inspection robot.%文中针对目前应用较为广泛的吊臂式巡线机器人在跨越线缆附件时所出现的姿态失稳现象进行了研究,从机构学的角度研制了相应的俯仰失稳自平衡机构、侧倾失稳自平衡机构,并分析了其工作原理.通过理论分析和实验验证,证明了上述自平衡机构的实用性和可行性,为电力巡线机器人的应用推广奠定了坚实的基础.

  1. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation; master control subsystems; balance of plant CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell electrical power generation subsystem centers on a General Electric dual admission, triple extraction turbine generator sized to the output requirements of the Pilot Plant. The turbine receives steam from the receiver subsystem and/or the thermal storage subsystem and supplies those subsystems with feedwater. The turbine condensor is wet cooled. The plant control system consists of a coordinated digital master and subsystem digital/analog controls. The remainder of the plant, work spaces, maintenance areas, roads, and reception area are laid out to provide maximum convenience compatible with utility and safety. Most of the activities are housed in a complex around the base of the receiver tower. This volume contains a description of the relationship of the electrical power generation subsystem to the rest of the plant, the design methodology and evolution, the interface integration and control, and the operation and maintenance procedures.

  2. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C P

    2012-04-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  3. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  4. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  5. Powering up the ``biogeochemical engine'': The impact of exceptional ventilation of a deep meromictic lake on the lacustrine redox, nutrient, and methane balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Moritz; Simona, Marco; Wyss, Silvia; Blees, Jan; Frame, Caitlin; Niemann, Helge; Veronesi, Mauro; Zopfi, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    The Lake Lugano North Basin has been meromictic for several decades, with anoxic waters below 100m depth. Two consecutive cold winters in 2005 and 2006 induced exceptional deep mixing, leading to a transient oxygenation of the whole water column. With the ventilation of deep waters and the oxidation of large quantities of reduced solutes, the lake's total redox-balance turned positive, and the overall hypolimnetic oxygen demand of the lake strongly decreased. The disappearance of 150 t dissolved phosphorous (P) during the first ventilation in March 2005 is attributed to the scavenging of water-column-borne P by newly formed metal oxyhydroxides and the temporary transfer to the sediments. The fixed nitrogen (N) inventory was reduced by ~30% (~1000 t). The water-column turnover induced the nitratation of the previously NO3--free deep hypolimnion by oxidation of large amounts of legacy NH4+ and by mixing with NO3--rich subsurface water masses. Sediments with a strong denitrifying potential, but NO3--starved for decades, were brought in contact with NO3--replete waters, invigorating benthic denitrification and rapid fixed N loss from the lake in spite of the overall more oxygenated conditions. Similarly, a large microbial aerobic CH4 oxidation (MOx) potential in the hypolimnion was capitalized with the ventilation of the deep basin. Almost all CH4, which had been built up over more than 40 years (~2800 t), was removed from the water column within 30 days. However, boosted MOx could only partly explain the disappearance of the CH4. The dominant fraction (75%) of the CH4 evaded to the atmosphere, through storage flux upon exposure of anoxic CH4-rich water to the atmosphere. As of today, the North Basin seems far from homeostasis regarding its fixed N and CH4 budgets, and the deep basin's CH4 pool is recharging at a net production rate of ~66 t y-1. The size of impending CH4 outbursts will depend on the frequency and intensity of exceptional mixing events in the future.

  6. Powering up the biogeochemical engine: The impact of exceptional ventilation of a deep meromictic lake on the lacustrine redox, nutrient, and methane balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Felix Lehmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Lugano North Basin has been meromictic for several decades, with anoxic waters below 100m depth. Two consecutive cold winters in 2005 and 2006 induced exceptional deep mixing, leading to a transient oxygenation of the whole water column. With the ventilation of deep waters and the oxidation of large quantities of reduced solutes, the lake's total redox-balance turned positive, and the overall hypolimnetic oxygen demand of the lake strongly decreased. The disappearance of 150 t dissolved phosphorous (P during the first ventilation in March 2005 is attributed to the scavenging of water-column-borne P by newly formed metal oxyhydroxides and the temporary transfer to the sediments. The fixed nitrogen (N inventory was reduced by ~30% (~1000 t. The water-column turnover induced the nitratation of the previously NO3--free deep hypolimnion by oxidation of large amounts of legacy NH4+ and by mixing with NO3--rich subsurface water masses. Sediments with a strong denitrifying potential, but NO3--starved for decades, were brought in contact with NO3--replete waters, invigorating benthic denitrification and rapid fixed N loss from the lake in spite of the overall more oxygenated conditions. Similarly, a large microbial aerobic CH4 oxidation (MOx potential in the hypolimnion was capitalized with the ventilation of the deep basin. Almost all CH4, which had been built up over more than 40 years (~2800 t, was removed from the water column within 30 days. However, boosted MOx could only partly explain the disappearance of the CH4. The dominant fraction (75% of the CH4 evaded to the atmosphere, through storage flux upon exposure of anoxic CH4-rich water to the atmosphere. As of today, the North Basin seems far from homeostasis regarding its fixed N and CH4 budgets, and the deep basin's CH4 pool is recharging at a net production rate of ~66 t y-1. The size of impending CH4 outbursts will depend on the frequency and intensity of exceptional mixing events in

  7. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  8. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...

  9. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...... relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  10. The directive on ``internal market of electric power``: a satisfactory balance; La directive ``marche interieur de l`electricite``: un equilibre satisfaisant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The european directive on the ``internal market for electric power`` has allowed for the first time the implementation of harmonized regulations among european partners concerning the operation of electric utilities and systems in Europe, while taking into consideration the subsidiarity principles to which France is very much attached and finding an equilibrium between the status-quo based on national or regional monopolies and a global deregulation inspired by ultra-liberal views coming from Britain or the US. The main consequences on France`s energy policy and organization are discussed

  11. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  12. Theoretical analysis of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-xin; SUI Zhan; CHEN Fu-shen; LI Ming-zhong; WANG Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    In this letter,a theoretical model of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser is presented.The characteristic of the laser with Yb doped double clad fiber is analyzed numerically.It is concluded that high output laser power can be obtained by selecting output coupling mirror with lower reflectivity,improving Yb doped concentration and choosing fiber length. This result can help us to design radiation balanced fiber laser.

  13. Surpass the Balance of Power: Soft Power and Northeast Asia Security Dilemma%超越均势:软实力与东北亚安全困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚虎

    2012-01-01

    冷战结束后,东北亚地区日益呈现出一超三强的地缘政治格局。在复杂的政治、安全结构制约下,美、日、中、俄以地缘政治为;.既角,纷纷采取均势战略,以寻求在东北亚地区的权力优势。它们的均势战略博弈导致了东北亚地区安全困境的产生,也影响了安全困境的解决。但软实力理论的出现和发展,使国际关系理论研究拓展到一个新的领域,成为理解国际关系变化和外交政策的一个新的理论视角。如果区域内各个国家都能重视软实力战略,那么各国就能逐渐由“零和博弈”向“竞和博弈”转变,因此,软实力理论成为了缓解甚至化解东北亚安全困境的新思路。%After the cold war, Northeast Asia has been increasingly showing the geopolitical structure of "one superpower and three major powers". Under the constraints of the complex political and security structure, the U. S. , Japan, China and Russia take the balance of power strategy based on the geopolitical perspective, to seek the power advantage in Northeast Asia. Their balance of power game led to a security dilemma in Northeast Asia, also affected the settlement of the security dilemma. However, the emergence and development of the theory of soft pow- er, which extended the research of the international relations theory to a new field, and became a new theoretical perspective to understand the changes of international relations and foreign policy. If countries in this region can fo- cus on soft power strategy, they will transform from "zero-sum game" to "cooperation and competition game" grad- ually. Therefore, soft power has become a new idea to ease or even resolve the security dilemma in Northeast Asia.

  14. Research on the efficiency of coherent balanced detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyang; Ai, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Chen, Yang; Ji, Fengzhu; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2016-10-01

    In the spatial coherent optical communication, after long distance transmission, the receiver needs to detect and extract the weak signal, and the balanced detection technology is the key technology in the coherent detection. Using balanced detection technology, not only can further improve the receiving sensitivity of coherent optical detection, but also can suppress the common mode intensity noise, so as to improve the output signal to noise ratio of the system. But the problems are (1) due to external causes (polarization control, input optical power loss error, atmospheric turbulence caused by decay, and so on),at both ends of the balanced detector's input signal can not keep consistent (2) two arms of balanced detector electronic devices (including photodiode and amplifier electronic components) are difficult to achieve perfectly matched. The paper is based on the principle of coherent optical detection, firstly, the advantage of balanced detection compared to single detection is detailed analysis, it is shown that balanced detector used in coherent optical communication system and with the improvement of communication rate, this advantage will more obvious. The theoretical and experimental results have verified several important factors that affect the efficiency of coherent balanced detection, namely, the consistency of the detection response, the atmospheric turbulence and the tracking jitter. It is of reference significant to study the balance detection technology in the spatial coherent optical communication.

  15. Nonequilibrium steady state in open quantum systems: Influence action, stochastic equation and power balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, J.-T., E-mail: cosmology@gmail.com [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Hu, B.L. [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the

  16. A method for balancing the fluctuation of wind power by hybrid energy storage system%混合储能平抑风电功率的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凯; 徐长奎

    2015-01-01

    Due to the random changes in wind speed , the fluctuation of the output power of wind farm is large , which may affect the stability of power system when wind farm is merged into a grid .A method for balancing fluctu-ant wind power was proposed to solve this problem .This method is based on a hybrid energy storage system .Firstly, the fluctuation power of wind power output is decomposed , then according to the characteristics of the fluctuating power , a battery and a super capacitor are taken as the energy storage device;secondly , the operation control mode of the energy storage system is designed , which can exchange power precisely and efficiently with wind power sys-tem, so as to make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating command;finally, a simulation is car-ried out under the environment of Matlab/Simulink .The simulation shows that the method can effectively stabilize the fluctuating output power of the wind farm , make the output power of wind farm track the power-generating com-mand stably , and the battery and the super capacitor bring into play their own advantages , therefore extending the service life of battery .%由于风速变化的随机性,风电场的输出功率波动性较大,导致风电场并网会对电力系统稳定性造成影响。为了克服风电输出的波动性问题,提出一种基于混合储能装置平抑风电功率波动的控制方法。首先,对风电输出波动功率进行分解,针对波动功率的特点选择蓄电池和超级电容作为储能装置;其次,设计储能系统的运行控制方式,使其能与风电场进行快速的功率交换,使得风电场输出功率跟踪发电指令;最后,在MATLAB/SIMULINK环境下进行仿真验证。仿真结果表明该方法能够有效地平抑处理风电场输出波动功率,使得风电场输出功率稳定地跟踪发电指令,蓄电池和超级电容各自发挥优势,延长了蓄电池使用寿命。

  17. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh; Aparajit B. Dey, MD; Mohammed E. Hussain, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  18. The mysteries of nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlow, J C

    1999-06-01

    The first part of this review is concerned with the balance between N input and output as urinary urea. I start with some observations on classical biochemical studies of the operation of the urea cycle. According to Krebs, the cycle is instantaneous and automatic, as a result of the irreversibility of the first enzyme, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (EC 6.3.5.5; CPS-I), and it should be able to handle many times the normal input to the cycle. It is now generally agreed that acetyl glutamate is a necessary co-factor for CPS-1, but not a regulator. There is abundant evidence that changes in dietary protein supply induce coordinated changes in the amounts of all five urea-cycle enzymes. How this coordination is achieved, and why it should be necessary in view of the properties of the cycle mentioned above, is unknown. At the physiological level it is not clear how a change in protein intake is translated into a change of urea cycle activity. It is very unlikely that the signal is an alteration in the plasma concentration either of total amino-N or of any single amino acid. The immediate substrates of the urea cycle are NH3 and aspartate, but there have been no measurements of their concentration in the liver in relation to urea production. Measurements of urea kinetics have shown that in many cases urea production exceeds N intake, and it is only through transfer of some of the urea produced to the colon, where it is hydrolysed to NH3, that it is possible to achieve N balance. It is beginning to look as if this process is regulated, possibly through the operation of recently discovered urea transporters in the kidney and colon. The second part of the review deals with the synthesis and breakdown of protein. The evidence on whole-body protein turnover under a variety of conditions strongly suggests that the components of turnover, including amino acid oxidation, are influenced and perhaps regulated by amino acid supply or amino acid concentration, with insulin

  19. A Monetary Analysis of Balance Sheet Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We augment a standard macroeconomic model to analyze the effects and limitations of balance sheet policies. We show that the central bank can stimulate real activity by changing the size or the composition of its balance sheet, when interest rate policy is ineffective. Specifically, the central bank can stabilize the economy by increasing money supply against eligible assets even when the policy rate is at the zero lower bound. By changing the composition of its balance sheet, it can affect i...

  20. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Performance Management of Power Generation Enterprises%平衡记分卡在发电企业绩效管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海; 陶玲

    2014-01-01

    Power Plants give more attention to traditional financial index rather than such factors as driving financial ratio to reach its goal and combination of the financial index and strategic objectives among others, when they stipulate Performance index. This paper mainly focuses on analyzing the practical application of management method as to the balanced scorecard in management power plants performance.%发电企业在制定绩效指标过程中往往更多采用传统的财务指标,而对于驱动财务指标完成的过程因素以及财务指标与战略目标的结合性等方面没有给予更多关注。本文从绩效管理与企业战略目标相结合的角度,就平衡计分卡在发电企业绩效管理中的实际应用进行了分析研究。

  1. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  2. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  3. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance.

  4. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  5. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  6. The impact of microgeneration upon the Dutch balancing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The share of microgeneration (power generation at the level of households and small businesses) in the Dutch electricity system continues to grow. Over time, this development may pose a threat to the reliability and efficiency of the Dutch electricity balancing market. We investigated possible chang

  7. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  8. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  9. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC BALANCE STRATEGY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON BALANCE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Mairaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance emerges from the interaction of multiple systems that are organized to meet functional task goals and that are constrained by environmental context, but is often compromised with advancing age. At least 30% of older people experience decline in physical activity after entry into residential care. Participation in activity is more difficult for older people because of fear, lack of motivation, depression and poor understanding of the long term benefits of physical activity. Thus our purpose was to investigate effect of specific balance strategy training programme as compared to general balance training in improving balance in institutionalized elderly population. Methods: 26 institutionalized elderly subjects participated in the study. Participants in group A were given specific balance strategy training programme and those in group B were given general balance training. Intervention was for 40 min per day, thrice a week for 4 weeks. Balance was assessed using Berg balance scale and Timed up and go test. Result: Both the interventions showed marked improvement in balance when assessed on Berg balance and Timed up and go test. The group having specific balance strategy training programme proved to be significantly better than general balance training programme. Conclusion: Specific balance strategy training programme being more effective than general regimens should be incorporated in addressing balance related problems of institutionalized elderly population.

  10. A Delicate Balance of Different Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    of balancing different dependencies. In this perspective, Greenland is the case in extremis. The prospect of Greenland seceding from the Kingdom of Denmark relies upon it becoming embedded in the “international community of sovereign nation states” thus balancing different dependencies ‐ while also...

  11. Influence of Local Oscillate power on micro-motion balanced heterodyne detection for Lidar%本振功率对目标微动激光平衡外差探测的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力仁; 胡以华; 李政; 徐世龙

    2015-01-01

    Aimming at detecting the micro-Doppler effect of target away, the mathetical model of variational Local Oscillate (LO) power influence to signal to noise ratio (SNR) of balanced heterodyne detection for coherent lidar were established. Besides, simulation analysis on this model was proceeded. The effect on feature extraction was observed through experiments. The results show that in balanced heterodyne detection, where quantum efficiency of two photo electric detectors can't match completely in reality, there will be a specific LO power making the SNR best, considering the shot noise,hot noise and LO intensity noise. While choosing the optimal LO power in detection, the micro-doppler feature extracted will be more readable and accurate.%面向远距离目标微多普勒效应的探测,建立了本振光功率变化对激光平衡外差探测回波信噪比影响的数学模型,并进行了仿真分析.通过搭建的1 550 nm激光平衡外差探测实验平台测试了由于本振功率变化对于目标微多普勒特征提取效果的影响.研究结果表明,对于平衡外差探测,由于两光电探测器量子效率不可能完全匹配,考虑到散粒噪声、热噪声和本振相对强度噪声的影响,将存在一个最佳本振功率值使探测信噪比达到最大.当选取该本振功率进行探测时,获得的目标微多普勒特征可读性更强,提取误差更小.

  12. Wireless Power Transfer-Based Energy-Balanced Routing Algorithm for Internet of Things%物联网中基于无线能量传输的能量均衡路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志奎; 邱一腾; 程晨; 孙英泽; 贾一洋

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the researchers present an energy-balanced routing algorithm based on wireless power transfer(WPTRA). Combined with the traditional routing protocols, this algorithm uses the cluster head selection strategy based on residual energy level. In data transfer phase, when the energy of the nodes is below the pre-set value TE_MIN, the nodes will choose the higher energy node nearby, according to the relationship between energy transmission efficiency and distance. Then, the nodes can get refueled from higher energy nodes by wireless power transfer technology.%本文提出了一种基于无线能量传输的能量均衡路由算法(WPTRA).该算法结合传统的分簇路由协议,采用基于剩余能量级别的簇头选取策略进行分簇.在数据传输阶段,当网络中某一节点能量低于预设的临界能量值TEMIN时,通过计算无线能量传输效率和传输距离之间的关系,选择其附近能量较高的节点,通过无线能量传输技术对其进行能量补充.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity ma

  14. A new generation of high-power cascade H-bridge rectifier for voltage balancing control%新一代电压平衡控制大功率级联H桥整流器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相卿

    2013-01-01

    The paper discussed control strategy of cascade rectifier which was the first part of new generation of cascade non-frequency transformer.It simplified cascade rectifier model,and established a mathematical model based on single-phase rotating coordinate system.It put forward rapid balancing control strategy for DC side capacitor voltage,which decomposed switch states desired by synthesized waveform to each cascade unit.The simulation results show that the control strategy not only can make DC side capacitor voltage balance control of each cascade unit more precise,but also can control active and reactive power more effectively.%讨论了作为新一代级联式无工频变压器第一部分的级联整流器的控制策略;简化了级联整流器的模型,并且建立了基于单相旋转坐标系的数学模型;提出了一种将合成波形所需的开关状态分解到每个级联单元的直流侧电容电压快速平衡控制策略.仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅可以使每个级联单元直流侧电容电压平衡控制更精确,而且能更加有效地控制系统有功功率和无功功率.

  15. Nonlinear Excitation Prediction Control of Multi-machine Power Systems Based on Balanced Reduced Model%基于平衡降阶模型的多机系统非线性励磁预测控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪山; 兰晓明; 周雪青

    2013-01-01

    This paper presented a multi-machine power system nonlinear excitation predictive control method which combined model predictive control and model reduction technology in order to tackle the problem that the optimal excitation control and the traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) excitation control could not consider the constraint of states and input of the system, and to reduce the complexity of the numerical calculation of high order dynamic model in nonlinear excitation predictive control. First, The theory of empirical Gramians balanced reduction was used to reduce the orders of power system nonlinear dynamic model to save the computing time of open-loop optimization of model predictive control. Then, it used the least-square residual of system input and output as the objection function, using reduced dynamic model as equivalent constraint and the change limits of system output and control input as unequivalent constrain to establish the excitation predictive control model based on reduced model. Next, the interior-point method was used to solve the optimal problem meanwhile to realize multi-step prediction. Finally, we took advantage of a four-machine power system to verify the effectiveness of the predictive control method. The simulation results show that nonlinear excitation predictive control method based on balanced reduced model for the multi-machine power systems can greatly shorten the optimization time, meanwhile maintain the voltage of generator terminals within the set points and improve the stability of power system.%  将预测控制与模型降阶技术相结合提出一种基于平衡降阶模型的多机电力系统非线性励磁预测控制方法,以解决最优励磁控制和传统比例积分微分励磁控制无法考虑系统复杂状态和控制输入约束的问题,并且降低非线性励磁预测控制高阶动态模型数值计算的复杂性。首先,利用经验Gramians 平衡降阶原理,对电力系统

  16. Comparison of Balance and Out of Balance Main Battle Tank Armaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Purdy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been commonly thought that stabilising an out of balance gun on a moving platform (tank or ship is very difficult or impossible to achieve. Using models of a balanced and out of balance gun on a main battle tank this is shown not to be the case. The models of the guns used, include the effect of non-linear friction and out of balance. To improve the stabilisation of the out of balance gun, trunnion vertical acceleration feedforward is used.

  17. Electromechanical Peak Devices of Distributed Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Konstantinova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The power world crises (1973, 1979 have demonstrated that mankind entered the expensive energy epoch. More and more attitude is given to power saving problem by including renewable power sources in energy balance of the countries. The paper analyzes a power system inBelarusand a typical chart of the active load is cited in the paper. Equalization of load chart is considered as one of measures directed on provision of higher operational efficiency of power system and power saving.  This purpose can be obtained while including electromechanical peak devices of the distributed generation in the energy balance.

  18. A Preliminary Analysis of Roh Moo-hyun's "Balancer Diplomacy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an important state of Northeast Asia, the influence of ROK's diplomatic conception and policies on regional security situation should never be underestimated. In 2005, President Roh Moo-hyun stressed that "ROK should be a balancing power in Northeast Asia"and claimed that "the map of influence in Northeast Asia will be changing with ROK's strategic selection." All these have aroused high attention in international society. This article tries to examine and analyze the main contents of the ROK's "balancer diplomacy,"the causes of the formulation of the policy and its influence as well.

  19. The unifying power of sustainable development; towards balanced choices between people, planet and profit in agricultural production chains and rural land use: the role of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.; Klijn, J.A.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Schans, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    This position paper presents an overview of the origin and meaning of the concept of sustainable development in various domains and their interrelationships, expressed as the People-Profit-Planet triangle. The role of Wageningen UR and its position in society is clarified: the three P domains are re

  20. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and...

  1. A Review of Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity Is Transforming China and Changing the Global Balance of Power by David Aikman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SamuelCPearson

    2004-01-01

    The dramatic social and economic transformation of China since 1978 has been so impressive that it can only be described in terms of revolutionor even resurrection. Today China has the will and potential to become theworld's next superpower,

  2. Simulation of Reactive Power Imbalances in the Transmission Power Grid Threatened by the Problem of Voltage Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lis; Mirosław Łabuzek

    2013-01-01

    The reactive power balance in the transmission power grid depends on the reactive power produced by the power stations and the value generated by the capacitive power lines and static compensators. Reactive transmission losses become greater than shunt capacitive generation at the turning-point of voltage stability. Then lowering bus voltages drive EPS into voltage collapse point. The paper presents the balance of reactive power depending on the power demand growth, which is then used to esti...

  3. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  4. Towards an Understanding of Atmospheric Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    During a 35 year period I published 30+ pear-reviewed papers and technical reports concerning, in part or whole, the topic of atmospheric balance. Most used normal modes, either implicitly or explicitly, as the appropriate diagnostic tool. This included examination of nonlinear balance in several different global and regional models using a variety of novel metrics as well as development of nonlinear normal mode initialization schemes for particular global and regional models. Recent studies also included the use of adjoint models and OSSEs to answer some questions regarding balance. lwill summarize what I learned through those many works, but also present what l see as remaining issues to be considered or investigated.

  5. First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Merzic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most power systems in underdeveloped and developing countries are based on conventional power plants, mainly "slow-response" thermal power plants and a certain number of hydro power plants; characterized by inflexible generating portfolios and traditionally designed to meet own electricity needs. Taking into account operational capabilities of conventional power systems, their development planning will face problems with integration of notable amounts of installed capacities in wind power plants (WPP. This is what highlights the purpose of this work and in that sense, here, possible variations of simulated output power from WPP in the 10 minute and hourly time interval, which need to be balanced, are investigated, presented and discussed. Comparative calculations for the amount of installed power in WPP that can be integrated into a certain power system, according to available secondary balancing power amounts, in case of concentrated and dispersed future WPP are given. The stated has been done using a part of the power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the considered example, by planned geographically distributed WPP construction, even up to cca. 74% more in installed power of WPP can be integrated into the power system than in case of geographically concentrated WPP construction, for the same available amount of (secondary balancing power. These calculations have shown a significant benefit of planned, geographically distributed WPP construction, as an important recommendation for the development planning of conventional power systems, with limited balancing options. Keywords: balancing reserves,  geographical dispersion, output power  variations

  6. Multi-Objective Reservoir Optimization Balancing Energy Generation and Firm Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To maximize annual power generation and to improve firm power are important but competing goals for hydropower stations. The firm power output is decisive for the installed capacity in design, and represents the reliability of the power generation when the power plant is put into operation. To improve the firm power, the whole generation process needs to be as stable as possible, while the maximization of power generation requires a rapid rise of the water level at the beginning of the storage period. Taking the minimal power output as the firm power, both the total amount and the reliability of the hydropower generation are considered simultaneously in this study. A multi-objective model to improve the comprehensive benefits of hydropower stations are established, which is optimized by Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II. The Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower System (TGCHS is taken as the study case, and the Pareto Fronts in different search spaces are obtained. The results not only prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, but also provide operational references for the TGCHS, indicating that there is room of improvement for both the annual power generation and the firm power.

  7. The management of the financial balance

    OpenAIRE

    Rascolean Ilie; Szabo Robert

    2010-01-01

    Financial balance sheet approach allows emphasizing the relationship between sources of funds held by the enterprise and allocating these funds. It is the accounting records that describe the synthesis of assets and liabilities of the company at year end and the other cases provided by law, all balance is highlighted by the double representation of heritage, providing a separate description of assets and liabilities. The main indicators of financial stability analysis, after studying the bala...

  8. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  9. Governmental and industry roles and responsibilities with regard to international marriage brokers: equalizing the balance of power between foreign fiances and spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Leslye E; Sarangapani, Hema

    2007-05-01

    The unregulated nature of the international marriage broker (IMB) industry endangers women by denying them information necessary to make informed choices with respect to their intended U.S.-based citizen spouses. This article (a) provides an overview of the contemporary IMB industry, including a discussion of reasons underlying women's choices to use IMB agencies to meet and marry U.S.-based spouses, (b) discusses how this industry's marketing of marriages potentially endangers many women recruits, and (c) offers an update and analysis of new provisions under U.S. immigration law that strengthen protections available for women who immigrate as fiancés and spouses of U.S. citizens, including those in marriages arranged by IMBs.

  10. Security Constrained Economic Dispatch Considering Balance of Electric Power and Energy%考虑电力电量平衡的安全约束经济调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽磊; 周京阳; 潘毅; 闫翠会; 崔晖; 李伟刚

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the benefit balance of all parties, smart grid generation schedule requires the ability to take into consideration of many inconsistent factors such as security and economy, energy saving and emission reduction, efficiency and fairness. So it is the purpose to make optimization decision of generation schedule as a whole program under the condition of system security. On the basis of comprehensive consideration of energy saving, emission reduction, security and unified dispatch's requirements, the security constrained economic dispatch model considering balance of electric power and energy was established. It is the multi-objective optimization model whose objectives are the minimum cost of power generation and the contract quantity minimum deviation. After each objective was fuzzy, the model was converted to multi-objective sliding model. And, the concept of objective function satisfaction and licensing factor were introduced to reflect the importance of multiple conflicting objectives. Sequential quadratics programming based QP-free algorithm was applied to calculate and the results show that this method is effective. The information for decision-making can be provided to decision makers by licensing factor. The algorithm is flexible and elastic, consistent with power grid security and fairness.%智能电网调度发电计划要求能够统筹考虑安全与经济、节能与减排、效率与公平等诸多因素,以实现兼顾各方利益,满足系统安全的整体发电计划的优化决策.为此,在综合考虑节能减排、安全以及传统意义上“三公”要求的基础上,建立了考虑电力电量平衡的安全约束经济调度模型,它是以发电成本最小和合同电量偏差最小的多目标优化模型,在对各个目标进行模糊化后,将其转化为多目标滑动模型,并引入了目标函数满意度及许可度因子的概念,用以反映多个相互矛盾目标的重要程度.采用基于序列二次规划的序

  11. 中国、拉丁美洲与全球力量平衡%China,Latin America and the Balance of Global Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿尔弗雷多·托罗·哈[委

    2016-01-01

    中国一直在积极推动建立符合自身利益的国际经济新秩序。中国所倡导的全球化是一种平行的全球化,伴随着对西方主导的经济秩序的大幅削弱。与此同时,一种违背美国愿望的地缘政治秩序,也开始显现出来。中俄两国是推动这种秩序的发动机。西方世界对中俄两国的意志和诉求所采取的傲慢态度是导致中俄在地缘政治上联手的根本原因。鉴于中国对大多数发展中国家具有很大影响力,这种政治-经济双重秩序的形成,显然会对发展中国家产生强大的作用力。在此背景下,历史上被视为“美国后花园”的拉美和加勒比国家,可能采取什么态度就显得尤为重要。%China has been actively promoting an international economic order according to its interests.But with impres-sive consistency of purpose,China is givingway to a parallel globalisation that may strongly weaken the economic order dominated by the West.Simultaneously to the above begins to glimpse the emergence of a geopoliticalorder of global out-reach,upstream of the United States.The confluence between China and Russia is the driving force of this process and, like that in the former case,the intrinsicreason is linked to the Western arrogance in relation to the sensitivities and aspi-rations of these two countries.This political-economic duality is likely to generate a major drag inthe developing world force,given the great influence exerted by China over a significant part of this.In this context,the stance that could ar-rive to take the countries of LatinAmerica and the Caribbean,region historically considered by the United States as its "backyard",would be particularly significant.

  12. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  13. Nonlinear Distortion Mechanisms and Efficiency of Balanced-Armature Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joe

    ) and the linearity of the magnetic material is therefore of great importance. This thesis describes the inherent nonlinear parameters of the balanced-armature loudspeaker and demonstrates how the nonlinearity of these parameters may be reduced by design. A sim- ple technique for incorporating magnetic leakage...... and to validate simpler equivalent circuit models. A large scale model of a balanced-armature loudspeaker has been developed and its inherent nonlinear parameters have been measured and compared to the theoretically predicted values. A measurement setup for determining the magnetic properties of soft magnetic...... materials has also been developed, since it is of great importance to understand what kind of linear and nonlinear transformations the magnetic materials impose on the signal. In hearing aid applications the power efficiency of the loudspeaker is important because every reduction in power consumption...

  14. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of

  15. Energy balance, bioelectricity and emission of greenhouse gases from power plants in Mato Grosso do Sul; Balanco energetico, bioeletricidade e emissao de gases estufa das usinas de Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdera, Eduardo Mirko Valenzuela [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil)], email: eduardoturdera@ufgd.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    First we present in this paper the most important greenhouse gases emitted by sugar cane crops. The principal reference of the energy balance methodology and its theory are described. Furthermore, we show the yields of the unique energy balance applied to the sugar cane mills of Mato Grosso do Sul. The yields brings information about land use of the sugar cane crops, efficiency of technologies and process to produce ethanol and inputs about how the companies could improve its competitive position which involves, to care of environment impacts. Finally, we present the yield of CO{sub 2} emissions of the five mills evaluated. (author)

  16. Reactive power balance in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, John Eli; Hylle, Per

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is generated by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. Most of them are connected to the distribution systems. In periods with high wind speeds, large flows of reactive power have been observed between the 150kV and the 60 kV systems....... The transfer of reactive power reduces the capacity of the lines, causes thermal losses and can in some cases reduce the voltage stability margin of the system. To identify the origin of the problem, an actual distribution system with a high penetration of wind power and distributed generation has been...... thoroughly investigated. Active and reactive power measurements for transformers and production units have been inserted in a detailed system model. With intervals of 15 min and a total period of over 5 months, the measured situations have been reproduced with load flow calculations. The simulations have...

  17. 基于能量均衡路由的低功耗温室无线监测系统研发%A wireless monitoring system of low-power consumption for greenhouse based on energy-balanced routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李偲钰

    2014-01-01

    The real-time collection of crop growth environment parameter information in greenhouse was the basic requirement of precision agriculture. In this paper, the environmental monitoring system based on wireless sensor network is design to acquire the real-time information at any time during the whole growth period. IRIS, an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless module, is utilized to form the wireless monitor-ing network. To realize the low-power consumption of the whole system, the EBGR routing algorithm is used to balance the whole energy consumption,and then extend the work lifetime. Test proved that the system worked well. Sensor nodes can self-organize into Mesh Net-works. Solar power module charges 8 hours to battery then the node can work for at least 72 hours. EBGR routing protocol can obviously reduce the remaining number of hops path to the sink. It can guarantee a smaller communication delay and balanced energy consumption of the whole network, extended the survival period of the entire network.%温室中农作物生长环境参数信息的实时采集是实施精细农业的基本需求。本文基于能量均衡的路由协议研发了适用于温室环境的低功耗无线监测系统,在IRIS节点基础上设计了对节点进行了软硬件设计,包括电源管理、数据采集、数据处理与无线组网设计。特别针对低功耗这一设计要求,采用基于能量均衡的路由策略进一步降低了网络系统的整体功耗,延长了网络寿命。整个系统将多种模块集成为小型的易于在温室部署的设备,实现了温室环境参数信息的实时获取,满足温室环境监控的基本要求。实验证明,系统能稳定的持续工作,达到了设计要求,感知节点能够自组织成Mesh网络,太阳能供电模块对蓄电池充电8小时(满电)能够保证感知节点稳定运行72小时以上,EBGR路由协议会尽量沿着具有最少剩余跳数的路径向汇聚节点转发数据分

  18. 大国平衡下的东盟安全机制及面临的挑战%ASEAN Security Mechanism and Its Challenges Based on the Balance of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李路曲; 高俊龙

    2015-01-01

    ASEAN has been in a huge change of the international order since it was established. Due to the complicated religious and territorial disputes between ASEAN countries, conflicts never stopped in this area.Realism shows that the changes and the anarchy of the international system directly affects nation's behavior, which makes the nations tend to expand its own power in order to survive. Considering that it's hard for ASEAN countries to rely on its own strength to achieve self-reliance and self-protection, they created the security mechanism of power balance. Although this mechanism has improved ASEAN's international status and viability, disadvantage is gradually revealed with the expansion of multi-polarization of world and non-traditional security threats.It may even hinder the peace and stability in the region. Therefore, it is necessary to change the balance mechanism and, more important, to enhance the security cooperation within ASEAN under the new international system.%东盟自其成立至今一直处于国际秩序的巨大变革中,在大国介入下,东盟内部的宗教、领土等问题不断发酵,争端不断。国际政治中的现实主义理论认为,国际体系的变化直接影响着国家行为,而国际社会的无政府状态决定了各国有扩张自身的权力以求生存的趋势。然而实力较弱的东盟各国难以依靠自身的力量实现自强和自保,因此它们通过建立联盟来构建大国平衡的安全机制,以维护本地区的独立与生存。尽管该机制一度提高了东盟的国际地位和生存能力,但随着国际多极化趋势和非传统安全威胁的扩展,传统的大国平衡安全机制的弊端渐趋显露出来,如果运用不好,它可能会妨碍该地区的和平与稳定。因此,在新的国际体系下,既要变革大国平衡机制,也要发展东盟内部的安全合作。

  19. Regimes of validity for balanced models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Peter R.; McWilliams, James C.

    1983-07-01

    Scaling analyses are presented which delineate the atmospheric and oceanic regimes of validity for the family of balanced models described in Gent and McWilliams (1983a). The analyses follow and extend the classical work of Charney (1948) and others. The analyses use three non-dimensional parameters which represent the flow scale relative to the Earth's radius, the dominance of turbulent or wave-like processes, and the dominant component of the potential vorticity. For each regime, the models that are accurate both at leading order and through at least one higher order of accuracy in the appropriate small parameter are then identified. In particular, it is found that members of the balanced family are the appropriate models of higher-order accuracy over a broad range of parameter regimes. Examples are also given of particular atmospheric and oceanic phenomena which are in the regimes of validity for the different balanced models.

  20. Analyze and Improve Lifetime in 3L-NPC Inverter from Power Cycle and Thermal Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Qunjing

    2014-01-01

    Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) topology is becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional one in high-voltage and high-power application. Studies show that the power cycling mean time to failure (MTTF) of the semiconductor bond wire in 3L-NPC inverter system may be very short un...

  1. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  2. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  3. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  4. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  5. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  6. New applications of the homogeneous balance principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 王跃明; 王明亮; 方宗德

    2003-01-01

    The homogeneous balance principle has been widely applied to the exploration of nonlinear transformation, exact solutions (especially solitary wave solution), dromion and similarity reduction to the nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. In this paper, we use the homogeneous balance principle to derive Backlund transformations for nonlinear partial differential equations that have more nonlinear terms and more highest-order partial derivative terms. With the aid of the Backlund transformations derived here, we could obtain exact solutions to the nonlinear partial differential equations. The Davey-Stewartson equation and the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are considered as the examples.

  7. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  8. A survey on investigating the need for intelligent power-aware load balanced routing protocols for handling critical links in MANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, B; Bhalaji, N; Sivakumar, D

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing.

  9. A Survey on Investigating the Need for Intelligent Power-Aware Load Balanced Routing Protocols for Handling Critical Links in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, B.; Bhalaji, N.; Sivakumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks connectivity is always an issue of concern. Due to dynamism in the behavior of mobile nodes, efficiency shall be achieved only with the assumption of good network infrastructure. Presence of critical links results in deterioration which should be detected in advance to retain the prevailing communication setup. This paper discusses a short survey on the specialized algorithms and protocols related to energy efficient load balancing for critical link detection in the recent literature. This paper also suggests a machine learning based hybrid power-aware approach for handling critical nodes via load balancing. PMID:24790546

  10. The importance of fluid balance in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Katie; Pilsworth, Julie

    This article reviews the physiology that underpins normal fluid balance and discusses how fluid balance can be affected by illness. Clinical assessment of hydration and the importance of fluid balance record keeping are explained. Recommendations are made to improve fluid balance management in clinical practice and the professional importance of record keeping is highlighted.

  11. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  12. On the Nonuniqueness of Balanced Nonlinear Realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, W. Steven; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The notion of balanced realizations for nonlinear state space model reduction problems was first introduced by Scherpen in 1993. Analogous to'the linear case, the so called singular value functions of a system describe the relative importance of each state component from an input-output point of vie

  13. Multivariate test power approximations for balanced linear mixed models in studies with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringham, Brandy M; Kreidler, Sarah M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2016-07-30

    Multilevel and longitudinal studies are frequently subject to missing data. For example, biomarker studies for oral cancer may involve multiple assays for each participant. Assays may fail, resulting in missing data values that can be assumed to be missing completely at random. Catellier and Muller proposed a data analytic technique to account for data missing at random in multilevel and longitudinal studies. They suggested modifying the degrees of freedom for both the Hotelling-Lawley trace F statistic and its null case reference distribution. We propose parallel adjustments to approximate power for this multivariate test in studies with missing data. The power approximations use a modified non-central F statistic, which is a function of (i) the expected number of complete cases, (ii) the expected number of non-missing pairs of responses, or (iii) the trimmed sample size, which is the planned sample size reduced by the anticipated proportion of missing data. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing the theoretical results to the Monte Carlo simulated power for the Catellier and Muller multivariate test. Over all experimental conditions, the closest approximation to the empirical power of the Catellier and Muller multivariate test is obtained by adjusting power calculations with the expected number of complete cases. The utility of the method is demonstrated with a multivariate power analysis for a hypothetical oral cancer biomarkers study. We describe how to implement the method using standard, commercially available software products and give example code. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  15. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  16. Harmonic balance finite element method applications in nonlinear electromagnetics and power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Junwei; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2016-01-01

    The first book applying HBFEM to practical electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems * Examines and solves wide aspects of practical electrical and electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems presented by HBFEM * Combines the latest research work with essential background knowledge, providing an all-encompassing reference for researchers, power engineers and students of applied electromagnetics analysis * There are very few books dealing with the solution of nonlinear electric- power-related problems * The contents are based on the authors' many years' research and industry experience; they approach the subject in a well-designed and logical way * It is expected that HBFEM will become a more useful and practical technique over the next 5 years due to the HVDC power system, renewable energy system and Smart Grid, HF magnetic used in DC/DC converter, and Multi-pulse transformer for HVDC power supply * HBFEM can provide effective and economic solutions to R&D product development * Includes Matlab e...

  17. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  18. Detailed Balancing and the Structure of Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y Z

    2001-01-01

    The protons are taken as an ensemble of Fock states. Using detailed balancing principle, ensemble density metrix on the basis of the number of partons is calculated, and so some information about intrinsic gluons and intrinsic sea quarks are gained without any parameter.

  19. A safety analysis of warhead balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.

    1998-12-01

    Reentry vehicles (RVs) carrying warheads from ballistic missiles must be carefully balanced with the warhead in situ to prevent wobble as the RVs enter the earth`s atmosphere to prevent inaccuracy or loss of the warhead. This balancing is performed on a dynamic balancing machine that rotates the RV at significant angular velocities. Seizure of the spindle shaft of the machine could result in rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly, which could over-stress and shear bolts or other structures that attach the RV to the balancing machine. This could result in undesired motions of the RV and impact of the RV on equipment or structures in the work area. This potential safety problem has long been recognized in a general way, but no systematic investigation of the possible accident sequences had been performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated set of systems analysis techniques that worked well in developing a set of accident sequences that describe the motions of the RV following a spindle-shaft seizure event.

  20. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  1. 一种无功平衡与临界潮流快速分析方法及其在特高压可控高抗需求分析中的应用%Fast Analysis Method of Reactive Power Balancing and Critical Power Flow and Application to Study Controllable Shunt Reactors Requirement in UHV Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓辉; 刘道伟; 顾卓远; 王雅婷; 张彦涛; 孙玉娇; 郭强; 周勤勇; 申洪; 刘楠; 张健; 郑超; 王义红; 李晶

    2013-01-01

    With the planning and constructing of the ultra high voltage (UHV) grid of China, the controllable shunt reactor (CSR) attracts more attentions as an important control measure for var and voltage. Therefore it is urgent to analysis and study the deployment of UHV CSRs scientifically. In the paper, firstly, the feasible var balance principles were proposed;secondly, the quantitive relationship between the var demand and active power going through the reactance element was analyzed in depth. Furthermore, only based on active power flow, the fast analysis method of substation-centered var balance and critical power flow was proposed and applied into the study of the deployment of the UHV CSR and its requirement and location. The method can not only be applied into the fast quantitive analysis of the given power flow pattern, but also can be used to obtain the relation curve between the critical power flow and the transformer load rate, thereby, the adaptability of the study conclusions to the various load levels and power flow patterns is increased. Finally, the requirement and the deployment of CSRs in UHV‘Dongzong’ transmission project were studied with the proposed method, and the conclusions and recommended deployment schemes were given, which provides the technical basis for the pilot project of UHV CSR.%  随着我国特高压电网规划和建设的不断深入,可控高抗作为重要的无功电压调节手段备受关注,亟需对其在特高压电网中的需求和布点作出科学判断。首先提出可操作性强的特高压电网无功平衡原则,深入分析电网元件的无功需求和有功传输之间的定量关系;进而提出一种可仅基于有功电力流,以变电站为中心的电力系统无功平衡及其临界潮流快速分析方法;随之将这种方法应用到特高压电网可控高抗的需求和布点研究中。该方法不仅可以对指定的规划方式进行快速定量分析,还可以给出变电站

  2. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  3. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  4. Sustainability as a part of balanced scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sara Zavodna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  5. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h...

  6. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  7. Task-specificity of balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Gruber, Markus; Kramer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Despite much research on balance training, it is still unclear whether balance training leads to highly task-specific adaptations or rather non-specific adaptations. Hence, in this study we examined whether balance training increased performance only in the balance task that was trained or also in non-trained tasks. Forty healthy participants (28 m 12 f, 25 ± 4 years, 177 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) were assigned to one of two training groups (TGs) or a control group. Both TGs completed six sessions over 2 weeks, only the training device differed. Before and after the training, performance in the trained task as well as in additional untrained tasks was recorded. ANOVAs showed that each TG outperformed the other groups only in the task they had trained (e.g., task trained by TG1: +225% in TG1, only +41% and +30% in TG2 and control, group*time interaction, pbalance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement, and test the efficacy of training programs using specific tests instead of general tests with limited functional relevance.

  8. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  9. Dynamics and mass balance of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica: 2. Force balance and longitudinal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, J. L.; Cuffey, K. M.

    2009-11-01

    Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, exemplifies an ice sheet outlet that flows through a region of rugged topography and dry climate. In contrast to other well-studied outlets, Taylor Glacier moves very slowly, despite a thickness of order 1 km and driving stresses averaging 1.5 bars. Here we analyze new measurements of glacier geometry and surface velocity to elucidate flow dynamics of Taylor Glacier. Force balance and basal temperatures are calculated at six locations along the glacier's length using an algorithm developed for this study. The effects of stress-gradient coupling on longitudinal flow variations are also examined; we ask whether Kamb and Echelmeyer's (1986) linearized theory adequately describes the observed response of flow to large-amplitude variations in driving stress. The force balance calculations indicate that no basal motion is needed to explain the observed flow of Taylor Glacier. Inferred basal temperatures are within a few degrees of the melting point in regions of kilometer-thick ice and well below the melting point elsewhere; deformation of subfreezing ice largely controls the flow of Taylor Glacier. Basal drags are mostly in the range 0.9 to 1.2 bars, and lateral drags are in the range 0.2 to 0.5 bar. Stress-gradient coupling strongly reduces the variability of velocities along the glacier. The velocity variations can be described as the convolution of a forcing function with a spatial filter, as Kamb and Echelmeyer suggested, but the form of the forcing function differs from the theoretical relation derived for small-amplitude perturbations (the power on driving stress is one, not three).

  10. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  11. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  12. Statistical tests with accurate size and power for balanced linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Keith E; Edwards, Lloyd J; Simpson, Sean L; Taylor, Douglas J

    2007-08-30

    The convenience of linear mixed models for Gaussian data has led to their widespread use. Unfortunately, standard mixed model tests often have greatly inflated test size in small samples. Many applications with correlated outcomes in medical imaging and other fields have simple properties which do not require the generality of a mixed model. Alternately, stating the special cases as a general linear multivariate model allows analysing them with either the univariate or multivariate approach to repeated measures (UNIREP, MULTIREP). Even in small samples, an appropriate UNIREP or MULTIREP test always controls test size and has a good power approximation, in sharp contrast to mixed model tests. Hence, mixed model tests should never be used when one of the UNIREP tests (uncorrected, Huynh-Feldt, Geisser-Greenhouse, Box conservative) or MULTIREP tests (Wilks, Hotelling-Lawley, Roy's, Pillai-Bartlett) apply. Convenient methods give exact power for the uncorrected and Box conservative tests. Simulations demonstrate that new power approximations for all four UNIREP tests eliminate most inaccuracy in existing methods. In turn, free software implements the approximations to give a better choice of sample size. Two repeated measures power analyses illustrate the methods. The examples highlight the advantages of examining the entire response surface of power as a function of sample size, mean differences, and variability.

  13. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    dispensable and self­ defeating—dispensable because that grand strategy is no longer needed to sustain an advantageous global environment, and self-defeating...democra­ 6 cy, and the establishment of a robust global market economy.13 It has contributed to...and even more crucial issue at hand—the question of how successful that strategy will be in preserving U.S. global influence and maintaining a

  14. Landslides: A Question of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, John; Loader, Pete

    2008-01-01

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students…

  15. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  16. Evaluation of Advanced Control for Li-ion Battery Balancing Systems using Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Schaltz, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Typically, the unique objective pursued in either active or passive balancing is equalization of single cell charge. However, a balancing circuit may offer more control features, like virtual equalization of single cell internal resistance or thermal balancing. Such control features for balancing...... systems are evaluated in this paper by means of convex optimization. More than one hundred cases in a pure EV application are evaluated. Balancing circuits' efficiency models are implemented and realistic cell-to-cell parameter distributions are considered based on experimental data. Different battery...... of energy losses, available capacity or temperature are obtained for the last three categories, even for moderate balancing currents. In particular, remarkable improvements are observed under conditions of high power demand with high variability, i.e., smaller battery sizes and more demanding driving cycles....

  17. Construction of a new watt balance with the goal to realize the kilogram in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamminger, Stephan; Haddad, Darine; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon; Newell, David; Pratt, Jon

    2015-04-01

    A watt balance is a mechanical device that compares mechanical power to electrical power. Since electrical power is measured using quantum physics by employing the Josephson effect and the Quantum Hall effect, electrical power can be measured as a product of a known factor, two frequencies, and the Planck constant h. Mechanical power is given by mgv , where m is the mass of a weight, g the local acceleration, and v the velocity. Hence, the watt balance provides a link between mass and Planck's constant. Currently several watt balances worldwide are employed to measure h. A redefinition of the international system of units (SI) is currently in discussion and may become reality as early as 2018. In the new SI, the numerical value of the Planck constant will be fixed and the watt balance is a means to realize the unit of mass. Researchers at NIST are preparing for a new SI and we have started in 2011 with plans to design a new watt balance capable of realizing the kilogram with relative uncertainties of a few parts in 108. Construction of the new watt balance has started in 2014. In my talk, I will show some of the latest results achieved with this apparatus.

  18. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  19. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  20. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects. Method: Total number of thirty subjects participated in the study. The duration of study was four weeks with five sittings in a week and with duration of sixty minutes in each training session. Data was collected using Berg balance scale and the get up and go test, statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and paired T-test. Result: The mean value of timed get up and go test in group A was 16.93 with a standard deviation of ±3.86. The t-value of the study was 2.63 with P-value of 0.007.The study found significant difference in effect as the calculated P < 0.05. The results showed that the conventional therapy along with masked vision could bring about significant changes in balance, mobility and function of patients suffering from balance impairment among post stroke. The data analysis found the significant difference between the visions deprived balance training to that of free vision balance training. Conclusion: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on balance and get up and go test. Balance performance and movement was found better in subjects with deprived vision than those with free vision.

  1. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  2. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability.

  3. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  4. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....... investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical...

  5. Explosive Target balances of the German Bundesbank

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Using the recursive unit root test by Phillips et al. (2011) we show that the Target balances of the German Bundesbank have been explosive from the beginning of 2009 to the beginning of 2013. By implementing a full-allotment policy and reducing the required minimum quality of collaterals in October 2008, the European Central Bank (ECB) refinanced credits in the GIIPS countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) to a large extent. Private capital flowed out of the GIIPS countries, an...

  6. Balanced Placement Of Vibration Sensors And Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical approach that involves Hankel singular values leads to method for estimation of optimal placement of relatively few vibration sensors and actuators in multivariable flexible structure. Approach extends and complements previous developments regarding approximate decomposition, to Hankel singular values, of singular values of controllability and observability grammian matrices of multivariable flexible structure. Mathematical constructs also described in "Designing An Approximately Balanced LQG Compensator" (NPO-19000).

  7. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  8. 女子皮艇运动员静态平衡能力与核心力量浅析%An analysis to static balance ability and core power of female kayak athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿明南; 丛长江

    2014-01-01

    以辽宁省女子皮艇队运动员和营口市水上运动学校女子青少年运动员各15名为研究对象,采用Best Poise V1.0平衡能力测试系统和八级腹桥测试评分,分别测试运动员的静态平衡能力和核心力量,考察不同水平运动员平衡能力和核心力量的差别,为女子皮艇运动员的核心力量训练提供参考。%15 Liaoning female kayaking players and 15 female players in Yingkou City Aquatic sports school are tested with Best Poise V1.0 balance system and 8 levels abdominal bridge to study their balance ability and core strength. The aim of this study is to find if there are significant differences on balance ability and core strength in different level players, and give some suggestions and reference on core strength training to the coaches.

  9. The Effects of Virtual Reality-based Balance Training on Balance of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyeong Hee; Hwangbo, Gak; Shin, Hyung Soo

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality-based balance training on balance of the elderly. [Methods] The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into a VR (virtual reality) training group (n=17) and a control group (n=15). The VR training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group received no intervention. The balance of the two groups was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] According to the Romberg Test conducted to examine the effects of the training on balance, both the area covered by the body's center of pressure movement, and movement distances per unit area of the body's center of pressure envelope significantly decreased in the VR training group. Moreover, the two groups showed significant differences in balance. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training is effective at improving the balance of the healthy elderly. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.

  10. Capacity of adolescents with cerebral palsy on paediatric balance scale and Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2014-10-15

    The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  11. Sensitive Quantitative Assessment of Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, Willilam H.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) has become a standard technique for objectively quantifying balance control performance, diagnosing the nature of functional impairments underlying balance disorders, and monitoring clinical treatment outcomes. We have long used CDP protocols to assess recovery of sensory-motor function in astronauts following space flight. The most reliable indicators of post-flight crew performance are the sensory organization tests (SOTs), particularly SOTs 5 and 6, which are sensitive to changes in availability and/or utilization of vestibular cues. We have noted, however, that some astronauts exhibiting obvious signs of balance impairment after flight are able to score within clinical norms on these tests, perhaps as a result of adopting competitive strategies or by their natural skills at substituting alternate sensory information sources. This insensitivity of the CDP protocol could underestimate of the degree of impairment and, perhaps, lead to premature release of those crewmembers to normal duties. To improve the sensitivity of the CDP protocol we have introduced static and dynamic head tilt SOT trials into our protocol. The pattern of postflight recovery quantified by the enhanced CDP protocol appears to more aptly track the re-integration of sensory-motor function, with recovery time increasing as the complexity of sensory-motor/biomechanical task increases. The new CDP protocol therefore seems more suitable for monitoring post-flight sensory-motor recovery and for indicating to crewmembers and flight surgeons fitness for return to duty and/or activities of daily living. There may be classes of patients (e.g., athletes, pilots) having motivation and/or performance characteristics similar to astronauts whose sensory-motor treatment outcomes would also be more accurately monitored using the enhanced CDP protocol. Furthermore, the enhanced protocol may be useful in early detection of age-related balance disorders.

  12. Computerized calculation of material balances in carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakov, A.M.

    1980-09-01

    Charge formulations and carbonisation schedules are described by empirical formulae used to calculate the yield of coking products. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the material balance, and associated computer program. The program can be written in conventional languages, e.g. Fortran, Algol etc. The information obtained can be used for on-line assessment of the effects of charge composition and properties on the coke and by-products yields, as well as the effects of the carbonisation conditions.

  13. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  14. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  15. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  16. Investigation of Self-Oscillation using Particle Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Inshik; Na, Byungkeun; Chang, Hongyoung

    2015-09-01

    Self-oscillation, which is obtained by using a DC-only power supply with specific anode voltage conditions, is investigated in a cylindrical system with thermal electrons using tungsten filaments. From analysis of the obtained oscillation profiles, the experimental data is consistent with the model derived from the particle balance model. The self-oscillation period characteristics with respect to the pressure and gas species are also analyzed. As the physics and particle motion of self-oscillation near the electron avalanche is analyzed in different perspective, this study may advance the understanding of this phenomenon. This research was supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE) of Korea (Grant No. 10041681).

  17. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jibi Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subject...

  18. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  19. Effects of hypothalamic neurodegeneration on energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wanting Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc, neuropeptides that promote positive or negative energy balance, respectively, through their opposing effects on melanocortin receptor signaling. In previous studies, Pomc mutant mice became obese, but Agrp mutant mice were surprisingly normal, suggesting potential compensation by neuronal circuits or genetic redundancy. Here we find that Pomc-ablation mice develop obesity similar to that described for Pomc knockout mice, but also exhibit defects in compensatory hyperphagia similar to what occurs during normal aging. Agrp-ablation female mice exhibit reduced adiposity with normal compensatory hyperphagia, while animals ablated for both Pomc and Agrp neurons exhibit an additive interaction phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the roles of hypothalamic neurons in energy balance regulation, and provide a model for understanding defects in human energy balance associated with neurodegeneration and aging.

  20. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Harmonic Stability in an AC Power-Electronics-Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic stability caused by the interactions among the wideband control of power converters and passive components in an AC power-electronicsbased power system. The impedance-based analytical approach is employed and expanded to a meshed and balanced threephase network...

  2. Balancing Control of AIT Leg Exoskeleton Using ZMP based FLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Aphiratsakun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the use of Zero Moment Point (ZMP concept for balancing control of the Asian Institute of Technology Leg EXoskeleton-I (ALEX-I. ALEX-I has been developed to assist patients who suffer from paraplegia or immobility due to the loss of power on lower limbs. The balanced posture set-points (joint trajectories under ZMP criterion are generated offline. The ZMP based set points are provided as the desired postures to ALEX-I. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC determines the modified set points based on postures balancing sensed by loadcells. Ground Contact Point (GCP is used to find the \\"ZMP-like in real time\\". GCP data is obtained by placing 4 loadcells forming a force plate on each foot of ALEX-I. This GCP data is then compared with the reference ZMP. Uncertainties of the model parameters, backlash, and joint tolerance are considered as disturbance. The differences of ZMP and GCP on x-z plane are used as the inputs to the FLC. The 4 outputs from FLC are the compensated angles of left and right ankles joints in roll and pitch axes that make the actual ZMP locate in the convex hull of the supporting area.

  3. The contributions of balance to gait capacity and motor function in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Yang, Byung Il; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Kang Sung; Kim, Eun Ja; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the contributions of balance to gait and motor function in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three outpatients participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Gait ability was assessed using the functional ambulation category, self-paced 10-m walking speed, and fastest 10-m walking speed. Standing balance and trunk control measures included the Berg Balance Scale and the Trunk Impairment Scale. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. [Results] Balance was the best predictor of the FAC, self-paced walking speed, and fastest walking speed, accounting for 57% to 61% of the variances. Additionally, the total score of TIS was the only predictor of the motor function of the lower limbs and the dynamic balance of TIS was a predictor of the motor function of the upper limbs, accounting for 41% and 29% of the variance, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated the relative contribution of standing balance and trunk balance to gait ability and motor function. They show that balance has a high power of explanation of gait ability and that trunk balance is a determinant of motor function rather than gait ability.

  4. Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with Spatially Dependent Recurrent Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent

    2014-04-01

    Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of spatially homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of spatially heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that depends on the spatial separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the spatial spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.

  5. A comparative analysis of three self-balancing wheelchair balancing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachery L; Van Moorhem, William K; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    In the last 20 years, three different basic, dynamic balancing designs have been proposed for a self-balancing wheelchair (SBW) that allows the wheelchair user to transition from driving on all four wheels to driving while balanced on the two large rear wheels. The dynamic performance of these three SBW designs, the hanging pendulum counterweight (HPC), the single inverted pendulum (SIP), and the double inverted pendulum (DIP), are compared when controlled by a common state space controller. The four dynamic performance considerations of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability and technical requirements were used to compare these designs while performing the following five tests: 1) transition from four-wheel to two-wheel, balancing mode; 2) stationary, self-balancing stability when subjected to an impact disturbance; 3) movement initiation, and stopping while balancing; 4) response to impact disturbances while moving; and 5) stability on low traction surfaces. In addition, the movement initiation and stopping test was repeated with increased chair mass and inertia to investigate the sensitivity of model performance to changes in model parameters. After comparing the three models it was determined that the HPC mechanism is the best choice for further development based on the criteria of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability, and technical requirements. The HPC ranked equal or better compared to the SIP and DIP on 15 of 29 stability and performance factors. It was also the only design that was stable for all normally expected driving conditions.

  6. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields (finance, users, business processes, learning and development where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodology of the choice of indicators. This paper particularly emphasizes a possibility of implementation of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process as methods of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM inmplementation of BSC.

  7. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of...

  8. The Penobscot River, Maine, USA: a Basin-Scale Approach to Balancing Power Generation and Ecosystem Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Opperman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although hydropower is a source of low-carbon energy, without careful consideration and management, dams have the potential to degrade river ecosystems and the goods and services they provide to society. Today, a broad range of hydropower interests and stakeholders are seeking approaches to hydropower development and operation that are more environmentally and socially sustainable. The Penobscot River Restoration Project ('the Project' illustrates that basin-scale approaches can provide a broader set of solutions for balancing energy and riverine environmental resources than can be achieved at the scale of individual projects. The Penobscot basin is the largest in Maine and historically supported culturally and economically significant populations of migratory fish. These migratory fish populations declined dramatically following the construction of a series of hydropower dams on the main stem river and major tributaries in the early 20th century. The Project, negotiated between a power company (PPL Corporation and a coalition including the Penobscot Indian Nation, resource agencies, and nongovernmental conservation organizations, features the removal of two main stem dams on the lower Penobscot and improved fish passage at the dams that remain. Because of various capacity and/or operational changes, power production will be increased at the remaining dams and total hydropower energy production from the basin will be maintained or increase slightly. The Project is expected to expand considerably the proportion of the basin accessible to migratory fish and contribute to significant increases in fish populations. The Project illustrates that a basin-scale approach can potentially yield more comprehensive solutions for sustainable hydropower than can be achieved at the project scale, and we recommend that such large-scale planning processes can improve the sustainability of both regulatory licensing of existing dams as well as the planning of

  9. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.

  10. National Design and Multinational Integration of Balancing Services Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The “balancing market” in the liberalized electricity sector of today is the tool in the hands of the system operator to balance generation and consumption in the grid and ensure system security. This dissertation addresses market design issues of balancing services markets from a national perspecti

  11. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  12. Dynamic model of frequency control in Danish power system with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    power system model with large scale of wind power is developed and a case study for an inaccurate wind power forecast is investigated. The goal of this work is to develop an adequate power system model that depicts relevant dynamic features of the power plants and compensates for load generation......This work evaluates the impact of large scale integration of wind power in future power systems when 50% of load demand can be met from wind power. The focus is on active power balance control, where the main source of power imbalance is an inaccurate wind speed forecast. In this study, a Danish...... imbalances, caused by inaccurate wind speed forecast, by an appropriate control of the active power production from power plants....

  13. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... in a significant rise in the time such sporting assets spend on sport. Yet, attempting a professional career in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. The study presented in this paper explores how 15- to 19-year-old Danish football talents...

  14. Dynamics and mass balance of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica: 3. State of mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, J. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Morse, D. L.; Bliss, A. K.; Aciego, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Taylor Glacier flows from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and terminates in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, where it has left a geomorphologic record of past incursions. Here we use new data on the flow, thickness, and surface balance of Taylor Glacier to calculate ice fluxes and assess the current state of mass balance. Overall, the glacier is close to a state of zero net balance, and has largely adjusted to reduced snowfall on the Taylor Dome source region in the mid Holocene. One region of the upper ablation zone appears to be losing mass. Evidence from ice surface morphology and stable isotope profiles suggests that this mass loss is a long-term phenomenon, hence probably a lingering response to the earlier drying of Taylor Dome. Our data give a general indication of the size of ablation or accumulation changes needed for ice to advance far into Taylor Valley, as occurred 70 to 130 ka ago.

  15. 基于功率平衡及时滞补偿相结合的双级式变流器协调控制%Coordinated Control of Two-stage Power Converters Based on Power Balancing and Time-delay Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成山; 李霞林; 郭力

    2012-01-01

    As the key units for energy resources integration and power conversion, two-stage power converters containing DC/DC and DC/AC modules have been experiencing wide application in PV, the lithium battery energy storage systems and other distributed generations (DGs) and microgrids, which require coordinated control to ensure their operation stable. In this paper, the parameters of DC/DC and DC/AC controllers were designed respectively via classical control theory; in addition, the small-signal stability analysis was presented through eigenvalue theory based on the state-space model; moreover, a combination feedforward method of power balancing and time-delay compensation (a first derivative element) had been proposed, with the purpose to eliminate/minimize the DC bus voltage fluctuations and impact on the DC bus capacitor. Experimental results indicate that the system dynamic and steady performances obtained are consistent with the theoretical analysis, and the improved feedforward compensation method can effectively suppress transient voltage fluctuations and impact on the DC bus capacitor, and speed up system dynamic response.%在光伏、锂电池储能等分布式发电系统及微网中,包含DC/DC和DC/AC两级功率变换模块的双级式功率变流器作为能量汇集和交换的核心设备而得到广泛应用,其协调控制则是保证系统稳定运行的关键.首先利用经典控制理论从动态性能方面分别对前后级控制器参数进行设计;然后在全系统状态空间小信号模型基础上,利用特征值理论进行稳定性分析;最后为抑制暂态时直流母线电压冲击和波动,提出基于功率平衡和时滞补偿(一阶微分环节)相结合的前馈补偿方法.实验结果表明,采用本文提出的控制器设计和分析方法获得的系统动态与稳态性能和理论分析一致;应用该前馈补偿方法,能有效抑制暂态时直流母线电压冲击和波动,提高系统动态响应.

  16. The Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Seth A; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-01-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying depths. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  17. Development of material balance evaluation technique (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; So, Dong Sup; Kwack, Eun Ho; Jung, Mi Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on MUF is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as nuclear material accountancy. It is necessary to get the information such as nuclear material inventory lists, measurement result and errors, IAEA accounting report for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts of MUF, D and MUF-D, the computation methods of measurement errors, MUF evaluation technique using the 'Statistical Concepts and Technique' published by IAEA are described. 3 tabs. (Author)

  18. Performance analysis of dynamic load balancing algorithm for multiprocessor interconnection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Bokhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiprocessor interconnection network have become powerful parallel computing system for real-time applications. Nowadays the many researchers posses studies on the dynamic load balancing in multiprocessor system. Load balancing is the method of dividing the total load among the processors of the distributed system to progress task's response time as well as resource utilization whereas ignoring a condition where few processors are overloaded or underloaded or moderately loaded. However, in dynamic load balancing algorithm presumes no priori information about behaviour of tasks or the global state of the system. There are numerous issues while designing an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm that involves utilization of system, amount of information transferred among processors, selection of tasks for migration, load evaluation, comparison of load levels and many more. This paper enlightens the performance analysis on dynamic load balancing strategy (DLBS algorithm, used for hypercube network in multiprocessor system.

  19. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  20. Biometrics of hoof balance in equids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Differences in hoof balance between horses, mules and donkeys were identified in order to form more specific considerations for proper management of the animals. Measurements of the natural dimensions of hooves in sixty animals were used: 20 horses from the Crioulo breed, 20 mules and 20 donkeys from the Pêga breed. Liveweight was estimated using the correlation equations in each species by heart girth. Using a caliper rule, tape measure and hoof gauge, measurements of the length and width of the frog, hoof height, angle of heel, medial and lateral dorsal length, angle of the toe and crown circumference of the hooves of forelimbs and hindlimb were taken. Within each group the hooves of the hindlimbs exhibited narrower measurements than the hooves of the forelimbs and no difference was observed between the hoof angle of both members of groups. The conformation of the hooves of donkeys is shown to be substantially different from that observed in horses, the mules being in an intermediate condition, being smaller, angled and robust frog and proportionally more developed. Similarly, the hooves of donkeys provide greater support area compared to mules and horses, in descending order, even being dimensionally smaller. We conclude that the hooves of horses, mules and donkeys, have specific patterns of geometric balance that must be taken into consideration at the time of trimming and imbalance inferences.

  1. Output Filter Design for a Novel Dual-Input PV-Wind Power Converter by Energy Balance Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV-wind converter (DIPWC is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of charged energy of the output filter will be equal to that of the energy pumped away within one switching cycle. From this zero net change in energy, the minimum value of the output filter can be found. With the determined value, the DIPWC is able to operate in continuous conduction for high power applications. The developed procedure of the inductance determination can be applied to other types of dual-input converters. Therefore, it makes significant contributions to the design toward a green-energy, multi-input converter. To verify the correctness of the mathematical analysis, the DIPWC—with the derived output inductance—is built and tested. Practical measurements and results have verified the inductance determination.

  2. Pipe Construction of Balance of 1 000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant%1000MW压水堆核电站辅助设施管道施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建华

    2011-01-01

    主要探讨了核电站辅助设施(balance of the plant,BOP)管道施工中出现的一些技术问题,如施工质量的可追溯性、共用支架防变形、电抛光管内部的洁净控制、沟槽式管件的应用等,并结合实际制订了相应的技术措施.这些措施通过现场的实际操作检验,证实了简单、有效,为后续核电BOP管道施工提供了借鉴.

  3. Competing Effects of Social Balance and Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, P; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2015-01-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field $p_c$ such that for a weak external field ($p$$$$p_c$), there is only one (stable) fixed point which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasi-stationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  4. Competing effects of social balance and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Sreenivasan, S; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field p_{c} such that for a weak external field (pp_{c}), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  5. Competing effects of social balance and influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field pc such that for a weak external field (p pc ), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  6. Validation of the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. J.; Balkin, Richard S.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Life balance is an important construct within the counseling profession. A validation study utilizing exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression was conducted on the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory. Results from the study serve as evidence of validity for an assessment instrument designed to measure life balance.

  7. Asymmetric Power Balance and Its Implications for Regionalism in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Kashmir being “the most dangerous place on earth ” during his visit to the region in March 2000 was based not on an evaluation of day-to-day security...Sabur notes, “Since the ancient time, India, particularly its Hindi heartland, has been the center of power in South Asia, which dominated the...the Indian sub-continent into its security umbrella, extending up to Tibet and Afghanistan, and included command of the Indian Ocean .73 With the

  8. Dynamic modeling and control of DFIG-based wind turbines under balanced network conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, Cyrous; Hajizadeh, Amin; Mehdipour, Iman

    2016-01-01

    . Then dynamic modeling and simulation of a sample power system are carried out. The operation of a DFIG coupled with WT under balanced condition of a power grid is investigated and stationary reference frame is utilized for analysis of a wind energy conversion system. At the second step, a wind power station...... is connected to the power grid in order to test the performances of the wind power station controller. The control plan utilizes stator flux oriented control and grid voltage vector control for the rotor and the grid side converter, respectively. MATLAB simulations clearly confirm the effectiveness...

  9. Robust low frequency current ripple elimination algorithm for grid-connected fuel cell systems with power balancing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)

  10. Workload Balancing on Heterogeneous Systems: A Case Study of Sparse Grid Interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Muraraşu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core parallelism and accelerators are becoming common features of today’s computer systems, as they allow for computational power without sacrificing energy efficiency. Due to heterogeneity, tuning for each type of compute unit and adequate load balancing is essential. This paper proposes static and dynamic solutions for load balancing in the context of an application for visualizing high-dimensional simulation data. The application relies on the sparse grid technique for data compression. Its performance critical part is the interpolation routine used for decompression. Results show that our load balancing scheme allows for an efficient acceleration of interpolation on heterogeneous systems containing multi-core CPUs and GPUs.

  11. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-31

    Many states are deploying renewable generation sources at a significant rate to meet renewable portfolio standards. As part of this drive to meet renewable generation levels, significant additions of wind generation are planned. Due to the highly variable nature of wind generation, significant energy imbalances on the power system can be created and need to be handled. This report examines the impact on the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) region for a 2019 expected wind scenario. One method for mitigating these imbalances is to utilize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as assets to the grid. PHEVs and BEVs have the potential to meet this demand through both charging and discharging strategies. This report explores the usage of two different charging schemes: V2GHalf and V2GFull. In V2GHalf, PHEV/BEV charging is varied to absorb the additional imbalance from the wind generation, but never feeds power back into the grid. This scenario is highly desirable to automotive manufacturers, who harbor great concerns about battery warranty if vehicle-to-grid discharging is allowed. The second strategy, V2GFull, varies not only the charging of the vehicle battery, but also can vary the discharging of the battery back into the power grid. This scenario is currently less desirable to automotive manufacturers, but provides an additional resource benefit to PHEV/BEVs in meeting the additional imbalance imposed by wind. Key findings in the report relate to the PHEV/BEV population required to meet the additional imbalance when comparing V2GHalf to V2GFull populations, and when comparing home-only-charging and work-and-home-charging scenarios. Utilizing V2GFull strategies over V2GHalf resulted in a nearly 33% reduction in the number of vehicles required. This reduction indicates fewer vehicles are needed to meet the unhandled energy, but they would utilize discharging of the vehicle battery into the grid. This practice currently results in the

  12. INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF WII BALANCE BOARD (WBB IN ASSESSING STANDING BALANCE IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Dugani Burji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: WII Balance Board (WBB being one of the latest, advanced technologies of high sensitivity in monitoring change in balance over time and owing to, ease of use, and portability, it is being used in physical therapy clinics as a popular substitute for the expensive and complicated force plates to improve dynamic strength and balance. Despite its growing popularity, the WBB’s reliability as an intervention and assessment tool for balance is still being investigated. So this study aims in finding the accuracy of WBB. The objectives of the study are to find the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Standard Error Measurement on both day 1 and day 2 with eyes closed and eyes open in older adults. Method: 30 subjects over the age of 65 years were assessed for balance using WBB. Subjects were measured in double limb stance with eyes open and closed with feet comfortably distant apart on the board. The same procedure was repeated after 24 hours. Results: The study showed to be statistically significant for eyes open on day 1 and day 2, but was not statistically significant for eyes closed on day 1 and day 2. Conclusion: The study suggested that the WBB was reliable for eyes open and not reliable with eyes closed.

  13. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  14. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  15. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  16. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  17. Dynamic balance of unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄森林; 刘占生; 苏杰先

    2003-01-01

    The formula is derived for calculating correction weights from motion equations of unsymmetrical ro-tor-bearing system. Two trial weights are required in two trial operations for ea ch balancing plane, and forwardprecession of trial responses are used to calculate the correction weights. Comparative experiments between thismethod and the conventional method are carried out on the test bench. Moreover, this method was used to bal-ance a 600 MW generator-bearing system, it decreased the balancing time and improved the balance accuracy.This method has been proved valid for balancing unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system.

  18. The Improvement of Joule Balance NIM-1 and the Design of New Joule Balance NIM-2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengkun; He, Qing; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng; Xu, Jinxin; Li, Shisong; Li, Chen; Wnag, Gang; Zeng, Tao; Bai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The development of the joule balance method to measure the Planck constant, in support of the redefinition of the kilogram, has been going on at the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM) since 2007. The first prototype has been built to check the feasibility of the principle. In 2011, the relative uncertainty of the Planck constant measurement at NIM is $7.7\\times10^{-5}$. Self-heating of the coils, swing of the coil, are the main uncertainty contributions. Since 2012, some improvements have been made to reduce these uncertainties. The relative uncertainty of the joule balance is reduced to $7.2\\times10^{-6}$ at present. The Planck constant measured with the joule balance is $h=6.6261041(470)\\times10^{-34}$Js. The relative difference between the determined h and the CODATA2010 recommendation value is $5\\times10^{-6}$. Further improvements are still being carried out on the NIM-1 apparatus. At the same time, the design and construction of a brand new and compact joule balance NIM-2 are also in progres...

  19. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  20. A Conceptual Framework for the Progression of Balance Exercises in Persons with Balance and Vestibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, B N; Carender, W J; Lin, C C; Alsubaie, S F; Kinnaird, C R; Sienko, K H; Whitney, S L

    There is little information in peer-reviewed literature to specifically guide the choice of exercise for persons with balance and vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a rationale for the establishment of a progression framework and propose a logical sequence in progressing balance exercises for persons with vestibular disorders. Our preliminary conceptual framework was developed by a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists and engineers with extensive experience with people with vestibular disorders. Balance exercises are grouped into six different categories: static standing, compliant surface, weight shifting, modified center of gravity, gait, and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Through a systematized literature review, interviews and focus group discussions with physical therapists and postural control experts, and pilot studies involving repeated trials of each exercise, exercise progressions for each category were developed and ranked in order of degree of difficulty. Clinical expertise and experience guided decision making for the exercise progressions. Hundreds of exercise combinations were discussed and research is ongoing to validate the hypothesized rankings. The six exercise categories can be incorporated into a balance training program and the framework for exercise progression can be used to guide less experienced practitioners in the development of a balance program. It may also assist clinicians and researchers to design, develop, and progress interventions within a treatment plan of care, or within clinical trials. A structured exercise framework has the potential to maximize postural control, decrease symptoms of dizziness/visual vertigo, and provide "rules" for exercise progression for persons with vestibular disorders. The conceptual framework may also be applicable to persons with other balance-related issues.

  1. 权力制衡与体制创新:A大学内部治理结构变革研究%The Balance of Powers and Institutional Innovation:Study of the Internal Governance Structure Reform of A University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 张端鸿; 马磊

    2016-01-01

    The internal governance structure is the key factor for stimulating university’ s vitality in school running and promoting university system reform.By studying the internal governance structure reform of the case university,we find that:firstly,in public universities will the reform of the inter-nal governance structure be driven by an induced institutional change,rather than the imposed institu-tional change as before.Secondly,the balance of the academic power and administrative power and the balance of the authority and the schools are the core issues of the internal governance reform,and the handling of these two balances is vital to the success or failure of the internal governance reform. Thirdly,the construction of the University Statutes and other institutions should be the power con-straint of the public university.Only by legalizing the exercising of power can we really implement running and administrating school by law.%完善公立大学内部治理结构是激发学校办学活力、推动高等教育体制变革的关键要素。文章通过对A大学内部治理结构变革的动因、内容及过程研究后指出:公立大学内部治理变革将由强制性制度变迁向诱致性制度变迁转变,推动公立大学内部治理变革的重要因素将逐渐由外转向内;平衡学术权力与行政权力、学校和院系两对关系是公立大学内部治理变革的核心问题,是否能够处理好这两对关系事关大学内部治理结构改革成败;以大学章程为首的公立大学制度规范将成为约束大学内部权力运行的“制度笼子”,将权力行使纳入法制框架才能真正实现依法办学、依法治校。

  2. The Global Challenge: A Matter of Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Argues that global challenge created by the pressure for change requires educators to understand the balance between continuity and constant change dependence and independence, individualism and community, homogeneity and heterogeneity. To achieve balanced learning and development, education should place greater emphasis on continuity,…

  3. Facets of the balanced minimal evolution polytope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Stefan; Keefe, Logan; Sands, William

    2016-08-01

    The balanced minimal evolution (BME) method of creating phylogenetic trees can be formulated as a linear programming problem, minimizing an inner product over the vertices of the BME polytope. In this paper we undertake the project of describing the facets of this polytope. We classify and identify the combinatorial structure and geometry (facet inequalities) of all the facets in dimensions up to five, and classify even more facets in all dimensions. A full set of facet inequalities would allow a full implementation of the simplex method for finding the BME tree-although there are reasons to think this an unreachable goal. However, our results provide the crucial first steps for a more likely-to-be-successful program: finding efficient relaxations of the BME polytope.

  4. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming...... increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially...... based rather than funded by subsidies. Consequently the Smart Grid provides a business opportunity for so-called Virtual Power Plants. A Virtual Power Plant is an independent commercial operator, which provides Smart Grid capabilities to flexible consumers. This means that the Virtual Power Plant...

  5. Carbon balance of Russian agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, M.

    2012-04-01

    Russia managed 218.7 mln ha agricultural land (2009) in accordance with national statistics (FSSS, 2011: http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/Cbsd/DBInet.cgi#1). Among that, 91.75 mln ha is arable land; 92.05 mln ha - hayfield and pasture; 34.9 mln ha - abandoned arable and fallow. Abandoned arable area is not indicated directly in the statistics, but can be calculated as a difference between "arable" and "cultivated" area. We estimated carbon balance of agricultural land by accounting carbon fluxes. Carbon sink includes: net primary productivity (NPP), applying fertilizes and liming. Carbon losses include soil respiration (SR), harvest and lateral flux. The initial data (cultivated area and harvest distribution by regions and crop) was derived from national agriculture statistics (FSSS, 2011). NPP was estimated via harvest and set of regression models. Average NPP for agricultural land was estimated at 435 g C m-2 (530 g C m-2 for crops). Soil respiration was calculated by a model (Mukhortova et. al., 1011: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/forest_cdrom/Articles/Mukhortova_2011_IBFRA_SR.pdf) developed for Russia which is based on all available empirical data and accounted for climatic parameters, soil type and management practice. Average SR of agricultural land is 344 g C m-2 (372 g C m-2 for the cropland). We applied the IPCC method (National inventory, 2010; IPCC, 2006) for fertilizer and lateral fluxes assessment. The total carbon balance of agricultural land is almost in equilibrium (-0.04 t C ha-1) in spite of arable land is a carbon source (-0.84 t C ha-1). The highest sink (1.21 t C ha-1) is provided by abandoned land. Carbon fluxes vary substantially depending on seasonal weather conditions. For example grains' NPP in 2010 (dry and hot summer in major agricultural regions of European Russia) was estimated at 32% less compare to 2009 and the total carbon balance of this land category decreased by order of magnitude. We used Russian land cover (Schepaschenko et al

  6. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  7. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish...... by combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and...

  8. THE SIGNAL APPROACH TO MODELLING THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and presents synthesis of theoretical models of balance of payment crisis and investigates the most effective ways to model the crisis in Ukraine. For mathematical formalization of balance of payment crisis, comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different calculation methods of Exchange Market Pressure Index was performed. A set of indicators that signal the growing likelihood of balance of payments crisis was defined using signal approach. With the help of minimization function thresholds indicators were selected, the crossing of which signalize increase in the probability of balance of payment crisis.

  9. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohyung; Kim, ChoongYeon; Jung, HoHyun; Jung, Dukyoung; Chun, Keyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft's Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)), with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05) with a large Pearson's correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion-extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4°) (0.400.05). Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation motion (γKinect system in balance training by measuring changes in the center of body mass and flexion-extension movements of the lower limbs, but not abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation.

  10. Institutional balancing in the Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    AKŞEMSETTİNOĞLU, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    This study is about how the secondary (smaller) powers of the Asia-Pacific region balance the major powers – the US and China – through multilateral (regional) institutions in the international system. This paper explains the increasing importance of the Asia-Pacific region, where the major powers encounter and challenge each other, and examines the smaller powers of the region, which pursue balancing policies against the major powers through multilateral (regional) institutions. Therefore, t...

  11. The "balance of nature"-evolution of a Panchreston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The earliest concept of a balance of nature in Western thought saw it as being provided by gods but requiring human aid or encouragement for its maintenance. With the rise of Greek natural philosophy, emphasis shifted to traits gods endowed species with at the outset, rather than human actions, as key to maintaining the balance. The dominance of a constantly intervening God in the Middle Ages lessened interest in the inherent features of nature that would contribute to balance, but the Reformation led to renewed focus on such features, particularly traits of species that would maintain all of them but permit none to dominate nature. Darwin conceived of nature in balance, and his emphasis on competition and frequent tales of felicitous species interactions supported the idea of a balance of nature. But Darwin radically changed its underlying basis, from God to natural selection. Wallace was perhaps the first to challenge the very notion of a balance of nature as an undefined entity whose accuracy could not be tested. His skepticism was taken up again in the 20th century, culminating in a widespread rejection of the idea of a balance of nature by academic ecologists, who focus rather on a dynamic, often chaotic nature buffeted by constant disturbances. The balance-of-nature metaphor, however, lives on in large segments of the public, representing a fragile aspect of nature and biodiversity that it is our duty to protect.

  12. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-01-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence. Key points The combination of balance and plyometric exercises can induce significant and substantial training improvements in muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance with adolescent youth athletes The within training session

  13. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  14. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  15. Ways to improve conceptual aspects of balancing the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodon Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the various concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different periods by different countries in order to balance state budget. There are analyzed positive parts and deficiencies at legislative level of different concepts concerning budgetary balance and as a result are developed a series of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova

  16. Dynamical Models Explaining Social Balance and Evolution of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; De Leenheer, P

    2013-01-01

    In social networks with positive and negative links the dominant theory of explaining its structure is that of social balance. The theory states that a network is balanced if its triads are balanced. Such a balanced network can be split into (at most) two opposing factions with positive links within a faction and negative links between them. Although inherently dynamical, the theory has long remained static, with a focus on finding such partitions. Recently however, a dynamical model was introduced which was shown to converge to a socially balanced state for certain symmetric initial conditions. Here we show this does not hold for general (non-symmetric) initial conditions. We propose an alternative model and show that it does converge to a socially balanced state generically. Moreover, in a basic model of evolution of cooperation of indirect reciprocity, the alternative model has an evolutionary advantage compared to the earlier model. The principal difference between the two models can be understood in term...

  17. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an aggregation of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or...

  18. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  19. Balanced indices in evaluation of production competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Nikolaevna Rodionova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of production is a basic indicator for assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise, for making decisions on production in foreign economic activity. Today, there is no single approach and unified methodology for evaluating the competitiveness of products. At the same time, this assessment is the basis for the development of marketing providing and making decisions to enter into the new markets. The results of assessment show more adequate results than in the case of use of traditional methods. At the same time, the results of competitiveness evaluation are beyond any doubt in cases when a product has the best properties in a range of characteristics. The most existing methods for calculating the group indicators of production competitiveness averaged values of the analyzed indicators and did not allow them to evaluate the spread of values. The paper also examines the problem of production competitiveness evaluation by the aggregation of the indices characterized by significant heterogeneity of indices relatively to a product chosen as a sample. The degree of such heterogeneity is posed to evaluate with criterion of balanced indices, where reckoning is based on the metrical analysis. Competitiveness of production is a basic indicator for assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise, for making decisions on production, in foreign economic activity.

  20. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After...

  1. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, M S; Laessoe, U;

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknown...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  2. The Association of Flexibility, Balance, and Lumbar Strength with Balance Ability: Risk of Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Martínez-López Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a proprioceptive training program on older adults, as well as to analyze the association between flexibility, balance and lumbar strength (physical fitness test with balance ability and fall risk (functional balance tests. This study was a controlled, longitudinal trial with a 12-week follow-up period. Subjects from a population of older adults were allocated to the intervention group (n = 28 or to the usual care (control group (n = 26. Subjects performed proprioceptive training twice weekly (6 specific exercises with Swiss ball and BOSU. Each session included 50 minutes (10 minutes of warm-up with slow walk, 10 minutes of mobility and stretching exercises, 30 minutes of proprioceptive exercises. The outcome variables were physical fitness (lower-body flexibility, hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance, static balance, and lumbar strength and functional balance (Berg scale and Tinetti test. The experimental group obtained significantly higher values than the control group in lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, and lumbar strength (p = 0.019, p < 0.001, and p = 0.034 respectively. Hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance, and lumbar strength were positively associated with balance ability (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.014, respectively and the prevention of falls (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.017 respectively. These findings suggest that a 12-week proprioception program intervention (twice a week significantly improves flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength in older adults. Hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance and lumbar strength are positively associated to balance ability and the risk of falls in older adults. This proprioceptive training does not show a significant improvement in hip-joint mobility or static balance.

  3. Power Balance Control in an AC/DC/AC Converter for Regenerative Braking in a Two-Voltage-Level Flywheel-Based Driveline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína G. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a flywheel as a power handling can increase the energy storage capacity and reduce the number of battery charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the ability of recovering energy of the vehicle during breaking can increase the system efficiency. The flywheel-based all-electric driveline investigated here has its novelty in the use of a double-wound flywheel motor/generator, which divides the system in two different voltage levels, enhancing the efficiency of the electric driveline. The connection of two AC electrical machines (i.e., the flywheel and the wheel motor with different and variable operation frequency is challenging. A power matching control applied to an AC/DC/AC converter has been implemented. The AC/DC/AC converter regenerates the electric power converted during braking to the flywheel machine, used here as power handling device. By controlling the power balance, the same hardware can be used for acceleration and braking, providing the reduction of harmonics and robust response. A simulation of the complete system during braking mode has been performed both in Matlab and Simulink, and their results have been compared. The functionality of the proposed control has been shown and discussed, with full regeneration achieved. A round-trip efficiency (wheel to wheel higher than 80% has been obtained.

  4. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The long-term carbon balance (NBP of grasslands is estimated by combining scarce multi-year eddy-covariance observations at ecosystem observation sites where information on carbon inputs and harvesting removals is available. Following accounting for carbon leached to rivers, we estimated grasslands to be net carbon sinks of 74±10 g C m−2 yr−1. Uncertainties arise from the small number of sites and the short measurement period. Only 11 sites, out of a total of 20 grassland sites in Europe where eddy covariance systems are installed, were set-up for estimating NBP. These 11 selected sites are representative of intensive management practice and we lack information on disturbance history, such as plowing. This suggests that the grassland NBP estimate is likely biased towards overestimating the sink, compared to the European average. Direct measurements of Net Primary Productivity (NPP are not possible in grasslands given permanent biomass removal by grazing and mowing, uncertainties in rhizodeposition and production of volatile organic carbon compounds lost to the atmosphere. Therefore, the grassland process-based ecosystem model PASIM was used to estimate the spatial-temporal distribution of NPP, providing a European average value of 750±150 g C across extensively grazed, intensively grazed pastures, and forage production systems. In Europe the NPP of grasslands seems higher than that of croplands and forests. The carbon sequestration efficiency of grasslands, defined as the ratio of NBP to NPP, amounts to 0.09±0.10. Therefore, per unit of carbon input, grasslands sequester 3–4 times more carbon in the soil than forests do, making them a good candidate for managing onsite carbon sinks. When using the 100 yr greenhouse warming potential for CH4 and N2O, their emissions due to management of grasslands together offset roughly 70–80% of the carbon sink. Uncertainties on the European grassland

  5. Balanced gait generations of a two-legged robot on sloping surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pandu Ranga Vundavilli; Dilip Kumar Pratihar

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, dynamically balanced gait generation problem of a 7-DOF two-legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on the concept of static balance, which is different from the well-known semi-inverse method and then checked for its dynamic balance calculated using the concept of Zero-Moment Point (ZMP). Lagrange–Euler formulation is attempted for the determination of joint torques. Average power consumption at each joint is then determined based on the computed torques. Moreover, the variations of dynamic balance margin and average power consumption are studied for both ascending and descending through the sloping surface. Both of them are found to be more for the ascending gait generation compared to those for the descending case. The effects of variations of the slope have also been studied on the average dynamic balance margin and power consumption for both the cases.

  6. The effects of multiaxial and uniaxial unstable surface balance training in college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Tracey C; Danoff, Jerome V; Leone, James E; Miller, Todd A

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different types of unstable surface balance training (uniaxial on a rocker board [RB] and multiaxial on a dynadisc [DD]) on balance in division 1 collegiate athletes in sports that are at high risk for ankle sprains. Subjects (n = 36) consisted of male soccer players and female volleyball and soccer players who were equally and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (CON, DD, and RB). Balance training consisting of balancing on 1 leg on either the RB or DD, while repeatedly catching a 1-kg ball was performed 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Balance was tested with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) before, halfway through, and at the completion of the balance training. Control (CON) subjects also were given the balance test but did not participate in the training. A 3-way repeated analysis of variance revealed that no group individually changed SEBT scores from pre (CON, 0.98 +/- 0.086; DD, 0.98 +/- 0.083; RB, 0.97 +/- 0.085) to post (CON, 1.00 +/- 0.090; DD, 1.01 +/- 0.088; RB, 1.02 +/- 0.068) after balance training. When the 2 treatment groups were combined (DD and RB), the p value decreased and came closer to significance (p = 0.136). When all 3 groups were combined, there was a significant difference in SEBT scores from pretraining (CON + DD + RB; 0.98 +/- 0.085) to posttraining (CON + DD + RB; 1.01 +/- 0.082), which likely indicates low statistical power. The increase in physical activity the subjects experienced during the return to in-season activity, may have contributed to the significant differences in SEBT scores over time but not between DD or RB training. Therefore, a threshold level of physical activity may exist that is necessary to maintain balance during the off-season.

  7. Population balance modeling of antibodies aggregation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Rima, Simonetta; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-06-21

    The aggregates morphology and the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody under acidic conditions have been investigated. Growth occurs via irreversible cluster-cluster coagulation forming compact, fractal aggregates with fractal dimension of 2.6. We measured the time evolution of the average radius of gyration, , and the average hydrodynamic radius, , by in situ light scattering, and simulated the aggregation kinetics by a modified Smoluchowski's population balance equations. The analysis indicates that aggregation does not occur under diffusive control, and allows quantification of effective intermolecular interactions, expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). In particular, by introducing a dimensionless time weighed on W, the time evolutions of measured under various operating conditions (temperature, pH, type and concentration of salt) collapse on a single master curve. The analysis applies also to data reported in the literature when growth by cluster-cluster coagulation dominates, showing a certain level of generality in the antibodies aggregation behavior. The quantification of the stability ratio gives important physical insights into the process, including the Arrhenius dependence of the aggregation rate constant and the relationship between monomer-monomer and cluster-cluster interactions. Particularly, it is found that the reactivity of non-native monomers is larger than that of non-native aggregates, likely due to the reduction of the number of available hydrophobic patches during aggregation.

  8. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  9. Striving for a balance: Nature, power, science and India′s Indira Gandhi, 1917-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    exchanges unify the world, divisions between and within nation states are central to most issues. By looking at a key figure of the latter half of the twentieth century, the article hopes to shed fresh light on how to look at the relations of nature, science, and power.

  10. INTEGRATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko M. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and possibilities of use of the balanced scorecard for successful realization of corporate strategy are considered in this article. The most important results of research of integration of the quality management system in information system of the enterprise with use of the balanced scorecard are discussed

  11. Development of high-speed balancing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, R.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation into laser material removal showed that laser burns act in a manner typical of mechanical stress raisers causing a reduction in fatigue strength; the fatigue strength is lowered relative to the smooth specimen fatigue strength. Laser-burn zones were studied for four materials: Alloy Steel 4340, Stainless Steel 17-4 PH, Inconel 718, and Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6. Calculations were made of stress concentration factors K, for laser-burn grooves of each material type. A comparison was then made to experimentally determine the fatigue strength reduction factor. These calculations and comparisons indicated that, except for the 17-4 PH material, good agreement (a ratio of close to 1.0) existed between Kt and Kf. The performance of the 17-4 PH material has been attributed to early crack initiation due to the lower fatigue resistance of the soft, unaged laser-affected zone. Also covered in this report is the development, implementation, and testing of an influence coefficient approach to balancing a long, slender shaft under applied-torque conditions. Excellent correlation existed between the analytically predicted results and those data obtained from testing.

  12. Posters: balancing overkill and freedom of expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Internal Communication and HR Department

    2014-01-01

    The number of posters put up at CERN to inform, engage and invite is growing quickly, and they are taking over an ever-increasing number of walls, doors, pillars and glass panels. In the interests of freedom of information, no official restrictions are in place, but we are nonetheless obliged to maintain a fair balance. Here we discuss this issue.   Posters clamour for our attention, becoming more and more invasive and often eternal as they are never taken down... While the need to inform and to be informed is a legitimate one, we also have to respect our workplace. It’s no surprise that walls or pillars (sometimes freshly painted) at junctions in corridors that are busy at peak times are seen as ideal targets by people who want to publicise their events or activities, but this abundance, or overabundance, of posters is sometimes seen as vandalism of communal areas. What's more, the posters themselves are sometimes vandalised: comments, sometimes offensive, may be added and the...

  13. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

  14. Applications of Balance Theory to Faculty Effectiveness: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Limbu, Yam B.; Xu, Bing; Fischbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of the potential role of balance theory and student liking (affect) of instructors as tools for marketing professors in assisting student learning. The nature of balance theory and evidence of the learning impact of affect toward instructors are discussed. An empirical test of the theory is provided, and…

  15. Power-based control of physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Canseco, Eloisa; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Ortega, Romeo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that energy-balancing control is stymied by the presence of pervasive dissipation. To overcome this problem in electrical circuits, the alternative paradigm of power shaping was introduced in Ortega, Jeltsema, and Scherpen (2003)-where, as suggested by its name, stabilization is ach

  16. 12 CFR 204.10 - Payment of interest on balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 204.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.10 Payment of interest on balances. (a) Payment of interest. The Federal Reserve Banks shall pay interest on balances maintained...

  17. 基于生产要素理论对资产负债表的改进--以潍柴动力股份有限公司为例%Improvement of Balance Sheet Based on the Production Factors Theory---A Case Study of Weichai Power Co.,LTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈肖丹; 杨帆

    2013-01-01

    按照生产要素理论,文章对现行的资产负债表进行改进,以使其资产项目完全反映企业的人、财、物资本和技术资本,并且选取2011年潍柴动力股份有限公司的资产负债表,按照要素资本理论进行重新列示并对企业的要素资本进行分析,验证改进后的资产负债表的可行性。结果显示基于要素资本理论对现行资产负债表资产项目的重新分类有助于从要素资本配置和管理的角度分析企业的资本结构。为管理者提供了一种新的管理思路。%Based on the production factors theory,this article provides a method to improve the current bal-ance sheet so as to make the asset items reflect an enterprise’s capital situation completely of human,mon-etary,machinery and technology. Taking Weichai Power Co.,LTD as study case,the paper reclassified the as-set items in the balance sheet 2011,and then analyzed its capital structure to test the feasibility of the im-proved balance sheet. The result shows that the re-classification of the asset items based on the factors the-ory will help analyze an enterprise’s capital structure from the perspective of capital allocation and manage-ment. And this will also provide a new idea for the managers.

  18. Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.N.; Misra, R.V.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient-balance assessments are valuable tools for delineating the consequences of farming on soil fertility. Various approaches and methods for different situations have been used. This bulletin presents a state-of-the-art overview of nutrient-balance studies. It brings out the evolution of the ap

  19. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.11 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.11 Treatment of credit balances. When a... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 226.11 Treatment of credit...

  20. Computational Efficiency of Economic MPC for Power Systems Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to operate power systems that consist of independent power units. The controller balances the power supply and demand, minimizing production costs. The control problem is formulated as a linear program that is solved...

  1. Evaluation of the influence of vestibular system in the young adults balance through dynamic posturografy foam-laser and platform of power Avaliação da influência do sistema vestibular no equilíbrio de adultos jovens através de posturografia dinâmica foam-laser e plataforma de força

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre Loth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tasks for the human postural control system is to maintain body balance on a small support base provided by the feet. As a gravity sensor, the vestibular system is one of the most important nervous system tools in posture control . The objective of this work was to study the influence of the vestibular system on the young adults’ balance control through Dynamic Posturografy Foam-laser (FLS. Participated in the study 30 young adults from the UFSM’s physical education undergraduate course, who volunteered to go under postural control evaluation through the FLP and platform of power, simultaneously, during the Sensorial Organization Test (TOS I and V. Results showed that there was a moderate and strong rate of correlation between TOS I and V values and the area of displacement of the pressure center (CP registered by the platform of power. They also showed that the FLP is a very useful method for balance evaluation, showing a good correlation with the CP displacement area . Uma das tarefas mais importantes do sistema do controle postural humano é o equilíbrio do corpo sobre a pequena base de apoio fornecida pelos pés. Como um sensor de gravidade, o sistema vestibular é uma das ferramentas mais importantes do sistema nervoso no controle da postura. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estudar a influencia do sistema vestibular no equilíbrio de adultos jovens, por meio da Posturografia Dinâmica Foam-laser (FLP. Para a realização do estudo, foram convidados 30 voluntários adultos jovens, acadêmicos do curso de educação física da UFSM, que foram submetidos à avaliação do controle postural através de FLP e plataforma de força simultaneamente, durante o Teste de Organização Sensorial (TOS I e V. Os resultados revelaram que houve moderado e forte índice de correlação entre os valores obtidos nos TOS I e V e a área de deslocamento do centro de pressão (CP registrada pela plataforma de força. Conclui

  2. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  3. [Influence of weightlessness on water and electrolytes balance in body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X Y

    2000-02-01

    The balance of water and electrolytes plays an important role in enabling the human body to adapt to spaceflight. This paper introduced the research methods, and changes in water and electrolytes balance during and after space flight. The mechanism and the hazard of the disorder of water and electrolytes caused by weightlessness were discussed.

  4. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo;

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good...

  5. Power and Control in Kathmandu: A Comparison of Attempted Power, Actual Power, and Achieved Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali

    2016-05-05

    We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.

  6. Energy balance and the origin of Kleiber's law

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Fernando J; Moya, Andrés; Luque, Bartolo

    2014-01-01

    In 1932, Max Kleiber found that the basal metabolic rate of animals seemed to vary as a power law of their body mass with exponent 3/4, but this law is still a matter of controversy. Although some researchers support that 2/3 should be the correct value for the exponent, most of them accept Kleiber's 3/4 value and justify this choice on the basis of research on fractal structures. However some studies show that it is not a pure power law, introducing more doubts about its origin. Here we show that the origin of Kleiber's law is the balance between the energy lost as heat and the energy efficiently used by the organism to maintain its metabolism. Our model is based on the fact that a fraction of the energy income is not converted into heat and this consideration has a radical effect in the shape of the law. The different slope observed in animals and plants is due to their different surface-to-volume ratio. Compared with previous attempts of explanation, our model is very simple, it is biologically sound and s...

  7. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...... in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...

  8. Effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Rutbİl, Hilal; Akpinar, Ercan; Yildirim, Alİ; Karakaya, İlkİm Çitak

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance. [Subjects and Methods] In this randomized-controlled, single-blind study, 59 university students (35 females, 24 males) were randomized into study (n=29) and control (n=30) groups. The study group received a foot and ankle proprioceptive exercise program including stretching, strengthening (plantar and dorsi-flexors, invertor and evertor muscles), and balance board exercises, each with 10 repetitions per session, 5 days a week, for a total of 10 sessions. The control group did not receive any intervention. Static body balance was evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer, which showed the balance index scores under both single foot and both feet conditions. This evaluation was repeated at the end of two weeks for both groups. [Results] Outcome measures of the groups were similar at the baseline. Balance index scores of both groups improved at the end of two weeks, and the study group had significantly lower index scores than those of the control group, indicating better balance. [Conclusion] Ankle proprioceptive training had positive effects on static body balance parameters in healthy individuals, and it is worth investigating the effects of this type of training in patients with balance disorders.

  9. FACTORS OF STEADY AND BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidi A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the need of identification and classification of the most relevant factors of the sustainable balanced development of the regional economic system (RES. Substantial filling of the category "sustainable balanced development" which is accepted within the real research is designated. On the basis of the analysis of the classifications of factors of the sustainable balanced development of economy of the region presented in scientific literature their discrepancy modern is established to conditions of globalization of the economy causing increase of a role of foreign economic activity of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in ensuring their long-term competitiveness. Proceeding from the last, within the classification of factors of the sustainable balanced development of RES offered by authors the following their groups are allocated: global, national, regional. For each of the designated groups we substantiated the set of relevant factors

  10. Hydrological Balance of Lake Tana, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rientjes, Tom H.M.; Perera, Janaka B.U.; Haile, Alemseged T.; Gieske, Ambro S.M.; Booij, Martijn J.; Reggiani, Paolo; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, few studies are presented on the water balance of Lake Tana. In these studies, the water balance is closed by unknown runoff contributions from ungauged catchments. Studies relied on simple procedures of area comparison to estimate runoff from ungauged catchments. In this study, emp

  11. Energy-Storage Balanced Reduction of Port-Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopezlena, Ricardo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Supported by the framework of dissipativity theory, a procedure based on physical energy to balance and reduce port-Hamiltonian systems with collocated inputs and outputs is presented. Additionally, some relations with the methods of nonlinear balanced reduction are exposed. Finally a structure-pres

  12. A review of standing balance recovery from stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, A.C.H.; Haart, M. de; Nes, I.J.W. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, interest in the mechanisms underlying balance recovery following stroke has grown, because insight into these mechanisms is necessary to develop effective rehabilitation strategies for different types of stroke. Studies dealing with the recovery of standing balance from stroke are, however

  13. Prediction of Balance Compensation After Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Frère, Julien; Perrin, Philippe P; Beurton, Renaud; Gauchard, Gérome C

    2016-06-01

    Background Balance compensation after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery is under the influence of specific preoperative patient and tumor characteristics. Objective To prospectively identify potential prognostic factors for balance recovery, we compared the respective influence of these preoperative characteristics on balance compensation after VS surgery. Methods In 50 patients scheduled for VS surgical ablation, we measured postural control before surgery (BS), 8 (AS8) days after, and 90 (AS90) days after surgery. Based on factors found previously in the literature, we evaluated age, body mass index and preoperative physical activity (PA), tumor grade, vestibular status, and preference for visual cues to control balance as potential prognostic factors using stepwise multiple regression models. Results An asymmetric vestibular function was the sole significant explanatory factor for impaired balance performance BS, whereas the preoperative PA alone significantly contributed to higher performance at AS8. An evaluation of patients' balance recovery over time showed that PA and vestibular status were the 2 significant predictive factors for short-term postural compensation (BS to AS8), whereas none of these preoperative factors was significantly predictive for medium-term postoperative postural recovery (AS8 to AS90). Conclusions We identified specific preoperative patient and vestibular function characteristics that may predict postoperative balance recovery after VS surgery. Better preoperative characterization of these factors in each patient could inform more personalized presurgical and postsurgical management, leading to a better, more rapid balance recovery, earlier return to normal daily activities and work, improved quality of life, and reduced medical and societal costs.

  14. The Power of Powerlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Gerald; Johnson, Jackie

    1980-01-01

    Power and the paradox of powerlessness are defined in terms of the resource exchange theory of Foa and Foa. Power is conceptualized as the possession of resources, e.g., love, status, and money. The Karpman triangle is used to illustrate the power behind the victim's powerlessness. (Author)

  15. 简述19世纪英国的均势战略%Review on British Power Balance Strategy in the 19th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞雪; 鲍永娟

    2015-01-01

    英国的均势战略逐渐形成于16世纪,经过几个世纪的运用发展,在19世纪达到成熟。在这一时期内,英国不论是哪个君主在位、哪个政党当政,在对外活动中一直坚持均势战略,即“干预欧陆政治,防止出现压倒一切的大陆霸主,在必要时不惜投入战争摧毁大陆霸权势力。”%British power balance strategy evolved in the 16th century and has reached maturity in the 19th century through sev-eral centuries of application and development.During this period,no matter what the British monarch reign and which the party in power,the external balance of strategic activities has always insisted that "European political intervention to prevent overri-ding continental hegemony,when necessary,destroye the continental hegemony forces into the war.

  16. A Low-Power Blocking-Capacitor-Free Charge-Balanced Electrode-Stimulator Chip With Less Than 6 nA DC Error for 1-mA Full-Scale Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Jon Sit; Sarpeshkar, R

    2007-09-01

    Large dc blocking capacitors are a bottleneck in reducing the size and cost of neural implants. We describe an electrode-stimulator chip that removes the need for large dc blocking capacitors in neural implants by achieving precise charge-balanced stimulation with balance is achieved by dynamic current balancing to reduce the mismatch between the positive and negative phases of current to 0.4%, followed by a shorting phase of at least 1 ms between current pulses to further reduce the charge error. On +6 and -9 V rails in a 0.7-mum AMI high voltage process, the power consumption of a single channel of this chip is 47 muW when biasing power is shared by 16 channels.

  17. Extension of Knuth's balancing algorithm with error correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, J.H.; Schouhamer Immink, K.A.; Ferreira, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Knuth's celebrated balancing method consists of inverting the first z bits in a binary information sequence, such that the resulting sequence has as many ones as zeroes, and communicating the index z to the receiver through a short balanced prefix. In the proposed method, Knuth's scheme is extended

  18. Directional sensitivity of "first trial" reactions in human balance control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Allum, J.H.J.; Borm, G.F.; Honegger, F.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Support-surface movements are commonly used to examine balance control. Subjects typically receive a series of identical or randomly interspersed multidirectional balance perturbations and the atypical "first trial reaction" (evoked by the first perturbation) is often excluded from further analysis.

  19. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg(-1)) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg(-1); p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state.

  20. A Shift of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Administrative reforms are shifting prefecture government powers to the county level in an effort to boost local economies on July 8, the government of China’s southernmost Hainan Province announced that it was to hand over 177 of its administrative powers to county-level governments. The move practically dismantled the powers of the

  1. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance......, agility, endurance, and sensor-motoric reaction. A population of 12 elderly (average age: 79) with balancing problems (DGI average score: 18.7) was randomly assigned to control group or tiles training group, and tested before and after intervention. The tiles training group had statistical significant...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...

  2. Dynamics of spectral components of heart rate variability during changes in autonomic balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, M V; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Agner, E;

    1998-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a semiquantitative method for assessing activities in the autonomic nervous system. We examined whether absolute powers, normalized powers, and the low frequency-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) derived from the HRV power...... spectrum could detect shifts in autonomic balance in a setting with low sympathetic nervous tone. Healthy subjects were examined for 3 h in the supine position during 1) control conditions (n = 12), 2) acute beta-blockade (n = 11), and 3) chronic beta-blockade (n = 10). Heart rate fell during the first 40...

  3. The relaxing ori-ter balance of Mycoplasma genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma are wall-less bacteria with small genomes, which are thought to have resulted from massive genome reductive processes, during which the ori-ter balance may be disrupted. For technical difficulties, ori and ter have been located only in a few Mycoplasma strains. Using the Z curve method, we were able to locate turning points on the Mycoplasma genomes, with the minimum and maximum points co-locating with ori or ter in the reference genomes. Assuming Z curve correctly located ori and ter, we calculated the distances from ori to ter in both directions on the circular genome and calculated the ori-ter balance status. The Mycoplasma genomes were not balanced, possibly as a result of close association of Mycoplasma with hosts, where there would be no other microbes for Mycoplasma to compete with for nutrients, so fastest possible growth related to balanced genomes might not be needed by Mycoplasma, leading to a relaxing ori-ter balance.

  4. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  5. Power, stability of power, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, Daniel J.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2011-01-01

    Power hierarchies are an essential aspect of social organization, create stability and social order, and provide individuals with incentives to climb the hierarchical ladder. Extending previous work on power and creativity, we put forward that this relationship critically depends on both the stabili

  6. Effects of Wii Fit(®) balance game training on the balance ability of students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tai-Yen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of Wii Fit balance game training on the balance abilities of students with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four students with intellectual disabilities were selected and randomly divided into Wii Fit balance game training, physical education, and sedentary activity groups. The Wii Fit balance game training group received two 40-minute Wii Fit balance game training sessions per week for a total of 8 weeks. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare differences. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the Wii Fit balance game training group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters, including the duration of standing on one leg with the eyes closed, average anteroposterior movement speed, swing area per unit time, and speed strength index. The physical education group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training speed strength index values. The sedentary activity group did not show any significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters. [Conclusion] Wii Fit balance game training can improve static balance and lower extremity muscle strength in students with intellectual disabilities.

  7. Implementation of a Balance Operator in NCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    common practice in oceanic data assimila- tion is to constrain the model state increments to be in (approximate) geostrophic and...061153N 73-4874-06-5 ONR Balance operator Background error covariance Data assimilation Ocean modeling ii CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION...and G. Jacobs, (2013). “Background error correlation modeling with diffusion operators”. In: Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic and Hydro- logical Applications, S. K. Park and L. Xu, Eds., Vol. 2, Springer, 177–203. 13

  8. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  9. Analysis of Nigeria research reactor-1 thermal power calibration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbo, Sunday Arome; Ahmed, Yusuf Aminu; Ewa, Ita Okon; Jibrin, Yahaya [Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW), half power (15 kW), and full power (30 kW). Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method) on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW) is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  10. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  11. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior-posterior, right-diagonal, medial-lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of base plate rotation are expected to be useful as well as an analysis of the balance characteristics considering a balance index that reflects the muscle activity and cooperative characteristics.

  12. Serotonin and the regulation of mammalian energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Donovan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of energy balance requires regulation of the amount and timing of food intake. Decades of experiments utilizing pharmacological and later genetic manipulations have demonstrated the importance of serotonin signaling in this regulation. Much progress has been made in recent years in understanding how central nervous system serotonin systems acting through a diverse array of serotonin receptors impact feeding behavior and metabolism. Particular attention has been paid to mechanisms through which serotonin impacts energy balance pathways within the hypothalamus. How upstream factors relevant to energy balance regulate the release of hypothalamic serotonin is less clear, but work addressing this issue is underway. Generally, investigation into the central serotonergic regulation of energy balance has had a predominantly hypothalamocentric focus, yet nonhypothalamic structures that have been implicated in energy balance regulation also receive serotonergic innervation and express multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation of the diverse mechanisms through which peripheral serotonin impacts energy balance regulation. Clearly, the serotonergic regulation of energy balance is a field characterized by both rapid advances and by an extensive and diverse set of central and peripheral mechanisms yet to be delineated.

  13. On the control of the Heider balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkaew, S.; Caponigro, M.; Kułakowski, K.; Borzì, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Heider social balance model describes the evolution of the relationships in a social network of humans or animals. This model is built upon the concept of balance of triads consisting of friendly or hostile edges representing the state of the network. In this differential model, a leader is introduced in order to control the system and to drive the social network to a desired relationship state. Further, the stability, the local controllability, and the optimal control through leadership of the Heider model are investigated. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the proposed control strategy to drive the Heider balance model to friendship.

  14. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  15. Audit Institution Setup and Audit Quality:. An Analysis from the Perspective of Decentralized and Balanced Power Theory%审计机关机构设置与审计质量:基于分权制衡理论视角的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和秀星; 曹严礼

    2012-01-01

    The power performed by government auditing institutions can be classified into such powers as power of project application, evidence acquisition, results reporting and settlement and pun- ishment. However, restricted by the present conditions of the internal institution setup of the auditing bodies, the performance of the current multiple auditing powers mainly focuses on the operational de- partments. Owing to the inefficiency of the decentralized and balanced power system, opportunist be- havior is likely to take place. Therefore, the way to set up the internal institutions in the auditing bodies has become one of the key factors affecting the quality of government audit. Hence, it has great practical significance to guarantee the audit quality by establishing a relatively separated and restricted mechanism of auditing power, increasing the audit transparency and supervision over auditing power, and reducing audit conspiracy and screening behavior through institutional reform and innovation.%政府审计机关履行审计职能的权力可分解为审计立项权、审计取证权、审计报告权及处理处罚权等。然而受制于审计机关内部机构设置的现状,当前多种审计权力的行使主要集中于业务部门。由于分权制衡的有效性不足,机会主义行为很有可能发生,审计机关内部机构设置方式已成为当前影响政府审计质量的关键性因素。因此,通过机构改革与创新,形成审计权力的相对分离与制约机制,增加审计透明度和审计权力监督效果,减少审计合谋与过滤行为,对保障审计质量具有十分重要的现实意义。

  16. The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet: sensitivity to climate change as revealed by energy-balance modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change is studied with an energy-balance model of the ice/snow surface, applied at 200 m elevation intervals for four characteristic regions of the ice sheet. Solar radiation, longwave radiation, turbulent heat fluxes and refr

  17. Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seung Sohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.

  18. Analysis of human standing balance by largest lyapunov exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals' standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  19. Construction of high order balanced multiscaling functions via PTST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shouzhi; PENG Lizhong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of paraunitary two-scale similarity transform (PTST) is introduced. We discuss the property of PTST, and prove that PTST preserves the orthogonal, approximation order and smoothness of the given orthogonal multiscaling functions. What is more, by applying PTST, we present an algorithm of constructing high order balanced multiscaling functions by balancing the already existing orthogonal nonbalanced multi- scaling functions. The corresponding transform matrix is given explicitly. In addition, we also investigate the symmetry of the balanced multiscaling functions. Finally, construction examples are given.

  20. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries.

  1. The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Accessible to the Lean novice and shop floor employee, The Basics of Line Balancing and JIT Kitting explores line balancing and the pre-assembly of components into a finished product in a just-in-time fashion (JIT Kitting). It explains how to use time studies, develop yamazumi charts, discover and eliminate waste, balance your line, and create new standard work content for the shop floor. The book facilitates a clear understanding of the seven deadly wastes (muda) as well as what you can do to eliminate them from your facility. Describing the purpose and use of standard work, it explains how t

  2. Optimal dynamic capacity allocation of HVDC interconnections for cross-border exchange of balancing services in presence of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre; Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of the power system depends both on the technical parameters of its components, i.e., generators and transmission infrastructure, as well as on the operational practices that make optimal use of the available assets. This work focuses on alternative market designs that enable sharing of cross-border balancing...... and the uncertainty arising from their partial predictability. Considering that the existing setup of the European electricity markets promotes the spatial coordination of neighbouring power systems only on the day-ahead market stage, regional system operators have to rely mainly on their internal balancing resources...... resources between adjacent power systems through High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) interconnections which provide increased controllability. In this context, we formulate a stochastic market-clearing algorithm that attains full spatio-temporal integration of reserve capacity, day-ahead and balancing...

  3. The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder and balance problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention. Twenty-

  4. Intervals of balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T, T'] where T and T' are balanced binary trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce synchronous grammars that allow to generate tree-like structures and obtain fixed-point functional equations to enumerate these. We also introduce imbalance tree patterns and show that they can be used to describe some sets of balanced binary trees that play a particular role in the Tamari lattice. Finally, we investigate other families of binary trees that are also closed by interval in the Tamari lattice.

  5. Application of strongly focused pulsed electron beam for the reaction wheels balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borduleva, A. O.; Bleykher, G. A.; Solovev, V. V.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Babihina, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    In the given work the material removing possibility by the strongly focused pulsed electron beam was investigated. The optimal mode of flywheels balancing was found. At this mode the power density is 1.6 MW/cm2 and pulse duration is 0.65 s. At such parameters the evaporation rate is equal to 11 g/scm2. It is possible to vary the amount of remote material from 1 to 100 mg, that is sufficient to balance flywheel. It is found that treatment by an electron beam does not change the material structure.

  6. The Balance Control of Children with and without Hearing Impairment in Singapore--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernice, Tan Sing Yee; Nonis, Karen P.; Yi, Chow Jia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the balance control of participants with and without HI and also to investigate the effect of a Balance Programme (BP) on their balance control (HI; n = 2, M age = 7 years old). The BP consisted of six practice sessions of 45 minutes each. The Balance Tasks used to assess balance control were static Balance…

  7. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; pbalance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.).

  8. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expecte...

  9. Large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This proceedings contains contributions to the followings main topics: Grid integration experiences; Flexibility and economics of integration; Voltage control issues; Offshore wind power plants; Forecasting; Grid code issues; HVDC connection issues; Frequency control issues; National grid's perspective; Power system balancing; Power system issues; New grid and generators issues; Flexibility with storage and demand side management; AC connected offshore wind power plants; Economic and market issues; Modelling issues; Offshore grid issues.

  10. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  11. Migrant remittances and the balance of payments: the Egyptian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-sakka, M I

    1987-01-01

    The economic impact on the Egyptian economy and balance of payments of remittances from Egyptians working abroad is analyzed. The results indicate that the overall effect on the Egyptian economy is positive. (SUMMARY IN ARA)

  12. Melanocortin control of energy balance: evidence from rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Hayes, Matthew R; Bence, Kendra K

    2011-08-01

    Regulation of energy balance is extremely complex, and involves multiple systems of hormones, neurotransmitters, receptors, and intracellular signals. As data have accumulated over the last two decades, the CNS melanocortin system is now identified as a prominent integrative network of energy balance controls in the mammalian brain. Here, we will review findings from rat and mouse models, which have provided an important framework in which to study melanocortin function. Perhaps most importantly, this review attempts for the first time to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways thought to mediate the action of melanocortin neurons and peptides in control of longterm energy balance. Special attention will be paid to the roles of MC4R/MC3R, as well as downstream neurotransmitters within forebrain and hindbrain structures that illustrate the distributed control of melanocortin signaling in energy balance. In addition, distinctions and controversy between rodent species will be discussed.

  13. DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL POSITION BY BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS - CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Hada Teodor; Marginean Radu

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate and to exemplify an important technique for assessing the economic entities, namely the fundamental analysis of the balance sheet, in several significant aspects. The analysis of financial data reported in the balance sheet are, for an economic entity, the basis of a principle diagnosis by determining specific indicators of economic and financial analysis. This analysis aims to provide an insight into the companyâ€(tm)s financial position. The stated aim of this s...

  14. Compilation of Non-Financial Balances in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Ondruš

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The System of National Accounts in the Czech Republic consists of three main parts — institutional sector accounts, input-output tables and balances of non-financial assets. All three parts are compiled interactively by common time schedule. The article deals with balances of non-financial assets and their relation to core institutional sector accounts and explains why the third parallel part of SNA in the Czech Republic was build, describes its weaknesses and future development.

  15. Androgen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Michael L; Steiner, Jennifer L; Gordon, Bradley S

    2017-02-22

    Androgens significantly alter muscle mass in part by shifting protein balance in favor of net protein accretion. During various atrophic conditions, the clinical impact of decreased production or bioavailability of androgens (termed hypogonadism) is important as a loss of muscle mass is intimately linked with survival outcome. While androgen replacement therapy increases muscle mass in part by restoring protein balance, this is not a comprehensive treatment option due to potential side effects. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which androgens alter protein balance is needed for the development of androgen-independent therapies. While the data in humans suggest androgens alter protein balance (both synthesis and breakdown) in the fasted metabolic state, a predominant molecular mechanism(s) behind this observation is still lacking. This failure is likely due in part to inconsistent experimental design between studies including failure to control nutrient/feeding status, the method of altering androgens, and the model systems utilized.

  16. NEW TYPE OF VIBRATION STRUCTURE OF VERTICAL DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dinggen; Cao Jiguang; Chen Chuanyao; Wang Junwen

    2004-01-01

    A new type of vibration structure of vertical dynamic balancing machine is designed, which is based on the analysis for swing frame of a traditional vertical dynamic balancing machine. The static unbalance and couple unbalance can be separated effectively by using the new machine with the new swing frame. By building the dynamics model, the advantages of the new structure are discussed in detail. The modal and harmonic response are analyzed by using the ANSYS7.0. By comparing the finite element modal analysis with the experimental modal analysis, the natural frequencies and vibration modes are found out. There are many spring boards in the new swing frame. Their stiffness is different and assort with each other. Furthermore, there are three sensors on the measurement points. Therefore, the new dynamic balancing machine can measure the static unbalance and couple unbalance directly, and the influence between them is faint. The new structure has the function of belt-strain compensation to improve the measurement precision. The practical result indicates that the new vertical dynamic balancing machine is suitable for inertial measurement of flying objects, and can overcome the shortcomings of traditional double-plane vertical dynamic balancing machines. The vertical dynamic balancing machine with the new vibration structure can be widely used in the future applications. The modeling and analysis of the new vibration structure provide theoretic instruction and practical experience for designing new type of vertical dynamic balancing machines. Based on the design principles such as stiffness-matching, frequency-adjacence and strain-compensation and so on, various new type of vibration structures can be designed.

  17. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  18. The Influence of the Balance of Dispersion and Nonlinearity on the Transmission Quality in Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of the balance of dispersion and nonlinearity on the quality of a transmission system with super Gauss pulse input by altering the input power and adding a section of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The same mechanisms are applied to a 2-channel wave divide multiplex system(WDM) as well. DCF is proved to be a good solution in both situations.

  19. The Impact of Macroeconomic Indicators on Agricultural Trade Balance of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yazdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the main targets of Iran’s economic development plans in agricultural sector during the recent years was to augment agricultural exports and establish a positive trade balance in this sector. In this research the impact of macroeconomic indicators of Iran and its 20 trading partners on Iran’s agricultural trade balance had been investigated. Approach: The ARDL approach was applied during the period of (1960-2005. Results: The domestic real income had the highest effect on the agricultural trade balance relative to other indicators both in the short-and long-run period. On the other hand, domestic money supply and foreign real income had the lowest effect in long-run and short-run respectively. In addition, real exchange rate had the positive impact on trade balance indicating that the depreciation will improve trade balance. But this is not a robust political instrument for establishing long-run equilibrium. Finally, the ECM results implied the fairly high speed of adjustment to equilibrium. Conclusion: The policies that tend to increase domestic income should be planned in such a way that the increased purchasing power of people will be directed to domestic goods rather than foreign goods.

  20. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  1. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung HH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available HoHyun Jung,1 Keyoung Jin Chun,2 Jaesoo Hong,2 Dohyung Lim1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Smart Welfare Technology Research Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2 were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05. The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05. These results

  2. Balanced scorecard of effectiveness analysis of the “Balanced scorecard method of analysis” and risk analysis of financial instability (of a bankrupt) of an enterprise (firm)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The significance and essence of balanced scorecard of effectiveness analysis of the “Balanced scorecard method of analysis” and its application for analyzing the risk of financial instability of an enterprise have been considered.

  3. CLUSTER OF WORKSTATIONS BASED ON DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING FOR PARALLEL TREE COMPUTATION DEPTH-FIRST-SEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加力; 陆鑫达; 张健

    2002-01-01

    The real problem in cluster of workstations is the changes in workstation power or number of workstations or dynmaic changes in the run-time behavior of the application hamper the efficient use of resources. Dynamic load balancing is a technique for the parallel implementation of problems, which generate unpredictable workloads by migration work units from heavily loaded processor to lightly loaded processors at run-time. This paper proposed an efficient load balancing method in which parallel tree computations depth-first-search (DFS) generates unpredictable, highly imbalance workloads and moves through different phases detectable at run-time, where dynamic load balancing strategy is applicable in each phase running under the MPI(message passing interface) and Unix operating system on cluster of workstations parallel platform computing.

  4. A fuel cell balance of plant test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, A. L.; Martin, P. A.

    Much attention is focused in the fuel cell community on the development of reliable stack technology, but to successfully exploit fuel cells, they must form part of integrated power generation systems. No universal test facilities exist to evaluate SOFC stacks and comparatively little research has been undertaken concerning the issues of the rest of the system, or balance of plant (BOP). BG, in collaboration with Eniricerche, has therefore recently designed and built a test facility to evaluate different configurations of the BOP equipment for a 1-5 kWe solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Within this BOP project, integrated, dynamic models have been developed. These have shown that three characteristic response times exist when the stack load is changed and that three independent control loops are required to manage the almost instantaneous change in power output from an SOFC stack, maintain the fuel utilisation and control the stack temperature. Control strategies and plant simplifications, arising from the dynamic modelling, have also been implemented in the BOP test facility. An SOFC simulator was designed and integrated into the control system of the test rig to behave as a real SOFC stack, allowing the development of control strategies without the need for a real stack. A novel combustor has been specifically designed, built and demonstrated to be capable of burning the low calorific anode exhaust gas from an SOFC using the oxygen depleted cathode stream. High temperature, low cost, shell and tube heat exchangers have been shown to be suitable for SOFC systems. Sealing of high temperature anode recirculation fans has, however, been shown to be a major issue and identified as a key area for further investigation.

  5. Malaysia’s Great Power Balance and the South China Sea Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Malaysians with less suspicion of divided loyalties. The following decade saw the steady development of stronger economic ties between Malaysia and...Najib Rezak (since 2009) pursued consistently positive development of Malaysia-China ties. Abdullah had 9 been foreign minister in 1991 when...government-linked corporations expanding significantly into China) and investment (such as China’s financing of a new bridge to Penang , one of the

  6. Assessing seniors' user experience (UX) of exergames for balance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Ystmark, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    . This study aims to evaluate user experience and preferences of exergame technologies to train balance and to identify different factors that affect seniors' intention to use exergames. Fourteen healthy senior citizens played three different stepping exergames in a laboratory setting. Seniors' experience......Exergames technologies are increasingly used to help people achieve their exercise requirements including balance training. However, little is known about seniors' user experience of exergame technology for balance training and what factors they consider most important for using the exergames...... of the exergames and their preference to use exergames was assessed using a semi-structured interview, the system usability scale (SUS), and card ranking. The results of the study showed that in order for seniors to use exergames to train their balance, the exergames should particularly focus on challenging tasks...

  7. Balancing the resources of the High Level Trigger farm of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is organized in two trigger levels running different selection algorithms on heterogeneous farms composed of off-the-shelf processing units. The processing units have varying computing power and network connectivities. The ATLAS working conditions are changing due to the continuous optimization of the LHC operations and the consequent trigger adjustment. In addition, the rolling expansion and replacement of the HLT hardware changes the HLT farm composition. Therefore, balancing the available resources is essential for optimizing the HLT farm exploitation. In this paper, a tool for managing the HLT resources will be presented. The tool allows for showing, modifying and generating the HLT farm configuration, keeping the resource balance, in terms of computing power and bandwidth, across the farms under control.

  8. Striving for a balance: Nature, power, science and India′s Indira Gandhi, 1917-1984

    OpenAIRE

    Rangarajan Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    Indira Gandhi′s life (1917-1984) spanned much of the twentieth century. She was Prime Minister of the world′s largest democracy for two spells that totaled fifteen years. To this day, her environmental legacy remains one that divides critics from admirers. One sees it as a defense against ecological impoverishment, especially in her initiation of wildlife preservation and environmental conservation. The other views these as thin legitimization for an authoritarian style of funct...

  9. Dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies in dynamic balancing of mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia. The synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept is also covered in detail. The latest advances are described, including different balancing principles, design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia, and synthesizing parallel robots. This is an ideal book for mechanical engineering students and researchers who are interested in the dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots. This book also: ·       Broadens reader understanding of the synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept ·       Reinforces basic principles with detailed coverage of different balancing principles, including input torque balancing mechanisms ·       Reviews exhaustively the key recent research into the design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass a...

  10. Sharing Power? Prospects for a U.S. Concert-Balance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Benjamin Schwarz recently, and Eugene Gholz, Daryl G. Press, and Harvey M. Sapolsky earlier, have suggested an outline of the “hemispheric pull- back...intention to project its interests region- ally through military or paramilitary forces has made Iran its own worst enemy. Iran’s neighbours are choos ... Eugene Gholz, Daryl G. Press, and Harvey M. Sapolsky, “Come Home America: The Strategy of Restraint in the Face of Temptation,” International

  11. The brain endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Denis; Guesdon, Benjamin; Timofeeva, Elena

    2009-02-01

    The role played by the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy balance is currently generating a great amount of interest among several groups of investigators. This interest in large part comes from the urgent need to develop anti-obesity and anti-cachexia drugs around target systems (such as the endocannabinoid system), which appears to be genuinely involved in energy balance regulation. When activated, the endocannabinoid system favors energy deposition through increasing energy intake and reducing energy expenditure. This system is activated in obesity and following food deprivation, which further supports its authentic function in energy balance regulation. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), one of the two identified cannabinoid receptors, is expressed in energy-balance brain structures that are also able to readily produce or inactivate N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG), the most abundantly formed and released endocannabinoids. The brain action of endocannabinoid system on energy balance seems crucial and needs to be delineated in the context of the homeostatic and hedonic controls of food intake and energy expenditure. These controls require the coordinated interaction of the hypothalamus, brainstem and limbic system and it appears imperative to unravel those interplays. It is also critical to investigate the metabolic endocannabinoid system while considering the panoply of functions that the endocannabinoid system fulfills in the brain and other tissues. This article aims at reviewing the potential mechanisms whereby the brain endocannabinoid system influences the regulation energy balance.

  12. Efficient cycles for carbon capture CLC power plants based on thermally balanced redox reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike

    2015-10-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The rotary reactor differs from most alternative chemical looping combustion (CLC) reactor designs because it maintains near-thermal equilibrium between the two stages of the redox process by thermally coupling channels undergoing oxidation and reduction. An earlier study showed that this thermal coupling between the oxidation and reduction reactors increases the efficiency by up to 2% points when implemented in a regenerative Brayton cycle. The present study extends this analysis to alternative CLC cycles with the objective of identifying optimal configurations and design tradeoffs. Results show that the increased efficiency from reactor thermal coupling applies only to cycles that are capable of exploiting the increased availability in the reduction reactor exhaust. Thus, in addition to the regenerative cycle, the combined CLC cycle and the combined-regenerative CLC cycle are suitable for integration with the rotary reactor. Parametric studies are used to compare the sensitivity of the different cycle efficiencies to parameters like pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, carrier-gas fraction and purge steam generation. One of the key conclusions from this analysis is that while the optimal efficiency for regenerative CLC cycle was the highest of the three (56% at 3. bars, 1200. °C), the combined-regenerative cycle offers a trade-off that combines a reasonably high efficiency (about 54% at 12. bars, 1200. °C) with much lower gas volumetric flow rate and consequently, smaller reactor size. Unlike the other two cycles, the optimal compressor pressure ratio for the regenerative cycle is weakly dependent on the design turbine inlet temperature. For the regenerative and combined regenerative cycles, steam production in the regenerator below 2× fuel flow rate improves exhaust recovery and consequently, the overall system efficiency. Also, given that the fuel side regenerator flow is unbalanced, it is more efficient to generate steam from the

  13. Pragmatic power

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2008-01-01

    Pragmatic Power is focused on just three aspects of the AC electrical power system that supplies and moves the vast majority of electrical energy nearly everywhere in the world: three-phase power systems, transformers, and induction motors. The reader needs to have had an introduction to electrical circuits and AC power, although the text begins with a review of the basics of AC power. Balanced three-phase systems are studied by developing their single-phase equivalents. The study includes a look at how the cost of ""power"" is affected by reactive power and power factor. Transformers are cons

  14. Uncertainties and re-analysis of glacier mass balance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zemp

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until present, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without error considerations. In this study, we propose a framework for re-analyzing glacier mass balance series including conceptual and statistical toolsets for assessment of random and systematic errors as well as for validation and calibration (if necessary of the glaciological with the geodetic balance results. We demonstrate the usefulness and limitations of the proposed scheme drawing on an analysis that comprises over 50 recording periods for a dozen glaciers and we make recommendations to investigators and users of glacier mass balance data. Reanalysis of glacier mass balance series needs to become a standard procedure for every monitoring programme to improve data quality and provide thorough uncertainty estimates.

  15. Evaluating the Potential of Variable Renewable Energy for a Balanced Isolated Grid: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply to match demand. To evaluate the potential capacity of VREs that may be installed, we develop an optimized model that balances power supply and demand and also considers grid balancing by battery storage and load frequency control. The model was applied to a case study of an isolated grid on a remote Japanese island. When set to optimize the grid in terms of lowest cost, the model suggested that, compared with the base case, the capacity of wind power should be increased by a factor of 1.7 and 15.8 for situations without and with battery storage, respectively. Since it was always considered to be more expensive than wind power, no change in solar PV capacity was observed. These approaches resulted in a decrease in the total power generation cost of 2% and 24%, respectively, while total CO2 emissions fell by 3% and 52%, primarily driven by decreased used of the existing fossil-fueled thermal plant.

  16. BALANCED TRUNCATED MODELS OF RC INTERCONNECT CIRCUITS AND THEIR SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Baoguo; Wang Ben; Wang Shengguo

    2005-01-01

    The Balanced Truncation Method (BTM) is applied to an even distributed RC interconnect case by using Wang's closed-forms of even distributed RC interconnect models. The results show that extremely high order RC interconnect can be high-accurately approximated by only third order balanced model. Related simulations are executed in both time domain and frequency domain. The results may be applied to VLSI interconnect model reduction and design.

  17. Multipath Load Balancing Routing for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyang Henry Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next-generation technology, Internet of Things (IoT, billions of smart objects will communicate with one another to make human lives more convenient. IoT is based on wireless sensor network (WSN, and Zigbee is one of the most popular WSN protocols. A mature IoT environment involves heavy WSN data transmission causing bottleneck problems. However, Zigbee’s AODV routing stack does not have load balance mechanism to handle bursty traffic. Therefore, we develop Multipath Load Balancing (MLB Routing to substitute Zigbee’s AODV routing. Our proposed MLB consists of two main designs: LAYER_DESIGN and LOAD_BALANCE. LAYER_DESIGN assigns nodes into different layers based on node distance to IoT gateway. Nodes can have multiple next-hops delivering IoT data. All neighboring layer nodes exchange flow information containing current load, used by LOAD_BALANCE to estimate future load of next-hops. With MLB, nodes can choose the neighbors with the least load as the next-hops and thus can achieve load balance and avoid bottlenecks. Compared with Zigbee’s AODV and multipath version AODV (AOMDV, experiment results demonstrate that MLB achieves better load balance, lower packet loss rate, and better routing connectivity ratio in both grid and random uniform topologies. MLB provides a more convincing routing solution for IoT applications.

  18. Analysis of the thermal balance characteristics for multiple-connected piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Hu; Cho, Bo-Hyung; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min

    2009-08-01

    Because the amount of power that a piezoelectric transformer (PT) can handle is limited, multiple connections of PTs are necessary for the power-capacity improvement of PT-applications. In the connection, thermal imbalance between the PTs should be prevented to avoid the thermal runaway of each PT. The thermal balance of the multiple-connected PTs is dominantly affected by the electrothermal characteristics of individual PTs. In this paper, the thermal balance of both parallel-parallel and parallel-series connections are analyzed by electrical model parameters. For quantitative analysis, the thermal-balance effects are estimated by the simulation of the mechanical loss ratio between the PTs. The analysis results show that with PTs of similar characteristics, the parallel-series connection has better thermal balance characteristics due to the reduced mechanical loss of the higher temperature PT. For experimental verification of the analysis, a hardware-prototype test of a Cs-Lp type 40 W adapter system with radial-vibration mode PTs has been performed.

  19. Effect of yoga training on balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Koohboomi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase of age and reduction of physical activities usually cause undesirable physical and mental dysfunctions among the elderly. Since physical activities can improve physical and mental conditions, followed by more independence in the elderly, this study was conducted to find out the effects of yoga programs on balance in the elderly. Methods: this quasi-experimental study was carried out on 30 elderly women (age: 66±6.02 years, height: 161±11.53 centimeter and weight: 68.70±7.08 kilogram, all enjoying general health, were selected through convenience sampling. Sharpened-Romberg test (with open eyes and achievement test were used to measure static and dynamic balance, respectively. These tests were performed before and after the exercise program. Data analysis was performed by independent t- test (P<0.05. Results: Research findings showed that yoga exercises for 6 weeks had a significant impact on static balance (P= 0.002 and dynamic balance (P= 0.004 compared with the control group. Conclusion: It seems that yoga (Huta yoga has positive effects on balance in the elderly. These effects include improvement of dynamic and static balance.

  20. Mass balance, runoff and surges of the Bering Glacier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangborn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical net, ablation and accumulation daily balances and runoff of the Bering Glacier, Alaska are determined for the 1951–2011 period with the PTAA (precipitation-temperature-area-altitude model, using daily precipitation and temperature observations collected at the Cordova and Yakutat weather stations, together with the area-altitude distribution of the glacier. The mean annual balance for this 61-yr period is −0.6 mwe, the accumulation balance is +1.4 and the ablation balance is −2.0 mwe. Periodic surges of this glacier transport large volumes of ice to lower elevations where the ablation rate is higher, producing more negative balances and increasing runoff. During the 1993–1995 surge the average ablation balance is −3.3 mwe, over a meter greater than the 1951–2011 average. Runoff from the Bering Glacier (derived from simulated ablation and precipitation as rain is highly correlated with the four glacier surges that have been observed since 1951. Ice volume loss for the 1972–2003 period measured with the PTAA model is 2.3 km3 we a−1 and closely agrees with losses for the same period measured with the geodetic method.

  1. A multimodal assessment of balance in elderly and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gregory W.; Abreu, Eduardo L.; Cheng, An-Lin; Chertoff, Keyna K.; Brotto, Leticia; Kelly, Patricia J.; Brotto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Falling is a significant health issue among elderly adults. Given the multifactorial nature of falls, effective balance and fall risk assessment must take into account factors from multiple sources. Here we investigate the relationship between fall risk and a diverse set of biochemical and biomechanical variables including: skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), maximal strength measures derived from isometric grip and leg extension tasks, and postural sway captured from a force platform during a quiet stance task. These measures were performed in eight young and eleven elderly adults, along with estimates of fall risk derived from the Tinetti Balance Assessment. We observed age-related effects in all measurements, including a trend toward increased sTnT levels, increased postural sway, reduced upper and lower extremity strength, and reduced balance scores. We observed a negative correlation between balance scores and sTnT levels, suggesting its use as a biomarker for fall risk. We observed a significant positive correlation between balance scores and strength measures, adding support to the notion that muscle strength plays a significant role in postural control. We observed a significant negative correlation between balance scores and postural sway, suggesting that fall risk is associated with more loosely controlled center of mass regulation. PMID:26934319

  2. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production; Introduccion al calculo del balance energetico de la produccion de Biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-11-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  4. The distribution of the electric current in a watt-balance coil

    CERN Document Server

    Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Mana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In the watt balance experiment, separate measurements of the Lorentz and electromotive forces in a coil in a radial magnetic field enable a virtual comparison between mechanical and electric powers to be carried out, which lead to an accurate measurement of the Planck constant. This paper investigates the effect of a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of the electric current in the coil due to the higher or lower resistance of the outer or inner paths.

  5. Neutron and density logging responses to gas reservoir for well-balanced and under-balanced logging:Gas reservoirs of sandstone in a western China field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the response differences between neutron and density logging of gas reservoir for well-balanced and under-balanced logging will be of significance in evaluation of gas reservoir under the under-balanced condition and application of logging data. With Monte Carlo simulation technique,the paper obtains the relationship between neutron and density logging measurement and borehole di-ameter,porosity or gas saturation for well-balanced and under-balanced logging. The conclusions show that the response trend of under-balanced logging to gas reservoirs agrees with that of well-balanced logging with small borehole,and under-balanced logging data can be used usually as well-balanced logging data. When borehole diameter is large,under-balanced logging data should be corrected for the influences of borehole.

  6. Evaluation of nodal reliability risk in a deregulated power system with photovoltaic power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    and customer reliability requirements are correlated with energy and reserve prices. Therefore a new method should be developed to evaluate the impacts of PV power on customer reliability and system reserve deployment in the new environment. In this study, a method based on the pseudo-sequential Monte Carlo......Owing to the intermittent characteristic of solar radiation, power system reliability may be affected with high photovoltaic (PV) power penetration. To reduce large variation of PV power, additional system balancing reserve would be needed. In deregulated power systems, deployment of reserves...... simulation technique has been proposed to evaluate the reserve deployment and customers' nodal reliability with high PV power penetration. The proposed method can effectively model the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of PV power and system operation with high computation efficiency...

  7. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    coal fired power plants, wind power, solar thermal power (STEG) and hydro power plants. For the 2010s, detailed global demand curves are derived for hybrid PV-Fossil power plants on a per power plant, per country and per fuel type basis. The fundamental technical and economic potentials for hybrid PV-STEG, hybrid PV-Wind and hybrid PV-Hydro power plants are considered. The global resource availability for PV and wind power plants is excellent, thus knowing the competitive or complementary characteristic of hybrid PV-Wind power plants on a local basis is identified as being of utmost relevance. The complementarity of hybrid PV-Wind power plants is confirmed. As a result of that almost no reduction of the global economic PV market potential need to be expected and more complex power system designs on basis of hybrid PV-Wind power plants are feasible. The final target of implementing renewable power technologies into the global power system is a nearly 100% renewable power supply. Besides balancing facilities, storage options are needed, in particular for seasonal power storage. Renewable power methane (RPM) offers respective options. A comprehensive global and local analysis is performed for analysing a hybrid PV-Wind-RPM combined cycle gas turbine power system. Such a power system design might be competitive and could offer solutions for nearly all current energy system constraints including the heating and transportation sector and even the chemical industry. Summing up, hybrid PV power plants become very attractive and PV power systems will very likely evolve together with wind power to the major and final source of energy for mankind.

  8. Power Control of Offshore Wind Power System through Modular Multilevel Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakimi, Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode (AFSM) Current Control of Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) for integration offshore wind power system to on-grid network. In order to design adaptive robust control strategy, mathematical dynamic model of MMC using rotating d-q theory based upon...... of sinusoidal, three-phase balanced voltages despite sever unbalanced voltage conditions....

  9. The Effect of Nitrogen Cross-over on Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Water Balance Measurements Using Constant Temperature Anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain an ad-hoc and real time electrical signal of the PEMFC water balance by employing a constant temperature hot wire anemometry has been developed by our fuel cell research group. In this work, the effect of nitrogen-cross over on this method is experimentally demonstrated....... This is due to the effect of 1% nitrogen on power law constant’s “m” which can be used in determining the water balance as explained in previous work was extremely low. Thus, the hot wire technique for measuring the PEMFC water balance is still accurate with the nitrogen cross-over...

  10. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  11. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  12. SELECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gonchar

    2005-01-01

    The paper reveals that while loading transformers from idle running till nominal value it is preferable to apply transformers with less power losses in steel because total losses of active power in the indicated range are less than in transformers with larger losses in steel.

  13. Environmental balance of mining from seafloor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Ehab Elsayed

    2013-09-30

    evaluation and determination of the environmental performances of different dredging equipment, techniques and procedures. Moreover, the new future developments and latest proposals in the dredging industry have been presented. Also, the new proposal to reduce the turbidity and suspended material effect which is the most important environmental impacts during dredging operations has presented. This research work gives a description of underwater mining techniques and different way of evaluating the dredging equipment's in term of environmental, economic and social aspects. Also, this work presents two different methods of evaluation. The first approach is the statistical analyses method by using the modern Fuzzy evaluation concept. The second slant is a mathematical accounting method by using the information from the Egyptian case study, in order to reach the most environmental-friendly dredging techniques by taking into account the economic and social point of views. The final evaluation showed that the suction and bucket ladder dredger are the best choices. The assessment was made after comparing many parameters such as performance, characteristics, working depth, soil types and project area. Also, this work presents two different new practices for extraction of the underwater placer deposits which occur on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The first technique uses floating processing unit in the in situ area, which gets the extracted material and treated it to reduce the transportation costs. The second technique has divided the working area to many stages which make the suction dredger used also for transporting the material into the beach. The pipeline will be the best method of transportation by using the power of suction, which reduce also the transportation costs and also avoid the environmental effects.

  14. Water balance trumps ion balance for early marine survival of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackville, M; Wilson, J M; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

    2012-08-01

    Smolting salmonids typically require weeks to months of physiological preparation in freshwater (FW) before entering seawater (SW). Remarkably, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) enter SW directly following yolk absorption and gravel emergence at a size of 0.2 g. To survive this exceptional SW migration, pink salmon were hypothesized to develop hypo-osmoregulatory abilities prior to yolk absorption and emergence. To test this, alevins (pre-yolk absorption) and fry (post-yolk absorption) were transferred from FW in darkness to SW under simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Ionoregulatory status was assessed at 0, 1 and 5 days post-transfer. SW alevins showed no evidence of hypo-osmoregulation, marked by significant water loss and no increase in gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) activity or Na⁺:K⁺:2Cl⁻ cotransporter (NKCC) immunoreactive (IR) cell frequency. Conversely, fry maintained water balance, upregulated gill NKA activity by 50 %, increased the NKA α1b/α1a mRNA expression ratio by sixfold and increased NKCC IR cell frequency. We also provide the first evidence of photoperiod-triggered smoltification in pink salmon, as fry exposed to SNP in FW exhibited preparatory changes in gill NKA activity and α1 subunit expression similar to fry exposed to SNP in SW. Interestingly, fry incurred larger increases in whole body Na⁺ than alevins following both SW and FW + SNP exposure (40 and 20 % in fry vs. 0 % in alevins). The ability to incur and tolerate large ion loads may underlie a novel mechanism for maintaining water balance in SW prior to completing hypo-osmoregulatory development. We propose that pink salmon represent a new form of anadromy termed "precocious anadromy".

  15. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  16. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  17. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  18. On the Powers of Powerful Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Muller, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore and clarify the idea of "powerful knowledge" as a sociological concept and as a curriculum principle. The paper seeks to clarify its conceptual basis and to make its meaning and the arguments it implies, less ambiguous and less open to misunderstanding. This will enable us to suggest some of the…

  19. Development of YBCO power devices in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, N., E-mail: fujiwara.n@istec.or.j [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., 2-1-47 Shiobaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    A new Japanese national project, called M-PACC, to develop high temperature superconducting electric power devices started in June last year (FY2008-FY2012). This project aims to develop three different types of electric power devices that are expected to provide stable power supplies with large capacity and small size by using YBCO coated conductors. The first program is the development of a 2 GJ class superconducting magnetic energy storage system to control stable electric power systems. It is planned to develop several sets of element coils for a 20 MJ class system as a technological feasibility study for a 2 GJ class coil. The second program is the development of two different types of power cables with higher performance than existing power cables; one is a three-core 66 kV-5 kA class large current cable and the other is a single-phase 275 kV-3 kA class high voltage cable. These cable were required several technological developments, namely, large current and low AC loss, high voltage insulation and low dielectric loss, and power and heat balance for both cables. The third program is the development of a 20 MVA class power transformer with 66 kV/6.9 kV as a distribution transformer. In this project, power transformer systematization technology including 2 kA class large current coil technology, anti short-circuit wire winding technology, AC loss reduction technology, and winding technology will be developed.

  20. Analysis on the balance relationship of electro-magnetism for balance traction transformer%平衡牵引变压器电磁平衡关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮承新

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of balance traction transformer is presented in this paper by analyzing and deriving the balance relations among the magnetic potential, current, electric potential and power of the balance transformer combined with a certain project development.%通过对平衡变压器磁势、电流、电势、功率平衡关系分析和推导,结合YN、A接线平衡变压器科研课题的研究,论述了平衡牵引变压器基本原理。

  1. Uniparental disomy analysis in carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, K.M.; Pettay, D.; Muralidharan, K. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Although most individuals who carry a balanced familial chromosome rearrangement are phenotypically normal, those who are clinically abnormal raise the question of whether or not the rearrangement plays a causative role. One possible mechanism involves meiotic segregation of a normal homolog along with the rearranged chromosome(s) such that a trisomic conception occurs. Subsequent loss by mitotic nondisjunction of the structurally normal chromosome contributed by the non-carrier parent would then result in uniparental disomy (UPD) in a conceptus carrying a balanced rearrangement. UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 has been demonstrated in several clinically abnormal individuals who carry a familial Robertsonian translocation. We have extended this type of analysis to include other forms of balanced chromosome rearrangements. We report the results of UPD analysis of 14 families who have a phenotypically abnormal child with an apparently balanced rearrangement. The series includes 4 reciprocal translocations, 4 Robertsonian translocations, 2 X;autosome translocations, and 4 inversions. High resolution chromosomes were used to compare breakpoints between parent and offspring to exclude the possibility of further rearrangements. Parental origin of the chromosome(s) involved was determined by DNA polymorphism analysis using PCR or Southern blotting techniques. We found no evidence of UPD in any of the 14 cases. Our data suggest that UPD is not a common explanation for phenotypically abnormal carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements.

  2. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  3. The levers of control framework : An exploratory analysis of balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Speklé, R.F.; Widener, S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the Levers of Control (LOC) framework on the accounting literature is undeniably large. The framework, however, has also been criticized for being vague and ambiguous. One of the central, but unclear, concepts in the LOC framework is the notion of balance. That is, the framework holds

  4. Balancing of linkages and robot manipulators advanced methods with illustrative examples

    CERN Document Server

    Arakelian, Vigen

    2015-01-01

    In this book advanced balancing methods for planar and spatial linkages, hand operated and automatic robot manipulators are presented. It is organized into three main parts and eight chapters. The main parts are the introduction to balancing, the balancing of linkages and the balancing of robot manipulators. The review of state-of-the-art literature including more than 500 references discloses particularities of shaking force/moment balancing and gravity compensation methods. Then new methods for balancing of linkages are considered. Methods provided in the second part of the book deal with the partial and complete shaking force/moment balancing of various linkages. A new field for balancing methods applications is the design of mechanical systems for fast manipulation. Special attention is given to the shaking force/moment balancing of robot manipulators. Gravity balancing methods are also discussed. The suggested balancing methods are illustrated by numerous examples.

  5. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  6. Reliability of 16 balance tests in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamonte, Romina; Vehrs, Pat R; Feland, J Brent; Johnson, A Wayne; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    To assess test-retest reliability scores on 16 balance tests of 21 individuals with Down syndrome whose ages ranged from 5 to 31 yr., participants performed a standing test on firm and soft surfaces with the eyes open and closed, the balance subset of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test, full turn, timed-up-and-go test, forward reach, and sit-to-stand. Each participant completed all 16 tests twice in one day and then again on a subsequent day for a total of 4 sessions. The interclass reliability correlation coefficients (ICC) value for each measure of balance varied considerably by age and sex. Based on having an ICC > .50, only 3 tests were reliable in young males and young females, whereas 5 tests could reliably be used in adult females and 9 tests could reliably be used in adult males. The results of this study raise suspicions as to the reliability of tests commonly used to assess balance and differences in reliability due to age and sex. Results of balance tests should be interpreted with caution in males and females with Down syndrome across the age span.

  7. Mass balance, runoff and surges of Bering Glacier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangborn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The historical net, ablation and accumulation daily balances, as well as runoff of Bering Glacier, Alaska are determined for the 1951–2011 period with the PTAA (precipitation-temperature-area-altitude model, using daily precipitation and temperature observations collected at the Cordova and Yakutat weather stations, together with the area-altitude distribution of the glacier. The model mean annual balance for this 61 yr period is −0.6 m w.e., the accumulation balance is +1.4 and the ablation balance is −2.0 m w.e. Average annual runoff is 2.5 m w.e. Periodic surges of this glacier transport large volumes of ice to lower elevations where the ablation rate is higher, producing more negative balances and increasing runoff. Runoff from Bering Glacier (derived from simulated ablation and precipitation as rain is highly correlated with four of the glacier surges that have occurred since 1951. Ice volume loss for the 1972–2003 period measured with the PTAA model is 2.7 km3 w.e. a−1 and closely agrees with losses for the same period measured with the geodetic method. It is proposed that the timing and magnitude of daily snow accumulation and runoff, both of which are controlled by the glacier's area-altitude distribution and are calculated with the PTAA model, can be used to determine the probability that a glacier will surge.

  8. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground ofbalanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  9. Simplification of heating systems by omitting circulating pumps and differential pressure regulating valves. Balancing; Vereinfachung durch Einsparung von Umwaelzpumpen und Differenzdruckregler. Hydraulischer Abgleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Marc [Baelz W. und Sohn GmbH und Co., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Balancing of heating systems today is possible without differential pressure regulating valves. Only the design basis volume flow is adjusted at the sectioning valve of the heating section, while the part-load behaviour is regulated accurately via thermal power regulation. This simplifies balancing, and the total efficiency of systems will be better than with the commonly used differential pressure regulating valves.

  10. Projection-free approximate balanced truncation of large unstable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinois, Thibault L. B.; Morgans, Aimee S.; Schmid, Peter J.

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we show that the projection-free, snapshot-based, balanced truncation method can be applied directly to unstable systems. We prove that even for unstable systems, the unmodified balanced proper orthogonal decomposition algorithm theoretically yields a converged transformation that balances the Gramians (including the unstable subspace). We then apply the method to a spatially developing unstable system and show that it results in reduced-order models of similar quality to the ones obtained with existing methods. Due to the unbounded growth of unstable modes, a practical restriction on the final impulse response simulation time appears, which can be adjusted depending on the desired order of the reduced-order model. Recommendations are given to further reduce the cost of the method if the system is large and to improve the performance of the method if it does not yield acceptable results in its unmodified form. Finally, the method is applied to the linearized flow around a cylinder at Re = 100 to show that it actually is able to accurately reproduce impulse responses for more realistic unstable large-scale systems in practice. The well-established approximate balanced truncation numerical framework therefore can be safely applied to unstable systems without any modifications. Additionally, balanced reduced-order models can readily be obtained even for large systems, where the computational cost of existing methods is prohibitive.

  11. Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.

  12. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  13. 50 years of mass balance observations at Vernagtferner, Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ludwig; Mayer, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The determination and monitoring of the seasonal and annual glacier mass balances of Vernagtferner, Austria, started in 1964 by the Commission of Glaciology, Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Detailed and continuous climate- and runoff measurements complement this mass balance series since 1974. Vernagtferner attracted the attention of scientists since the beginning of the 17th century due to its rapid advances and the resulting glacier lake outburst floods in the Ötztal valley. This is one reason for the first photogrammetric survey in 1889, which was followed by frequent topographic surveys, adding up to more than ten digital elevation models of the glacier until today. By including the known maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age in 1845, the geodetic glacier volume balances cover a time span of almost 170 years. The 50 years of glacier mass balance and 40 years of water balance in the drainage basin are therefore embedded in a considerably longer period of glacier evolution, allowing an interpretation within an extended frame of climatology and ice dynamics. The direct mass balance observations cover not only the period of alpine-wide strong glacier mass loss since the beginning of the 1990s. The data also contain the last period of glacier advances between 1970 and 1990. The combination of the observed surface mass exchange and the determined periodic volumetric changes allows a detailed analysis of the dynamic reaction of the glacier over the period of half a century. The accompanying meteorological observations are the basis for relating these reactions to the climatic changes during this period. Vernagtferner is therefore one of the few glaciers in the world, where a very detailed glacier-climate reaction was observed for many decades and can be realistically reconstructed back to the end of the Little Ice Age.

  14. Exploring antecedents of experimentation and implementation of the balanced scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of management innovations like the balanced scorecard is generally a complex process. Many subdecisions are involved and customization is often required before firms can enjoy the benefits of these innovations. Consequently, firms tend to experiment before finally implementing such complex

  15. 大功率干扰下LVS负载均衡集群抗扰动算法%LVS Load Balance Cluster Disturbance Algorithm Under High Power Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红梅

    2015-01-01

    Linux虚拟服务器(LVS)是一个虚拟的服务器集群系统。在大功率干扰下,LVS集群的抗扰动性能不好,无法有效实现IP负载均衡和任务调度。提出一种基于功率自激的大功率干扰下LVS负载均衡集群抗扰动算法。采用自适应神经模糊系统网络动态干扰监测模型构建网络信息鲁棒性评价模型及Linux嵌入式用户信任感知网络信息信任度评价,计算MAC层两个模糊概念之间的相似度。得到大功率干扰监测数学模型,假设干扰信号表现为一种动态随机噪声信号,实现对大功率干扰下的LVS网络的扰动容错方案设计,对簇节点的接收信号强度(RSSI)信息没有合理开发应用,在簇头生成过程中形成的帧没能实现自适应均衡处理,分析节点之间发射和接收信号的耦合效应,需要实现算法上的改进。仿真结果表明,该算法有效实现IP负载均衡和任务调度,延迟了网络生命周期,提高Linux虚拟服务器的抗扰动性能。%The Linux virtual server (LVS) is a virtual server cluster system. In the high power interference, anti disturbance performance is not good LVS cluster, not the effective implementation of IP load balancing and scheduling tasks. Put for⁃ward a kind of high power self interference power under LVS load balance cluster algorithm based on anti disturbance. The adaptive neural fuzzy dynamic interference monitoring model of system network construction network information robust⁃ness evaluation model and Linux embedded user perceived trust network trust evaluation, the calculation of similarity be⁃tween the MAC layer two fuzzy concept. High power interference monitoring mathematical model, assuming that the interfer⁃ence signal is shown as a kind of dynamic random noise signal, the realization of fault tolerant scheme design for high pow⁃er disturbance under the interference of LVS network, the received signal strength on the cluster

  16. Balance in Academic Leadership: Voices of Women from Turkey and the United States of America (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacifazlioglu, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This comparative study examines the experiences of women leaders in Turkey and the US. It argues that the theme of "balance in leadership" appeared to be the most influential driving force in women leaders' stories. It further shows that balance in leadership is associated with balance in two areas: balancing private and professional life, and…

  17. The international logistics of wood pellets for heating and power production in Europe: Costs, energy-input and greenhouse gas balances of pellet consumption in Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Junginger, H.M.; Pichler, W.; Hayes, S.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European wood pellet market is booming: concerns about climate change and renewable energy targets are predominant drivers. The aim of this analysis is to compare typical wood pellet chains from the purchase of the feedstock from sawmills to the conversion into heat or electricity. Cost structur

  18. Features of Balance Model Development of Exclave Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Rustamovich Gareev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors build a balance model for an exclave region. The aim of the work is to explore the unique properties of exclaves to evaluate the possibility of development of a more complex model for the economy of a region. Exclaves are strange phenomena in both theoretical and practical regional economy. There is lack of comparative models, so it is typically quite challenging to study exclaves. At the same time, exclaves produce better statistics, which gives more careful consideration of cross-regional economic flows. The authors discuss methodologies of model-based regional development forecasting. They analyze balance approach on a more general level of regional governance and individually, on the example of specific territories. Thus, they identify and explain the need to develop balance approach models fitted to the special needs of certain territories. By combining regional modeling for an exclave with traditional balance and simulation-based methods and event-based approach, they come up with a more detailed model for the economy of a region. Having taken one Russian exclave as an example, the authors have developed a simulation event-based long-term sustainability model. In the article, they provide the general characteristics of the model, describe its components, and simulation algorithm. The approach introduced in this article combines the traditional balance models and the peculiarities of an exclave region to develop a holistic regional economy model (with the Kaliningrad region serving as an example. It is important to underline that the resulting model helps to evaluate the degree of influence of preferential economic regimes (such as Free Customs Zone, for example on the economy of a region.

  19. Gain and loss of esteem, direct reciprocity and Heider balance

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanibesheli, Forough; Gawroński, Przemysław; Stojkow, Maria; Żuchowska-Skiba, Dorota; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The effect of gain and loss of esteem is introduced into the equations of time evolution of social relations, hostile or friendly, in a group of actors. The equations allow for asymmetric relations. We prove that in the presence of this asymmetry, the majority of stable solutions are jammed states, i.e. the Heider balance is not attained there. A phase diagram is constructed with three phases: the jammed phase, the balanced phase with two mutually hostile groups, and the phase of so-called paradise, where all relations are friendly.

  20. Greenland's balance of Payments and Self-governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political and...... of produc­tion and living standards and large current account deficits. It is possible to remove the trade balance deficit and the need for Danish transfers simultaneously, but this would require higher tax rates and huge increases of exports....