WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of payments

  1. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...... relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  2. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  3. THE SIGNAL APPROACH TO MODELLING THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and presents synthesis of theoretical models of balance of payment crisis and investigates the most effective ways to model the crisis in Ukraine. For mathematical formalization of balance of payment crisis, comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different calculation methods of Exchange Market Pressure Index was performed. A set of indicators that signal the growing likelihood of balance of payments crisis was defined using signal approach. With the help of minimization function thresholds indicators were selected, the crossing of which signalize increase in the probability of balance of payment crisis.

  4. 12 CFR 204.10 - Payment of interest on balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 204.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.10 Payment of interest on balances. (a) Payment of interest. The Federal Reserve Banks shall pay interest on balances maintained...

  5. Migrant remittances and the balance of payments: the Egyptian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-sakka, M I

    1987-01-01

    The economic impact on the Egyptian economy and balance of payments of remittances from Egyptians working abroad is analyzed. The results indicate that the overall effect on the Egyptian economy is positive. (SUMMARY IN ARA)

  6. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  7. Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Arfan Ali; Tan Shukui; Santhirasegaram Selvarathnam; Xu Xiaolin; Abdul Saboor

    2008-01-01

    This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment...

  8. The Balance of Payments: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    An economic case study is presented of the balance of payments in Italy, Canada, and West Germany during the 1940s through 1960s. The study examines the circular flow of income, price level fluctuations, supply and demand theory, and basic considerations of financial markets. For journal availability, see SO 505 703. (Author/AV)

  9. Four Alternative Policies to Restore Balance of Payments Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1952-01-01

    textabstractStimulated by Fleming's study on a related subject, the author compares four methods to eliminate balance of payments disequilibria between high-employment countries forming a closed group: (i) "discriminatory" import duties and subsidies, (ii) "discriminatory" duties only or the corresp

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2), use the following clause: Buy American Act and Balance of... products in the Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate provision of the solicitation....

  12. 75 FR 66686 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial Information Technology... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the exemption from the Balance of Payments Program for... is amending the DFARS to implement in the clauses at 252.225- 7044, Balance of Payments...

  13. Greenland's balance of Payments and Self-governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political and...... of produc­tion and living standards and large current account deficits. It is possible to remove the trade balance deficit and the need for Danish transfers simultaneously, but this would require higher tax rates and huge increases of exports....

  14. 5 CFR 843.202 - Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance to a separated employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.202 Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance to a separated employee. 843.202 Section 843.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF...

  15. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  16. Transfers, money and the balance of payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Marrewijk, Charles van

    1999-01-01

    The literature on international transfers largely ignores the fact that transfers are often given in the form of money. We analyze both the welfare consequences of financial transfers for the donor and the recipient, and their impact on the current account. Under normal circumstances transfer parado

  17. 5 CFR 843.211 - Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance. 843.211 Section 843.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.211 Determining when children prevent payment of...

  18. Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment by using a simple econometric model with various techniques. Our empirical finding shows that political stability is more important than economic freedom in stabilizing balance of payment. Stable political regime with visionary leadership leads the nations to higher level of favorable balance of payment. Political stability is playing major role than theoretical explanation to achieve surplus of balance of payment hence exchange rare stability. Surplus of trade balance, foreign direct investment and higher international reserves hence appreciation of Yuan in china mostly depends on its long term political stability under one party political system rather than pure theoretical determination of balance of payment. Attaining of political stability before economic freedom is policy implication of this study to achieve international financial stability.

  19. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  20. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  1. 5 CFR 843.208 - Notification of current and/or former spouse before payment of unexpended balance to a separated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spouse before payment of unexpended balance to a separated employee. 843.208 Section 843.208... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.208 Notification of current and/or former spouse before payment of unexpended balance to a separated employee. (a) Payment...

  2. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of Payments Program. The clause prescribed by FAR 25.408(a)(2) is not generally included in USAID...

  3. THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SUSTAINABILITY AND THE EUROZONE ACCESSION CONVERGENCE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the balance of payments (BoP is identified as representing the long term need of equilibrium and stability of the international payments and revenues. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that influence the balance of payments of a certain country, by using a rigorous classification that reveals the complexity of these factors. Our conclusions are very relevant, especially for countries like Romania, because, in order to achieve the external equilibrium, it seems that every county must adopt a mix of internal economic policies, and although theoretically this can be realised, sometimes in practice it can prove to be impossible on account of inability or refusing to combine the appropriate economic policies.

  4. Teaching Interactions between Foreign Exchange Markets and Balance-of-Payments Flows: An Alternative Graphical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaske, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Provides a graphical framework for presenting interactions among current account flows, capital account flows, and exchange rates. Suggests that the two type of flows must be considered separately in discussions of foreign exchange equilibrium and balance of payments flows. Supplies sample graphs and instructions for applying the framework to real…

  5. Change the Pattern of Foreign Trade Growth Balance China 's International Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo CAI; Yantai CHEN; Xiaohuan QIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's external economic imbalance is becoming the focus under the circumstance of global economic imbalance. Recently, the Chinese central government attached great importance to this issue, while promoting balance of payments (BOP) is clearly regarded as key task to maintain macroeconomic stability in 2010 Central Economic Conference.

  6. Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth: the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. MORENO-BRID

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for balance-of-payment constraints is developed to analyse the economic crisis which swept the entire Mexican region during the early 1980s. Analytical results suggest that a modification of the long-term income multipliers of the proposed framework may be effected by implementing a long-term constant ratio of the current account to nominal gross domestic product. It is further shown that Mexico's economic instability was largely caused by the inadequacy of foreign exchange resources necessary in driving domestic growth.

  7. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  8. Exchange Controls, Investment and the Balance of Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Exchange controls in Great Britain were abolished in 1979. Since then, there has been a significant outflow of capital. This article examines the case for the reintroduction of controls with particular reference to the effect this might have on investment. (Author/JDH)

  9. ROMANIAN MACROECONOMIC STABILITY BETWEEN THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT ASSISTANCE AND THE EUROPEAN SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dragan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The first EU Alert Mechanism Report demonstrates the vulnerable macroeconomic external position of Romania, the current Romanian’s balance of payments reflecting a severe need of financing and capitalization. On the other hand, the 2007-2013 programming period potentially provided a significant amount of EU money for investments (around 29 billion euro through Structural Funds. However, five years after the beginning of the current financial framework, the level of absorption remains extremely low. The paper focuses on the main Romanian macroeconomic imbalances (the current account balance,international investment position and on the most important sources for financing investments and development - the EU financial structural instruments: ERDF and Cohesion Fund.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS EVOLUTION AND ITS SUSTAINABILITY AT REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The balance of payments stands for both good and bad impact on the economy as a whole. If the country registers a current account deficit, than the result will highlight more imports than exports. If the country runs a current account surplus, than it exports more than it imports. Both cases are unfavourable for that countries economy, because it creates headaches for all the decision makers. This current paper analyses only the first part of the balance of payments, and that is the problem of a current account deficit. For a better understanding of the analyzed phenomenon, the paper will carry out a comparative analysis of the results achieved by Romania and other member countries of the European Union. For this analysis the next countries were chosen: Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary. This was done for a parallel analysis of data recorded in the current account. Representative data was taken from the Eurostat and the annual reports of the central banks of each analyzed country. After this, based on the data above, the paper highlights Roubini (1998 elements in calculating the current account sustainability. It takes into account several elements that lead to a sustainable balance of the current account deficit. Among them the author lists: foreign reserves calculated in months of imports; the share of exports in GDP, expressed as a percentage; openness degree of the economy expressed as a percentage; public external debt relative to exports; the ability to attract foreign direct investment. All this research is needed in order to express as accurately as it can be done, the sustainability degree of current account deficit. Based on this, the paper will asses which country has the most sustainable current account, and what measures are suited if not. The conclusions will be made strictly regarding sustainability points, and some potential future measures will be highlighted in order to improve the current status.

  11. Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the Balance of Payments Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2014-09-01

    The study assesses the presence and magnitude of global trends in health tourism using health-related travel (HRT) spending reported in the International Monetary Fund's Balance of Payments Statistics database. Linear regression and quantile regression are applied to estimate secular trends of the import and export of HRT based on a sample of countries from 2003 to 2009. The results show that from 2003 to 2009 the import and export of health tourism rose among countries with a high volume of such activities (accounting for the upper 40% of the countries), but not among those with a low volume. The uneven growth in health tourism has generated greater contrast between countries with high and low volumes of health tourism activities. However, the growth in the total import of health tourism did not outpace the population growth, implying that in general the population's tendency to engage in health tourism remained static.

  12. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  13. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    . The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology......) there are over 12,000 startups in the payment arena. For them, the taxonomy can function as a template for the design of payment instruments, as well as understanding the various factors that influence payer choice of payment instruments. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the 4Ps taxonomy...

  14. 75 FR 20299 - Garnishment of Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... payments in ] the account or to the current balance of the account, whichever is lower. DATES: Comments... payments or the balance of the account on the date of the account review (the ``protected amount''). The... Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Fiscal Service...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Item Number) (Country of Origin) (3) The following end products are other foreign end products... definition of “domestic end product”: (Line Item Number) (Country of Origin (If known)) (End of provision) ... end product,” “qualifying country,” “qualifying country end product,” and “United States” have...

  16. Catching up and lagging behind in a balance-of-payments-constrained dual economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavopa, A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of nations in the path towards economic development hinges heavily on the emergence and dynamism of a modern sector capable of simultaneously absorbing an increasing share of the labour force while reducing the technological gap with the world's frontier. Failure to do so would eventuall

  17. The Soviet Union’s Hard-Currency Balance of Payments and Creditworthiness in 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    GRANT NUNSE1141I) Gregory Grossman, Ronald L. Solberg lHflA903-82-C-Ol72 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAaMA* D I.OlMAjEE9MPO 6 j5 .TS The Rand...1.0 0.9 1.0 Per capita GNPd 4.2 2.7 2.0 Agriculturee 3.9 -0.4 1.0 Nonagricultural sectorse 5.7 5.1 (3.1) f Industry 6.3 5.9 3.6 Construction 5.8 5.6... organizations involved, and a severe labor shortage. 75 There is very little disagreement between Soviet and Western pro- jections of 1981-85 gas

  18. 我国国际收支双顺差的对策构建%Measures of Double Surplus of China's International Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛佳

    2011-01-01

    China's international balance of payments shows the abnormal and unique structure features; double surplus of the current account and capital and financial account, which has attracted the attention of theorists at home and abroad. and is a hot research issue of theorists in recent years This paper analyzes features of China's international balance of payments double surplus and proposes building measures to properly handle the double surplus.%我国国际收支呈现出的异常独特的结构特征,即经常账户和资本与金融账户双顺差,引起了国内外理论界的重视,是近年来理论界研究的热点问题.本文通过分析我国国际收支双顺差呈现的特点,提出我国双顺差妥善处理的对策构建.

  19. Independent Accounting and Balance of Payments of Hospital Cafeteria%浅谈医院食堂独立核算与收支平衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤有为; 杨艳; 高晓丽

    2013-01-01

    With the deepening of reform of the health care system, the cost consciousness is growing in hospitals. It is of greater importance for hospitals to establish complete financial and management systems to achieve balance of payments and reduce cost pressure. The cafeteria is a unique part of hospital. Due to lack of complete financial management systems, most cafeterias are losing money. It is proposed that independent accounting should be introduced, in order to strengthen the financial management and gradually achieve balance of payments of hospital cafeteria and facilitate the dinning of hospital staffs.%随着医疗卫生体制改革的深入,医院的成本意识逐步增强,为缓解医院的成本压力,建立完善的财务和管理制度实现医院收支平衡越来越受到医院的重视。医院食堂是医院的一个特殊部门,由于缺乏完善的财务管理制度,医院食堂多出现亏损,文章提出应通过独立核算,加强财务管理,逐步实现医院食堂的收支平衡,保证医院职工就餐方便。

  20. The Evolution of China’s International Balance of Payments Structure%我国国际收支格局的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文海; 李景跃

    2016-01-01

    The international balance of payments can reflect the influence of a country in the international com-munity,the level of economic development and the degree of opening up to the outside world. In the future,Chinese international balance of payments will be on the normal situation of“current account surplus and capital and finan-cial account deficit”,and should maintain and promote the international balance of payments,vigorously develop the service industry,promote trade in services,increase the proportion of trade in services,promote our country into the high-end field of the global industrial chain,and promote the transformation from a big trading country to trade power. Accelerate to realize the convertibility of RMB in the capital account;improve the cross-border capital flow risk monitoring and early warning system,perfect the system of international revenue and expenditure management, avoid the harm to the domestic economics caused by the short-term cross-border capital flows for the purpose of arbitrage;improve the allocation of resources,control liquidity risk,alleviate the problem of foreign exchange market supply and demand imbalance,realize the external economic equilibrium.%一国国际收支能够反映该国在国际社会中的影响力、经济发展水平和对外开放程度。未来我国国际收支将以“经常账户顺差和资本与金融账户逆差”为常态,应保持和促进国际收支均衡,大力发展服务业,推动服务贸易,增加服务贸易占比,推动我国进入全球产业链的高端领域,促进由贸易大国向贸易强国的转变。加快实现人民币资本项目下的可兑换;完善跨境资本流动风险监测预警系统,健全国际收支管理体系,避免以套利为目的短期跨境流动资本对本国经济造成危害;提高资源配置,控制流动性风险,缓解外汇市场供需不均衡问题,实现外部经济均衡。

  1. 人民币汇率对中国国际收支影响的实证分析%An empirical analysis of the impact of RMB exchange rate upon China's international balance of payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余卓君

    2015-01-01

    人民币汇率的变动是否会引起中国国际收支的变动,不同研究者的结论观点不一致。选取2009-2014年6月份的数据作为研究样本,采用实证分析的方法,分析人民币汇率的变动对于中国国际收支的影响。实证结果显示:长期平稳的关系存在于人民币实际有效汇率与国际收支之间,中国的汇率会导致国际收支平衡的变动。%Researchers differ in whether the fluctuations of RMB exchange rate will cause changes in China's international balance of payments Therefore, this article selects 2009 - June 2014 data as the research sample, adopts the method of empirical analysis, analyzes the change of the exchange rate for the influence of China's international balance of payments. The empirical results show long-term stable relationship exists between the RMB real effective exchange rate and balance of payments, China's exchange rate will lead to changes in the balance of payments.

  2. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choi...

  3. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choi...... behavior, as well as the debate on moving towards a cashless society....

  4. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  5. The impact of mobile payment on payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Trütsch, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of mobile payment on the adoption and use of traditional payment instruments such as cash, checks, and credit, debit and prepaid cards at the point of sale (POS). Data are from a 2012 representative survey on consumer payment choice in the United States. Using discrete-choice random utility models to simulate consumer behavior, the estimation provides two major findings. First, mobile payment does not replace physical payment cards, but is likely to substitu...

  6. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  7. 进入中国的FDI的行为变迁对国际收支的影响研究%The Research about the Impact of FDI Behavior Changes on the Chinese Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小波; 傅强

    2012-01-01

    近年来,进入中国的FDI不断从出口导向型向市场寻求型转变,快速抢占中国市场。本文通过建立差分模型,考察FDI这一行为变迁对国际收支的影响。研究表明以占领东道国市场为目的FDI将在长时期内不断削减FDI产生的净出口效应,使得东道国国际收支顺差不断减小,且随着寻求市场型FDI存量占FDI的比重不断增大,极有可能导致FDI产生的国际收支净效益转为逆差,甚至引发国际收支危机。%Recent years has seen a continuous shift from export-oriented FDI to market-seeking FDI in china in order to occupy the Chinese market.This paper introduces a simple difference model to investigate the impact of FDI behavior changes on the balance of payments.The research indicates that as HFDI increases in domestic market,the level of net exports brought by FDI will be incessantly put down and cause the decreasing of the surplus of balance of payments;what's worse,as the proportion of HDI in FDI increases,the net effect of balance of payments brought by the FDI will very likely become deficit and even lead to a balance-of-payment crisis.

  8. Balance of Payments Constraint and Economic Growth in China%国际收支约束与中国经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦武

    2011-01-01

    文章研究了国际收支约束条件下中国经济的长期均衡增长问题。文章把中国国际收支出现的长期、持续“双顺差”现象纳入研究框架中,拓展了已有文献的研究范围。通过实证分析,得到并对比检验了国际收支约束下中国经济长期增长率、Thirlwall经济增长率和中国实际经济增长率的异同,分析了其中的经济含义。最后,在对研究结论做进一步分析的基础上文章提出了相应的政策建议。%This paper studies the long-term equilibrium issue of economic growth in China under BPC conditions. It incorporates the long-term and constant double-surplus of China' s balance of payments in the analytical framework and extends current research scope.

  9. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass of us...

  10. FDI与我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差%FDI and China' s Capital and Financial Account Surplus in Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹浩华

    2012-01-01

    本文从我国引进FDI的历程及FDI的结构特点入手,深入分析了FDI对我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差的具体贡献,还从我国利用外资政策导向、受世界经济波动的影响程度、资金转移的便利性、对就业的贡献等方面,探讨了我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差主要源自FDI的机理,并提出相应的对策建议。%China has maintained double surplus pattern in balance of pay ments for 17 years since 1994 to 2010.This phenomenon is rare in the world. In the double surplus pattern in balance of payments, foreign direct investment (FDI) results in not only China' s surplus of capital and financial account direct ly, but also China' s surplus of current account indirectly through its dominant position in processing trade, so FDI plays an extremely important role in China' s double surpluses in balance of payments. This paper firstly analyzes the cours es of China' s introduction of FDI and the structural characteristics of FDI, and then analyzes the specific contribution of FDI to China' s capital and financial account surplus in balance of payments in depth. Furthermore,the paper research es the mechanism of China' s capital and financial account surplus mainly origi nating from FDI from the aspects of China' s policy concerning foreign invest ment, the influential degree of world economic fluctuations, the convenience of transferring funds and the contribution to employment. In the end, the paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Item Number)(Country of Origin) (iii) The following supplies are other foreign end products, including... definition of “domestic end product”: (Line Item Number) (Country of Origin (If known)) (End of provision...,” “component,” “domestic end product,” “Free Trade Agreement country,” “Free Trade Agreement country...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement country means Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore; (8) Free Trade Agreement country end...) Canadian end product means an article that— (i) Is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of Canada;...

  13. Analysis of the European Debt Crisis from the Point of View of International Balance Payments Adjustment%从国际收支调节看欧债危机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊昱静; 公衍照

    2013-01-01

    In view of the balance of payments (BP), the European debt crisis is caused by the lack of adjustment mechanism of balance of payments for member states in Euro Zone, which is rooted in the design defects of EMU in integration process. Before the complete integration of Euro Zone, each member state can not escape the external constraints. Improvements of the adjustment mechanisms of BP of member states must be the basic condition for the smooth process of European integrations.%从国际收支角度看,欧债危机是欧元区成员国国际收支调节机制的缺失造成的,这根源于一体化进程中欧洲经济货币联盟的设计缺陷。在欧元区完全一体化之前,各成员国的国际收支约束不会消失,完善内部成员国之间的国际收支调节机制是欧洲一体化顺利发展的基本条件。

  14. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both EN payment systems use the payment calculation base as defined in § 411.500(a)(1) or (a)(2),...

  15. Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Helme, Arne

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  16. Research on the Negative Effects and Countermeasures of Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments%我国国际收支双顺差的负面效应及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小雨

    2012-01-01

      Since 1994, China's international balance of payments has remained in double surplus and China has become the superpower of foreign exchange reserves, which has increased the difficulty of its foreign exchange management and the pressure of RMB appreciation. In addition, this situation has brought some negative effects on the effectiveness of its monetary policy and worsened the relationship between China and its trade partners. Based on detailed analysis of the negative effects of double surplus in China's international balance of payments to⁃wards its economy, this paper puts forward some countermeasures to improve the situation of its international trade surplus.%  从1994年至今,我国的国际收支双顺差的局面长期存在,这种局面带动了我国外汇储备的剧增,使得我国成为外汇储备第一大国,也使得我国的外汇管理难度增加,人民币升值压力增大,对货币政策的有效性产生负面影响,造成我国和贸易伙伴国之间的关系恶化。文章分析国际收支双顺差的长期存在对我国经济产生的负面效用,针对这些负面影响提出改善我国国际收支双顺差的相关对策。

  17. The politics of hospital payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, J; Spitz, B

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of hospital payment over the last decade. The authors explain how provider interests and judgments became a standard for appropriate hospital payment: the impact of that standard on hospital costs; and the political obstacles to imposing an alternative standard and controlling hospital costs. The authors draw lessons from this experience, here and in other countries, to propose an alternative approach to hospital payment that would allow policymakers, accountable to the public, to make explicit choices about the level and nature of hospital expenditures.

  18. 平衡计酬卡(BCC)的落地与实施--关于高校试行平衡计酬卡的思考%The implementation of BCC--think about trial balance payment CARDS in colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江燕

    2015-01-01

    The balance payment card (BCC) is a kind of compensation strategy management tool. This paper is to review the main ideas of the balanced scorecard and balance payment card, on the basis of trying to further explore the BCC and BSC in the integration of design, import, and fall to the ground.%平衡计酬卡(BCC)是一种薪酬战略管理工具。本文主要在回顾平衡计分卡和平衡计酬卡的主要思想的基础上,试图进一步探索高校内BCC与BSC的整合设计、导入及落地问题。

  19. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  20. Payment and value of care - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures and value of care displays – provider data. This data set includes provider data for the payment measures and value of care displays associated...

  1. 42 CFR 412.432 - Method of payment under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... submittal of bills to the intermediary beyond the normal billing cycle. (2) Approval of accelerated payment...-related costs for each inpatient stay following submission of a bill. (b) Periodic interim payments (PIP... payments are made based on the submission of a discharge bill and represents final payment subject to...

  2. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payment charge of 5 percent on the unpaid balance on any handler whose assessment has not been received in... rate of 11/2 percent per month shall be applied to the unpaid balance and late payment charge for the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141...

  3. 36 CFR 51.79 - May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a franchise fee or other payments? 51.79 Section 51.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property....79 May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments? The Director may not waive the concessioner's payment of a franchise fee or other payments or consideration required by...

  4. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  5. Research on Relationship between Variation in China's International Balance of Payments and Macro-economy%中国国际收支余额变化与宏观经济研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭路

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了国际收支从10%盈余到基本平衡的过程中,经济中的产出、投资、消费、就业会出现何种变化。本文发现经常账户的盈余会造成投资水平的下降,进而会影响到真实经济增长。如果我国能把国际储备转换成真实对外购买,则消费率和真实经济增长率都会得到提高。另外,人民币真实汇率年调整7%-10%对就业的影响是有限的。%This paper studies what the output,consumption,investment and employment will changes when China's international balance of payments surplus varies from 10% to 2%.This paper finds out that China's current account surplus can result in a decline in investment and economic growth..If China successfully convert international reserves into a real foreign purchase,the domestic consumption and economic growth rate will be improved.In addition,the RMB exchange rate's appreciation of 7-10% per year will bring limited impact on employment.

  6. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section... Payments to States § 457.626 Prevention of duplicate payments. (a) General rule. No payment shall be made... CFR 144.103, which is not part of, or wholly owned by, a governmental entity. Prompt payment...

  7. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  8. Relative advantage of mobile payment procedures - Mobile Payment from the perspective of the diffusion theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    An important condition of business profit in mobile commerce offers in the B2C area is the availability of wide accepted mobile payment procedures. The contribution considers mobile payment on the perspective of diffusion theory and analyses which relative advantages could arise by using mobile payment procedures.

  9. The impact of voting on tax payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ingrid; Muehlbacher, Stephan; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-02-01

    This study examines whether participating in governmental decisions influences taxpayers' cooperation. The results of experiment 1 show that participants tend to contribute more when they can vote on different rules for a public good game. Experiment 2 reveals that tax payments are lowest in a tax simulation when participants benefit from tax payments and can not vote. However, when the participants did not benefit from tax payments, voting had no impact and cooperation was about the same as when participants benefited and could vote. Furthermore, voting increases procedural fairness and trust mediates the effect of procedural fairness on tax payments.

  10. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  11. 12 CFR 226.10 - Prompt crediting of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.10 Prompt crediting of payments. (a) General... address for receiving payments, such as a post office box. (3) Nonconforming payments. If a...

  12. THE SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA - THE POTENTIAL OF CASHLESS PAYMENTS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Gabriela PALADE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single euro payments area is the natural outcome of the creation of the monetary union and the single currency adoption. This large project that aimed at standardizing and harmonizing the payments instruments, the legal framework, the business rules, etc might represent an opportunity for developing cashless payments in Romania.

  13. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expended, with the balance provided by the $50,000 milestone payment of Federal funds). For this example... administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? 37.1105 Section 37.1105 National Defense... administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? Your additional post-award...

  14. 5 CFR 843.203 - Eligibility for a one-time payment upon death of an employee, separated employee, or retiree if...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for a one-time payment upon... Payments § 843.203 Eligibility for a one-time payment upon death of an employee, separated employee, or..., the unexpended balance is payable, except as provided in section 3716 of title 31, United States...

  15. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment pla...

  16. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...

  17. 38 CFR 10.52 - Duplication of payments prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duplication of payments prohibited. 10.52 Section 10.52 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.52 Duplication of payments prohibited. Duplication of payments...

  18. Inheritance of Electronic Payment Accounts: Practice Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova EA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inheritance of electronic payment accounts (wallets, such as Yandex Money, WebMoney, and similar. In terms of safety and ease, electronic money calculation is the most promising calculation method in Internet. Payments with non-cash settlements are much more beneficial from all points of view. They greatly accelerate the payment process, simplify it, and help to reduce transaction costs. This is most clearly seen in the example, where the buyer and seller are located in a distance from each other in different countries. In development of the electronic money and online money transactions, a question occurs about the legal aspects and the rights of the heirs of the electronic payment accounts. This topic is relevant today, as almost every person every day faces in the electronic payments, but not everyone knows what they are and how they operate. The main objective of the study is to determine the legal status of the electronic payment accounts and the possibility of their inheritance by law. A lot of scientists devoted their works to the problems of studying the theoretical foundations of the electronic payment system, its place and role in the financial system, and its development. However, for the first time the legal matter of inheritance is considered from the practical aspect, wherein the novelty of the present study lays. The article concludes on the need to verify the owner of the electronic wallet for the rights of his heirs.

  19. 75 FR 81832 - Prevention of Payments to Deceased Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 707 RIN 0560-AH91 Prevention of Payments to Deceased Persons AGENCY... Farm Bill, the authority for this rule concerning prevention of improper payments to the deceased, uses... payments. The causes of erroneous payments did not appear to be fraud, because while FSA did not have...

  20. 42 CFR 411.24 - Recovery of conditional payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may initiate recovery as soon as it learns that payment has been made or could be made under workers... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of conditional payments. 411.24 Section... Limits Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.24 Recovery of conditional payments. If a...

  1. 基于平衡计分卡的第三方支付渠道评价标准研究与设计%Research and design of channel evaluation standard of the Balanced Scorecard Based on third party payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡嘉荣; 钱正浩; 马旭; 陈非; 邹小武

    2015-01-01

    借鉴平衡计分卡的理念,从服务、效益、安全、潜力四个方面出发,构建了一套基于供电企业、用电客户及第三方支付合作伙伴3个角度的第三方支付渠道的整体评价标准。综合分析某供电企业直属供电局所客观因素与实际需求,针对性的增添现有渠道和新增渠道两子项的第三方支付渠道地域适应性评价标准。%From service,efficiency,safety and potential four aspects,by refering to the balanced scorecard concept,we construct a third-party payment channel evaluation standard,based on the multi-interests among power supply company,eclectricity customers and third-party payment partners.By comprehensive analysis the objective factors and actual demand of power supply bureaus directly under the enterprise,we added"existing channels" and "new channels"two sub-terms into the third-party payment channel evaluation standard for geographic adaptability.

  2. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  3. Fraud prevention in the system of payments

    OpenAIRE

    Foglar, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with fraud perpetrated on non-cash payments. There is characterized the most common forms of non-cash payment fraud. It deals with the prevention of fraud in three main areas: financial literacy and education, law and institutions. It is a comparison of the effectiveness of these areas of prevention of fraud perpetrated on the territory of the Czech Republic and the EU for a certain period. There is also explained exactly how to prevent fraud.

  4. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions......, greatly influence the impact of direct support elimination and cause regionally different development trends. The results for the four regions were summarized in four specific storylines that emphasize how much the diversity of European regions matters for future policy decisions. An explicitly regional...

  5. 42 CFR 413.83 - Direct GME payments: Adjustment of a hospital's target amount or prospective payment hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct GME payments: Adjustment of a hospital's target amount or prospective payment hospital-specific rate. 413.83 Section 413.83 Public Health CENTERS... Direct GME payments: Adjustment of a hospital's target amount or prospective payment...

  6. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  7. FDI对我国国际收支中资本与金融项目影响的实证分析——基于VAR模型下的1982~2008年的时间序列数据%Empirical Analysis on the Effect of FDI on Capital and Financial Account of China's International Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 谢家智

    2011-01-01

    In this article, firstly,we use the ADF test of stationarity of the time series data from 1982 to 2008 to get the data first-order smooth. According to Cointegration Test ,we find that foreign direct investment and international capital and financial account balance of payments exists the stable cointegration relationship in longterm and long term foreign direct investment inflows on the capital and financial account generates positive effect. Finally, by the establishment of error correction model, we find that when the difference between the capital and financial account balance deviates from the long-run equilibrium, after adjustment it would move towards its longrun equilibrium faster.Through the capital and financial account, FDI keeps China's inner structure of international balance of payments steady in general.The influence of FDI on China's international balance of payments has become more important.%本文应用1982年到2008年的时间序列数据,先利用ADF检验该数据的平稳性得到数据时一阶平稳的。在通过协整检验发现外商直接投资和国际收支中资本与金融项目存在长期稳定的协整关系,且长期内外商直接投资的流入对资本与金融项目产生正效应。最后建立误差修正模型,发现当资本与金融项目差额偏离长期均衡时,经过调整其趋向长期均衡的速度较快。FDI通过资本与金融项目影响了我国国际收支的总体平和内部结构,FDI已经成为影响我国国际收支平衡的重要因素。

  8. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  9. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rehabilitation facility's preparation and submittal of bills to the intermediary beyond its normal billing cycle... costs for each discharge only following submission of a discharge bill. (b) Periodic interim payments—(1... outlier payments are made based on the submission of a discharge bill and represent final payment....

  10. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  11. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  12. 48 CFR 3452.242-72 - Withholding of contract payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause in all solicitations and contacts other than purchase orders: Withholding of Contract Payments... shall promptly notify the contractor of its intention to withhold payment of any invoice or...

  13. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (insofar as reasonable) charges of the CAH for the services. (l) Amount of payment: Flu vaccine. Medicare... reasonable charge. (h) Amount of payment: Pneumococcal vaccine. Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  14. The Postponement of Retirement Age and Payment Balance of Pension Plan: Mechanisms and Policy Effects%延迟退休年龄与养老保险收支余额:作用机制及政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熠

    2011-01-01

    文章通过连续时间养老金收支模型分析认为延迟退休年龄对养老保险计划收支余额的影响来自四个方面的效应,即缴费年限效应、领取年限效应、替代率效应和差异效应。改革的最终效果是上述四种效应共同作用的结果。短期看,前两种效应占据主导;长期看,后两种效应也具有显著影响。延迟退休年龄的政策效果和工资增长率、养老金增长率、改革速度以及未来参保人口结构有关。理论分析和实证检验结果表明,无论从改革过程还是从对养老保险计划收支余额的影响看,延迟退休年龄都是一个复杂而渐进的过程,延迟退休年龄必将减轻政府在养老保险方面负担的传统说法%By the analysis of a continuous-time model of pension payments, this paper considers that the effects of the postponement of retirement age on the payment balance of pension plan stem from payment period effect, obtainment period effect, substitution rati

  15. 48 CFR 225.7500 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7500 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policies and procedures implementing the Balance of Payments Program....

  16. The factors affecting the use of contactless payments

    OpenAIRE

    Luomala, Roope

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology has become a significant part of our everyday life. The technology develops rapidly and in the past few years numerous of companies have made payments possible trough mobile equipments. The most used technology for conducting such a payments is called near field communication (NFC), which enables fast and convenient payments using countless of different instruments for paying. The objective of this research is to shed light on the use of contactless payments via NFC. To ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6654-5 - Payments of estimated tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated tax. 1.6654-5 Section 1... Payments of estimated tax. (a) In general. A payment of estimated tax by an individual shall be determined on Form 1040-ES. For the purpose of determining the estimated tax, the amount of gross income...

  18. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports......This study presents a model for studying the innovative capabilities of digital payment platforms in regards to open innovation integration and commercialization. We perceive digital platforms as layered modular IT artifacts, where platform governance and the configuration of platform layers impact...... the intended conjoint commercialization efforts. Furthermore, the architectural design of digital platforms impacts the access to commercialization, resulting to an exclusion or inclusion strategy in accessing value opportunities. Our findings contribute to the open innovation and digital platform literature...

  19. 42 CFR 431.960 - Types of payment errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of payment errors. 431.960 Section 431.960... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.960 Types of payment errors. (a) General rule. State... (d)(4) of this section. (g) Error codes. CMS may define different types of errors within the...

  20. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  1. 20 CFR 410.585 - Conservation and investment of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and investment of payments. 410... investment of payments. Payments certified to a relative or other person on behalf of a beneficiary which are....587, shall be conserved or invested on the beneficiary's behalf. Preferred investments are...

  2. 7 CFR 1400.105 - Attribution of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) A payment made directly to a person or legal entity will be combined with the pro rata interest... reduced by the pro rata share of the person or legal entity. (b) A payment made to a legal entity will be... payment of the legal entity has been reduced by the pro rata share of the person. (c) Attribution...

  3. 48 CFR 32.503-2 - Supervision of progress payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of progress... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.503-2 Supervision of progress payments. (a) The extent of progress payments supervision, by prepayment review...

  4. Valuation of Interest Payment Guarantees on Developing Country Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Borensztein; George Pennacchi

    1990-01-01

    The cost of interest payment guarantees is difficult to evaluate because guarantees are a contingent obligation that become effective only if a certain condition is met (that is, the debtor fails to make a certain payment). In this paper a technique to value interest payment guarantees on developing country debt is developed and preliminary estimates are presented. Using results from option pricing theory, the market price that an interest payment guarantee would have if it were traded in fin...

  5. 5 CFR 890.904 - Determination of FEHB benefit payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of FEHB benefit payment... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.904 Determination of FEHB benefit payment....

  6. 慢性疾病医保患者个人支付及统筹支付费用影响因素分析%Analysis of Individual and Balanced Fund Payment Insured Inpatient with Chronic Disease and the Influence Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚董; 方娴; 买买提·牙森

    2011-01-01

    The key research is the insured inpatients' medical expense and their individual payment in two third level comprehensive hospitals, to analyze the influencing factors, and to explore the way and method of controlling health insurance expense. It is suggested to pay attention to the elders, who are patients with chronic disease. The controllable factors, which influence insured inpatients' medical expense, and personal and balanced payment, should be managed strictly to promote the converse of uncontrollable factors and to reduce and eradicate ineffecient or invalid medical costs.%调查2所三级甲等综合医院5种慢性疾病医保患者住院费用中的个人支付和统筹支付费用构成情况,分析影响医保患者住院费用的因素,探究控制医保患者住院费用增长的途径和方法.关注老年人的健康需求和慢性病年轻化趋,对影响医保患者住院医疗费用和个人、统筹支付费用的可控因素加以严格管理,积极促进非可控因素的转化,减少或杜绝低效或无效性医疗费用.

  7. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  8. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  9. Cash flow balanced project scheduling optimization based on different payment conditions%基于不同支付条件的现金流均衡项目调度优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正文; 刘人境; 徐渝

    2011-01-01

    以现金流均衡为目标,研究不同支付条件下的项目调度问题.在对所研究问题进行界定的基础上,构建了基于里程碑事件支付条件的优化模型,并将其扩展为基于累计时间、累计挣值和累计费用等支付条件的优化模型;针对问题的强NP-hard属性,设计禁忌搜索启发式算法;在随机生成的标准算例集合上对算法进行测试,并与其他两种启发式算法进行比较;最后用一个算例对研究进行说明,比较分析支付条件对承包商现金流均衡目标的影响.研究结论如下:不同支付条件下的现金流均衡结果差异显著,随着支付次数、支付比例和项目截止日期的增大,承包商更易实现现金流出与流入的均衡.%Taking cash flow balance as the objective, this paper studies the project scheduling problem under different payment conditions. Based on the identification of the studied problem, the authors construct the optimization model under the milestone event payment condition and then extend it to the cumulative time, cumulative earned value, and cumulative expense payment conditions. Because of the strong NP-hardness of the problem, a tabu search heuristic algorithm is developed. The algorithm is tested and compared with other two heuristic algorithms on a data set generated randomly. Ultimately, an example is used to illustrate the method and the influences of the payment conditions on the objective of cash flow balance are analyzed. The conclusions are as follows; Payment conditions may exert an important influence on cash flow balance, and with the increase of payment number, payment proportion, and project deadline, it becomes easier for contractor to balance cash outflows and inflows.

  10. The Reality of Electronic Payments in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Amie Esezobor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria wants its financial system to operate like in the developed economies of the world so that come year 2020, it will be seen and recognized as one of the leading economies in the world. To achieve this lofty target, the payment system was directed by fiat by the apex bank, Central Bank of Nigeria to be by electronic methods so that the system of paying cash for virtually every purchase will now give way to electronic payment. Lagos State was selected as a pilot study for five other states in the country to join 1st July, 2013. There are far-reaching implications for a country with a mammoth population of 140 million people; the majority of whom are not aware of the new payment direction. This research aimed therefore to find out how prepared and willing Nigerians are in embracing electronic payments system. I found out at the end of the study, that Nigerians were not impressed with the cashless policy and the attempt to introduce N5,000 cash note along with a repackaging of new coins to replace the existing lower denominations of cash in notes. Rather, they want policy makers and the government to address the grave insecurity to life and property in the land and provide stable electricity and water supply.

  11. An Analysis of the Mobile Payment Problem in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile payment is crucial for, but not limited to mobile commerce. But a role as an established payment system still seems to be a distant prospect for it. In this paper we examine the basic conditions to mobile payment with special regard to the European market. Based on this, we analyze the current deadlock on the mobile payment market in order to develop a set of requirements to an integrative solution in the form of a Universal Mobile Payment System (UMPS). Finally, applications and const...

  12. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack,...

  13. Electronic payments using payment cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, B.D. van der; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a mobile communication device (1) and a payment card (2), both the mobile communication device (1) and the payment card (2) being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least the mobile communication device (1) being provided with a

  14. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  15. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... working capital, the Grants Officer may authorize payment on a working capital advance basis. Under this..., payments shall be provided by reimbursing the recipient for its actual cash disbursements. The working... account would not be expected to earn interest in excess of $250 per year on Federal cash balances....

  16. 5 CFR 1650.13 - Monthly payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly payment amount calculated based on life expectancy. Payments based on life expectancy are determined using the factors set forth in the Internal Revenue Service life expectancy tables codified at 26... balance by the factor from the IRS life expectancy tables based upon the participant's age as of his...

  17. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment—the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model—would approach this issue. The...

  18. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  19. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  20. The determining trends of the retail payment market

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Christian; Pettersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The retail payment market can be seen as a high velocity market, where the rate of change is high. The future for the retail payment market is uncertain to a large extent. A relatively new phenomenon is the entrance of third party payment providers (hereafter; TPP) who are utilizing the incumbent banks account infrastructure in order access information or initiate payments. A legislation named PSD2 will increase the TPP’s possibilities to utilize the bank’s infrastructure. This makes it possi...

  1. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  2. THE PAYMENT SERVICES; KEY ELEMENTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROVIDER AND THE USER OF THE PAYMENT SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana Apan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study identifies and develops in an in exhaustive manner the key elements of the relationship between the provider and the user of payment services, which represent serious obligations for the payment service providers. We have also analyzed the perspectives of disputes generated by the payment service users’ non-compliance with the components that are subsequent to each of the key elements developed in the present study. The purposed of the study is towards constituting a Codex for the payment service providers which should constitute a work instrument for both the providers and the consumers.

  3. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  4. Analysis on the Balance of Financing and Payment in Basic Medical Insurance-based on the practice of Guangyuan%基本医保待遇支付与筹资平衡实证分析--基于广元市的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔发金

    2016-01-01

    我国经济发展进入新常态,医保面临降低费率与预防赤字的双重压力,广元建立稳定可持续的筹资机制、待遇水平调整机制和医保监督管理机制,实现了基本医保待遇支付与筹资平衡,排除了医保基金收支风险,医疗保险处于健康、可持续的平稳运行状态。%As Chinese economy has developed into a new condition, medical insurance is facing double pressure of reduced insurance rates and avoiding deficits. In Guangyuan, we have established stable and sustainable financing mechanism, treatment adjusting mechanism, and health insurance supervision and administration mechanism. As a result, we have achieved the goal of the balance in basic medical insurance payment and financing, and overcome the risk of imbalance in insurance fund, which made the medical insurance in a healthy, sustainable and stable status.

  5. Incentives at the counter: An empirical analysis of surcharging card payment and payment behaviour in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; Nicole Jonker; Corry van Renselaar

    2008-01-01

    In card payment systems, no-surcharge rules prohibit merchants from charging consumers extra for card payments. However, Dutch retailers are allowed to surcharge consumers for their debit card use. This allows an empirical analysis of the impact of surcharging on the demand for debit card services, and the effect of removing the no-surcharge rule on card acceptance by retailers and on consumer payment choice. Based on consumer and retailer survey data, our analysis shows that surcharging stee...

  6. 42 CFR 57.2208 - Payment of scholarship grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of scholarship grant. 57.2208 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2208 Payment of scholarship grant. The portion of a scholarship...

  7. 49 CFR 24.3 - No duplication of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No duplication of payments. 24.3 Section 24.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS General § 24.3 No duplication of payments. No...

  8. 31 CFR 103.77 - Payment of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of expenses. 103.77 Section 103.77 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Summons § 103.77 Payment of expenses....

  9. 9 CFR 50.21 - Schedule of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reverse osmosis plant, at 90-day intervals. The first payment will be made no earlier than 30 days after... make payment for reimbursement of relocation expenses of the reverse osmosis plant within 30 days after....21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer...

  11. 42 CFR 57.309 - Payment of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of nursing student loans. 57.309 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.309 Payment of nursing student loans. (a) Nursing student loans from any fund may be paid...

  12. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  13. 7 CFR 1205.518 - Receipts for payment of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1205.518 Receipts for payment of... receipt showing payment of cotton research and promotion assessments shall provide the producer with an... assessment was paid. (e) Gross price per pound received by the producer. (f) Total assessments paid by...

  14. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment only: (1) At the beginning of an ordinary school year; or (2) At the beginning of any other....C. 3680(g)) (g) Payments for courses which are repeated. VA may pay subsistence allowance to a veteran who repeats a course under conditions described in § 21.132. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3680(a))...

  15. 32 CFR 732.22 - Recovery of medical care payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of medical care payments. 732.22... NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.22 Recovery of medical... possible under workers compensation, no-fault insurance, or under medical payments insurance...

  16. 47 CFR 90.807 - Submission of upfront payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of upfront payments. 90.807 Section... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 900 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.807 Submission of upfront payments. Each bidder in the 900 MHz SMR auction will...

  17. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  18. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment pla...

  19. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12 Section 240.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use...

  20. The Ethics of Payment for Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES is an economic tool that has emerged in recent years as a mechanism to promote conservation of natural resources, as well as that of various goods and services commonly used. However, its application in practice raises a number of ethical concerns that this study seeks to discuss. The concept and benefits of PES are discussed, emphasizing its neoclassical economic nature background and how the initial anthropogenic position has evolved into a more holistic ecosystem vision. The paper examines some of the relationships between ethics and ecosystem services as well as the natural conflicts emerging from the opposition of utilitarian economic values versus moral arguments and deontological ethical systems. Then, a justification for ethics in payment for ecosystem services is provided as an attempt to solve perceived conflicts between conservation and human welfare. Later, the right to benefit from natural resources and PES is discussed. The conflict between natural resources as public goods whose use is a universal right for all human beings and the property rights, either legal or ancestral, of indigenous and originary people is stressed. Finally, the future of ethics and ecosystem services on issues such as the well-being of future generations and the search of an efficient integration based on land planning and conservation management strategies is discussed. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for a better, integrated accounting of the benefits and costs of nature conservation, which will probably only occur when teams of natural and social scientists work together.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6315-1 - Payments of estimated income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated income tax. 301.6315-1... Payments of estimated income tax. The payment of any installment of the estimated income tax (see sections... the estimate is made. The aggregate amount of the payments of estimated tax should be entered upon...

  2. 41 CFR 302-14.2 - What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Payment of Incentive to the Employee § 302-14.2 What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment? The purpose of a home marketing incentive payment is to reduce the Government's... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1157 - Payment of charges for regulatory fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may be cancelled. (d) Any Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS) licensee subject to payment of an... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of charges for regulatory fees. 1.1157... of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1157 Payment of charges for regulatory...

  4. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  5. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... delay in the hospital's preparation and submittal of bills to the intermediary beyond its normal billing... discharge bill. (b) Periodic interim payments—(1) Criteria for receiving periodic interim payments. (i) A... admitted to the hospital. Payment for the interim bill is determined as if the bill were a final...

  6. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20... Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. An... for payment when dairy products are contaminated by chemicals, toxic substances (other than...

  7. 5 CFR 838.734 - Payment of lump-sum awards by survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of lump-sum awards by survivor... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Payment Procedures § 838.734 Payment of lump-sum awards by survivor annuity. OPM will not honor court orders awarding lump-sum payments (other than the...

  8. 42 CFR 431.865 - Disallowance of Federal financial participation for erroneous State payments (for annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... National mean error rate means the payment weighted average of the eligibility payment error rates for all States. National standard means a 3-percent eligibility payment error rate. State payment error rate... national mean error rate is at or below the 3-percent national standard). If the agency has met......

  9. Analysis of Applicability of ISO 9564 PIN based Authentication to Closed-Loop Mobile Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Saha; Sugata Sanyal

    2014-01-01

    Payment transactions initiated through a mobile device are growing and security concerns must be addressed. People coming from payment card industry often talk passionately about porting ISO 9564 PIN standard based authentication in open-loop card payment to closed-loop mobile financial transactions and certification of closed-loop payment product or solution against this standard. In reality, so far this standard has not been adopted in closed-loop mobile payment authentication and applicabi...

  10. Value Added Services and Adoption of Mobile Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from ex...... that intention to adopt mobile payments increases as VAS are introduced and that this increase comes from a positive change in Perceived Usefulness, compatibility, and Convenience.......In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... existing literature and empirically tested through an experimental design survey, in which the experimental group is exposed to a mobile payment solution with VAS, including receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons, and the control group is exposed to a mobile payment solution without VAS. Our findings show...

  11. Prediction Model of Dividend Payment of Czech Joint Stock Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sejkora František

    2016-01-01

    The dividend payment is the very important part of investment decision for many stockholders. Results of this text identify finance factors that influence the management in dividend policy within the examined branch “Production and distribution of electric energy, gas and water”. Seven regressive models were created and they identify and define the effect of individual factors on the dividend payment among individual owner’s types. The retained earnings, the rate of return of invested assets ...

  12. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  13. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies tho...

  14. Non-tangible methods of payment and monetary theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CESARANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a strong interest in the topic of monetary standards has developed in two distinct fields of investigation: monetary policy and innovation in the payments system. In the latter, the developments stem from the concrete possibility of creating payment systems that do away with physical or tangible means of payment entirely. In this case, changes in the institutional framework provoke new perspectives in monetary analysis with regard to various themes: the organisational form of the system, the relationships between the functions of money, the minimum requirements of a monetary system, the means of implementing an optimal monetary policy, the theory of the bank, etc. The present work discusses some aspects of particular importance with regard to these issues. After describing the essential components of innovation in the payments system, the author identifies some critical points that have yet to be clarified by the recent literature.

  15. Interim Study of Alternative Payment Localities under the...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare is statutorily required to adjust payments for physician fee schedule services to account for differences in costs due to geographic location. There are...

  16. 5 CFR 837.304 - Agency liability for payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency liability for payments. 837.304... payments. (a) The agency will remit funds properly withheld from the pay of a reemployed annuitant in... balance due in the case of a partial deduction) to OPM in the manner prescribed for the transmission...

  17. Accelerating the Payment of PACE Assessments By Mark Zimring and Merrian Fulle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2010-05-04

    The 'acceleration' of land-secured assessments allows municipalities to declare the entire value (not just the late payments) of a property owner's outstanding balance payable if a default occurs. State laws vary on whether acceleration is required, permitted, or prohibited. Acceleration can be attractive to bond investors because it strips out non-performing assessments, and may avoid delays in debt service payments to investors. The risk that non-acceleration will negatively impact bond investors is a particular issue in states without a process for rapidly resolving defaults. However, acceleration may also increase the risk to mortgage holders, as the full amount of the outstanding assessment becomes due and traditionally has priority over other lien holders. Acceleration also places a greater burden on the property owner.

  18. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  19. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique......Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...

  20. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  1. In-Application Payment from Mobile Apps : A study of In-App Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Jøran Christiansen; Hanssen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate and compare existing serviceproviders of in-app payment solutions and their APIs, and then concludewhat would be the best choice for hobby developers when deciding on whatservice provider to use for their application.We gained hands-on experience by developing a simple Quiz game appthat featured the implementation of in-app purchase. We took a look atthe major service providers; Apple, Google, PayPal and Windows to getrelevant information and eva...

  2. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  3. 19 CFR 181.51 - Prevention of improper payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of improper payment of claims. 181.51 Section 181.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...-Deferral Programs § 181.51 Prevention of improper payment of claims. (a) Double payment of claim....

  4. 77 FR 20122 - Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards AGENCY: Financial... ``Voucher for Payment of Awards.'' DATES: Written comments should be received on or before June 4, 2012... Service solicits comments on the collection of information described below: Title: Voucher for Payment...

  5. 77 FR 5229 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or... Payment Program. Announcement Type: Annual announcement. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number..., 2012. F. Type of instrument. Payment. III. Eligibility Information A. Eligible applicants. To...

  6. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  7. The evolution of the payments system: A theoretical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GIANNINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the payments system is vitally important for exchange, its interest among economists has fallen over the past fifty years. This has become especially apparent over the last decade, in the face of large-scale phenomena of innovation, such as the application of electronic technologies for the transmission of money, the emergence of new payment services and the rapid spread of commercial credit. While some reports in recent years have accumulated a large amount of statistical information on these phenomena, there are still considerable uncertainties about their future developments and their implications. The present work aims to integrate the literature with an analysis of the logical foundations of the payments system, in order to identify theoretical points of reference in order to interpret the empirical-institutional evidence contained in the official reports.

  8. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the regulatory environment and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature of the mobile phone, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established structure into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure......The payment field is being rapidly transformed. New players have emerged and are threatening the well-established positions of the incumbents. This process is driven by technology change and market forces, and it is shaped by the increasing role of the regulator. When considering the change....... The model captures the formation and development of the digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s and innovator’s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change which are followed by short and rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage...

  9. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  10. A competitive multi-agent model of interbank payment systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galbiati, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We develop a dynamic multi-agent model of an interbank payment system where banks choose their level of available funds on the basis of private payoff maximisation. The model consists of the repetition of a simultaneous move stage game with incomplete information, incomplete monitoring, and stochastic payoffs. Adaptation takes place with bayesian updating, with banks maximizing immediate payoffs. We carry out numerical simulations to solve the model and investigate two special scenarios: an operational incident and exogenous throughput guidelines for payment submission. We find that the demand for intraday credit is an S-shaped function of the cost ratio between intraday credit costs and the costs associated with delaying payments. We also find that the demand for liquidity is increased both under operational incidents and in the presence of effective throughput guidelines.

  11. Evidence of range bias in contingent valuation payment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K; Wolstenholme, Jane L; Frew, Emma

    2004-02-01

    The payment scale format has been widely used in willingness-to-pay studies in health care. Concerns have been expressed that the format is, in theory, prone to range bias, although this proposition has not been tested directly. We report the findings of a contingent valuation questionnaire study of colorectal cancer screening, wherein different subjects were provided with payment scales of two different lengths. Whilst the long-scale instrument included scale values up to pound 1000, the short-scale version extended only to pound 100. After controlling for inter-sample differences in, for example, income, education and health behaviour, it emerged that the long-scale instrument produced a mean willingness to pay more than 30% higher than that resulting from the short-scale version. We believe our findings to be strongly supportive of the likelihood of range bias in payment-scale instruments, with important consequences for the estimation of both average valuation and consumer surplus.

  12. 19 CFR 4.23 - Certificate of payment and cash receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of payment and cash receipt. 4.23... Certificate of payment and cash receipt. Upon each payment of tonnage tax or light money, the master of the vessel shall be given a certificate on Customs Form 1002 on which the control number of the cash...

  13. 17 CFR 201.601 - Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. 201.601 Section 201.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 201.601 Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. (a) Timing of payments....

  14. 20 CFR 663.840 - How is the level of needs-related payments determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the level of needs-related payments determined? 663.840 Section 663.840 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Services § 663.840 How is the level of needs-related payments determined? (a) The payment level for...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.11 - Application of payments on real estate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Application of payments on real estate accounts. 1951... Servicing Policies § 1951.11 Application of payments on real estate accounts. (a) Regular payments. If a borrower owes more than one type of real estate loan, or has received initial and subsequent real...

  16. 42 CFR 418.308 - Limitation on the amount of hospice payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on the amount of hospice payments. 418... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.308 Limitation on the amount of hospice payments. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  17. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the... notice also lists the following information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution...

  18. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  19. 45 CFR 234.11 - Assistance in the form of money payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assistance in the form of money payments. 234.11... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.11 Assistance in the form of money payments. (a) Federal financial participation is available in money payments made under a State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of...

  20. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal p...

  1. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... rata MIP shall not be due or payable where the mortgagee notifies the Commissioner that foreclosure...

  2. 31 CFR 315.75 - Payment or reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate. 315.75 Section 315.75 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Fiduciaries § 315.75 Payment or reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate. (a) Payment or...

  3. 42 CFR 413.196 - Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413... payment system described in § 413.220 by the ESRD bundled market basket percentage increase factor....

  4. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460)....

  5. 75 FR 41509 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; LOCCS Voice Response System Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... System Payment Vouchers for Public and Indian Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... Payment Vouchers for Public and Indian Housing Programs. OMB Control Number: 2577-0166. Agency form number... voice activated system. The information collected on the payment voucher will also be used as...

  6. 34 CFR 691.76 - Frequency of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of payment. 691.76 Section 691.76 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  7. Bundled Payment in Total Joint Care: Survey of AAHKS Membership Attitudes and Experience with Alternative Payment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Atul F; Courtney, Paul M; Bozic, Kevin J; Mehta, Samir; Parsley, Brian S; Froimson, Mark I

    2015-12-01

    The goal of alternative payment models (APMs), particularly bundling of payments in total joint arthroplasty (TJA), is to incentivize physicians, hospitals, and payers to deliver quality care at lower cost. To study the effect of APMs on the field of adult reconstruction, we conducted a survey of AAHKS members using an electronic questionnaire format. Of the respondents, 61% are planning to or participate in an APM. 45% of respondents feel that a bundled payment system will be the most effective model to improve quality and to reduce costs. Common concerns were disincentives to operate on high-risk patients (94%) and uncertainty about revenue sharing (79%). While many members feel that APMs may improve value in TJA, surgeons continue to have reservations about implementation.

  8. 38 CFR 9.5 - Payment of proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., discounted to the date of his or her death at the same rate used for inclusion of interest in the computation... remain unpaid will be discounted to the date of payment at the same rate used for inclusion of interest... is extended due to total disability converts the group insurance to an individual policy which...

  9. 31 CFR 309.11 - Tenders; payment of accepted tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS... the Public Debt in cash or other immediately available funds on or before the date specified, except... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; payment of accepted...

  10. 42 CFR 433.139 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the amount of liability. The establishment of third party liability takes place when the agency...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Third Party Liability § 433.139 Payment of claims. (a) Basic provisions. (1) For claims involving third party liability that are processed on or...

  11. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially...

  12. 41 CFR 105-60.305-9 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of payment. 105-60.305-9 Section 105-60.305-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 60-PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS AND INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 60.3-Availability of...

  13. 41 CFR 105-60.305-7 - Assurance of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance of payment. 105-60.305-7 Section 105-60.305-7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 60-PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS AND INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 60.3-Availability of...

  14. 7 CFR 505.6 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (NTIS) of the United States Department of Commerce. The NAL encourages users to establish deposit accounts with NTIS. Payment for services will be made by check, money order or credit card in U.S. funds directly to the NTIS upon receipt of invoice from NTIS. Subject to a reduction for the actual costs...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.513 - Payment of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... marketing season or at the end of each fiscal period if such handler markets potatoes on a year-round basis... the more practical method of payment. (ii) Persons using such procedure shall provide a final...

  16. Impact of the Transition to ICD-10 on Medicare Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Although the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10 version of MS-DRGs resulted in 1.68 percent of the patients being assigned to a different MS-DRG, payment...

  17. 29 CFR 778.106 - Time of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION The Overtime Pay Requirements Introductory § 778.106 Time of payment. There is no requirement in the Act that overtime compensation be...

  18. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  19. 37 CFR 2.207 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cancel the credit until collection is made. Checks and money orders must be made payable to the Director... by mail will be at the risk of the sender, and letters containing money should be registered with the... credit card, except for replenishing a deposit account. Payment of a fee by credit card must specify...

  20. 37 CFR 1.23 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service money order. If sent in any other form, the Office may delay or cancel the credit until... risk of the sender, and letters containing money should be registered with the United States Postal... made by credit card, except for replenishing a deposit account. Payment of a fee by credit card...

  1. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  2. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  3. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  4. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  5. 5 CFR 591.403 - Amount of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIFFERENTIALS Separate Maintenance Allowance for Duty at Johnston Island § 591.403 Amount of payment. (a) The... location other than Johnston Island. (b) The annual rates for the separate maintenance allowance paid to employees assigned to Johnston Island shall be the same as the annual rates for the separate...

  6. 29 CFR 4901.33 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... made in cash, by U.S. postal money order, or by check payable to the PBGC. Postage stamps will not be accepted in lieu of cash, checks, or money orders as payment for fees specified in the schedule. Cash... date a bill is sent to a requester. Interest will be assessed at the rate prescribed in 31 U.S.C....

  7. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a) Electronic funds transfer. If the dealer pays any other excise taxes collected by TTB by electronic...

  8. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employs any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker must pay the wages owed such worker when due. In... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment...

  9. 5 CFR 550.905 - Payment of hazard pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of hazard pay differential. 550... hazard pay differential. (a) When an employee performs duty for which a hazard pay differential is authorized, the agency must pay the hazard pay differential for the hours in a pay status on the day...

  10. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector.

  11. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  12. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  13. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  14. Medicaid Program; The Use of New or Increased Pass-Through Payments in Medicaid Managed Care Delivery Systems. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    This rule finalizes changes to the pass-through payment transition periods and the maximum amount of pass-through payments permitted annually during the transition periods under Medicaid managed care contract(s) and rate certification(s). This final rule prevents increases in pass-through payments and the addition of new pass-through payments beyond those in place when the pass-through payment transition periods were established, in the final Medicaid managed care regulations effective July 5, 2016.

  15. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  16. 76 FR 3502 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ..., wine, beer, tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, and also reissues temporary regulations... of distilled spirits, wine, beer, tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. TTB's... method for payment of the applicable excise taxes. See 26 U.S.C. 5061 pertaining to distilled...

  17. PAYMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICE FOR CARBON CREDITS FROM ITALIAN OLIVE GROVES. SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE MODE OF PAYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coderoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, olive farming is one of the most interesting examples of carbon sink in agricultural soils. The olive agro-ecosystems can in fact ensure effective action in CO2 fixation encouraging the process of carbon storage on the organic matter of the soil. Starting from the assumption that a different and more “carbon oriented” management of Italian olive groves system could represent a promising way to increase the carbon stored in agricultural land, this paper explores the possibility to implement a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES scheme to increase the provision of carbon sink by olive groves. The analysis focuses on the definition of the sealable ecosystem service, according to the actual policy framework and on the mode of payment that could be established. Results, suggest that an output-based payment, though more environmentally efficient, could not be enough to incentivise farmers to join the PES, as the payment per hectare might be lower using this approach.

  18. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  19. 75 FR 49821 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Taxation (JCT) technical explanation, a central organization is a third party settlement organization that... concern, Form 1099-K, ``Merchant Card and Third Party Payments,'' will include the identifying information...'s copy of Form 1099-K will describe the entities that are shown on the form. Participating...

  20. Architecture of a Mediation System for Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutahar Jaouad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of our daily. Exceeding the role of a communication apparatus, and benefitting from the evolution of technology, it could be used for several uses other than telephony, energy of photography, the geolocation, until the control of the health condition and the quality of the air, by measuring the cardiac pulsations, the temperature and the ambient content water. In this context, financial institutions wishing to take advantage of this wave of technological change and taking advantage of the telecom infrastructure robust and secure existing began to innovate to offer a new range of payment services based on mobile phone. Thus, in this article we present a proposal for an implementation of a mediation system of payment per mobile based on the technology of the Webservices.

  1. 5 CFR 847.702 - Lump-sum payments and refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lump-sum payments and refunds. 847.702... payments and refunds. (a) Employee contributions with interest which are transferred to the Fund under subpart E of this part are included in any lump-sum credit or unexpended balance payable to the...

  2. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  3. Application Neutrality and a Paradox of Side Payments

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Kesidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate over "net neutrality" covers a broad set of issues related to the regulation of public networks. This paper contains two separate contributions: (a) an extension of the quadratic-utility framework we proposed in a previous paper to study the impact of side payments in a system involving pluralities of access and content providers; and (b) a variation of this model to deal with the question of application neutrality. Our analysis of the generalized framework (a) reveals an interesting "paradox" that did not occur with monopolistic players: side payments handicap the providers who perceive them. Application neutrality (b) refers to price discrimination: ISPs charging consumers different fees depending on their use of the network (web surfing, VoIP, file sharing, etc.). We analyze the consequences of such discrimination for a simple two-application setting.

  4. How different types of participant payments alter task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers typically use incentives (such as money or course credit in order to obtain participants who engage in the specific behaviors of interest to the researcher. There is, however, little understanding or agreement on the effects of different types and levels of incentives used. Some results in the domain of statistical reasoning suggest that performance differences --- previously deemed theoretically important --- may actually be due to differences in incentive types across studies. 704 participants completed one of five variants of a statistical reasoning task, for which they received either course credit, flat fee payment, or performance-based payment incentives. Successful task completion was more frequent with performance-based incentives than with either of the other incentive types. Performance on moderately difficult tasks (compared to very easy and very hard tasks was most sensitive to incentives. These results can help resolve existing debates about inconsistent findings, guide more accurate comparisons across studies, and be applied beyond research settings.

  5. Application of Benford's Law in Payment Systems Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Žgela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems auditing activities are mandatory in today business environments. There are numerous useful methods that can be conducted in such audits. One of contemporary methods is application of so-called Benford's Law. In this paper we examine ways of application of this law in investigation of certain number set with aim to make a conclusion if number set conforms to Benford's Law. As an examination target we used foreign payment system messages which are issued between foreign and domestic business entities i.e. commercial and central banks. We chose sample of 1.745.311 transactions and conducted examination for first, second and first two digits. We examine certain data subsets, created according to certain payment types, and investigate how Benford’s Law tests can be used in auditing. We also compare practical usefulness and note differences between various conformity tests in auditing environment. Results we achieved prove adequate potential of this law in audit practice.

  6. Role of Data Mining in E-Payment systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanaik, Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Data Mining deals extracting hidden knowledge, unexpected pattern and new rules from large database. Various customized data mining tools have been developed for domain specific applications such as Biomedicine, DNA analysis and telecommunication. Trends in data mining include further efforts towards the exploration of new application areas and methods for handling complex data types, algorithm scalability, constraint based data mining and visualization methods. In this paper we will present domain specific Secure Multiparty computation technique and applications. Data mining has matured as a field of basic and applied research in computer science in general. In this paper, we survey some of the recent approaches and architectures where data mining has been applied in the fields of e-payment systems. In this paper we limit our discussion to data mining in the context of e-payment systems. We also mention a few directions for further work in this domain, based on the survey.

  7. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  8. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict.

  9. Implementation of Electronic Funds Transfer for Transportation Vendor Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    mm , to De m n of IZene C.t= = M.DA9 -. Q-0139 .d MDA9 .-90-C000. The vimw ressed here am, Logstics =agement m e a -h m e of issue but not...method is the use of a "lockbox" by the seller (see Figure A-2). The seller pays a fee for a bank to receive and process its inbound payments. Since

  10. Effectiveness of Cross-Bord er Corporate Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Goldmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At the age of cutthroat global competition and razor thin Internet-transparent margins, corporate cash management is one of just a few remaining sources of increased profitability. Efficient cash management allows for substantial cost reduction and improved corporate Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC. The companies that neglect to pay sufficient attention to their security, privacy and payment fraud issues might find themselves disappearing literarily overnight

  11. Effects of payment reform in more versus less competitive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Alpert, Abby; Barnes, Kayleigh; Huckfeldt, Peter; Escarce, José J

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in reducing healthcare costs and inefficiencies through innovative payment strategies. These strategies may have heterogeneous impacts across geographic areas, potentially reducing or exacerbating geographic variation in healthcare spending. In this paper, we exploit a major payment reform for home health care to examine whether reductions in reimbursement lead to differential changes in treatment intensity and provider costs depending on the level of competition in a market. Using Medicare claims, we find that while providers in more competitive markets had higher average costs in the pre-reform period, these markets experienced larger proportional reductions in treatment intensity and costs after the reform relative to less competitive markets. This led to a convergence in spending across geographic areas. We find that much of the reduction in provider costs is driven by greater exit of "high-cost" providers in more competitive markets.

  12. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Thanuja Ramachandra; James Olabode Rotimi

    2011-01-01

    Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but n...

  13. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they are finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard conditions

  14. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they could be finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard

  15. Optimal Financing Order Decisions of a Supply Chain under the Retailer's Delayed Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real supply chain, a capital-constrained retailer has two typical payment choices: the up-front payment to receive a high discount price or the delayed payment to reduce capital pressure. We compare with the efficiency of optimal decisions of different participants, that is, supplier, retailer, and bank, under both types of payments based on a game equilibrium analysis. It shows that under the equilibrium, the delayed payment leads to a greater optimal order quantity from the retailer compared to the up-front payment and, thus, improves the whole benefit of the supply chain. The numerical simulation for the random demand following a uniform distribution further verifies our findings. This study provides novel evidence that a dominant supplier who actively offers trade credit helps enhance the whole efficiency of a supply chain.

  16. Will we pay the same way? Empirical evidence of payment behaviours convergence on EMU panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Deungoue, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Working Paper du GATE 2005-01; The purpose of this study is to analyze the observed changes in payment behaviours by underlining the influence of factors such as financial opening, regulations and technological innovation. We show how forces acting in order to mould the national retail banking markets into a Single Payment Area (SPA) within the European Monetary Union (EMU) have impacted the payment instruments demand. We analyse the integration process and measure the importance of its major...

  17. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh; Aparajit B. Dey, MD; Mohammed E. Hussain, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  18. Informal Payments in Healthcare: A Case Study of Kerman Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nekoeimoghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInformal payments for health care, which are common in many countries, can have negative effects on health care access, equity and health status as they lead people to forgo or delay seeking care, or to sell assets to pay for care. Many countries are putting reforms in place with the aim of reducing informal payments. In order to be successful, such policies should be informed by the underlying causes of such payments. This study attempts to explore why, how, and in what ways informal payments occur. MethodsWe conducted face-to-face interviews with a purposeful sample of 45 participants, including patients, healthcare providers and officials, in Kerman province in Iran, in 2010. The research participants were asked about the nature of informal payments, the reasons behind both asking and making those payments. We analysed the data using content analysis. ResultsWe found that people make informal payments for several reasons, namely cultural, quality-related and legal. Providers ask for informal payments because of tariffs, structural and moral reasons, and to demonstrate their competence. Informal payments were found to be more prevalent for complex procedures and are usually asked for directly. ConclusionInformal payments are present in Iran’s health system as in other countries. What makes Iran’s condition slightly different from other countries is the peculiarity of reasons behind asking informal payments and the disadvantages associated with these kinds of payments. Iran could overcome this dilemma by precise investigation of the reasons to inform appropriate policy formulation. Some policies such as raising salaries, justifying the tariffs and cost-sharing, defining a benefits package of services, and improving accountability and transparency in the health system could be taken by the government to alleviate the problem.

  19. The mysteries of nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlow, J C

    1999-06-01

    The first part of this review is concerned with the balance between N input and output as urinary urea. I start with some observations on classical biochemical studies of the operation of the urea cycle. According to Krebs, the cycle is instantaneous and automatic, as a result of the irreversibility of the first enzyme, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (EC 6.3.5.5; CPS-I), and it should be able to handle many times the normal input to the cycle. It is now generally agreed that acetyl glutamate is a necessary co-factor for CPS-1, but not a regulator. There is abundant evidence that changes in dietary protein supply induce coordinated changes in the amounts of all five urea-cycle enzymes. How this coordination is achieved, and why it should be necessary in view of the properties of the cycle mentioned above, is unknown. At the physiological level it is not clear how a change in protein intake is translated into a change of urea cycle activity. It is very unlikely that the signal is an alteration in the plasma concentration either of total amino-N or of any single amino acid. The immediate substrates of the urea cycle are NH3 and aspartate, but there have been no measurements of their concentration in the liver in relation to urea production. Measurements of urea kinetics have shown that in many cases urea production exceeds N intake, and it is only through transfer of some of the urea produced to the colon, where it is hydrolysed to NH3, that it is possible to achieve N balance. It is beginning to look as if this process is regulated, possibly through the operation of recently discovered urea transporters in the kidney and colon. The second part of the review deals with the synthesis and breakdown of protein. The evidence on whole-body protein turnover under a variety of conditions strongly suggests that the components of turnover, including amino acid oxidation, are influenced and perhaps regulated by amino acid supply or amino acid concentration, with insulin

  20. A Monetary Analysis of Balance Sheet Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We augment a standard macroeconomic model to analyze the effects and limitations of balance sheet policies. We show that the central bank can stimulate real activity by changing the size or the composition of its balance sheet, when interest rate policy is ineffective. Specifically, the central bank can stabilize the economy by increasing money supply against eligible assets even when the policy rate is at the zero lower bound. By changing the composition of its balance sheet, it can affect i...

  1. 42 CFR 412.521 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... day and cost data for that patient at both the acute care hospital and the LTCH in determining the... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care...-term care hospitals receive a predetermined payment amount per discharge for inpatient...

  2. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  3. 25 CFR 117.2 - Payment of taxes of adult Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of adult Indians. 117.2 Section 117.2... COMPETENCY § 117.2 Payment of taxes of adult Indians. The superintendent may cause to be paid out of any money heretofore accrued or hereafter accruing to the credit of any adult Indian all taxes of every...

  4. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  5. Influence of completed payment on production profitability of starch potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ginter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a formal member of the European Union. New rules of Common Agriculture Policy (CAP, the same as in all countries belonging to the European Union (EU operate on agricultural markets. The accession to the EU is beneficial for Polish starch potato producers due to the higher level of profits from productions and selling starch potatoes. The research showed, that completed payment for producers of starch potatoes is very important and they created the level of profitability of this plant.

  6. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance.

  7. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  8. A Micro- Payment Based Isolation of Misbehavior Secure Routing for Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; WEI Wei; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Micro-payment based Isolation of Misbehavior(MIM) secure routing protocol. The protocol contains three parts: micro-payment scheme, routing discovery and malicious nodes detection. The micro-payment scheme proposed in MIM is the first virtual currency system that can be suit for sensor network environment. Based on the micro-payment scheme, we device an en ergy aware routing protocol, which forwards packets by auction. Furthermore, the base station can detect and isolate misbehave or non-cooperate nodes according to the routing information.

  9. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  10. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  11. 76 FR 12127 - Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program: Announcement of Activation of Program and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Conditions of Emergency Mortgage Relief Payments 1. Declining Balance Loans. The repayment mechanism for the... balance, deferred payment, non- recourse, subordinate loan with zero interest. The declining balance loan... longer receiving emergency mortgage relief payments. If the homeowner meets this requirement, the...

  12. 42 CFR 403.752 - Payment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment provisions. 403.752 Section 403.752 Public... of Participation, and Payment § 403.752 Payment provisions. (a) Payment to RNHCIs. Payment for services may be made to an RNHCI that meets the conditions for coverage described in § 403.720 and...

  13. 48 CFR 32.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 32.006 Section 32.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  14. 48 CFR 432.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 432.006 Section 432.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  15. 48 CFR 1532.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 1532.006 Section 1532.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  16. 48 CFR 1332.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud. 1332.006 Section 1332.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments under finding of fraud....

  17. 48 CFR 232.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 232.006 Section 232.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... FINANCING 232.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  18. 48 CFR 832.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 832.006 Section 832.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  19. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment...

  20. 48 CFR 32.503-3 - Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payments and review of accounting system. 32.503-3 Section 32.503-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... on Costs 32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system. (a) For..., (2) possessed of an adequate accounting system and controls, and (3) in sound financial...

  1. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  2. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  3. 48 CFR 632.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 632.006 Section 632.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  4. 48 CFR 932.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 932.006 Section 932.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  5. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC BALANCE STRATEGY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON BALANCE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Mairaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance emerges from the interaction of multiple systems that are organized to meet functional task goals and that are constrained by environmental context, but is often compromised with advancing age. At least 30% of older people experience decline in physical activity after entry into residential care. Participation in activity is more difficult for older people because of fear, lack of motivation, depression and poor understanding of the long term benefits of physical activity. Thus our purpose was to investigate effect of specific balance strategy training programme as compared to general balance training in improving balance in institutionalized elderly population. Methods: 26 institutionalized elderly subjects participated in the study. Participants in group A were given specific balance strategy training programme and those in group B were given general balance training. Intervention was for 40 min per day, thrice a week for 4 weeks. Balance was assessed using Berg balance scale and Timed up and go test. Result: Both the interventions showed marked improvement in balance when assessed on Berg balance and Timed up and go test. The group having specific balance strategy training programme proved to be significantly better than general balance training programme. Conclusion: Specific balance strategy training programme being more effective than general regimens should be incorporated in addressing balance related problems of institutionalized elderly population.

  6. 75 FR 59284 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown Payment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice activated system. The... Grant recipients use the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown...

  7. A Delicate Balance of Different Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    of balancing different dependencies. In this perspective, Greenland is the case in extremis. The prospect of Greenland seceding from the Kingdom of Denmark relies upon it becoming embedded in the “international community of sovereign nation states” thus balancing different dependencies ‐ while also...

  8. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  9. 7 CFR 927.123 - Interest and late payment charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applied to the total unpaid balance, including the late payment charge and any accumulated interest. Any... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 927.123 Section 927... payment charges. Payments received more than 45 days after the date on which they are due shall...

  10. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment... of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  11. 20 CFR 340.10 - Waiver of recovery of erroneous payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conclusion when asked for facts); (iii) Failure to return a payment which the individual knew or should have..., but are not limited to: (i) Government benefits such as Black Lung, Social Security, Workers... payments such as rent or pensions; and (iv) Investment income. (3) For purposes of this section,...

  12. 31 CFR 346.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of... letters of appointment, under seal of the court, which should show that the appointment is in full...

  13. 30 CFR 285.542 - What makes a State eligible for payment of revenues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of revenues? A State is eligible for payment of revenues if any part of the State's coastline is... State is not eligible for revenue sharing if all parts of that State's coastline are more than 15 miles... the submerged lands of that State or if there are no States with a coastline less than 15 miles...

  14. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity ma

  15. Motivational Aspects Of New Payment System In Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Cherkasov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the change of tariffication net of payment for medical personnel, i.e. paramedical and junior medical staff, the minimum income has been increased. Data received from questionnaires of paramedical and junior medical staff have revealed the fact that with time working enthusiasm decreases and tendency to material welfare increases. While young specialists are intended to find out more prestigious and well-paid place of work. The main task of managers is to provide optimal labour conditions and motivational background for high-quality and effective work of medical staff

  16. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Uroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obtained from the information system used in the Clinical Hospital Center “Dr. Dragiša Mišović” - Dedinje in Belgrade, Serbia. The implemented hospital information system was the main criterion for selection of healthcare institutions. The study included 994 randomly selected patients treated surgically and conservatively in 2012. Results. Average costs under the current payment method were slightly higher than those projected by DRG, however, the variability was twice as high (54,111 ± 69,789 compared to 53,434 ± 32,509, p < 0,001 respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the highest correlation with the current payment method as well as with the projected one by DRG was observed in relation to the number of days of hospitalization (ρ = 0.842, p < 0.001, and ρ = 0.637, p < 0.001, respectively. Multivariate regression models confirmed the influence of the number of hospitalization days to costs under the current payment system (β = 0.843, p < 0.001 as well as under the projected DRG payment system (β = 0.737, p < 0.001. The same predictor was crucial for the difference in the current payment method and the projected DRG payment methods (β = 0.501, p <0.001. Conclusion. Payment under the DRG system is administratively more complex because it requires detailed and standardized coding of diagnoses and procedures, as well as the information on the average consumption of resources (costs per DRG. Given that aggregate costs of treatment under two hospital payment methods compared

  17. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  18. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  19. 26 CFR 301.6316-1 - Payment of income tax in foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of income tax in foreign currency. 301....6316-1 Payment of income tax in foreign currency. Subject to the provisions of §§ 301.6316-3 to 301... citizen of the United States in nonconvertible foreign currency may be paid in such currency— (a) For...

  20. 31 CFR 206.10 - Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from...

  1. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS § 341.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of precedence... certifying officer, such request to be supported by a court certificate or a certified copy of his letters...

  2. 7 CFR 800.73 - Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Fees § 800.73 Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information. 800.73 Section 800.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  3. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternate payment terms. Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by-case basis for payment terms and trade... blocked accounts. Nothing in this section authorizes payment terms or trade financing involving a debit to..., or credits a transfer to the account on its books of the ultimate beneficiary, the United...

  4. 42 CFR 403.766 - Requirements for coverage and payment of RNHCI home services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for coverage and payment of RNHCI home services. 403.766 Section 403.766 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.766 Requirements...

  5. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  6. 10 CFR 950.23 - Claims process for payment of covered costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims process for payment of covered costs. 950.23 Section 950.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Claims Administration Process § 950.23 Claims process for payment of covered costs. (a) General. No more than 120...

  7. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums....

  8. 5 CFR 838.1010 - Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums. 838.1010 Section 838.1010 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1010 Court orders or decrees preventing payment of...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4275 - Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... default and acceptability of partial payments. 36.4275 Section 36.4275 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs... provides assistance to a veteran for the acquisition of a mobile home or lot. Such loans will not...

  10. Comparison of Balance and Out of Balance Main Battle Tank Armaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Purdy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been commonly thought that stabilising an out of balance gun on a moving platform (tank or ship is very difficult or impossible to achieve. Using models of a balanced and out of balance gun on a main battle tank this is shown not to be the case. The models of the guns used, include the effect of non-linear friction and out of balance. To improve the stabilisation of the out of balance gun, trunnion vertical acceleration feedforward is used.

  11. Hacking point of sale payment application secrets, threats, and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gomzin, Slava

    2014-01-01

    Must-have guide for professionals responsible for securing credit and debit card transactions As recent breaches like Target and Neiman Marcus show, payment card information is involved in more security breaches than any other data type. In too many places, sensitive card data is simply not protected adequately. Hacking Point of Sale is a compelling book that tackles this enormous problem head-on. Exploring all aspects of the problem in detail - from how attacks are structured to the structure of magnetic strips to point-to-point encryption, and more - it's packed with practical recommendati

  12. 38 CFR 10.50 - Section 601 and section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. 10.50 Section 10.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and... section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. Cash payments and the first installment of... Compensation Act, as amended, will be made as of the first day of the calendar quarter following the finding...

  13. 34 CFR 686.22 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition has been granted under 34 CFR 668.3. If an institution receives a waiver from the Secretary of the...'s payment for a payment period using the following methodologies: (i) If the program is offered in terms and credit hours, the institution uses the methodology in— (A) Paragraph (b) of this...

  14. 34 CFR 691.63 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition has been granted under 34 CFR 668.3. If an institution receives a waiver from the Secretary of the...'s payment for a payment period using the following methodologies: (i) If the program is offered in terms and credit hours, the institution uses the methodology in— (A) Paragraph (b) of this...

  15. 77 FR 37892 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans SUMMARY: The Preauthorized Debit Account (PDA) Application is used to establish... records. Title of Collection: Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans. OMB Control Number:...

  16. 31 CFR 353.75 - Payment or reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate. 353.75 Section 353.75 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... reissue during the existence of the fiduciary estate. (a) Payment or reissue before maturity—(1)...

  17. Potential effects of direct transfer payments on farmland habitat diversity in a marginal European landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Birgit; Sheridan, Patrick; Simmering, Dietmar; Otte, Annette; Waldhardt, Rainer

    2009-06-01

    Farmland habitat diversity in marginal European landscapes changed significantly in the past decades. Further changes toward homogenization are expected, particularly in the course of European agricultural policy. Based on three alternative transfer payment schemes, we modeled spatially explicit potential effects on the farmland habitat diversity in a marginal European landscape. We defined (1) a scenario with direct transfer payments coupled to production, (2) a scenario with direct transfer payments decoupled from production, and (3) a scenario phasing out all direct transfer payments. We characterized habitat diversity with three indices: habitat richness, evenness, and rarity. The habitat pattern in 1995 served as reference for comparison. All scenarios predicted a general trend of homogenization of the farmland habitat pattern, yet to a differing extent. Transfer payments coupled to production (Scenario 1) favored the abandonment of agricultural production, particularly in low-productive areas and arable land use in more productive areas. Habitat richness and habitat evenness had intermediate values in this scenario. Decoupling transfer payments from production (Scenario 2) supported grassland as most profitable farming system. This led to a grassland-dominated landscape with low values of all habitat diversity indices. Phasing out transfer payments (Scenario 3) resulted in complete abandonment or afforestation of agricultural land and extremely low values in all habitat diversity indices. Scenario results indicate that transfer payments may prevent cessation of agricultural production, but may not counteract homogenization in marginal landscapes. Conserving high farmland habitat diversity in such landscapes may require support schemes, e.g., Pillar Two of EU Common Agricultural Policy.

  18. 38 CFR 13.57 - Payment to the wife or husband of incompetent veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment to the wife or husband of incompetent veteran. 13.57 Section 13.57 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.57 Payment to the wife...

  19. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of Miller Act... Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond Protection (DEC 2003) This...

  20. 75 FR 1446 - Rate of Payment for Medical Records Received Through Health Information Technology (IT) Necessary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rate of Payment for Medical Records Received Through Health Information Technology (IT) Necessary... national rate of Federal payment for medical records received through health IT. SUMMARY: We have set $15... records through health IT in response to a request. We will pay the uniform national rate to a...

  1. An Analysis of Medicare's Incentive Payment Program for Physicians in Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Ricketts III, Thomas C.; Beaver, Shelli K.

    2004-01-01

    Medicare's Incentive Payment (MIP) program provides a 10% bonus payment to providers who treat Medicare patients in rural and urban areas where there is a shortage of generalist physicians. Purpose: To examine the experience of Alaska, Idaho, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington with the MIP program. We determined the program's…

  2. 20 CFR 416.645 - Conservation and investment of benefit payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. 416.645 Section 416.645 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.645 Conservation and investment of... reasonably foreseeable needs, they shall be conserved or invested on behalf of the beneficiary....

  3. 42 CFR 460.42 - Suspension of enrollment or payment by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of enrollment or payment by CMS. 460.42... enrollment or payment by CMS. (a) Enrollment. If a PACE organization commits one or more violations specified in § 460.40, CMS may suspend enrollment of Medicare beneficiaries after the date CMS notifies...

  4. 42 CFR 412.428 - Publication of Updates to the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of Updates to the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.428 Section 412.428 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES...

  5. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS Certification...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty....

  7. 42 CFR 130.11 - Who is eligible for payment under the Act-survivors of persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) The term parent includes fathers and mothers through adoption. ... the time of payment, the payment shall be made in equal shares to the parents of the individual who are living at the time of payment (hereinafter referred to as “the surviving parent(s))'. (c) If...

  8. 34 CFR 690.63 - Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offered by correspondence courses. (6) Programs for which an exception to the academic year definition has... Federal Pell Grant payment for a payment period using the following methodologies: (i) If the program is offered in terms and credit hours, the institution uses the methodology in— (A) Paragraph (b) of...

  9. How (not) to pay - Field experimental evidence on the design of REDD plus payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reutemann, Tim; Engel, Stefanie; Pareja, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) can use many design features. We investigate the impact of payment conditionality types, i.e. different specifications when to pay and when not to pay, for PES on deforestation and agricultural production in a lab-in-the-field experiment Our experiment also t...

  10. 47 CFR 69.606 - Computation of average schedule company payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of average schedule company... schedule company payments. (a) Payments shall be made in accordance with a formula approved or modified by the Commission. Such formula shall be designed to produce disbursements to an average schedule...

  11. Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Arsel, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Adaman, F.; Aguilar, B.; Agarwal, B.; Corbera, E.; Ezzine de Blas, D.; Farley, J.; Froger, G.; Garcia-Frapolli, E.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Gowdy, J.; Kosoy, N.; Le Coq, J.F.; Leroy, P.; May, P.H.; Méral, P.; Mibielli, P.; Norgaard, R.; Ozkaynak, B.; Pascual, U.; Pengue, W.; Perez, M.; Pesche, D.; Pirard, R.; Ramos-Martin, J.; Rival, L.; Saenz-Segura, F.; Hecken, G. van; Vatn, A.; Vira, B.; Urama, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary we critically discuss the suitability of payments for ecosystem services and the most important challenges they face. While such instruments can play a role in improving environmental governance, we argue that over-reliance on payments as win-win solutions might lead to ineffectiv

  12. End-to-end encryption in on-line payment systems : The industry reluctance and the role of laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    Various security breaches at third-party payment processors show that online payment systems are the primary target for cyber-criminals. In general, the security of online payment systems relies on a number of factors, namely technical factors, processing factors, and legal factors. The industry giv

  13. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and...

  14. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  15. Towards an Understanding of Atmospheric Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    During a 35 year period I published 30+ pear-reviewed papers and technical reports concerning, in part or whole, the topic of atmospheric balance. Most used normal modes, either implicitly or explicitly, as the appropriate diagnostic tool. This included examination of nonlinear balance in several different global and regional models using a variety of novel metrics as well as development of nonlinear normal mode initialization schemes for particular global and regional models. Recent studies also included the use of adjoint models and OSSEs to answer some questions regarding balance. lwill summarize what I learned through those many works, but also present what l see as remaining issues to be considered or investigated.

  16. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  17. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  18. The management of the financial balance

    OpenAIRE

    Rascolean Ilie; Szabo Robert

    2010-01-01

    Financial balance sheet approach allows emphasizing the relationship between sources of funds held by the enterprise and allocating these funds. It is the accounting records that describe the synthesis of assets and liabilities of the company at year end and the other cases provided by law, all balance is highlighted by the double representation of heritage, providing a separate description of assets and liabilities. The main indicators of financial stability analysis, after studying the bala...

  19. 38 CFR 17.1008 - Balance billing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Balance billing prohibited. 17.1008 Section 17.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Facilities § 17.1008 Balance billing prohibited. Payment by VA under 38 U.S.C. 1725 on behalf of a veteran...

  20. Cash and Payments Management Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Prompt Payment Act, along with the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, requires the timely payment of commercial obligations for supplies and services using...

  1. The impact of the Directive on Payment Services in the Internal Market on Danish and Belgium Legislation on Fraudulent Payment Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation of liabi......In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation...... and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European Directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonization, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether the implementations are in accordance with the Directive and finally, whether...... the Directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promotes the creation of a common internal market for payment services...

  2. Graph representation of balance sheets: from exogenous to endogenous money

    OpenAIRE

    Pitrou, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    A graph representation of the financial relations in a given monetary structure is proposed. It is argued that the graph of debt-liability relations is naturally organized and simplified into a tree structure, around banks and a central bank. Indeed, this optimal graph allows to perform payments very easily as it amounts to the suppression of loops introduced by pending payments. Using this language of graphs to analyze the monetary system, we first examine the systems based on commodity m...

  3. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  4. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  5. Is China turning Latin?: China’s balancing act between power and dependence on the wave of global imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether China has escaped the vulnerabilities of peripheral and dependent late industrialisation in the build up to the current global economic crisis, with reference to structuralist critiques of Latin American industrialisation in the 1960s and examined through China’s balance of payments data. While it would seem that China’s huge surpluses amid sustained growth eliminate any comparative relevance to Latin America, the paper argues that analogous vulnera...

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF PAYMENTS ON ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleskerov F.T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the dynamic analysis of the processes, which take place on electricity market during the transition period is shown. The system of equations, which describes electricity market between adjacent regions and allows forecasting electricity consumption volumes and electricity prices in these regions for given time interval, is examined. A model on electricity consumption and prices dynamics is described. Criterion of maximization of total revenue of the companies producing electricity in examined regions is considered.

  7. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  8. Determinant Factors of Dividend Payments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Augusto Borges Forti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies factors that shaped cash disbursement distribution policies employed by Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA from 1995 to 2011. Relationships between Dividends/Total Assets and potential determinants discussed in the literature, including firm size, corporate governance, profitability, leverage, market to book, liquidity, investment, risk, profit growth, information asymmetry and agency conflict, are examined. The following econometric methods are employed: (1 Tobit, given the nature of the dividend data, and (2 the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to control for endogenous regressors. Significant positive variables found include size, return on assets (ROA, market to book, liquidity and profit growth. It can thus be inferred that larger firm size, profitability, market value, liquidity and profit growth correlate with greater firm pro pensity to distribute money to shareholders, thus supporting the theory of corporate finance. Significant negative variables found include leverage, liquidity squared, capex, beta and tag along 100%. It is thus inferred that more significantly leveraged companies that invest more heavily in fixed assets and that exhibit high liquidity, higher risk and less conflict between controlling and minority shareholders will be less likely to pay dividends to shareholders.

  9. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  10. Evaluating community health centers’ adoption of a new global capitation payment (eCHANGE) study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angier, H; O’Malley, JP; Marino, M; McConnell, KJ; Cottrell, E; Jacob, RL; Likumahuwa-Ackman, S; Heintzman, J; Huguet, N; Bailey, SR; DeVoe, JE

    2017-01-01

    Primary care patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are an effective healthcare delivery model. Evidence regarding the most effective payment models for increased coordination efforts is sparse. This protocol paper describes the evaluation of an Alternative Payment Methodology (APM) implemented in a subset of Oregon community health centers (CHCs), using a prospective matched observational design. The APM is a primary care payment reform intervention that changed Oregon’s Medicaid payment for several CHCs from fee-for-service reimbursement to a per-member-per-month capitated payment. We will implement a difference-in-difference analytic approach to evaluate pre-post APM changes between intervention and control groups, including: 1) clinic-level outcomes, 2) patient-level clinical outcomes, and 3) patient-level econometric outcomes. Findings from the project will be of national significance, as there is a need for evidence regarding how novel payment methods might enhance PCMH capabilities and support their capacity to produce better quality and outcomes. If this capitated payment method is proven effective, study findings will inform dissemination of similar APMs nationwide. PMID:27836506

  11. WORK / LIFE BALANCE REFLECTIONS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction andwork/life balance. The construct used for this research consists of career opportunity, recognition,work tasks, payments, benefits, superior subordinate relationship, employee satisfaction, andwork/life balance. The study was conducted on a total of 210 respondents working in IT organization.This study makes a contribution to join two distinct research streams, namely employee satisfaction,and work/life balance. Findings suggest that high correlation exists between work task and employeesatisfaction with a mediator variable namely work-life balance.

  12. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  13. The effects of capitation payment on the organizational structure of medical group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, J E; Wingert, T D; Knutson, D J; Johnson, C E; Veazie, P J

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the effects of capitation payment on the structural elements used by medical group practices to control physician-directed use of resources and the quality of patient care. Forty-five medical groups located in the highly competitive Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area were studied. The range of capitation payment in these medical group practices is from 2% to 87%. Although the practices vary considerably in the extent to which they have developed these control mechanisms, it does not appear that capitation payment is a major factor influencing that pattern. It appears that many of these medical group practices either use less formal mechanisms than those included in this study to control resource use and the quality of care or use none at all. In either event, the data suggest that the effects of capitation payment on the structure of medical practices may be overestimated.

  14. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  15. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  16. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... give rise to qualification and allocation conflicts for tax treaty purposes in cross-border situations. The main challenges concern to what extent dividend related payments may be covered by the term “dividends” in article 10 of the OECD double tax convention and to what extent the lender in a share...

  17. The variance of length of stay and the optimal DRG outlier payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    Prospective payment schemes in health care often include supply-side insurance for cost outliers. In hospital reimbursement, prospective payments for patient discharges, based on their classification into diagnosis related group (DRGs), are complemented by outlier payments for long stay patients. The outlier scheme fixes the length of stay (LOS) threshold, constraining the profit risk of the hospitals. In most DRG systems, this threshold increases with the standard deviation of the LOS distribution. The present paper addresses the adequacy of this DRG outlier threshold rule for risk-averse hospitals with preferences depending on the expected value and the variance of profits. It first shows that the optimal threshold solves the hospital's tradeoff between higher profit risk and lower premium loading payments. It then demonstrates for normally distributed truncated LOS that the optimal outlier threshold indeed decreases with an increase in the standard deviation.

  18. Implications of prospective payment under DRGs for hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, S; Ziegenfuss, J T; Chao, P

    1988-12-01

    The authors analyze the hospital marketing implications of Medicare's prospective payment system under DRGs. They take an appropriately broad view of marketing and consider related impacts on culture, structure, and management, in addition to the traditional marketing mix. The article serves to present in one place the ideas and discussions on the subject from a wide and disparate literature. The aim throughout is to identify those marketing responses warranting recommendation. The recommendations are assembled in a concluding section. Though many of the ideas are not new, they have yet to be widely adopted by hospitals. Hence they represent untapped marketing opportunities attributable to the advent of the DRG system. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research.

  19. Review of Agri-Environment Indexes and Stewardship Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Collins, Kerry; Cattaneo, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Agri-environment programs aim to secure environmental and social stewardship services through payments to farmers. A critical component of many agri-environment programs is an agri-environment index (AEI) used to quantify benefits and target investments. An AEI will typically comprise multiple indicators, which are weighted and combined using a utility function, to measure the benefit of investment options (e.g., projects, farms, regions). This article presents a review of AEIs with 11 case studies from agri-environment programs in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. We identify a generic procedure used to define AEIs and explore the implications of alternative methodological approaches. We conclude that AEIs have become an extremely important policy instrument and make suggestions for their improvement.

  20. Auctioning payment entitlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Payment entitlements is a new commodity that arises from the new European common agricultural policy. The agricultural subsidies are decoupled from the actual production and replaced by the so-called payment entitlements. A payment entitlement has a farm specific value and may be freely traded....... This paper discusses the complexity of this new market and suggests an auction that simplifies the complexity. The suggested auction allows a buyer to simultaneously bid on all payment entitlements. The prices are found by a tatonnement that monotonically approximates the equilibrium prices for the different...... types of payment entitlements for sale. The auction enhances the competition and efficiency of the market, which is essential for the individual members of the European Union in order for them to receive their entitled subsidies....

  1. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-4 - Payment of amounts equivalent to tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE CONTRACT COVERAGE OF EMPLOYEES OF FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(10)-4 Payment of amounts equivalent to tax. A domestic corporation which has...

  2. 7 CFR 205.641 - Payment of fees and other charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Fees § 205.641 Payment of fees and...

  3. Regimes of validity for balanced models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Peter R.; McWilliams, James C.

    1983-07-01

    Scaling analyses are presented which delineate the atmospheric and oceanic regimes of validity for the family of balanced models described in Gent and McWilliams (1983a). The analyses follow and extend the classical work of Charney (1948) and others. The analyses use three non-dimensional parameters which represent the flow scale relative to the Earth's radius, the dominance of turbulent or wave-like processes, and the dominant component of the potential vorticity. For each regime, the models that are accurate both at leading order and through at least one higher order of accuracy in the appropriate small parameter are then identified. In particular, it is found that members of the balanced family are the appropriate models of higher-order accuracy over a broad range of parameter regimes. Examples are also given of particular atmospheric and oceanic phenomena which are in the regimes of validity for the different balanced models.

  4. DEBT AMORTIZATION AND SIMPLE INTEREST: THE CASE OF PAYMENTS IN AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis José Daudt Lyra Darrigue Faro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the argument that, necessarily, compound interest implies anatocism, the Brazilian Judiciary has been determining that, specially for the case of  debt amortization in accordance with the so called Tabela Price, when we have constant payments, the use of simple interest. With the same determination occurring in the case of the Constant Amortization Scheme, when the payments follow arithmetic progressions.  However, as simple interest lacks the property of time subdivision, it is shown that as in the case of constant payments, the adoption of simple interest in the case of payments following an arithmetic progression results in amortization schemes that are financially inconsistent. In the sense that the determination of the outstanding principal in accordance with the prospective, retrospective and of recurrence methods lead to conflicting  results. To this end, four different variations of the use of simple interest are numerically analyzed.

  5. Using cost-effective targeting to enhance the efficiency of conservation investments in payments for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; Viña, Andrés; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services are being protected and restored worldwide through payments for ecosystem services in which participants are paid to alter their land-management approaches to benefit the environment. The efficiency of such investments depends on the design of the payment scheme. Land features have been used to measure the environmental benefits of and amount of payment for land enrollment in payment for ecosystem services schemes. Household characteristics of program participants, however, may also be important in the targeting of land for enrollment. We used the characteristics of households participating in China's Grain-to-Green program, and features of enrolled land to examine the targeting of land enrollment in that program in Wolong Nature Reserve. We compared levels of environmental benefits that can be obtained through cost-effective targeting of land enrollment for different types of benefits under different payment schemes. The efficiency of investments in a discriminative payment scheme (payments differ according to opportunity costs, i.e., landholders' costs of forgoing alternative uses of land) was substantially higher than in a flat payment scheme (same price paid to all participants). Both optimal targeting and suboptimal targeting of land enrollment for environmental benefits achieved substantially more environmental benefits than random selection of land for enrollment. Our results suggest that cost-effective targeting of land through the use of discriminative conservation payments can substantially improve the efficiency of investments in the Grain-to-Green program and other payment for ecosystem services programs.

  6. Can E-Payment Systems Revolutionize Finance of the Less Developed Countries? The Case of Mobile Payment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Hamdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in mobile industry makes mobile phones the most adopted technology of the last decade by the rich as well as poor. Mobile phones were at first intended for voice communication; nowadays they are used for sending and receiving information and they provide many advanced services to their users. Recent generation of mobile phones allows consumers to carry out transactions in the real and the virtual world by the use of mobile devices through mobile network. It is done by using mobile device such as Cell phone or PDA which is connected to payment access using mobile operator network. The aim of this paper is to analyze the technological evolution of mobile phones and to identify the macroeconomic consequences of their introduction into the financial sector.

  7. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6316-7 - Payment of Federal Insurance Contributions Act taxes in foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the correct equivalent in dollars, whether it be the official rate, the open market rate, or any other... Director of International Operations shall be considered as payment of tax in an amount equal to the...

  9. 20 CFR 404.384 - Reductions, suspensions, and nonpayments of special age 72 payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... service-connected disability or death. (d) Amount of reduction because of a government pension. If you are... Islands. Also, payment to you may not be permitted under the rules in § 404.463 if you are an alien...

  10. 5 CFR 575.405 - Calculation and payment of supervisory differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differential. 575.405 Section 575.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Supervisory Differentials § 575.405 Calculation and payment of supervisory...

  11. 7 CFR 1400.106 - Payment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment limits. 1400.106 Section 1400.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.106 Payment limits. (a) Payments made...

  12. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  13. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development Under a Emerging SEPA Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) is probably the most ambitious self-regulatory project aimed at creating a single integrated European digital payments market since the introduction of the Euro. SEPA aims to make EU more innovative and competitive. When considering the SEPA initiative...... and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature the mobile phone permeates, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure. The model captures...... the formation and development of digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change following by short rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage is portrayed by its evolutionary dynamics, the nature...

  14. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.

  15. Optimization of project payment schedules with Nash equilibrium model and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ze-min; GAO Chun-ping; LI Zhong-xue

    2007-01-01

    To minimize the deviations of the net present values of project payment for both the owner and the client and optimize project payment schedules, a Nash equilibrium model based on game theory was set up and a genetic algorithm was developed to work out the Nash equilibrium solution with a two-stage backward inductive approach that requires the client responds to the owner's payment schedule with an activity schedule so as to maximize the client's net present value of cash flows. A case study demonstrated that a payment schedule at the Nash equilibrium position enables both the owner and the client to gain their desirable interests, thus is a win-win solution for both parties. Despite the computation time of the proposed algrithm in need of improving, combining Nash equilibrium and genetic algorithm into a complete-information dynamic-game model is a promising method for project management optimization.

  16. 12 CFR 412.11 - Payment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment guidelines. 412.11 Section 412.11 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.11 Payment guidelines. (a) Payments from a non-Federal source, other...

  17. 76 FR 6112 - Federal Benefit Payments Under Certain District of Columbia Retirement Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Payments Under Certain District of Columbia Retirement Plans AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION... teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Benefits for service after that date, and certain other... Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. See 75 FR 71047. [[Page 6113

  18. 24 CFR 888.310 - Notice of eligibility requirements for retroactive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Construction, Substantial Rehabilitation, State Finance Agencies, Section 515 Farmers Home Administration... request for payment is based and a statement of the basis for the belief that rents would have...

  19. 城镇职工医保基金结余问题与基金费用给付模式协同研究--基于某省 W 区的实证研究%UEBMI Fund Balances in Fund Fees and Payment Mode Collaborative Study-Empirical Study Based on region W

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑芳

    2016-01-01

    职工医保统筹基金的结余水平与基金所采取的费用给付模式息息相关,城镇职工医保费用给付运营模式决定着统筹基金的结余水平应当保持在什么样的水平。本文以审计人员特有的视角,利用大数据分析技术及审计成果将职工医保基金结余进一步细分为个人账户结余与统筹基金结余进行研究,通过审计研究成果与政策规定的冲突以及职工医保与城乡医保基金相互之间的比较,分析基金结余研究的关键因素,进而探讨医保统筹基金费用给付模式,并就现阶段我国执行现收现付制加弱积累制混合模式的历史原因及现实因素作进一步的深入分析,最后基于人口老龄化背景下缓解职工医保收支恶化趋势提出相应的对策与建议。%The workersˊ medical insurance fund balance overall level of fees taken by fund payment mode is closely related to the cost of medical insurance for urban workers,the payment business model determines the level of the overall fund balance should be maintained at what level. In this paper,auditors unique perspective,the use of big data analysis techniques and the results of the audit staff health insurance fund balance is further broken down to study for the personal account balance and overall fund balances,through the audit findings and policy conflicts with the rural and urban workersˊ medical insurance and Medicare Compare mutual funds,the key factors of fund balances research,which led to research and discussion on health care costs overall fund payment models and historical reasons this stage of the implementation of the PAYG system plus weak accumulation system mixed mode and realistic factors for further in - depth analysis,based on the final aging population background alleviate the deteriorating trend in employee health insurance payments corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  20. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  1. Money and Credit as Means of Payment: A New Monetarist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Sebastien; Zhang, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the choice of payment instruments in a simple model where both money and credit can be used as means of payment. We endogenize the acceptability of credit by allowing retailers to invest in a costly record-keeping technology. Our framework captures the two-sided market interaction between consumers and retailers, leading to strategic complementarities that can generate multiple steady-state equilibria. In addition, limited commitment makes debt contracts self-enforcing and...

  2. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy DEPARTMENT... Other Administrative Matters Payments § 603.805 Payment methods. A TIA may provide for: (a... progress. A fixed-support TIA must use this payment method (this does not preclude use of an...

  3. New applications of the homogeneous balance principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 王跃明; 王明亮; 方宗德

    2003-01-01

    The homogeneous balance principle has been widely applied to the exploration of nonlinear transformation, exact solutions (especially solitary wave solution), dromion and similarity reduction to the nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. In this paper, we use the homogeneous balance principle to derive Backlund transformations for nonlinear partial differential equations that have more nonlinear terms and more highest-order partial derivative terms. With the aid of the Backlund transformations derived here, we could obtain exact solutions to the nonlinear partial differential equations. The Davey-Stewartson equation and the Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are considered as the examples.

  4. Three essays on the wealth effects of deferred payments in corporate takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Alexakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    In three papers, I employ parametric and nonparametric methods in order to further examine the determinants of value creation in M&A deals financed with contingent earnout payments. The first paper investigates the short-run wealth effects of earnouts in deals in which financial advisors are counseling the acquiring firms. The results suggest that relative to using non-earnout payments, acquirers enjoy higher abnormal returns from earnout use only when consulting financial advi...

  5. Framework for Mobile Payments Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper derives a theoretical framework for consideration of both the technologically driven dimensions of mobile payment solutions, and the associated value proposition for customers. Banks promote traditional payment instruments whose value proposition is the management of risk for both...... consumers and merchants. These instruments are centralised, costly and lack decision support functionality. The ubiquity of the mobile phone has provided a decentralised platform for managing payment processes in a new way, but the value proposition for customers has yet to be elaborated clearly....... This inertia has stalled the design of sustainable revenue models for a mobile payments ecosystem. Merchants and consumers in the meantime are being seduced by the convenience of on‑line and mobile payment solutions. Adopting the purchase and payment process as the unit of analysis, the current mobile payment...

  6. The importance of fluid balance in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Katie; Pilsworth, Julie

    This article reviews the physiology that underpins normal fluid balance and discusses how fluid balance can be affected by illness. Clinical assessment of hydration and the importance of fluid balance record keeping are explained. Recommendations are made to improve fluid balance management in clinical practice and the professional importance of record keeping is highlighted.

  7. Monopoly money: the effect of payment coupling and form on spending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-09-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card logo is present versus absent. Study 2 shows that the credit card effect can be attenuated when people estimate their expenses using a decomposition strategy (vs. a holistic one). Noting that credit card and cash payments differ in terms of payment coupling and form, Studies 3 and 4 examine consumer spending when the payment mode differs only in physical form. Study 3 demonstrates that consumers spend more when they are spending scrip (a form of stored value certificate) versus cash of the same face value. Study 4 shows that the difference in spending across payment modes (cash and gift certificates) is attenuated by altering the salience of parting with money through contextual manipulations of the differences between cash and gift certificates.

  8. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Amy R; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4-7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12-30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments.

  9. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  10. On the Nonuniqueness of Balanced Nonlinear Realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, W. Steven; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The notion of balanced realizations for nonlinear state space model reduction problems was first introduced by Scherpen in 1993. Analogous to'the linear case, the so called singular value functions of a system describe the relative importance of each state component from an input-output point of vie

  11. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  12. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  13. Detailed Balancing and the Structure of Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y Z

    2001-01-01

    The protons are taken as an ensemble of Fock states. Using detailed balancing principle, ensemble density metrix on the basis of the number of partons is calculated, and so some information about intrinsic gluons and intrinsic sea quarks are gained without any parameter.

  14. A safety analysis of warhead balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.

    1998-12-01

    Reentry vehicles (RVs) carrying warheads from ballistic missiles must be carefully balanced with the warhead in situ to prevent wobble as the RVs enter the earth`s atmosphere to prevent inaccuracy or loss of the warhead. This balancing is performed on a dynamic balancing machine that rotates the RV at significant angular velocities. Seizure of the spindle shaft of the machine could result in rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly, which could over-stress and shear bolts or other structures that attach the RV to the balancing machine. This could result in undesired motions of the RV and impact of the RV on equipment or structures in the work area. This potential safety problem has long been recognized in a general way, but no systematic investigation of the possible accident sequences had been performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated set of systems analysis techniques that worked well in developing a set of accident sequences that describe the motions of the RV following a spindle-shaft seizure event.

  15. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  16. Learning Responsibility and Balance of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Sefika Sümeyye; Ünal Oruç, Eylem

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to determine teacher perspectives on learning responsibility and balance of power. The research design is case study which was conducted on four primary school teachers. The data were collected with semi-structured interviews and the data obtained were analyzed with categorical analysis, a type of content analysis. The…

  17. The impact of the directive on payment services in the internal market on Danish and Belgian legislation on fraudulent payment transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before 1...... out in what way the directive had or will have an impact on Danish and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonisation, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether...... the implementations are in accordance with the directive and, finally, whether the directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promote the creation of a common internal market for payment services....

  18. Study on payments through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of information and communications technology, together with the increasing use of electronic commerce, phones and mobile applications, have facilitated mobile payments to become an alternative payment method for buyers and vendors. Mobile payments offer various opportunities to business environment and became a starting point in the transition from electronic to mobile. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the mobile payment methods and to identify the effects that mobile payment systems have on electronic commerce.

  19. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  20. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  2. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  3. Sustainability as a part of balanced scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sara Zavodna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  4. 29 CFR 4043.81 - PBGC Form 200, notice of failure to make required contributions; supplementary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... whenever the unpaid balance of a required installment or any other payment required under section 302 of ERISA and section 412 of the Code (including interest), when added to the aggregate unpaid balance of all preceding such installments or other payments for which payment was not made when due...

  5. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h...

  6. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  7. Task-specificity of balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Gruber, Markus; Kramer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Despite much research on balance training, it is still unclear whether balance training leads to highly task-specific adaptations or rather non-specific adaptations. Hence, in this study we examined whether balance training increased performance only in the balance task that was trained or also in non-trained tasks. Forty healthy participants (28 m 12 f, 25 ± 4 years, 177 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) were assigned to one of two training groups (TGs) or a control group. Both TGs completed six sessions over 2 weeks, only the training device differed. Before and after the training, performance in the trained task as well as in additional untrained tasks was recorded. ANOVAs showed that each TG outperformed the other groups only in the task they had trained (e.g., task trained by TG1: +225% in TG1, only +41% and +30% in TG2 and control, group*time interaction, pbalance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement, and test the efficacy of training programs using specific tests instead of general tests with limited functional relevance.

  8. Barcode Payment System in Trusted Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vibha Kaw Raina

    2012-01-01

    Mobile payment is an application of mobile commerce which facilitates mobile commerce transactions by providing the mobile customer with a convenient means to pay. Many mobile payment methods have been proposed and implemented like user friendly, customer centric, merchant centric where security concerns are highly addressed. This paper proposes a mobile payment model with barcodes for mobile users to improve mobile user experience in mobile payment. Unlike other existing mobile payment syste...

  9. Payment Schemes in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: The Case of 4Ps in the Davao Region, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Cecilia Catubig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates current payment schemes employed by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps in the Philippines using six assessment criteria: transaction cost, security/risks, speed and timeliness, acceptability, resilience and flexibility. Employing data collected at the regional level, we establish four main findings: (1 all 4Ps payment conduits present trade-offs; (2 a payment approach that uses mainstream financial infrastructure is beneficial if cost, speed and simplicity of the payment system are critical; (3 competition for 4Ps contracts for Payment Service Providers (PSPs has improved the quality of payment services and minimized costs; and (4 the efficiency of the program is greatly influenced by the commitment of the PSP to deliver the cash benefits to the recipients in a timely manner rather than by maximizing conduit branches.

  10. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  11. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  12. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    dispensable and self­ defeating—dispensable because that grand strategy is no longer needed to sustain an advantageous global environment, and self-defeating...democra­ 6 cy, and the establishment of a robust global market economy.13 It has contributed to...and even more crucial issue at hand—the question of how successful that strategy will be in preserving U.S. global influence and maintaining a

  13. Landslides: A Question of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, John; Loader, Pete

    2008-01-01

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students…

  14. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  15. Iranian Households’ Payments on Food and Health Out-of-Pocket Expenditures: Evidence of Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam GHIASVAND

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inequality in households’ payments on food and health expenditures presents the accessibility and utili-zation patterns between them. This study investigated the Iranian rural and urban households’ inequality in payments on food and Out-of-Pocket health expenditures from 1998 to 2012.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted through the analysis of Iranian Statistics Centre data on Iranian households’ income and expenditures. The Gini Coefficients, Concentration and Kakwani indices have been calculat-ed for Iranian rural and urban households’ Out-of-Pocket health and food expenditures.Results: The means of Iranian rural and urban total consumption expenditures inequality were 0.48 and 0.48, respec-tively. The means of concentration index of food expenditures for rural and urban regions were 0.35 and 0.34, respec-tively. The means of Out-of-Pocket payments for health services for rural and urban regions were 0.51 and 0.5, re-spectively. Finally the means of Kakwani index of Out-of-Pocket health payments in rural and urban households were -0.005 and -0.018, respectively.Conclusion: There are relative high levels of inequality in Iranian households’ payments on food and Out-of-Pocket health expenditures.

  16. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C P

    2012-04-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  17. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the...

  18. Payment Schemes in Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: The Case of 4Ps in the Davao Region, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Cecilia Catubig; Renato Villano; Brian Dollery

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates current payment schemes employed by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in the Philippines using six assessment criteria: transaction cost, security/risks, speed and timeliness, acceptability, resilience and flexibility. Employing data collected at the regional level, we establish four main findings: (1) all 4Ps payment conduits present trade-offs; (2) a payment approach that uses mainstream financial infrastructure is beneficial if cost, speed and simplicity of...

  19. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  20. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  1. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects. Method: Total number of thirty subjects participated in the study. The duration of study was four weeks with five sittings in a week and with duration of sixty minutes in each training session. Data was collected using Berg balance scale and the get up and go test, statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and paired T-test. Result: The mean value of timed get up and go test in group A was 16.93 with a standard deviation of ±3.86. The t-value of the study was 2.63 with P-value of 0.007.The study found significant difference in effect as the calculated P < 0.05. The results showed that the conventional therapy along with masked vision could bring about significant changes in balance, mobility and function of patients suffering from balance impairment among post stroke. The data analysis found the significant difference between the visions deprived balance training to that of free vision balance training. Conclusion: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on balance and get up and go test. Balance performance and movement was found better in subjects with deprived vision than those with free vision.

  5. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability.

  6. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  7. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....... investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical...

  8. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  9. Explosive Target balances of the German Bundesbank

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Using the recursive unit root test by Phillips et al. (2011) we show that the Target balances of the German Bundesbank have been explosive from the beginning of 2009 to the beginning of 2013. By implementing a full-allotment policy and reducing the required minimum quality of collaterals in October 2008, the European Central Bank (ECB) refinanced credits in the GIIPS countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) to a large extent. Private capital flowed out of the GIIPS countries, an...

  10. Balanced Placement Of Vibration Sensors And Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical approach that involves Hankel singular values leads to method for estimation of optimal placement of relatively few vibration sensors and actuators in multivariable flexible structure. Approach extends and complements previous developments regarding approximate decomposition, to Hankel singular values, of singular values of controllability and observability grammian matrices of multivariable flexible structure. Mathematical constructs also described in "Designing An Approximately Balanced LQG Compensator" (NPO-19000).

  11. Determinants of the Current Account Balance in Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebil Olalekan Oshota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between the current account balance of the balance of payment and its determinants for the periods 1978 to 2008 in Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’ Ivoire. The analysis was based on the saving-investment theory and also in line with the intertemporal approach. Using a linear Vector Autoregressive (VAR approach, our results show that all the variables, except the relative income (RELY, real effective exchange rate (REER and domestic investment (INV for Nigeria, Ghana and Cote’d’Ivoire respectively are important in explaining the long run relationship. However, there was no evidence of short run relationship between the variables and the current account balance in all the three countries. The presence of long run co-movements between the current account balance and its determinants found in this study implies the effectiveness of targeting one of the variables in influencing the long run behaviour of the other variables. The current account imbalance observed in our selected countries was unavoidable and reflected the complexity of the economic problems the countries faced during these years.

  12. The Effects of Virtual Reality-based Balance Training on Balance of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyeong Hee; Hwangbo, Gak; Shin, Hyung Soo

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality-based balance training on balance of the elderly. [Methods] The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into a VR (virtual reality) training group (n=17) and a control group (n=15). The VR training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group received no intervention. The balance of the two groups was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] According to the Romberg Test conducted to examine the effects of the training on balance, both the area covered by the body's center of pressure movement, and movement distances per unit area of the body's center of pressure envelope significantly decreased in the VR training group. Moreover, the two groups showed significant differences in balance. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training is effective at improving the balance of the healthy elderly. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.

  13. Capacity of adolescents with cerebral palsy on paediatric balance scale and Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2014-10-15

    The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  14. Sensitive Quantitative Assessment of Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, Willilam H.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) has become a standard technique for objectively quantifying balance control performance, diagnosing the nature of functional impairments underlying balance disorders, and monitoring clinical treatment outcomes. We have long used CDP protocols to assess recovery of sensory-motor function in astronauts following space flight. The most reliable indicators of post-flight crew performance are the sensory organization tests (SOTs), particularly SOTs 5 and 6, which are sensitive to changes in availability and/or utilization of vestibular cues. We have noted, however, that some astronauts exhibiting obvious signs of balance impairment after flight are able to score within clinical norms on these tests, perhaps as a result of adopting competitive strategies or by their natural skills at substituting alternate sensory information sources. This insensitivity of the CDP protocol could underestimate of the degree of impairment and, perhaps, lead to premature release of those crewmembers to normal duties. To improve the sensitivity of the CDP protocol we have introduced static and dynamic head tilt SOT trials into our protocol. The pattern of postflight recovery quantified by the enhanced CDP protocol appears to more aptly track the re-integration of sensory-motor function, with recovery time increasing as the complexity of sensory-motor/biomechanical task increases. The new CDP protocol therefore seems more suitable for monitoring post-flight sensory-motor recovery and for indicating to crewmembers and flight surgeons fitness for return to duty and/or activities of daily living. There may be classes of patients (e.g., athletes, pilots) having motivation and/or performance characteristics similar to astronauts whose sensory-motor treatment outcomes would also be more accurately monitored using the enhanced CDP protocol. Furthermore, the enhanced protocol may be useful in early detection of age-related balance disorders.

  15. 42 CFR 417.464 - End of CMS's liability for payment: Disenrollment of beneficiaries and termination or default of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End of CMS's liability for payment: Disenrollment... Enrollment, Entitlement, and Disenrollment under Medicare Contract § 417.464 End of CMS's liability for... disenrollment: General rule. (1) CMS's liability for monthly capitation payments to the HMO or CMP...

  16. Computerized calculation of material balances in carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakov, A.M.

    1980-09-01

    Charge formulations and carbonisation schedules are described by empirical formulae used to calculate the yield of coking products. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the material balance, and associated computer program. The program can be written in conventional languages, e.g. Fortran, Algol etc. The information obtained can be used for on-line assessment of the effects of charge composition and properties on the coke and by-products yields, as well as the effects of the carbonisation conditions.

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  18. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  19. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  20. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  1. ESRD Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare payment to ESRD facilities for outpatient maintenance dialysis services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is based on...

  2. Advance Payment ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Advance Payment Model is designed for physician-based and rural providers who have come together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to the...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1249 - Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by a representative payee. 416.1249 Section 416.1249 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Exclusions § 416.1249 Exclusion of payments received as restitution for misuse of benefits by...

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jibi Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subject...

  5. Assessing the Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services: an Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Payments for ecosystem services (PES have increasingly been implemented to protect and restore ecosystems worldwide. The effectiveness of conservation investments in PES may differ under alternative policy scenarios and may not be sustainable because of uncertainties in human responses to policies and dynamic human-nature interactions. To assess the impacts of these interactions on the effectiveness of PES programs, we developed a spatially explicit agent-based model: human and natural interactions under policies (HANIP. We used HANIP to study the effectiveness of China's Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP and alternative policy scenarios in a coupled human-nature system, China's Wolong Nature Reserve, where indigenous people's use of fuelwood affects forests. We estimated the effects of the current NFCP, which provides a cash payment, and an alternative payment scenario that provides an electricity payment by comparing forest dynamics under these policies to forest dynamics under a scenario in which no payment is provided. In 2007, there were 337 km² of forests in the study area of 515 km². Under the baseline projection in which no payment is provided, the forest area is expected to be 234 km² in 2030. Under the current NFCP, there are likely to be 379 km² of forests in 2030, or an increase of 145 km² of forests to the baseline projection. If the cash payment is replaced with an electricity payment, there are likely to be 435 km² of forests in 2030, or an increase of 201 km² of forests to the baseline projection. However, the effectiveness of the NFCP may be threatened by the behavior of newly formed households if they are not included in the payment scheme. In addition, the effects of socio-demographic factors on forests will also differ under different policy scenarios. Human and natural interactions under policies (HANIP and its modeling framework may also be used to assess the effectiveness of many other PES programs around

  6. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  7. Characteristics of physicians receiving large payments from pharmaceutical companies and the accuracy of their disclosures in publications: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Susan L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial relationships between physicians and industry are extensive and public reporting of industry payments to physicians is now occurring. Our objectives were to describe physician recipients of large total payments from these seven companies, and to examine discrepancies between these payments and conflict of interest (COI disclosures in authors’ concurrent publications. Methods The investigative journalism organization, ProPublica, compiled the Dollars for Docs database of payments to individuals from publically available data from seven US pharmaceutical companies during the period 2009 to 2010. We examined the cohort of 373 physicians in this database who each received USD $100,000 or more in the reporting period 2009 to 2010. Results These physicians received a total of $52,600,624 during this period (mean payment per physician $141,020. The predominant specialties were internal medicine and psychiatry. 147 of these physicians authored a total of 134 publications in the first quarter of 2011 and 77% (103 of these publications provided a COI disclosure. 69% of the 103 publications did not contain disclosures of the payment listed in the Dollars for Docs database. Conclusions With increased public reporting of industry payments to physicians, it is apparent that large sums are being paid for services such as consulting and peer education. In over two-thirds of publications where COI disclosures were provided, the disclosures by physician authors did not include industry payments that were documented in the Dollars for Docs database.

  8. Report from the working group on procedures for payment of Member States' contributions

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At its Two-hundred-and-forty-second meeting in June 2000*, the Committee of Council decided to set up a Working Group to review the procedures on the payment of contributions of the Member States for the purposes of improving the cash-flow of the Organization. On the basis of its analysis of the different aspects of the problem and of possible solutions and their anticipated impact, the Working Group submits the following recommendations which it considers to be in the best interests of the Organization: - to adopt a revised payment schedule, i.e. payment of 50% not later than 10 February and the remaining 50% not later than 10 June; - to request the Director-General, in addition to the usual reminders sent by the Finance Division, to write to the relevant Minister in the Member State concerned or to take other equivalent action when contributions are outstanding, i.e. payment of over 20% of the total annual contribution is one month late with respect to the adopted payment schedule; - to request the Manageme...

  9. 38 CFR 3.30 - Frequency of payment of improved pension and parents' dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of payment of..., Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and... annual rate payable is $228 or more. (b) Improved pension—Quarterly. Payment shall be made every 3...

  10. PAYMENT SYSTEMS AND THE ROLE OF THE CENTRAL BANK OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of payment and settlement systems is one of the traditional functions of central banks that seeks to ensure financial stability. Similar to the case of other important function, that of lender of last resort, it is wise to ask ourselves whether the central bank is the best institution to manage payment systems. Also, considering the advances in the field, some questions arise: whether or not they contributed to the reduction of systemic risk?, do they bring extra liquidity and stability of the EMU scheme?.

  11. Online Behavior and Loyalty Program Participation-parameters Influencing the Acceptance of Contactless Payment Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the central perceptions of consumers influencing the decision to use contactless payment instruments. Aim is to define a customer core group narrowed down by several variables and to find a basis for a purposeful communication of advantages of the new payment process, as investment into this technology bears the risk of total loss if the customer group is declining acceptance and the image of a company might be excessively damaged. External variables in context with the usage of social online media and participation in customer loyalty programs have been selected to clarify possible impact. These factors offer comprehensive explanation and help interpreting mechanisms within the decision making process for acceptance of the payment technology. Data were collected in a survey with n = 1,294 customers in a major city in Northern Germany. Results are displayed in a technology acceptance model, using structural equation modelling and regression analysis. The study is not limited on mobile payment instruments in the traditional context respectively involving a mobile phone. On the contrary this analysis is made on the belief that any device can be enabled for contactless payment processes, such as traditional items like credit or debit cards. Customers shopping online have a higher perceived usefulness an customers participating in loyalty programs tend to understand the argument of the ease of use of the technology more than their counterparts.

  12. The voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of Venezuelan tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Guillermo Garcia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A consensus between the reformers of the public administration exists on a matter that changes are not decreed, but that these require, for their effective fulfillment of certain conditions, like stimulation of actors affected by the reforms, to recognize the new scenario like favorable and therefore, to act in its name. Under this premise, this paper analyzes the voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of the Venezuelan tax system, which has implied the development of a formal incentives structure promoting the initiative of conscious tax payment.

  13. Effects of hypothalamic neurodegeneration on energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wanting Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc, neuropeptides that promote positive or negative energy balance, respectively, through their opposing effects on melanocortin receptor signaling. In previous studies, Pomc mutant mice became obese, but Agrp mutant mice were surprisingly normal, suggesting potential compensation by neuronal circuits or genetic redundancy. Here we find that Pomc-ablation mice develop obesity similar to that described for Pomc knockout mice, but also exhibit defects in compensatory hyperphagia similar to what occurs during normal aging. Agrp-ablation female mice exhibit reduced adiposity with normal compensatory hyperphagia, while animals ablated for both Pomc and Agrp neurons exhibit an additive interaction phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the roles of hypothalamic neurons in energy balance regulation, and provide a model for understanding defects in human energy balance associated with neurodegeneration and aging.

  14. The implementation of PAYT system under the condition of financial balance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bozec, André

    2008-12-01

    Since 2005, France has been facing a reform of the financial regulation of the management of municipal solid waste, by tax or flat fees. Nevertheless, the application of unit pricing is limited to about 15 local authorities, but interest is expanding. The French examples confirm the efficiency of this PAYT system. The prevention and the sorting of packaging waste are increasing and the quantity of residual waste falling. But, we have highlighted the difficulty for the local authorities to balance their budgets during the years of PAYT system implementation. After a short review of the situation in France of the financing of waste services, and in particular of PAYT system, the paper presents, firstly the financial model and then, the results of its application in two communities. The cost model takes into account the expenditure of management on various waste flows and the revenues for the sale of by-products. A financial balance is ensured by the payments from households. Consequently, the unit pricing and the effect of the behaviour of the inhabitants are introduced into the simulation model. The application on two local authorities showed that the increase of sorting waste did not restore the balance. From the analysis, three reasons explain this situation: Thus, the development of the tariff must be carried out according to an economic approach. In the end, after the presentation of the financial modelling and its application, we make recommendations to aid the implementation of the PAYT system and the development of the pricing structures by local authorities.

  15. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  16. Assessment of the direct payment schemes: SAPS and SPS in the context of the discussion on the CAP after 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Figurski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the main elements of the proposed system of direct payments to be implemented after 2013, in comparison to current support schemes in the European Union. The analysis covers basic components of each system i.e. the single payment in SPS, the single area payment in SAPS and the basic payment in the new system. More important common features and differences between the systems were also indicated. The comparative analysis carried out in this work allowed for identification of the effects of different payment schemes (especially in terms of access to support, administration system and use of the national ceiling, which was the main goal of this article.

  17. A survey on the attitudes of doctors towards health insurance payment in the medical consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ge; WU Tao; XU Wei-guo

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical consortium is a specific vertical integration model of regional medical resources.To improve medical resources utilization and control the health insurance costs by fee-for-service plans (FFS),capitation fee and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs),it is important to explore the attitudes of doctors towards the different health insurance payment in the medical consortium in Shanghai.Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out randomly on 50 doctors respectively in 3 different levels medical institutes.Results The statistical results showed that 90% of doctors in tertiary hospitals had the tendency towards FFS,whereas 78% in secondary hospitals towards DRGs and 84% in community health centers towards capitation fee.Conclusions There are some obvious differences on doctors' attitudes towards health insurance payment in 3 different levels hospitals.Thus,it is feasible that health insurance payment should be supposed to the doctors' attitudes using the bundled payments along with the third-party payment as a supervisor within consortium.

  18. An alternative way of understanding exit, voice and loyalty: the case of informal payments for health care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nissim; Filc, Dani

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Hirschman's model of exit, voice and loyalty with regard to informal payments in the Israeli healthcare system. Based on a national survey, we investigate the extent of "black" payments, its characteristics and its correlated factors. We find that informal payments do exist in Israel-although it seems that there has been a decline in the phenomenon. Contrary to the literature, we find no relationship between the option of voice or dissatisfaction with healthcare services and informal payments. However, we do find a negative correlation between trust and the use of such payments. This finding is consistent with Hirschman's insight that a lack of loyalty may lead people to strategies of exit. We suggest that given the fact that health care in Israel is a public service, the exit option may actually be a quasi-exit behavior. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 42 CFR 409.68 - Guarantee of payment for inpatient hospital or inpatient CAH services furnished before...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guarantee of payment for inpatient hospital or inpatient CAH services furnished before notification of exhaustion of benefits. 409.68 Section 409.68 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.68 Guarantee of payment...

  20. Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with Spatially Dependent Recurrent Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent

    2014-04-01

    Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of spatially homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of spatially heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that depends on the spatial separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the spatial spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.

  1. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... payments of life insurance proceeds. (a) Mortality table. Notwithstanding any provision of § 1.101-4 that... principles of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A life insurance...

  2. A comparative analysis of three self-balancing wheelchair balancing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachery L; Van Moorhem, William K; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    In the last 20 years, three different basic, dynamic balancing designs have been proposed for a self-balancing wheelchair (SBW) that allows the wheelchair user to transition from driving on all four wheels to driving while balanced on the two large rear wheels. The dynamic performance of these three SBW designs, the hanging pendulum counterweight (HPC), the single inverted pendulum (SIP), and the double inverted pendulum (DIP), are compared when controlled by a common state space controller. The four dynamic performance considerations of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability and technical requirements were used to compare these designs while performing the following five tests: 1) transition from four-wheel to two-wheel, balancing mode; 2) stationary, self-balancing stability when subjected to an impact disturbance; 3) movement initiation, and stopping while balancing; 4) response to impact disturbances while moving; and 5) stability on low traction surfaces. In addition, the movement initiation and stopping test was repeated with increased chair mass and inertia to investigate the sensitivity of model performance to changes in model parameters. After comparing the three models it was determined that the HPC mechanism is the best choice for further development based on the criteria of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability, and technical requirements. The HPC ranked equal or better compared to the SIP and DIP on 15 of 29 stability and performance factors. It was also the only design that was stable for all normally expected driving conditions.

  3. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields (finance, users, business processes, learning and development where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodology of the choice of indicators. This paper particularly emphasizes a possibility of implementation of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process as methods of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM inmplementation of BSC.

  4. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE AMOUNTS OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Teszbir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the causes of regional variation in the direct payments. The publication data has been used from ARiMR, publications which spans the time included the amount of subsidies paid throughout the post-accession period. Both at national and regional level, the total amount of payments increased from year to year, average 10%, which was connected to the principle phasing in. The amount of aid received by individual regions and individual farms varied widely, which had a direct relationship with the agrarian structure and the average total area of farms in these areas. The bigger number of small farms, as well as the smaller average total surface area of a single voivodeship, the lower sum of the payments.

  5. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former... principal's approved leave without pay during full-time service with an organization composed primarily of Government employees irrespective of whether the principal elects to make payments to the Fund for...

  6. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of.... This Notice Also Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant...

  7. 7 CFR 14.6 - Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from gross income. 14.6 Section 14.6 Agriculture Office of the... Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from...

  8. Using 'payment by results' to fund the treatment of dependent drug users--proceed with care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Alan; Street, Andrew; Hunter, Rachael

    2011-10-01

    The UK government is changing its system of payment for drug treatment services in order to reward the achievement of better patient outcomes. This is a model that may be taken up internationally. This 'payment by results' funding system will reward providers for achieving good outcomes in terms of whether clients are drug free, employed and/or not convicted of a criminal offence. Providers will also receive a payment based on health and wellbeing outcome measurement. The definition and measurement of success in achieving these outcomes is complex and challenging, as is the need to bridge treatment costs during the period in which outcomes are pursued. This experiment requires careful evaluation if the delivery of drug treatment is not to be jeopardized or fragmented.

  9. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of...

  10. Development of New Loan Payment Models with Piecewise Geometric Gradient Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering economics plays an important role in decision making. Also, the cash flows, time value of money and interest rates are the most important research fields in mathematical finance. Generalized formulae obtained from a variety of models with the time value of money and cash flows are inadequate to solve some problems. In this study, a new generalized formulae is considered for the first time and derived from a loan payment model which is a certain number of payment amount determined by customer at the beginning of payment period and the other repayments with piecewise linear gradient series. As a result, some numerical examples with solutions are given for the developed models. 

  11. 77 FR 52319 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans SUMMARY: The Preauthorized Debit Account (PDA) Application is used to establish electronic... records. Title of Collection: Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans. OMB Control Number:...

  12. 77 FR 52703 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans SUMMARY: The Preauthorized Debit Account (PDA) Application is used to establish electronic... records. Title of Collection: Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans. OMB Control Number:...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1046 - Effect of debarment or suspension on payments for services furnished in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments for services furnished in emergency situations. 890.1046 Section 890.1046 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH... Debarments § 890.1046 Effect of debarment or suspension on payments for services furnished in...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.92 - How does my agency handle receipts, tickets or other records of cash payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handle receipts, tickets or other records of cash payments? 102-118.92 Section 102-118.92 Public... records of cash payments? Your agency must ensure that its employees keep the original receipts for transportation purchases over $75.00 made with cash. If it is impractical to furnish receipts in any instance...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of payments received as... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1229 Exclusion of payments received as compensation for...

  16. 26 CFR 1.101-4 - Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date... Income § 1.101-4 Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death. (a) In general. (1)(i... those to which section 101(c) applies) received under a life insurance contract and paid by reason...

  17. 41 CFR 304-6.6 - How do we determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? 304-6.6 Section 304-6.6... determine the value of payments in kind that are to be reported on Standard Form (SF) 326? The following should be used in the determination of the value of payments in kind for reporting on SF 326: (a)...

  18. National Design and Multinational Integration of Balancing Services Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The “balancing market” in the liberalized electricity sector of today is the tool in the hands of the system operator to balance generation and consumption in the grid and ensure system security. This dissertation addresses market design issues of balancing services markets from a national perspecti

  19. DIRECTIONS OF USING DIRECT PAYMENTS BY THE INDIVIDUAL FARMS LOCATED IN CHOSEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the diversity of directions for use of direct payments in different types of individual farms. The questionnaire surveys were performed on 295 farms located in dif-ferent parts of the country. Analysed farms were divided into groups according to the amount direct support received. Based on the survey concluded that in all analysed groups the largest share of direct payments is spent on the purchase of means of production. The smallest farms also spend to a high extent, the money on household purposes (20.5% and the largest ones to finance the investment (17.7%.

  20. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... in a significant rise in the time such sporting assets spend on sport. Yet, attempting a professional career in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. The study presented in this paper explores how 15- to 19-year-old Danish football talents...

  1. Dynamics and mass balance of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica: 3. State of mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, J. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Morse, D. L.; Bliss, A. K.; Aciego, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Taylor Glacier flows from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and terminates in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, where it has left a geomorphologic record of past incursions. Here we use new data on the flow, thickness, and surface balance of Taylor Glacier to calculate ice fluxes and assess the current state of mass balance. Overall, the glacier is close to a state of zero net balance, and has largely adjusted to reduced snowfall on the Taylor Dome source region in the mid Holocene. One region of the upper ablation zone appears to be losing mass. Evidence from ice surface morphology and stable isotope profiles suggests that this mass loss is a long-term phenomenon, hence probably a lingering response to the earlier drying of Taylor Dome. Our data give a general indication of the size of ablation or accumulation changes needed for ice to advance far into Taylor Valley, as occurred 70 to 130 ka ago.

  2. 第三方支付研究综述%Review of Research on the Third-Party Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 余运伟; 陈林

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet finance, the importance of the third party payment is increasing day by day. After briefly introducing the concepts of third-party payment, the background of the emergence of third-party payment as well as its application scenarios, this paper systematically reviews the domestic and international related researches on the third-party payment and mobile payment, mainly including the game behaviors among the third-party payment institutions, the user behavior for third-party payment and its influencing factors, as well as the risk, regulation, innovation, and the development trend of third-party payment industry.%随着互联网金融的快速发展,第三方支付的重要性与日俱增。简要介绍了第三方支付的相关概念、兴起的背景和应用场景。系统回顾了国内外关于第三方支付和移动支付的相关内容,主要包括第三方支付企业之间的博弈行为、第三方支付的用户行为及其影响因素、第三方付支付的风险与监管、创新与发展趋势等研究成果。

  3. The formal-informal patient payment mix in European countries. Governance, economics, culture or all of these?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Cost-sharing for health care is high on the policy agenda in many European countries that struggle with deficits in their public budget. However, such policy often meets with public opposition, which might delay or even prevent its implementation. Increased reliance on patient payments may also have adverse equity effects, especially in countries where informal patient payments are widespread. The factors which might influence the presence of both, formal and informal payments can be found in economic, governance and cultural differences between countries. The aim of this paper is to review the formal-informal payment mix in Europe and to outline factors associated with this mix. We use quantitative analyses of macro-data for 35 European countries and a qualitative description of selected country experiences. The results suggest that the presence of obligatory cost-sharing for health care services is associated with governance factors, while informal patient payments are a multi-cause phenomenon. A consensus-based policy, supported by evidence and stakeholders' engagement, might contribute to a more sustainable patient payment policy. In some European countries, the implementation of cost-sharing requires policy actions to reduce other patient payment obligations, including measures to eliminate informal payments.

  4. CAP DIRECT PAYMENTS AS THE MAIN TOOL TO SUPPORT THE EU FARMERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON SPAIN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct payments are the main tool of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and the main objective is to support EU farmers incomes. They benefit from a particular attention during the new 2014-2020 reform. For the first time direct payments were introduced in 1992 after MacSharry reform and known as coupled payments (payments per hectare and animal head. In 2003 were introduced the decoupled payments focused at encouraging farmers and enhancing the competitiveness and sustainability of the EU agriculture. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of direct payments as main support instrument to the EU farmers based on Spain experience. In Spain the new changes in the Single Payment Scheme (SPS were first introduced in 2006, beginning with the regime of partial decoupling, until 2012, when the coupled payments disappeared, being integrated under the SPS or transformed into additional payment. In this analysis, secondary data provided by the Spanish Agrarian Guarantee Fund (FEGA, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment of Spain (MAGRAMA and Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. The analyzed data refers to the amount of allocated direct payments in Spain and EU countries, number of beneficiaries and its distribution on territorial aspect. So far, the distribution of direct payments in Spain, similar to other EU member states, is unequal, as a result of various factors, as the CAP development and diversity of production, the use of historical references to fix the decoupled payments per farm and others.

  5. The Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Seth A; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-01-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying depths. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  6. Economic Integration vs European Balance of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoqing

    2004-01-01

    @@ The fifth round of the EU enlargement on May 1, 2004 turns the long-cherished "utopia" of a unified Europe into reality through a peaceful, economic approach.① This paper attempts to make some explorations on the following issues: Why the option for an economic approach? What changes have taken place in the nature and behavior of the relevant nations? What impact will the event have on European stability and balance?② How will the EU keep equilibrium through systemic mechanisms in case of inter-state disputes so as to lay the political groundwork for a peaceful unification.

  7. Development of material balance evaluation technique (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; So, Dong Sup; Kwack, Eun Ho; Jung, Mi Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on MUF is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as nuclear material accountancy. It is necessary to get the information such as nuclear material inventory lists, measurement result and errors, IAEA accounting report for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts of MUF, D and MUF-D, the computation methods of measurement errors, MUF evaluation technique using the 'Statistical Concepts and Technique' published by IAEA are described. 3 tabs. (Author)

  8. An inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Horng-Jinh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In economic order quantity (EOQ models, it is often assumed that the payment of an order is made on the receipt of items by the inventory system. However, such an assumption is not quite practical in the real world. Under most market behaviors, it can be easily found that a vendor provides a credit period for buyers to stimulate demand. In this paper, a varying rate of determination and the condition of permissible delay in payments used in conjunction with the economic order quantity model are the focus of discussion. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed models.

  9. 26 CFR 31.3102-2 - Manner and time of payment of employee tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner and time of payment of employee tax....

  10. 26 CFR 31.3111-5 - Manner and time of payment of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner and time of payment of employer tax....

  11. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  12. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  13. Biometrics of hoof balance in equids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Differences in hoof balance between horses, mules and donkeys were identified in order to form more specific considerations for proper management of the animals. Measurements of the natural dimensions of hooves in sixty animals were used: 20 horses from the Crioulo breed, 20 mules and 20 donkeys from the Pêga breed. Liveweight was estimated using the correlation equations in each species by heart girth. Using a caliper rule, tape measure and hoof gauge, measurements of the length and width of the frog, hoof height, angle of heel, medial and lateral dorsal length, angle of the toe and crown circumference of the hooves of forelimbs and hindlimb were taken. Within each group the hooves of the hindlimbs exhibited narrower measurements than the hooves of the forelimbs and no difference was observed between the hoof angle of both members of groups. The conformation of the hooves of donkeys is shown to be substantially different from that observed in horses, the mules being in an intermediate condition, being smaller, angled and robust frog and proportionally more developed. Similarly, the hooves of donkeys provide greater support area compared to mules and horses, in descending order, even being dimensionally smaller. We conclude that the hooves of horses, mules and donkeys, have specific patterns of geometric balance that must be taken into consideration at the time of trimming and imbalance inferences.

  14. Competing Effects of Social Balance and Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, P; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2015-01-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field $p_c$ such that for a weak external field ($p$$$$p_c$), there is only one (stable) fixed point which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasi-stationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  15. Competing effects of social balance and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Sreenivasan, S; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field p_{c} such that for a weak external field (pp_{c}), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  16. Competing effects of social balance and influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Sreenivasan, S.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field pc such that for a weak external field (p pc ), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  17. Validation of the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. J.; Balkin, Richard S.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Life balance is an important construct within the counseling profession. A validation study utilizing exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression was conducted on the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory. Results from the study serve as evidence of validity for an assessment instrument designed to measure life balance.

  18. 76 FR 77590 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal Benefit by Check, EFT Waiver Form AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of...

  19. 5 CFR 838.933 - Payment of the cost of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... survivor annuity. 838.933 Section 838.933 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... in Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Miscellaneous Provisions § 838.933 Payment of the cost of a former spouse survivor annuity. (a) A court order that unequivocally awards a...

  20. Rural Medicare Advantage Plan Payment in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Payment to Medicare Advantage (MA) plans was fundamentally altered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). MA plans now operate under a new formula for county-level payment area benchmarks, and in 2012 began receiving quality-based bonus payments. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Payment Demonstration expanded the bonus payments to most MA plans through 2014; however, with the end of the demonstration bonus payments has been reduced for intermediate quality MA plans. This brief examines the impact that these changes in MA baseline payment are having on MA plans and beneficiaries in rural and urban areas. Key Data Findings. (1) Payments to plans in rural areas were 3.9 percent smaller under ACA payment policies in 2015 than they would have been in the absence of the ACA. For plans in urban areas, the payments were 8.8 percent smaller than they would have been. These figures were determined using hypothetical pre-ACA and actual ACA-mandated benchmarks for 2015. (2) MA plans in rural areas received an average annual bonus payment of $326.77 per enrollee in 2014, but only $63.76 per enrollee in 2015, with the conclusion of the demonstration. (3) In 2014, 92 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that received quality-based bonus payments under the demonstration, while in March 2015, 56 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that was eligible for quality-based bonus payments.

  1. 13 CFR 107.1210 - Payment of leverage fee upon receipt of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of leverage fee upon receipt of commitment. 107.1210 Section 107.1210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  2. INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF WII BALANCE BOARD (WBB IN ASSESSING STANDING BALANCE IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Dugani Burji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: WII Balance Board (WBB being one of the latest, advanced technologies of high sensitivity in monitoring change in balance over time and owing to, ease of use, and portability, it is being used in physical therapy clinics as a popular substitute for the expensive and complicated force plates to improve dynamic strength and balance. Despite its growing popularity, the WBB’s reliability as an intervention and assessment tool for balance is still being investigated. So this study aims in finding the accuracy of WBB. The objectives of the study are to find the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Standard Error Measurement on both day 1 and day 2 with eyes closed and eyes open in older adults. Method: 30 subjects over the age of 65 years were assessed for balance using WBB. Subjects were measured in double limb stance with eyes open and closed with feet comfortably distant apart on the board. The same procedure was repeated after 24 hours. Results: The study showed to be statistically significant for eyes open on day 1 and day 2, but was not statistically significant for eyes closed on day 1 and day 2. Conclusion: The study suggested that the WBB was reliable for eyes open and not reliable with eyes closed.

  3. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  4. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  5. 我国实行DRGs付费机制改革初探%Study on the Implementation of DRGs Payment Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳帅; 程苏华

    2015-01-01

    随着人民生活水平不断提高,健康需求也随之迅速增加,我国面临医疗费用持续上涨的压力,原有以服务项目为主体的付费方式已经严重阻碍了医疗卫生事业的发展。DRGs作为一种更为合理的医疗费用支付方式,兼顾了政府、医院、患者等多方利益,又达到了医疗质量与费用的合理平衡[1],以DRGs预付机制为主,辅以按项目、服务单元和总额预付等多元支付制度是医保付费的改革方向。%Health needs of the public is increasing rapidly along with the continuous improvement of their living standards. As a result, China is facing the pressure of continuously rising health care costs, and the previous services-centered payment system has seriously hindered the development of medical and health services. As a more reasonable payment method of medical expenses, DRGs has not only taken interests of various parties into account, including the interests of the government, hospitals and patients, but also reached a reasonable balance between the quality and cost of health care. The diverse payment system, which focuses on DRGs prepaid mechanism with the supplementation of prepaid mechanism based on projects, service unit and total amount, is the future of medicare payment reform.

  6. Dynamic balance of unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄森林; 刘占生; 苏杰先

    2003-01-01

    The formula is derived for calculating correction weights from motion equations of unsymmetrical ro-tor-bearing system. Two trial weights are required in two trial operations for ea ch balancing plane, and forwardprecession of trial responses are used to calculate the correction weights. Comparative experiments between thismethod and the conventional method are carried out on the test bench. Moreover, this method was used to bal-ance a 600 MW generator-bearing system, it decreased the balancing time and improved the balance accuracy.This method has been proved valid for balancing unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system.

  7. The Improvement of Joule Balance NIM-1 and the Design of New Joule Balance NIM-2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengkun; He, Qing; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng; Xu, Jinxin; Li, Shisong; Li, Chen; Wnag, Gang; Zeng, Tao; Bai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The development of the joule balance method to measure the Planck constant, in support of the redefinition of the kilogram, has been going on at the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM) since 2007. The first prototype has been built to check the feasibility of the principle. In 2011, the relative uncertainty of the Planck constant measurement at NIM is $7.7\\times10^{-5}$. Self-heating of the coils, swing of the coil, are the main uncertainty contributions. Since 2012, some improvements have been made to reduce these uncertainties. The relative uncertainty of the joule balance is reduced to $7.2\\times10^{-6}$ at present. The Planck constant measured with the joule balance is $h=6.6261041(470)\\times10^{-34}$Js. The relative difference between the determined h and the CODATA2010 recommendation value is $5\\times10^{-6}$. Further improvements are still being carried out on the NIM-1 apparatus. At the same time, the design and construction of a brand new and compact joule balance NIM-2 are also in progres...

  8. Computation of covex bounds for present value functions with random payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ahcan; G. Darkiewicz; M.J. Goovaerts; T. Hoedemakers

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution we study the distribution of the present value function of a series of random payments in a stochastic financial environment. Such distributions occur naturally in a wide range of applications within fields of insurance and finance. We obtain accurate approximations by developin

  9. Payments for Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Sustainability: The Case of Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential impacts of payments for ecosystem services on poverty and sustainability of farm households, using the example of agricultural soil carbon sequestration. Economic analysis shows that there is a variety of technical and economic factors affecting adoption of practi

  10. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  11. A Conceptual Framework for the Progression of Balance Exercises in Persons with Balance and Vestibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, B N; Carender, W J; Lin, C C; Alsubaie, S F; Kinnaird, C R; Sienko, K H; Whitney, S L

    There is little information in peer-reviewed literature to specifically guide the choice of exercise for persons with balance and vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a rationale for the establishment of a progression framework and propose a logical sequence in progressing balance exercises for persons with vestibular disorders. Our preliminary conceptual framework was developed by a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists and engineers with extensive experience with people with vestibular disorders. Balance exercises are grouped into six different categories: static standing, compliant surface, weight shifting, modified center of gravity, gait, and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Through a systematized literature review, interviews and focus group discussions with physical therapists and postural control experts, and pilot studies involving repeated trials of each exercise, exercise progressions for each category were developed and ranked in order of degree of difficulty. Clinical expertise and experience guided decision making for the exercise progressions. Hundreds of exercise combinations were discussed and research is ongoing to validate the hypothesized rankings. The six exercise categories can be incorporated into a balance training program and the framework for exercise progression can be used to guide less experienced practitioners in the development of a balance program. It may also assist clinicians and researchers to design, develop, and progress interventions within a treatment plan of care, or within clinical trials. A structured exercise framework has the potential to maximize postural control, decrease symptoms of dizziness/visual vertigo, and provide "rules" for exercise progression for persons with vestibular disorders. The conceptual framework may also be applicable to persons with other balance-related issues.

  12. 24 CFR 203.33 - Relationship of income to mortgage payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship of income to mortgage... Mortgagors § 203.33 Relationship of income to mortgage payments. (a) Adequacy of mortgagor's gross income. A mortgagor must establish, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that his or her gross income is and will...

  13. 26 CFR 1.682(b)-1 - Application of trust rules to alimony payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following), part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Code, the wife described in section 682 or section 71 who... trust, whether or not the payments are made for the benefit of the husband in discharge of his obligations. A wife treated as a beneficiary of a trust under this section is also treated as the...

  14. 34 CFR 685.215 - Discharge for false certification of student eligibility or unauthorized payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Direct Loan as a result of the crime of identity theft committed against the individual, as that crime is... accrued charges and collection costs with respect to the loan. (2) Discharge for unauthorized payment... falsely certified because he or she was a victim of the crime of identity theft and is requesting...

  15. 31 CFR 341.8 - Payment or redemption during lifetime of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... registered owner (or a person recognized as entitled to act on his behalf), provided he is 591/2 years of age or older. The owner's age will be determined from the date of birth shown on the face of the bond... STATES RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS § 341.8 Payment or redemption during lifetime of owner. (a) At age 591/2...

  16. 31 CFR 515.531 - Payment of certain checks and drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.531 Payment of certain checks and drafts... $500; or (ii) The check or draft was within the United States in process of collection by a domestic... authorization contained in this section shall expire at the close of business on August 8, 1963....

  17. 27 CFR 24.272 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States Customs Service for payment of excise tax on imported wine. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine... year any proprietor who is liable for a gross amount of wine excise tax equal to or exceeding...

  18. 77 FR 10714 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC41 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform AGENCY: Office of the Procurement Executive, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  19. 34 CFR 361.65 - Allotment and payment of Federal funds for vocational rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Financing of State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.65 Allotment and payment of Federal funds for vocational rehabilitation services. (a) Allotment. (1) The... rehabilitation services. 361.65 Section 361.65 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  20. The Role of E-Payment Tools and E-Banking in Customer Satisfaction Case Study: Pasargad Bank E-Payment Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Soleimani Roozbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Banks, as the main components of any countries` economic backbone, perpetually try to satisfy the needs and expectations of their customers to increase customer satisfaction, since in today`s competitive world, gaining competitive advantage is a high priority for any organization. On the other hand, the emergence of information technology in the banking industry has provided speed, security, efficiency, and quality of services through electronic banking and electronic payment tools. Therefore, banks and credit firms are constantly trying to increase their quality of services to satisfy their customers and gain competitive advantage. Objective: Since customer satisfaction is a high priority as one of the goals of banks and credit firms, this study aims to investigate the role of e-payment tools and e-banking in customer satisfaction. Methodology: This study is an applied research regarding goal and a correlation type descriptive-survey regarding methodology. The statistical population consists of 80 gold customers of Pasargad bank e-payment company and the sample size was determined 66.35 using Cochran`s equation. Moreover, a questionnaire s used to collect the information. This questionnaire was developed in two sections by the researcher. The validity of the questionnaire is confirmed by a group of experts, including professors and specialists of the field, and its trust is computed using Cronbach`s alpha (α=90%. Furthermore, SPSS software and Pearson`s correlation test were used to analyze the data. Results of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between e-payment tools and e-banking. Therefore, the results can help to identify effective factors of customer satisfaction and in turn providing competitive advantage for this and similar organizations.