WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of payments

  1. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  2. THE SIGNAL APPROACH TO MODELLING THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and presents synthesis of theoretical models of balance of payment crisis and investigates the most effective ways to model the crisis in Ukraine. For mathematical formalization of balance of payment crisis, comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different calculation methods of Exchange Market Pressure Index was performed. A set of indicators that signal the growing likelihood of balance of payments crisis was defined using signal approach. With the help of minimization function thresholds indicators were selected, the crossing of which signalize increase in the probability of balance of payment crisis.

  3. Terms of trade instability and balance of payments adjustment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terms of trade instability and balance of payments adjustment in Nigeria: A simultaneous equation modelling. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This implies that for any 1percent instability (shock) in terms of trade, balance of payment will be adversely affected by about 1.8 percent. Hence ...

  4. The balance of payment-constrained economic growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the simplified version of the balance of payment-constrained economic growth model for Ethiopia during the period 1971-20082. According to the model, economies only grow at a pace allowed by the constraints imposed by the requirement of balance of payment ...

  5. 12 CFR 204.10 - Payment of interest on balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 204.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.10 Payment of interest on balances. (a) Payment of interest. The Federal Reserve Banks shall pay interest on balances maintained at...

  6. 75 FR 66686 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial... Balance of Payments Program for construction material that is commercial information technology. DATES... the Balance of Payments Program for commercial information technology to be used in overseas...

  7. TERMS OF TRADE INSTABILITY AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    However, by 1976 Britain's share of Nigerian exports and imports dropped to 38 ... Africa countries have the most volatile terms of trade in the ... exchange rate movement and domestic inflation re significant factors responsible for balance of ... In the analysis of balance of payments, three approaches are identifiable. These.

  8. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume V, Issue II, July 2017 ... between economic growth and current account balance equilibrium. .... With these precedents, there is a need to analyze the degree to which balance of payments .... With this result, we can now investigate the long run relationship between our variables.

  9. Effects of revenue from tourism on Montenegro's balance of payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Maja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most important industries in Montenegro, having several multiplier effects. Direct contribution of tourism to economic growth and development of Montenegro became even more important in the period after the outbreak of the global economic crisis. Due to low export competitiveness and high dependence of its economy on import, Montenegro has been facing high deficit in foreign trade and balance of payments for years. The article aims to analyze the trend of revenue from foreign tourists and to assess the effects of such revenue on overall changes to the current account of Montenegro's balance of payment. The results of the study show that in the period from 2008 onwards, growth of tourism revenue has lead to increased deficit in balance of payments. Since needs of tourists cannot be met from own sources, Montenegro has increased import of goods and services in the same period, which reduced total effects of tourism. In the years after the outbreak of the global economic crisis, the direct influence of tourism on increased surplus on the services subaccount within the current account of the balance of payments becomes even more important. Growth of tourism revenue leads to significantly higher surplus in the services subaccount, and therefore reduces the balance of payments deficit. Negative effects of tourism on goods import have been significantly reduced over the period, which allowed for a higher degree of coverage of trade deficit by tourism revenue. Increased revenue from foreign tourists at the same time causes higher growth of revenues from transport services, which has indirect positive effect on general changes in the current account of Montenegro's balance of payments.

  10. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  11. Impact of Exchange Rate on Balance of Payment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exchange rate policies have to be used along with the fiscal and monetary instruments to get meaningful results. This implies that our balance of payments problems can be solved simultaneously from two angles, namely, boosting supply and managing demand. Export diversification and promotion, import substitution and ...

  12. The Balance of Payment-Constrained Economic Growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Page 100 financial liberalization and export promotion strategy necessarily lead to better growth performance. Rather, one should consider not only exports of goods and services, but also the income elasticity of imports. The balance of payments-constrained growth model postulates that the rate of growth in any country is ...

  13. Four Alternative Policies to Restore Balance of Payments Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1952-01-01

    textabstractStimulated by Fleming's study on a related subject, the author compares four methods to eliminate balance of payments disequilibria between high-employment countries forming a closed group: (i) "discriminatory" import duties and subsidies, (ii) "discriminatory" duties only or the

  14. Greenland's balance of Payments and Self-governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political and...... of produc­tion and living standards and large current account deficits. It is possible to remove the trade balance deficit and the need for Danish transfers simultaneously, but this would require higher tax rates and huge increases of exports.......Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political...... and eco­nomic national identi­ty. Until recently Greenland's current account was positive by large amounts, which were unex­plained, as it proved impos­sible to uncover corresponding capital account defi­cits. However, im­proved balance of payments statistics together with sim­ple compu...

  15. The Impact of Trade Balance in the Current Account of Kosovo’s Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Merovci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The trade deficit and specifically the current account deficit are the main challenges that Kosovo‘s economy is facing. According to the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOP, the trade balance of goods is the largest component, expressed in absolute and relative terms and consequently it determines the behavior of the current account balance. Trade deficit to GDP ratio is very high - more than 50 percent. Regarding this, financing the constant deficit of the current account is becoming a real problem, because in the long run it is impossible for a country to spend more than its income without becoming a debtor to the rest of the world. Given the unchanged structure of the current account of the Balance of Payments, we conclude that, an improvement of the trade balance is a precondition to the improvement of the current account balance. This can be done through longterm and sustainable substitution of imports with domestic production and also with effective export promotion. Increasing foreign direct investment and export promotion can be considered, in the longer term, the main way to improve Kosovo's Trade Balance.

  16. Oil imports and the US balance of payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the historical data for the US during a period of major swings in our oil import bill shows little continuing relationship to measures of our overall international balance. A look at other major oil importers all more dependent on imported oil than we will be even by the end of the century shows they handled similar wide swings in their oil import bills even while improving their international balances. Some, perhaps a major part, or our increased payments for oil imports is likely to return as payment for imports from us by the oil exporters. What seems more important is that we remain competitive in our export industries, and some measures suggested to reduce our oil imports, such as a unilateral US oil import tariff are likely to work against this competitiveness by raising oil and energy costs to our industries above those of our competitors. In terms of our international balances at least, the cures for rising oil imports are likely to be much worse than the disease

  17. The balance-of-payments constraint:from balanced trade to sustainable debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H. Barbosa-Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the balance-of-payments constraint on growth known as Thirlwall's law to incorporate unbalanced trade and debt accumulation. Assuming that small open economies face a liquidity constraint, the text shows the growth and real-exchange-rate policy rules consistent with a stable ratio of net exports to income. Given such rules, the text shows how the trade balance of a small open economy is residually determined by the ratio of foreign debt to income allowed by international conditions.

  18. The International Balance of Payments Role in the Economy of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismadiyanti P Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of payments is an indicator of economic fundamentals. Balance of payment describes the ability of a country to gain foreign exchange and foreign payments. This study aimed to analyze the determinants of the balance of payments on the Indonesian economy . It used  Thirlwall and Hussain models and also Duasa empirical model. This study used secondary data years 1987-2014, namely foreign exchange reserves, exports, foreign investment, the exchange rate and the real gross national income. The results showed that the performance of the balance of payments in Indonesia can be explained by the models shown in accordance with the hypothesis, but on several variables did not show a significant correlation.

  19. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  2. The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that if long-run balance of payments equilibrium on current account is a requirement then a country's long run growth rate can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports. The model fits well the experience of eighteen OECD countries. It is output, not relative prices, that adjusts the balance of payments, contrary to the neoclassical orthodoxy. Growth can be demand constained by the balance of payments.

  3. Balance of Payment Dynamic in Indonesia and the Structure of Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Telisa Falianty

    2018-01-01

    This paper will assess in aggregate and detail the trend of BOP and its component in Indonesia. Stationarity test will be employed to each component of Indonesian BOP to assess the persistency. This study will calculate the balance of payment constrained growth (BOPC) using Kalman Filter technique (state space model). The BOP, secondary income, and financial account are found to be stationer which means that the data are mean reverting. On the other hand, current account balance, trade balanc...

  4. Criticisms and defences of the balance-of-payments constrained growth model: some old, some new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S.L. McCombie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses various critiques that have been levelled over the years against Thirlwall’s Law and the balance-of-payments constrained growth model. It starts by assessing the criticisms that the law is largely capturing an identity; that the law of one price renders the model incoherent; and that statistical testing using cross-country data rejects the hypothesis that the actual and the balance-of-payments equilibrium growth rates are the same. It goes on to consider the argument that calculations of the “constant-market-shares” income elasticities of demand for exports demonstrate that the UK (and by implication other advanced countries could not have been balance-of-payments constrained in the early postwar period. Next Krugman’s interpretation of the law (or what he terms the “45-degree rule”, which is at variance with the usual demand-oriented explanation, is examined. The paper next assesses attempts to reconcile the demand and supply side of the model and examines whether or not the balance-of-payments constrained growth model is subject to the fallacy of composition. It concludes that none of these criticisms invalidate the model, which remains a powerful explanation of why growth rates differ.

  5. THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SUSTAINABILITY AND THE EUROZONE ACCESSION CONVERGENCE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the balance of payments (BoP is identified as representing the long term need of equilibrium and stability of the international payments and revenues. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that influence the balance of payments of a certain country, by using a rigorous classification that reveals the complexity of these factors. Our conclusions are very relevant, especially for countries like Romania, because, in order to achieve the external equilibrium, it seems that every county must adopt a mix of internal economic policies, and although theoretically this can be realised, sometimes in practice it can prove to be impossible on account of inability or refusing to combine the appropriate economic policies.

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Program-Construction Material. 252.225-7044 Section 252.225-7044 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material (JAN 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Commercially available off-the-shelf...

  7. Balance of Payments of East Asian Countries: Impact of the Coordinated Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows

  8. Social assessment of wind power. Part 3: Employment and balance of payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Rahbaek Pedersen, J.; Jensen, T.

    1995-12-01

    The main object of this report is to investigate the consequences of a wind power development of the Danish electricity system on employment and the balance of payments. The development is carried out as an investment in 1,000 MW wind power compared to a 450 MW coal-based central power plant. The wind power development is consistent with 'Energy 2000 - A Plan of Action for Sustainable Development' from the Danish Ministry of Energy which states that a total capacity of 1,500 MW should be reached by 2005. The effects on the employment and the balance of payments will be quantified as employed per year and million DKK per year respectively. This is due to the opinion that these effects should not have decisive influence on the assessment of long term energy and environmental projects. Based on the assumptions on the cost-efficiency of wind power the capacity of 1,000 MW wind power, supplied by 220 MW backup capacity from natural gas-fired turbines, is equivalent to a 420 MW central power plant base on coal. This forms the basis of two scenarios: a wind power scenario and a coal power scenario. The overall result in this report is that the effects on employment and the balance of payments do not differ very much. Therefore one cannot recommend nor reject wind power in the Danish electricity system compared to a coal-based central power plant. (EG) 13 refs

  9. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Financial and Economic Crisis on EU-27 Member States’ Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present article is to analyze the impact of 2008 financial and economic crisis on the evolution of balance of payment of EU-27 member states. Specifically, the analyzed period is between the years 2006-2011. The article is structured in the following parts: (1 the analysis of the evolution of the current account and capital account balance in the EU27 with non-EU states, (2 the identification of the main factors of disparities and asymmetries between the Euro area member states concerning current account balance and international investment position; (3 the role of TARGET2 system in financing of current account deficits of the peripheral countries of Euro area, and capital flight from these states to other Euro area countries perceived as less risky by investors.

  11. Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth: the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. MORENO-BRID

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for balance-of-payment constraints is developed to analyse the economic crisis which swept the entire Mexican region during the early 1980s. Analytical results suggest that a modification of the long-term income multipliers of the proposed framework may be effected by implementing a long-term constant ratio of the current account to nominal gross domestic product. It is further shown that Mexico's economic instability was largely caused by the inadequacy of foreign exchange resources necessary in driving domestic growth.

  12. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modified by Thirwall and Hussain (1982) on Nigeria's economic growth to ... Results signify cointegration between our variables, lending support to ... the fact that the factor inputs have inconclusive roles in the growth process in developing ... towards public sector expansion at the expense of the private sector as well as a ...

  13. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  14. Balance of Payment Dynamic in Indonesia and the Structure of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telisa Falianty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will assess in aggregate and detail the trend of BOP and its component in Indonesia. Stationarity test will be employed to each component of Indonesian BOP to assess the persistency. This study will calculate the balance of payment constrained growth (BOPC using Kalman Filter technique (state space model. The BOP, secondary income, and financial account are found to be stationer which means that the data are mean reverting. On the other hand, current account balance, trade balance, service balance, primary income, and capital account balance are unit root. This paper found the evidence of the importance of commodity price to Indonesian current account and export. Indonesian dependency on commodity-based export need to be restructured. Indonesia should also consider the side effect of FDI as a source of financing for current account deficit, without ignoring the positive effect of FDI and the volatility of portfolio investment. The persistency of primary income deficit should also become Indonesian future policy agenda.

  15. Facts and Findings on the Statistical Discrepancies of the Korean Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Joo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea experienced drastic increases in the statistical discrepancy in balance of payments since 1997. In general, the expansion and complexity of external transactions induced by contributing capital account liberalization has contributed to this fact. The abolition of the export/import approval system seems to have accelerated the mismeasurement and omissions in external transactions. Of course, the influence of currency crisis occurred cannot be ruled out. Among economic factors, Won/dollar exchange rate volatility is found to have significant explanatory power on the magnitude of statistical discrepancy, while exchange rate returns have not. WE interpret this as the demand for relatively safe currency rising in presence of the uncertainty in domestic currency values.

  16. Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the Balance of Payments Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2014-09-01

    The study assesses the presence and magnitude of global trends in health tourism using health-related travel (HRT) spending reported in the International Monetary Fund's Balance of Payments Statistics database. Linear regression and quantile regression are applied to estimate secular trends of the import and export of HRT based on a sample of countries from 2003 to 2009. The results show that from 2003 to 2009 the import and export of health tourism rose among countries with a high volume of such activities (accounting for the upper 40% of the countries), but not among those with a low volume. The uneven growth in health tourism has generated greater contrast between countries with high and low volumes of health tourism activities. However, the growth in the total import of health tourism did not outpace the population growth, implying that in general the population's tendency to engage in health tourism remained static.

  17. The Balance-of-Payments-Constrained Growth Model and the Limits to Export-Led Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Blecker

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how A. P. Thirlwall's model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth can be adapted to analyze the idea of a "fallacy of composition" in the export-led growth strategy of many developing countries. The Deaton-Muellbauer model of the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS is used to represent the adding-up constraints on individual countries' exports, when they are all trying to export competing products to the same foreign markets (i.e. newly industrializing countries are exporting similar types of manufactured goods to the OECD countries. The relevance of the model to the recent financial crises in developing countries and policy alternatives for redirecting development strategies are also discussed.

  18. Central bank policy under significant balance-of-payment shocks and structural shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Sinyakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a number of monetary and FX policy alternatives using the model of a small open oil-exporting economy hit by severe balance-of-payment shocks, such as those that simultaneously affected the Russian economy in 2014–2015. For our purposes, we modify Romer's (2013 IS-MP general equilibrium model by adding a structure similar to the Russian economy (tradables and oil vs. non-tradables. In the model, we consider an optimal policy mix that includes a floating exchange rate, FX liquidity provision by a central bank and temporary tightening of monetary policy. The flexible exchange rate works as a shock absorber, helping restore aggregate demand and domestic production. If inflation expectations are not anchored, contractionary monetary policy helps to stabilize them. Financial stability risks are addressed by lending FX liquidity to the banking sector.

  19. 73 Impact of Exchange Rate on Balance of Payment in Nigeria (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... exchange rate to the economic well-being of every country that opens its doors to ... anchor for price stability. Changes in ... payment) of Nigeria economy. ..... policy inadequacies) as well as the social and political instability. In.

  20. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  1. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...... of their platforms. The analysis indicates that successful mobile payment solutions tend to be launched as one-sided platforms and then gradually be expanded into being two-sided. Our study showcases that the success of mobile payment platforms lies with the ability of the platform to balance the reach (number...

  2. Le fluttuazioni della bilancia dei pagamenti italiana (The fluctuations in Italy’s balance of payments: an empirical analysis of the classical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. TULLIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a theoretical framework of reference in order to interpret the fluctuations in Italy’s balance of payments in the post-war period. Such a framework can help to explain the flows of international reserves, even under flexible exchange rates, and may easily be adapted to the analysis of the exchange rate itself. The author first develops a "medium to long term" theoretical model for a "small country", before deriving the equation for the balance of payments to be estimated with annual data. The results of the empirical estimates, which cover the period 1051-1973, are then presented. JEL: E42, F21, F32

  3. Four essays on central banking in Latin America under balance of payments dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malagón González, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Flexible inflation targeting was the choice of five of the seven largest Latin American economies in the late 1990s/early 2000s. This was combined with the prior choice for more open capital accounts and greater exchange rate flexibility, which had been adopted as part of the market liberalization

  4. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choice...... to use the technology. We conducted the study in the context of Denmark, a Northern European country, with three well established payment technologies: cash, payment cards, and Internet banking. Following a focus group of identifying and defining four types of consumption values associated with each...... payment technology, a survey was then conducted by a national statistics agency in the country. Preliminary results have shown that different consumption values matter for the use of different payment technologies. The findings will potentially contribute to a better understanding of consumer payment...

  5. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    that impact payers’ choice of payment instruments. Design/methodology/approach: Through in-depth interviews using the repertory grid technique, the authors explored 15 payers’ perceptions of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and online banking....... The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology...... or checks. Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that payers view payment instruments in a much broader sense, including context, control, or cultural beliefs. Consequently, the authors suggest that researchers try to understand the essence of an innovation before assuming any economic...

  6. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  7. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  8. The Impact of Balance of Payment Considerations Upon Logistical Support of U.S. Armed Forces Europe 1960-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    AFE Form 1 lp must attest to the validity of the requirement and confirm that the required service(s) (i) cannot physically be returned to the U.s. ror...Material Allaire, Christopher J. "How Can We Offset the Costs of U.S. Forces in the Federal Republic of Germay." Monograph, Army War Collge , 1973

  9. Inflation and balanced-path growth with alternative payment mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    -, E2005/15 (2005), s. 1-34 ISSN 1749-6101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation * payment mechanisms * human capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/carbs/econ/ working papers/papers/2005_15.pdf

  10. 12 CFR 230.7 - Payment of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... crediting policies. This section does not require institutions to compound or credit interest at any... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of interest. 230.7 Section 230.7 Banks... IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.7 Payment of interest. (a) Permissible methods—(1) Balance on which...

  11. Inflation and balanced-path growth with alternative payment mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 500 (2005), s. 247-270 ISSN 0013-0133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/2172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation * payment mechanisms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2005 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2004.00968.x

  12. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  13. North Sea oil and Britain's balance of payments. An investigation with the aid of a simulation model. Das Nordseeoel und die britische Zahlungsbilanz. Eine Untersuchung mit Hilfe eines Simulationsmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, H [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction outlining the complex of problems and discussing the chosen method is followed by the development of a computerized simulation model. Starting from oil exploration, the whole process of opening, financing, production, and taxation of discovered North Sea oil fields is analysed and modelled up to the effects they have on the balance of payments. The statements are characterized by the opinion that even formalized, complex model relations can be delivered in a way which is intelligible to all. In the final part, predicted results are presented and discussed in detail, which were achieved under conditions alternatively assumed for the future on the basis of the model calculations. Furthermore, in the annexes flowcharts and the FORTRAN program of the model as well as comprehensive tables of results are shown. With this work, the author breaks through the narrow concept of a pure simulation model. For the first time he shows opportunities and limit, the set to the restoration of Britain's balance of payments by means of North Sea oil.

  14. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.525 What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both...

  15. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  16. Survey of electronic payment methods and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helme, A.; Verbraeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  17. 42 CFR 412.521 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.521 Basis of payment. (a) Method of payment. (1) Under the prospective payment system, long... furnished to Medicare beneficiaries. (2) The amount of payment under the prospective payment system is based...

  18. Balancing ESA and iron therapy in a prospective payment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, George R; Gaweda, Adam E

    2014-02-01

    Ever since the introduction of EPO, ESAs and iron dosing have been driven by financial incentives. When ESAs were a profit center for providers, large doses were used. With ESAs becoming a cost center, a new trend has appeared, gradually replacing their use with iron to achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower cost. This financially driven approach, treating ESAs and iron as alternatives, is not consistent with human physiology where these agents act in a complementary manner. It is likely that we are still giving unnecessarily large doses of ESAs and iron, relative to what our patients' true needs are. Although we have highlighted the economic drivers of this outcome, many other factors play a role. These include our lack of understanding of the complex interplay of the anemia of chronic disease, inflammation, poor nutrition, blood loss through dialysis, ESAs and iron deficiency. We propose that physiology-driven modeling may provide some insight into the interactions between erythropoiesis and ferrokinetics. This insight can then be used to derive new, physiologically compatible dosing guidelines for ESAs and iron.

  19. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  20. 36 CFR 51.79 - May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a franchise fee or other payments? 51.79 Section 51.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property....79 May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments? The Director may not waive the concessioner's payment of a franchise fee or other payments or consideration required by a...

  1. Security of payment in Malaysian construction industry: issues on sub-contract's direct payment

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, sub-contractors have to bear with the current structure of payment mechanisms in the standard forms of contract, which are payment upon certification, direct payment from the employer, and contingent or conditional payment. However, „direct payment‟ provision is applied for in most of the nominated sub-contracts and not to the domestic sub-contractors; thus the Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication (CIPA) Act is proposed. This paper, though, is to disclose the findings o...

  2. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals... payment system. The prospective payment system includes payment for inpatient operating costs of...

  3. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  4. Emerging lessons from regional and state innovation in value-based payment reform: balancing collaboration and disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Hernandez, Susan E; Lau, Bernard; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades, practitioners and policymakers have turned to value-based payment initiatives to help contain spending on health care and to improve the quality of care. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 7 grantees across the country to design and implement value-based, multistakeholder payment reform projects in 6 states and 3 regions of the United States. As the external evaluator of these projects, we reviewed documents, conducted Internet searches, interviewed key stakeholders, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed qualitative analyses to derive cross-site themes and implications for policy and practice. The nature of payment reform and its momentum closely reflects the environmental context of each project. Federal legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and federal and state support for the development of the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organizations encourage value-based payment innovation, as do local market conditions for payers and providers that combine a history of collaboration with independent innovation and experimentation by individual organizations. Multistakeholder coalitions offer a useful facilitating structure for galvanizing payment reform. But to achieve the objectives of reduced cost and improved quality, multistakeholder payment innovation must overcome such barriers as incompatible information systems, the technical difficulties and transaction costs of altering existing billing and payment systems, competing stakeholder priorities, insufficient scale to bear population health risk, providers' limited experience with risk-bearing payment models, and the failure to align care delivery models with the form of payment. From the evidence adduced in this article, multistakeholder, value-based payment reform requires a trusted, widely respected "honest broker" that can convene and maintain the ongoing commitment of health plans, providers, and purchasers

  5. 42 CFR 484.205 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... episode payment is subject to the following adjustments and additional payments: (1) A low-utilization... 5, 1997 unless the national 60-day episode payment is subject to a low-utilization payment... payment for initial episodes is paid to an HHA at 60 percent of the case-mix and wage adjusted 60-day...

  6. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  7. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment...... platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  8. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment paltforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  9. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions...

  10. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  11. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital... must meet the conditions of this section to receive payment under the prospective payment system...

  12. 42 CFR 412.632 - Method of payment under the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rehabilitation facility receives payment under this subpart for inpatient operating costs and capital-related... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR... and for costs of an approved education program and other costs paid outside the prospective payment...

  13. 42 CFR 412.432 - Method of payment under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility prospective payment system. 412.432 Section 412.432 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Services of Inpatient...

  14. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 4001 - Calculation of Upfront Payment or Future Appreciation Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depend on actual appreciation of the property as determined in accordance with 24 CFR 4001.120. Payment... Future Appreciation Payment A Appendix A to Part 4001 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Future Appreciation Payment Subordinate mortgage lien holder's cumulative combined loan-to-value ratio...

  15. Effects of Medicare payment reform: evidence from the home health interim and prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj; Escarce, José J; Grabowski, David C; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Medicare continues to implement payment reforms that shift reimbursement from fee-for-service toward episode-based payment, affecting average and marginal payment. We contrast the effects of two reforms for home health agencies. The home health interim payment system in 1997 lowered both types of payment; our conceptual model predicts a decline in the likelihood of use and costs, both of which we find. The home health prospective payment system in 2000 raised average but lowered marginal payment with theoretically ambiguous effects; we find a modest increase in use and costs. We find little substantive effect of either policy on readmissions or mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 28 CFR 74.12 - Order of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of payment. 74.12 Section 74.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.12 Order of payment. Payment will be made in the order of date of birth pursuant...

  17. 34 CFR 5.62 - Advance payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated cost and obtains satisfactory assurance of full payment if the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees; or (2) Requires an advance payment if the requester has no history of payment. (b) If a requester has previously failed to pay a fee in a timely fashion, the FOI Officer does not...

  18. 46 CFR 282.30 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... include for payment in such voucher the amount of ODS accrued for the voyages terminated during the period. ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 282.30 Section 282.30 Shipping... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.30 Payment of subsidy...

  19. 46 CFR 252.40 - Payment of subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.40 Payment of subsidy. (a) Submission of voucher. At the close of each calendar month, the subsidized operator may submit a voucher, and include for payment in such... submit an initial voucher and include for payment in such voucher a percentage of the ODS payable for the...

  20. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for payment...

  1. 42 CFR 102.83 - Payment of all benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of all benefits. 102.83 Section 102.83... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.83 Payment of all benefits. (a) The Secretary may pay any benefits under this Program through lump-sum payments. If the Secretary determines that...

  2. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  3. Fundamental Reform of Payment for Adult Primary Care: Comprehensive Payment for Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.

    2007-01-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  4. 40 CFR 10.7 - Payment of approved claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., claimant or his duly authorized agent shall sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claim. 10.7 Section...

  5. 34 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145) shall designate both the claimant and his... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7 Education...

  6. 45 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... duly authorized agent shall sign the voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (SF 1145) shall... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7...

  7. 12 CFR 793.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voucher for payment, Standard Form 1145, before payment is made. (b) When the claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment (S.F. 1145) shall designate both the claimant and his attorney... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of approved claims. 793.7 Section 793.7...

  8. 42 CFR 412.125 - Effect of change of ownership on payments under the prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective payment systems. 412.125 Section 412.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Payments to Hospitals Under the Prospective Payment Systems § 412.125 Effect of change of...

  9. The obstacles of NFC mobile payment development in Finland : security issues of NFC mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, with the rapid development of science and technology in the consumer markets, payment terms are being promoted much faster than ever. It is considered that NFC Mobile payment will enjoy a great prospect. NFC Mobile payment technique, which is based on the RFID technology, has been growing popularity. Near Field Communication (NFC) is the proximity standard for the proximity cards that can be modified to allow integration of the technology into a cellular phone. NFC tec...

  10. An Analysis of DOD Fraudulent Vendor Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones-Oxendine, Shawn

    1999-01-01

    ...) known DoD fraudulent vendor cases in light of their management control weaknesses. A high risk of fraudulent vendor payments were present in the DoD, pre-DFAS finance and accounting systems and the current DFAS configuration...

  11. Substantiation of Payment Conditions for Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Babuk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a model that presupposes granting more favorable payment (discount conditions with the purpose to expedite payments for products. Dependence for calculation of discount rate has been deduced on the basis of information about an actual cost of debtor’s accounts receivable. The example of discount calculation depending on a maturity of debtor’s accounts receivable is given in the paper.

  12. Study of Mobile Payment Services in India : Distribution of the roles, responsibilities and attitudes amongst actors of the payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sambhy, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Information technology and payment systems have witnessed the introduction, acceptance and wide scale deployment of electronic payment systems. The payment system ecosystem has now witnessed the introduction of mobile payment systems and their associated services. Major actors involved in mobile payment systems include telecom operators, banks, merchants and consumers. They need to aggregate their resources and develop a coherent ecosystem which would help the individual actors while also ben...

  13. Balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, James Raymond

    2012-01-01

    This Paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact. We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players. This theory of conduct predicts that entry by new firms leads to a less aggressive outcome if it creates a balance of power. A balance of power is created if more players get technologies that are close to the most efficient techno...

  14. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  15. Payment Reform Pilot In Beijing Hospitals Reduced Expenditures And Out-Of-Pocket Payments Per Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Chan, Kit Yee; Poon, Adrienne N; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu; Yip, Winnie

    2015-10-01

    In 2009 China announced plans to reform provider payment methods at public hospitals by moving from fee-for-service (FFS) to prospective and aggregated payment methods that included the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to control health expenditures. In October 2011 health policy makers selected six Beijing hospitals to pioneer the first DRG payment system in China. We used hospital discharge data from the six pilot hospitals and eight other hospitals, which continued to use FFS and served as controls, from the period 2010-12 to evaluate the pilot's impact on cost containment through a difference-in-differences methods design. Our study found that DRG payment led to reductions of 6.2 percent and 10.5 percent, respectively, in health expenditures and out-of-pocket payments by patients per hospital admission. We did not find evidence of any increase in hospital readmission rates or cost shifting from cases eligible for DRG payment to ineligible cases. However, hospitals continued to use FFS payments for patients who were older and had more complications than other patients, which reduced the effectiveness of payment reform. Continuous evidence-based monitoring and evaluation linked with adequate management systems are necessary to enable China and other low- and middle-income countries to broadly implement DRGs and refine payment systems. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  17. THE BASIS OF THE MARKET REGULATION OF PAYMENT CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetagurov G. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to basics and the regulation problems of the modern payment cards market. In particular, it addresses the key participants in a payment system, which include the Central Bank, credit organizations, settlement and clearing centers. The paper explores the basic functions of the participants. The author analyzes approaches of card payment systems to development and implementation monitoring of standards and regulations relative to the technology: hardware and software, communication channels, etc. The article contains analysis of information exchange in the framework of payment cards market and specific features of the design and development of a payment infrastructure. It discusses the economic model of the payment cards market, which is based on commission payments. The paper describes the key fees. At the final stage of the study, the author examines the role of different global regulators in the payment card market, conducts an analysis of the foundations of the Russian legislation regulating this market.

  18. Analysis of mobile pre-payment (pay in advance) and post-payment (pay later) services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina-Castillo, Francisco Jose; Rodriguez-Guirao, Alicia; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of mobile payments (M-payments) is still in its early stages and further research is needed to understand what motivates or restricts people's behaviour when using mobile services. Based on a sample of Dutch mobile service users, this study analyses the antecedents of two types of

  19. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  20. 48 CFR 32.207 - Administration and payment of commercial financing payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractual information, and the account(s) (see 32.206(d)) to be charged for the payment. (c) Management of... of commercial financing payments. 32.207 Section 32.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item...

  1. 48 CFR 32.1007 - Administration and payment of performance-based payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's experience, performance record, reliability, financial strength, and the adequacy of controls... of performance-based payments. 32.1007 Section 32.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Performance-Based Payments 32.1007...

  2. Fee-for-service will remain a feature of major payment reforms, requiring more changes in Medicare physician payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2012-09-01

    Many health policy analysts envision provider payment reforms currently under development as replacements for the traditional fee-for-service payment system. Reforms include per episode bundled payment and elements of capitation, such as global payments or accountable care organizations. But even if these approaches succeed and are widely adopted, the core method of payment to many physicians for the services they provide is likely to remain fee-for-service. It is therefore critical to address the current shortcomings in the Medicare physician fee schedule, because it will affect physician incentives and will continue to play an important role in determining the payment amounts under payment reform. This article reviews how the current payment system developed and is applied, and it highlights areas that require careful review and modification to ensure the success of broader payment reform.

  3. 48 CFR 3452.242-72 - Withholding of contract payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause in all solicitations and contacts other than purchase orders: Withholding of Contract Payments... shall promptly notify the contractor of its intention to withhold payment of any invoice or voucher...

  4. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a model for studying the innovative capabilities of digital payment platforms in regards to open innovation integration and commercialization. We perceive digital platforms as layered modular IT artifacts, where platform governance and the configuration of platform layers impact...... the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...... the intended conjoint commercialization efforts. Furthermore, the architectural design of digital platforms impacts the access to commercialization, resulting to an exclusion or inclusion strategy in accessing value opportunities. Our findings contribute to the open innovation and digital platform literature...

  5. Payment of hospital cardiac services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, W J

    1991-01-01

    This report describes how acute-care community hospitals in the United States get paid for services when their patients either are entitled to Medicare or Medicaid benefits or subscribe to a Blue Cross or Blue Shield plan, a commercial insurance plan, a health maintenance organization, a preferred provider organization, or some other third-party payment mechanism. The focus of this report is on cardiac services, which are the most common type of inpatient services provided by acute-care community hospitals. Over the past three decades, extraordinary advances in medical and surgical technologies as well as healthier life-styles have cut the annual death rate for coronary heart disease in half. Despite this progress, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of hospitalization. On average nationwide, diseases and disorders of the circulatory system are the primary reason for 17 percent of all patient admissions, and among the nation's 35 million Medicare beneficiaries they are the primary reason for 25 percent of all admissions. In the United States heart disease is the leading cause of death and a major cause of morbidity. Its diagnosis and treatment are often complex and costly, often requiring multiple hospitalizations and years of medical management. To focus management attention and resources on the immense cardiology marketplace, many hospitals have hired individuals with strong clinical backgrounds to manage their cardiology programs. These "front-line" managers play a key role in coordinating a hospital's services for patients with cardiovascular disease. Increasingly, these managers are being asked to become active participants in the reimbursement process. This report was designed to meet their needs. Because this report describes common reimbursement principles and practices applicable to all areas of hospital management and because it provides a "tool kit" of analytical, planning, and forecasting techniques, it could also be useful to hospital

  6. 24 CFR 203.264 - Payment of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Payment § 203.264 Payment of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay each MIP in twelve equal monthly installments. Each monthly installment shall be due and payable to the Commissioner no later than the tenth day...

  7. 29 CFR 5.11 - Disputes concerning payment of wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disputes concerning payment of wages. 5.11 Section 5.11... Provisions and Procedures § 5.11 Disputes concerning payment of wages. (a) This section sets forth the procedure for resolution of disputes of fact or law concerning payment of prevailing wage rates, overtime...

  8. 7 CFR 1403.4 - Demand for payment of debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand for payment of debts. 1403.4 Section 1403.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Demand for payment of debts. (a) When a debt is due CCC, an initial written demand for payment of such...

  9. The Impact of Payment System Design on Tiering Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Arculus; Jennifer Hancock; Greg Moran

    2012-01-01

    Tiering occurs when an institution does not participate directly in the central payment system but instead settles its payments through an agent. A high level of tiering can be a significant issue for payment system regulators because of the increased credit and concentration risk. This paper explores the impact of payment system design on institutions' incentives to tier using simulation analysis. Some evidence is found to support the hypothesis that the liquidity-saving mechanisms in Austra...

  10. 42 CFR 430.45 - Reduction of Federal Medicaid payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction of Federal Medicaid payments. 430.45 Section 430.45 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Federal Medicaid Payments § 430.45 Reduction of Federal Medicaid payments. (a) Methods of reduction. CMS...

  11. Security Assessment of Payment Systems under PCI DSS Incompatibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar , Şerif; Gür , Gürkan; Altay , Levent

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Malicious Behavior and Fraud; International audience; With the ubiquitous proliferation of electronic payment systems, data and application security has become more critical for financial operations. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) has been developed by the payment industry to provide a widely-applicable and definitive security compliance among all components in electronic payment infrastructure. However, the security impact of PCI DSS incompatibilities and ...

  12. 32 CFR 701.49 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... documents, particularly for those requesters who have no payment history, or for those requesters who have failed previously to pay a fee in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 calendar days from the date of the... and obtain satisfactory assurance of full payment where the requester has a history of prompt payments...

  13. 7 CFR 792.4 - Demand for payment of debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand for payment of debts. 792.4 Section 792.4... AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 792.4 Demand for payment of debts. (a) When a debt is due FSA, an initial written demand for payment of such amount...

  14. 7 CFR 220.5 - Method of payment to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reimbursement to School Food Authorities through presentation by designated State officials of a payment Voucher... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment to States. 220.5 Section 220.5... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.5 Method of payment to States. Funds to be...

  15. 46 CFR 280.4 - Standards governing payment of ODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards governing payment of ODS. 280.4 Section 280.4... Standards governing payment of ODS. (a) Full payment. Except to the extent otherwise provided in § 280.8, ODS shall be paid in full to the operator for vessel operations on the inbound and outbound legs of...

  16. Design and implementation of Bluetooth beacon in mobile payment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiantian; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The current line of payment means, mainly in the following ways, cash payment, credit card payment, WeChat Alipay sweep payment. There are many inconvenience in Cash payment, large amounts of cash inconvenience to carry, count the money to spend time and effort, true and false banknotes difficult to distinguish, ticket settlement easy to go wrong. Credit card payment is relatively time-consuming, and WeChat Alipay sweep payment need to sweep. Therefore, the design of a convenient, fast payment to meet the line to pay the demand is particularly important. Based on the characteristics of BLE Bluetooth wireless communication technology, this paper designs a kind of payment method based on Bluetooth beacon. Through the Bluetooth beacon broadcast consumption, consumers only need to open the relevant APP in the Android client, and you can get Bluetooth via mobile phone Bluetooth the amount of consumption of the standard broadcast, in accordance with the corresponding payment platform to complete the payment process, which pay less time to improve the efficiency of payment.

  17. 32 CFR 716.7 - Payment of the death gratuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certification and voucher for the death gratuity payment. The Comptroller General of the United States has... Certification and Voucher for Death Gratuity Payment, DD Form 397, in original and five copies, completing... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of the death gratuity. 716.7 Section 716...

  18. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  19. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  20. 42 CFR 418.306 - Determination of payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of the Act. (b) Payment rates. The payment rates for routine home care and other services included in... October 21, 1990, through December 31, 1990, the payment rates for routine home care and other services... December 31, 1990: Routine home care $75.80 Continuous home care: Full rate for 24 hours 442.40 Hourly rate...

  1. 24 CFR 982.514 - Distribution of housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payment. 982.514 Section 982.514 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.514 Distribution of housing assistance payment. The monthly housing assistance...

  2. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the

  3. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  4. The effect of rounding on payment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Franses, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Theory predicts that dismissing the 1 and 2 euro cent coins from the denominational range of the euro facilitates payment efficiency. To examine whether this theory holds true in practice, data were collected for the Netherlands before and after September 2004, which marks the day that retail stores

  5. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  6. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  7. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  8. 75 FR 21329 - Medicaid Program; State Allotments for Payment of Medicare Part B Premiums for Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... includes payment for premiums for Medicare Part B. Section 4732 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA... formula for determining State allotments. However, since certain States projected a deficit in their... minimize the impact on States with FY QI allotments that might be greater than their QI expenditures for...

  9. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  10. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  12. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA) [de

  13. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  14. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart failure,...

  15. Balance of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact.We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players.This theory of conduct predicts that

  16. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  17. 29 CFR 3.10 - Methods of payment of wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Methods of payment of wages. 3.10 Section 3.10 Labor Office... IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.10 Methods of payment of wages. The payment of wages shall be by cash, negotiable instruments payable on demand, or the additional forms of...

  18. Co-branding of payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Přikryl, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with possibilities and use of co-branding within the financial institutions. It mainly focuses on co-branding payment cards aiming both, the analysis of the current situation on the market for these products in the Czech Republic as well as the outline of their new usage opportunities. The theoretical part defines not only the basic concepts of the branding phenomenon but also more deeply characterizes its part called co-branding. The paper then offers fundamental in...

  19. Bundled payment fails to gain a foothold In California: the experience of the IHA bundled payment demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, M Susan; de Vries, David; Bozic, Kevin J; Hussey, Peter S

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether bundled payment could be an effective payment model for California, the Integrated Healthcare Association convened a group of stakeholders (health plans, hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, physician organizations, and vendors) to develop, through a consensus process, the methods and means of implementing bundled payment. In spite of a high level of enthusiasm and effort, the pilot did not succeed in its goal to implement bundled payment for orthopedic procedures across multiple payers and hospital-physician partners. An evaluation of the pilot documented a number of barriers, such as administrative burden, state regulatory uncertainty, and disagreements about bundle definition and assumption of risk. Ultimately, few contracts were signed, which resulted in insufficient volume to test hypotheses about the impact of bundled payment on quality and costs. Although bundled payment failed to gain a foothold in California, the evaluation provides lessons for future bundled payment initiatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  1. Variation in payments for spine surgery episodes of care: implications for episode-based bundled payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Elyne N; Ellimoottil, Chandy; Dupree, James M; Park, Paul; Ryan, Andrew M

    2018-05-25

    OBJECTIVE Spine surgery is expensive and marked by high variation across regions and providers. Bundled payments have potential to reduce unwarranted spending associated with spine surgery. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of commercial and Medicare claims data from January 2012 through March 2015 in the state of Michigan. The objective was to quantify variation in payments for spine surgery in adult patients, document sources of variation, and determine influence of patient-level, surgeon-level, and hospital-level factors. METHODS Hierarchical regression models were used to analyze contributions of patient-level covariates and influence of individual surgeons and hospitals. The primary outcome was price-standardized 90-day episode payments. Intraclass correlation coefficients-measures of variability accounted for by each level of a hierarchical model-were used to quantify sources of spending variation. RESULTS The authors analyzed 17,436 spine surgery episodes performed by 195 surgeons at 50 hospitals. Mean price-standardized 90-day episode payments in the highest spending quintile exceeded mean payments for episodes in the lowest cost quintile by $42,953 (p accounting for patient-level covariates, the remaining hospital-level and surgeon-level effects accounted for 2.0% (95% CI 1.1%-3.8%) and 4.0% (95% CI 2.9%-5.6%) of total variation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Significant variation exists in total episode payments for spine surgery, driven mostly by variation in post-discharge and facility payments. Hospital and surgeon effects account for relatively little of the observed variation.

  2. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnech?re, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeabilit...

  3. Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    Throughout the 1990s, in response to funding deficits, out-of-pocket payment has grown as a share of total expenditure in countries in transition. A clear policy response to informal payments is, however, lacking. The current study explores informal payments in Bulgaria within a conceptual framework developed by triangulating information using a variety of methodologies. To estimate the scale and determinants of informal payments in the health sector of Bulgaria and to identify who benefits, the characteristics and timing of payments, and the reasons for paying. Data were derived from a national representative survey of 1547 individuals complemented by in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 100 respondents, conducted in Bulgaria in 1997. Informal payments are defined as a monetary or in-kind transaction between a patient and a staff member for services that are officially free of charge in the state sector. Informal payments are relatively common in Bulgaria, especially if in the form of gifts. Informal cash payments are universal for operations and childbirth, clear-cut and life-threatening procedures, in hospitals or elite urban facilities or well-known physicians. Most gifts were given at the end of treatment and most cash payments-before or during treatment. Wealthier, better educated, younger respondents tend to pay more often, as a means of obtaining better-quality treatment in a de facto two-tier system. Since the transition, informal payments had become frequent, explicit, solicited by staff, increasingly in cash, and less affordable. Informal payments stem from the low income of staff, patients seeking better treatment; acute funding shortages; and from tradition. Attitudes to informal payments range from strongly negative (if solicited) to tolerant (if patient-initiated), depending on the circumstances. The study provides important new insights into the incidence and nature of informal payments in the health sector in Bulgaria. Payments were less

  4. 77 FR 40302 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... payment, creating a standard set of electronic data to submit payment requests to the federal government... electronic invoicing and payment information system, and to change the definition of bureau to reflect the...-based electronic invoicing and payment system that processes vendor payment data electronically, either...

  5. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment...... platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  6. 36 CFR 1009.4 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1009.4 Payment of claims. (a) When an award of $2,500 or less is made, the voucher signed by the claimant shall be transmitted for payment to the Presidio Trust. When an award over $2,500... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of claims. 1009.4...

  7. Value Added Services and Adoption of Mobile Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... that intention to adopt mobile payments increases as VAS are introduced and that this increase comes from a positive change in Perceived Usefulness, compatibility, and Convenience....

  8. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT DESIGNS FOR FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Four alternative payment rules were examined to evaluate their ability to accomplish the objectives of the development rights purchase program. Paying the true economic value for the development rights does not allow the program to target high quality agricultural land. Modifying the payment strategy by offering a minimum payment will provide some extra incentive for high quality agricultural land in areas with little development pressure, but will provide little help in areas with high devel...

  9. The determining trends of the retail payment market

    OpenAIRE

    BERGQVIST, CHRISTIAN; PETTERSSON, ERIK

    2016-01-01

    The retail payment market can be seen as a high velocity market, where the rate of change is high. The future for the retail payment market is uncertain to a large extent. A relatively new phenomenon is the entrance of third party payment providers (hereafter; TPP) who are utilizing the incumbent banks account infrastructure in order access information or initiate payments. A legislation named PSD2 will increase the TPP’s possibilities to utilize the bank’s infrastructure. This makes it possi...

  10. Oregon department of transportation small business group twice-monthly payments pilot project : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) recently completed a pilot study on small business payment practices. In the study, three pilot projects were tested where payments to small business contractors were changed from a monthly payment to twice-...

  11. Understanding consumers’ acceptance of mobile payments : a theoretical model and empirical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiajun

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates consumer acceptance of mobile payments. Mobile payments offer an alternative payment method for consumers, and allow consumers to make point-of-sales payments through mobile devices, such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). It aims to present a better understanding of mobile payments, developing a consumer acceptance model for mobile payments. Moreover, it offers a reference and a source of literature for the industry and academic researchers in...

  12. Child Support Payment: A Structural Model of Predictive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David W.; Price, Sharon J.

    A major area of concern in divorced families is compliance with child support payments. Aspects of the former spouse relationship that are predictive of compliance with court-ordered payment of child support were investigated in a sample of 58 divorced persons all of whom either paid or received child support. Structured interviews and…

  13. Effects of physician payment reform on provision of home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004, CMS reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the United States in the 3 years before and the 3 years after payment reform. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Patients with traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.1%; P = .003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%; P home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients living in areas with smaller facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively less lucrative for physicians). The transition from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service payment model for in-center hemodialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts.

  14. Examination of Industry Payments to Radiation Oncologists in 2014 Using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Vikram [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To use the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database to characterize payments made to radiation oncologists and compare their payment profile with that of medical and surgical oncologists. Methods and Materials: The June 2015 release of the Open Payments database was accessed, containing all payments made to physicians in 2014. The general payments dataset was used for analysis. Data on payments made to medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists was obtained and compared. Within radiation oncology, data regarding payment category, sponsorship, and geographic distribution were identified. Basic statistics including mean, median, range, and sum were calculated by provider and by transaction. Results: Among the 3 oncologic specialties, radiation oncology had the smallest proportion (58%) of compensated physicians and the lowest mean ($1620) and median ($112) payment per provider. Surgical oncology had the highest proportion (84%) of compensated physicians, whereas medical oncology had the highest mean ($6371) and median ($448) payment per physician. Within radiation oncology, nonconsulting services accounted for the most money to physicians ($1,042,556), whereas the majority of the sponsors were medical device companies (52%). Radiation oncologists in the West accepted the most money ($2,041,603) of any US Census region. Conclusions: Radiation oncologists in 2014 received a large number of payments from industry, although less than their medical or surgical counterparts. As the Open Payments database continues to be improved, it remains to be seen whether this information will be used by patients to inform choice of providers or by lawmakers to enact policy regulating physician–industry relationships.

  15. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  16. 29 CFR 4901.33 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Where the requester has a history of prompt payment of fees under this part, the PBGC will notify... requester has no history of payment for requests made pursuant to FOIA and this part, the PBGC may require... requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 days of the date...

  17. 31 CFR 900.5 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment. Claims may be paid in the form of money or, when a contractual basis exists, the Government may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific services. ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of payment. 900.5 Section 900.5...

  18. 42 CFR 60.54 - Payment of refunds by schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of refunds by schools. 60.54 Section 60.54... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.54 Payment of refunds by schools. A participating school must pay... subsequent holder of the loan note, if the school has knowledge of the holder's identity). At the same time...

  19. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of wages when due. 500.81 Section 500.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment of...

  20. 20 CFR 416.501 - Payment of benefits: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: General. Payment of SSI benefits will be made for the month after the month of initial eligibility and for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of benefits: General. 416.501 Section 416.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED...

  1. 12 CFR 997.2 - Reduction of the payment term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction of the payment term. 997.2 Section 997.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.2 Reduction of the payment term. (a) Generally. The Finance Board...

  2. 12 CFR 997.3 - Extension of the payment term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of the payment term. 997.3 Section 997.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.3 Extension of the payment term. (a) Generally. The Finance Board...

  3. 31 CFR 101.5 - Payment of smelting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.5 Payment of smelting costs. The petitioner shall be required to pay all reasonable costs incurred in extracting the bullion from the counterfeit coins, as shall be determined by the Assistant Secretary. Payment must be made prior to the return of the gold bullion to the...

  4. 42 CFR 431.960 - Types of payment errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) A State eligibility error does not result from the State's verification of an applicant's self-declaration or self-certification of eligibility for, and the correct amount of, medical assistance or child... verification. (2) The difference in payment between what the State paid (as adjusted within improper payment...

  5. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer is...

  6. 46 CFR 308.507 - Security for payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.507 Security for payment of... collateral deposit fund or a surety bond, to secure the payment of the premiums, in an amount which shall at...

  7. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  8. The deficit of current account balances and budgetary deficit in countries in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Krtalic; Ines Kersan

    1998-01-01

    In restructuring process of their own economies, countries in transition deal with many common problems. One of the problems that transition brought to those countries is deficit in current account, as well as budget deficit. Deficits represent limit to a healthy and fast economic development and progress. Balance in balance of payments, as well as balanced budget are components of macroeconomic system. The authors will give an review of activities on deficits in countries in transition, and ...

  9. Biomechanical assessment of dynamic balance: Specificity of different balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Stein, Thorsten

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic balance is vitally important for most sports and activities of daily living, so the assessment of dynamic stability has become an important issue. In consequence, a large number of balance tests have been developed. However, it is not yet known whether these tests (i) measure the same construct and (ii) can differentiate between athletes with different balance expertise. We therefore studied three common dynamic balance tests: one-leg jump landings, Posturomed perturbations and simulated forward falls. Participants were 24 healthy young females in regular training in either gymnastics (n = 12) or swimming (n = 12). In each of the tests, the participants were instructed to recover balance as quickly as possible. Dynamic stability was computed by time to stabilization and margin of stability, deduced from force plates and motion capture respectively. Pearson's correlations between the dynamic balance tests found no significant associations between the respective dynamic stability measures. Furthermore, independent t-tests indicated that only jump landings could properly distinguish between both groups of athletes. In essence, the different dynamic balance tests applied did not measure the same construct but rather task-specific skills, each of which depends on multifactorial internal and external constraints. Our study therefore contradicts the traditional view of considering balance as a general ability, and reinforces that dynamic balance measures are not interchangeable. This highlights the importance of selecting appropriate balance tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 14 CFR 212.8 - Protection of customers' payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of customers' payments. 212.8... customers' payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no certificated air carrier or... payable in advance by customers for the subject charter trips shall be accepted by the carrier. (e) The...

  11. 20 CFR 802.105 - Stay of payment pending appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stay of payment pending appeal. 802.105... PROCEDURE General Provisions Introductory § 802.105 Stay of payment pending appeal. (a) As provided in... ten days after it becomes due pending final decision in any proceeding before the Board unless so...

  12. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12 Section 240.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of...

  13. The price of reverse factoring : financing rates vs. payment delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van der K.; Reindorp, M.J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse factoring –a financial arrangement where a corporation facilitates early payment of its trade credit obligations to suppliers– is increasingly popular in industry. Many firms use the scheme to induce their suppliers to grant them more lenient payment terms. By means of a periodic review base

  14. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  15. 24 CFR 242.30 - Application of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance; (b) Ground rents, taxes, special assessments, and fire and other hazard insurance premiums; (c... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.30 Application of payments. All payments to be...

  16. Late Payment of Insurance Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Clarke (Malcolm)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The question of damages for failure to pay sums due came before the House of Lords in 2007 in the Sempra case. Although not the main ground of the decision, the House stated that a claimant would succeed, if the claimant satisfied the usual tests of 'remoteness' of

  17. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, DB

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment—the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model—would approach this issue. The article also considers several practical problems related to changing the amount of payment, including determining whether there is enough money in the budget to offer additional payments to subjects who have already enrolled, ascertaining how difficult it will be to re-contact subjects, and developing a plan of action for responding to subjects who find out they are receiving less money and demand an explanation. PMID:18757614

  18. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2001-01-01

    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  19. Effects of Physician Payment Reform on Provision of Home Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Study Design Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the US in the three years before and after payment reform. Methods We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with Traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Results Patients with Traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI 0.2%–1.1%; p=0.003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared to patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI 0.5%–1.4%; ppayment model for dialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts. PMID:27355909

  20. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-08-27

    Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Ethical Committee of the Erasme Hospital (CCB B406201215142

  1. Causes of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Payment delays and losses persist in the construction industry and continue to be a key concern to industry practitioners. Therefore an exploration of the key causes of payment delays and losses is undertaken in this study with the ultimate objective of seeking mitigating solutions. The study adopted a survey approach using an online questionnaire, administered to practitioners from the New Zealand construction industry, comprising consultants, head contractors and subcontractors. The data obtained was analysed using inferential statistical techniques, including comparing means and factor analysis. Factor analysis enabled clustering of the inter-related causes of payment delays and losses in order to find reduced number of causes. Accordingly, the study found that payment problems mainly relate to contractual issues, financial strength of industry players, disputes, short-comings of payment processes and ‘domino effects’. Among them, the financial strength of critical industry players was considered central to payment problems. The study concludes that any solution to these problems must address these primary causes, as a rational starting point. Thus procuring a feasible form of financial security at the outset of a project, and the pre-qualification of the financial status of critical project participants, were found to be significant in the mitigation of construction payment risks. Paper Type: Research article

  2. Effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training on mobility and balance in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddiqi, F.A.; Masood, T.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training in improving mobility and balance in elderly. Methodology: Forty subjects between 50 to 80 years of age were selected via non-probability convenience sampling technique, for this randomized controlled trial. Both females and males with no major co-morbid conditions and cognitive impairments were recruited and randomized via coin toss method into two equal groups: Dynamic Posturographic balance training (DPG) group and Conventional balance training (CBT) group. The DPG training was provided via Biodex Balance System (Static and Dynamic). Both groups received interventions 3 times (35 to 45min each day) a week for 8 weeks, after which terminal assessment was done. Data were collected on demographic profile, balance via berg balance score and mobility by using Timed Up and Go Test. Independent samples t test was used to check difference between CBT group and DPG Group and repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for within-group analysis. Results: Baseline analysis of Berg balance scale and timed up and go test between two groups showed no significant difference with (p 0.805 and 0.251, respectively). After 8 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference between the groups in both variables (p 0.019 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Dynamic posturographic balance training was more effective in improving dynamic balance and mobility in elderly population in comparison to conventional balance training. (author)

  3. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

  4. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  5. From disclosure to transparency: the use of company payment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonas, Susan; Frosch, Zachary; Rothman, David J

    2011-01-10

    It has become standard practice in medical journals to require authors to disclose their relationships with industry. However, these requirements vary among journals and often lack specificity. As a result, disclosures may not consistently reveal author-industry ties. We examined the 2007 physician payment information from 5 orthopedic device companies to evaluate the current journal disclosure system. We compared company payment information for recipients of $1 million or more with disclosures in the recipients' journal articles. Payment data were obtained from Biomet, DePuy, Smith & Nephew, Stryker, and Zimmer. Disclosures were obtained in the acknowledgments section, conflict of interest statements, and financial disclosures of recipients' published articles. We also assessed variations in disclosure by authorship position, payment-article relatedness, and journal disclosure policies. Of the 41 individuals who received $1 million or more in 2007, 32 had published articles relating to orthopedics between January 1, 2008, and January 15, 2009. Disclosures of company payments varied considerably. Prominent authorship position and article-payment relatedness were associated with greater disclosure, although nondisclosure rates remained high (46% among first-, sole-, and senior-authored articles and 50% among articles directly or indirectly related to payments). The accuracy of disclosures did not vary with the strength of journals' disclosure policies. Current journal disclosure practices do not yield complete or consistent information regarding authors' industry ties. Medical journals, along with other medical institutions, should consider new strategies to facilitate accurate and complete transparency.

  6. Positive Prerequisites for the Use of Reliefs in the Payment of Dues on Social Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ofiarski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is permissible to use reliefs in the payment of social security contributions, based either on a definitive waiver by the creditor of the whole or relevant part of the amount due (partial or complete remission or only a temporary waiver of such amounts (payment deferral or payment in installments. The use of such reliefs is possible upon the occurrence of conditions laid down in the Act, for example, in the case of total non-recovery of contributions, for economic or other reasons worth considering, if justified by important interests of the person concerned. The prerequisites mentioned above have a nature of general clauses, allowing for their flexible adjustment to specific situations. Entities authorized to grant reliefs in the payment of social security contributions act within the limits of administrative discretion. But it is not a fully free operation, because the economic impact resulting from the use of such reliefs has a direct impact on the financial balance of earmarked funds which finance social security benefits, in particular pensions, disability allowances and other benefits.

  7. BRANCH ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING PAYMENTS BY COMPANIES OF MOBILE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Konovalova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some branch aspects of accounting payments by companies of mobile network are analyzed. Analyzed topical by regarded problem for Sverdlovskaya region. Researched civic-law notions, that applying at the telecommunication area. The authors gives recommendations for system of accounting specific aspects of payments on the basis of they economic essence, and gives sentences to change legislation activeing at the Russian Federation.

  8. US approaches to physician payment: the deconstruction of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary care payment play such a prominent role in the PCMH discussion. FFS payment for office visits has never effectively rewarded all the activities that comprise prototypical primary care and may contribute to the "hamster on a treadmill" problems in current medical practice. Capitation payments are associated with risk adjustment challenges and, perhaps, public perceptions of conflict with patients' best interests. Most payers don't employ and therefore cannot generally place physicians on salary; while in theory such salary payments might neutralize incentives, operationally, "time is money;" extra effort devoted to meeting the needs of a more complex patient will likely reduce the services available to others. Fee-for-service, the predominant physician payment scheme, has contributed to both the continuing decline in the primary care workforce and the capability to serve patients well. Yet, the conceptual alternative payment approaches, modified fee-for-service (including fee bundles), capitation, and salary, each have their own problems. Accordingly, new payment models will likely be required to support restoration of primary care to its proper role in the US health care system, and to promote and sustain the development of patient-centered medical homes.

  9. 25 CFR 170.917 - Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preference § 170.917 Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees? This section... payment schedule. Tribes may consider requesting direct payment of tribal employment taxes or fees from... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes receive direct payment of tribal employment...

  10. Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate: Interrelation Dialectics Платежный баланс и валютный курс: диалектика взаимосвязи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veriga Anna V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article systemises principles of levelling the balance of payments stated in IMF Charter and Main Principles of Monetary and Credit Policy of the National Bank of Ukraine. It analyses dynamics of indicators of the state of the balance of payments of Ukraine and official exchange rate of UAH during the period from 1998 till 2011. It studies correlation and regressive links between the following indicators: balance of the current account of the balance of payments, export of goods and services, import of goods and services, gross foreign debt, official reserve assets, and official exchange rate of UAH to USD. It gives economic interpretation of the obtained statistical results. It provides a correlation and regressive model of official exchange rate, which allows identification of quantitative parameters of devaluation of UAH in the event of growth of the foreign debt and revaluation in the event of growth of volumes of reserve assets. It gives recommendations on the use of inter-state methods of regulation of the balance of payments.В статье систематизированы принципы выравнивания платежного баланса, зафиксированные Уставом МВФ и Основными принципами денежно-кредитной политики Национального банка Украины. Проанализирована динамика показателей состояния платежного баланса Украины и официального курса гривни в течение 1998 – 2011 гг. Исследованы корреляционно-регрессионные связи между такими показателями: сальдо текущего счета платежного баланса, экспорт товаров и услуг, импорт товаров и услуг, валовой внешний долг, о

  11. 20 CFR 404.384 - Reductions, suspensions, and nonpayments of special age 72 payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 72 payments when you are not residing in the United States. No special payment is due you for any... special age 72 payments. 404.384 Section 404.384 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Survivors' Insurance Benefits; Period of Disability Special Payments at Age 72 § 404.384 Reductions...

  12. 38 CFR 1.904 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims for Money Or Property § 1.904 Form of payment. Claims may be paid in the form of money or, when a contractual basis exists, VA may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific...

  13. 45 CFR 30.6 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Form of payment. Claims may be paid in the form of money or, when a contractual basis exists, the Department may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific services. ...

  14. 29 CFR 100.607 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 100.607 Form of payment. These procedures are directed primarily at the recovery of money or, when a contractual basis exists, the NLRB may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific...

  15. The Dividend Payment Policies of Selected Listed Companies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dividend Payment Policies of Selected Listed Companies in Botswana. ... an optimal dividend policy is important because of the effect of its information on outsiders ... on the firm's capital structure, investment opportunities and stock price.

  16. 12 CFR 625.29 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FCA will pay the amount awarded to the applicant within 60 days of receipt of the applicant's... EXPENSES UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.29 Payment of...

  17. Security of Electronic Payment Systems: A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Solat , Siamak

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive survey deliberated over the security of electronic payment systems. In our research, we focused on either dominant systems or new attempts and innovations to improve the level of security of the electronic payment systems. This survey consists of the Card-present (CP) transactions and a review of its dominant system i.e. EMV including several researches at Cambridge university to designate variant types of attacks against this standard which demonstrates lack of a secure "o...

  18. 42 CFR 412.622 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... adaptation to impairments. The required therapy treatments must begin within 36 hours from midnight of the... facilities receive payments for the following: (i) Bad debts of Medicare beneficiaries, as provided in § 413...

  19. 31 CFR 103.77 - Payment of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Summons § 103.77 Payment of expenses. Persons summoned under this part shall be paid the same fees and mileage for travel in the United States that are... part. ...

  20. Penalty payments for placement of advertising boards and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ofiarska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the essence, premises of application and sentencing guidelines regarding penalty payments for placement of advertising boards or structures in the public space in violation of regulations and conditions for placement thereof stipulated in the Commune Council resolution (ordinance. Structural elements constituting penalty payments are specified in the Planning and Development Act. The amount of penalty is determined by a decision taken by commune administrator (town mayor, city mayor. The ordinance specifies criteria for establishing the amount of penalty payments, taking into consideration the size of the advertising board or structure and the multiple of applicable advertising fees specified by the Commune Council for a given area or maximum fee recognized in the ordinance. Proceeds from penalty payments constitute a source of municipality’s own revenue, and are included among the so-called non-tax budget receivables.

  1. 77 FR 65899 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Guarantee of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Payment. OMB Number: 1651-00127. Form Number: Form I-510. Abstract: Section 253 of the Immigration and....gov/pdf/CBP_Form_i510.pdf Action: CBP proposes to extend the expiration date of this information...

  2. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.

  3. Towards a framework for the evaluation of mobile payments integration

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, jan; Tan, Kay-Ti; McCarthy, JB

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a theoretical framework for consideration of both the technologically driven dimensions of mobile payment solutions, and the associated value proposition for customers. Banks promote traditional payment instruments whose value proposition is the management of risk for both consumers and merchants. These instruments are centralised, costly and lack decision support functionality. The ubiquity of the mobile phone has provided a decentralised platform for managing ...

  4. Value affect of construction incentive payments on pavement performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) has been using monetary incentive payments : for many years to improve contractors conformance with specifications and their overall : workmanship. It was envisioned that incentive/disincentive (I/D...

  5. Interim Study of Alternative Payment Localities under the...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare is statutorily required to adjust payments for physician fee schedule services to account for differences in costs due to geographic location. There are...

  6. 24 CFR 206.103 - Payment of MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 206.103 Payment... cash, until the contract of insurance is terminated. ...

  7. Conditions for acceptance and usage of mobile payment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2003-01-01

    Mobile payment (MP) is crucial for, but not limited to mobile commerce. The key to mobile payment acceptance is in the hands of customers. In this paper we examine the conditions for acceptance and actual usage of MP procedures by the customer. We identify essential conditions which belong to the categories costs, security and convenience. Different preferences lead to an individual set of essential conditions for any single user. We propose a scheme for their representation and comparison an...

  8. US Approaches to Physician Payment: The Deconstruction of Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary ...

  9. Implementation of DRG Payment in France: issues and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Zeynep

    2014-08-01

    In France, a DRG-based payment system was introduced in 2004/2005 for funding acute services in all hospitals with the objectives of improving hospital efficiency, transparency and fairness in payments to public and private hospitals. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity of the reform, providers have become increasingly critical of the system because of the problems encountered during the implementation. In 2012 the government announced its intention to modify the payment model to better deal with its adverse effects. The paper reports on the issues raised by the DRG-based payment in the French hospital sector and provides an overview of the main problems with the French DRG payment model. It also summarises the evidence on its impact and presents recent developments for reforming the current model. DRG-based payment addressed some of the chronic problems inherent in the French hospital market and improved accountability and productivity of health-care facilities. However, it has also created new problems for controlling hospital activity and ensuring that care provided is medically appropriate. In order to alter its adverse effects the French DRG model needs to better align greater efficiency with the objectives of better quality and effectiveness of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  11. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.45 USDA payment authorizing agency offset... ownership of, or changed in some other manner the operation of, for the purpose of avoiding payment on the claim or debt, as determined by the creditor agency or the payment authorizing agency. (b) Prior to...

  12. Public Awareness of and Contact With Physicians Who Receive Industry Payments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Mello, Michelle M; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Campbell, Eric G; Carpenter, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act, part of the Affordable Care Act, requires pharmaceutical and medical device firms to report payments they make to physicians and, through its Open Payments program, makes this information publicly available. To establish estimates of the exposure of the American patient population to physicians who accept industry payments, to compare these population-based estimates to physician-based estimates of industry contact, and to investigate Americans' awareness of industry payments. Cross-sectional survey conducted in late September and early October 2014, with data linkage of respondents' physicians to Open Payments data. A total of 3542 adults drawn from a large, nationally representative household panel. Respondents' contact with physicians reported in Open Payments to have received industry payments; respondents' awareness that physicians receive payments from industry and that payment information is publicly available; respondents' knowledge of whether their own physician received industry payments. Among the 1987 respondents who could be matched to a specific physician, 65% saw a physician who had received an industry payment during the previous 12 months. This population-based estimate of exposure to industry contact is much higher than physician-based estimates from the same period, which indicate that 41% of physicians received an industry payment. Across the six most frequently visited specialties, patient contact with physicians who had received an industry payment ranged from 60 to 85%; the percentage of physicians with industry contact in these specialties was much lower (35-56%). Only 12% of survey respondents knew that payment information was publicly available, and only 5% knew whether their own doctor had received payments. Patients' contact with physicians who receive industry payments is more prevalent than physician-based measures of industry contact would suggest. Very few Americans know whether their own doctor

  13. A question of balance: Kinetic balance for electrons and positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Kinetic balance for both electrons and positrons is achieved by applying the correct relation for positive and negative energy states separately and then using the electron and positron eigensolutions from the separate diagonalizations of the Hamiltonian as a dual basis. Highlights: ► Kinetic balance for electrons and positrons is achieved in a dual atomic basis. ► Dual atomic balance alleviates, but does not eliminate, energy prolapse. ► Positron affinities converge quicker with basis set size with dual atomic balance. - Abstract: The kinetic balance criterion used in current relativistic basis set codes is satisfied by the electron solutions of the Dirac equation, but not the positron solutions. A proposal for applying kinetic balance to both sets of solutions is presented. The method is applied along with “normal” kinetic balance to one-electron systems, to investigate its possible relation to prolapse, and to the positron affinity of F − , to investigate the kinetic energy deficiency for positron solutions. The new method reduces but does not eliminate prolapse for energy-optimized basis sets, and provides faster and smoother convergence with basis set size for the positron affinity.

  14. 31 CFR 285.5 - Centralized offset of Federal payments to collect nontax debts owed to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offset of certain types of Federal payments, including tax refunds (31 CFR 285.2), Federal benefit... certified payment vouchers or other similar forms, to a disbursing official for disbursement. Payment record means information contained on a payment request, in the form of a certified payment voucher or other...

  15. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  16. Accelerating the Payment of PACE Assessments By Mark Zimring and Merrian Fulle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2010-05-04

    The 'acceleration' of land-secured assessments allows municipalities to declare the entire value (not just the late payments) of a property owner's outstanding balance payable if a default occurs. State laws vary on whether acceleration is required, permitted, or prohibited. Acceleration can be attractive to bond investors because it strips out non-performing assessments, and may avoid delays in debt service payments to investors. The risk that non-acceleration will negatively impact bond investors is a particular issue in states without a process for rapidly resolving defaults. However, acceleration may also increase the risk to mortgage holders, as the full amount of the outstanding assessment becomes due and traditionally has priority over other lien holders. Acceleration also places a greater burden on the property owner.

  17. The Direct Payments in the European Model of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Bečvářová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of economic contexts of the direct payments, as a targeted lump-sum financial transfer to the recipient’s income, employment in agricultural policy. Based upon the basic types of subsidies and their economic costs evaluation from the point of view of their deforming effects as well as transaction costs the direct payments are analysed generally as a type of support without a distorting effect on the gathering and transmission of market signals. The direct payments imply that the predominant flow from public funding to agriculture is paid independently from the volume of the present production (its amount and structure and make possible to choose the best structure of farm activities. However, their additional expenses are evaluated as a relatively very high. The transaction costs are high because the realisation of their objective (increase of the recipients’ income requires detailed personal information. Budgetary costs may also become extraordinarily high in the long term. On the basis at above the positive as well as negative components of their capacity for producers’ decision-making processes and their impact on the competitiveness in the framework of the modern agriculture are evaluated. In the following part of the paper the relationships effects of decoupled payments and agrarian markets are evaluated. Results of analyses indicate, the decoupled payments are not fully production neutral. Four topics of influence through which decoupled payments could affect production decisions are bringing to the attention as follows: wealth and investment effects (direct wealth effect, a wealth-facilitated increased investment effect, and a secondary wealth effect resulting from the increase in investment, sector consolidation effects, payment basis effects, and producer risk and expectations effects.

  18. Prediction Model of Dividend Payment of Czech Joint Stock Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejkora František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dividend payment is the very important part of investment decision for many stockholders. Results of this text identify finance factors that influence the management in dividend policy within the examined branch “Production and distribution of electric energy, gas and water”. Seven regressive models were created and they identify and define the effect of individual factors on the dividend payment among individual owner’s types. The retained earnings, the rate of return of invested assets in total and the size of company have the positive effect on the dividend payment. For the purpose of better interpretation the individual factors were quantified in form of the chance that the company will pay the dividend when compared to the fact that the company is not going to pay any dividend. The resulting regressive model was subsequently validated using the classification table and the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  19. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  20. Costs, advantages and drawbacks of the various means of payment

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2006-01-01

    The total macroeconomic costs of the payment instruments used in the points of sale can be estimated to be 2.034 million euros, or 0.74 p.c. of Belgian GDP in 2003. The payment costs arising from cash were 0.58 p.c. of GDP, compared to 0.11 p.c. for debit cards, 0.04 p.c. for credit cards and 0.02 p.c. for the electronic purse Proton. About 50.5 p.c. of the payment costs originate in points of sale, whilst 47.1 p.c. come from the financial sector and 2.3 p.c. from currency-issuing institution...

  1. Equity in out-of-pocket payment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez; Chi, Chunhuei

    2017-05-04

    To assess the distribution of financial burden in Chile, with a focus on the burden and progressivity of out-of-pocket payment. Based on the principle of ability to pay, we explore factors that contribute to inequities in the health system finance and issues about the burden of out-of-pocket payment, as well as the progressivity and redistributive effect of out-of-pocket payment in Chile. Our analysis is based on data from the 2006 National Survey on Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payments. Results from this study indicate evidence of inequity, in spite of the progressivity of the healthcare system. Our analysis also identifies relevant policy variables such as education, insurance system, and method of payment that should be taken into consideration in the ongoing debates and research in improving the Chilean system. In order to reduce the detected disparities among income groups, healthcare priorities should target low-income groups. Furthermore, policies should explore changes in the access to education and its impact on equity.

  2. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  3. The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response was inelastic in value. Policy makers need to continue to monitor how UC changes as sources of support for indigent care change with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PMID:23230705

  4. 77 FR 20122 - Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment... Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the form ``Voucher for Payment of Awards.'' DATES... of information described below: Title: Voucher for Payment of Awards. OMB Number: 1510-0037. Form...

  5. The Influence of Trust and Security in the Use of Electronic Payment System in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Frangky

    2015-01-01

    Electronic payment is the way to make in the process of buying and selling customers in real estate market or online market easier. Electronic payments give innovation to consumer with transaction overseas like online shopping. This study aims to determine the influence of trust and security in the use of electronic payment system. Where the independent variables are trust and security influence in using electronic payment system as the dependent variable. This research used quantitative meth...

  6. Is it resources, habit or both: interpreting twenty years of hospital strategic response to prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotsky, Edward R

    2005-01-01

    The 1983 Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) transformed acute care from a benevolent to malevolent environment. A dual-paradigm of resource dependency and institutional theories that balances isomorphic with economic variables has emerged to better explain hospital strategic response to the resultant constraint on resources than a traditional single paradigm approach. Using the population of non-rural, non-federal acute-care hospitals, strategic response from 1982 to 2001 is studied; distinct cost and service changes occur. Cost strategy is linked primarily to Medicare utilization, a resource dependence response. Service strategy favors high technology regardless of prospective payment diffusion, an institutional theory perspective. Strategic implications are discussed.

  7. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  8. Attitudes towards mobile payment : An empirical study of the consumers’ perception of security, privacy and convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbäck, Karin; Blommé, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Mobile payment is a new payment method that is being introduced on the Swedish market, but has not yet come to its breakthrough. This thesis investigates the attitude the Swedish consumer has towards mobile payment. Based on previous surveys and theory, three main attributes, security, privacy and convenience, were chosen to represent the attitude of the consumer towards mobile payment. In order to analyze the data obtained from the surveys conducted, the multi-attribute attitude model was us...

  9. Community oncology in an era of payment reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John V; Ward, Jeffery C; Hornberger, John C; Temel, Jennifer S; McAneny, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Patients and payers (government and private) are frustrated with the fee-for-service system (FFS) of payment for outpatient health services. FFS rewards volume and highly valued services, including expensive diagnostics and therapeutics, over lesser valued cognitive services. Proposed payment schemes would incent collaboration and coordination of care among providers and reward quality. In oncology, new payment schemes must address the high costs of all services, particularly drugs, while preserving the robust distribution of sites of service available to patients in the United States. Information technology and personalized cancer care are changing the practice of oncology. Twenty-first century oncology will require increasing cognitive work and shared decision making, both of which are not well regarded in the FFS model. A high proportion of health care dollars are consumed in the final months of life. Effective delivery of palliative and end-of-life care must be addressed by practice and by new models of payment. Value-based reimbursement schemes will require oncology practices to change how they are structured. Lessons drawn from the principles of primary care's Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) will help oncology practice to prepare for new schemes. PCMH principles place a premium on proactively addressing toxicities of therapies, coordinating care with other providers, and engaging patients in shared decision making, supporting the ideal of value defined in the triple aim-to measurably improve patient experience and quality of care at less cost. Payment reform will be disruptive to all. Oncology must be engaged in policy discussions and guide rational shifts in priorities defined by new payment models.

  10. ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS AND THEIR POSSIBLE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Karvai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With development of a century of technologies, the economy has had access also for development in Internet industry sphere too. Thanks to this development have appeared: e-money, electronic payment systems, Internet-banking. In the given work the general scheme of works of electronic payment systems, their conditions and function, examples of possible ways of development are presented. In the conclusion the recommendations how it is possible to optimize the market for development of electronic commerce are given and resulted

  11. 42 CFR 484.240 - Methodology used for the calculation of the outlier payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for each case-mix group. (b) The outlier threshold for each case-mix group is the episode payment... the same for all case-mix groups. (c) The outlier payment is a proportion of the amount of estimated...

  12. Reaffirmation of additional (supplementary payments in company law of Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of this article is development of legal regulation if additional payments in Serbia, from 1937 Commercial Code of Kingdom of Yugoslavia till nowadays. In introductory part author underlines legal nature, commercial function and importance of additional payments in private companies, with downfalls in regulation, court and busyness practice. 1988 Enterprise Act and 2004 Company Act has no regulations at all regarding additional payments. 1996 Enterprise Act and 2011 Company Act have provisions on additional payments, but with numerous weaknesses and open questions. Though critical analyses author underlines basic characteristics of additional payments included critical issues which may be expected during application of new legislature.

  13. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the regulatory environment and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature of the mobile phone, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established structure into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure....... The model captures the formation and development of the digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s and innovator’s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change which are followed by short and rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage...

  14. Introduction of card payment system in a merchant company

    OpenAIRE

    Štrukelj, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is about PCI DSS, which stands for Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. PCI DSS represents a uniőed approach to the protection of sensitive card data and to prevention of abuses in the payment card industry. Implementation of the standard in the company provides a higher level of security, it maintains conődence, protection against abuse and consequently protection against őnancial losses and loss of reputation. When paying with credit cards, the őrst lin...

  15. Comparison of Current On-line Payment Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mandadi, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to make a survey of current on-line payment technologies and find out which are they and how do they work? Compare and analyze them from a security point of view, as well as a usability point of view. What is good? What is bad? What is lacking? To achieve this purpose, an overview of the current on-line payment technologies was acquired through academic books and papers, Internet sites, magazines. Basic cryptographic and security related techniques were stu...

  16. [Physician payment mechanisms. An instrument of health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, G

    1994-01-01

    Payment mechanisms for physicians have always been subject of debate. The profession tends to prefer fee-for-services, while health care institutions prefer to pay doctors by salary or capitation. The definition of the payment mechanism is not an administrative decision, it is frequently the output of an intense political negotiation. Recently an increase in salaried physicians has been observed, even in countries where the profession is powerful. In nations like Mexico, where the State is the dominant actor, salary or capitation can be used as an instrument to encourage quality of care and better geographic distribution. In this paper, several country cases are reviewed.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON ASSESSMENT OF PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timeea Maria DUMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Payment and settlement systems are financial instruments that are significant to the financial and banking system. Payment systems are a source of current information and an operative intervention tool by providing oversight use funds in the accounts of the banks. Since their implementation in the banking system structure these systems have evolved continuously in the market requirements, we are encountering major problems are mostly due to strict compliance with international standards, which ensure a high level of safety in their operation and measures by the central bank.

  18. Medicare's post-acute care payment: a review of the issues and policy proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2012-12-07

    Medicare spending on post-acute care provided by skilled nursing facility providers, home health providers, inpatient rehabilitation facility providers, and long-term care hospitals has grown rapidly in the past several years. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and others have noted several long-standing problems with the payment systems for post-acute care and have suggested refinements to Medicare's post-acute care payment systems that are intended to encourage the delivery of appropriate care in the right setting for a patient's condition. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 contained several provisions that affect the Medicare program's post-acute care payment systems and also includes broader payment reforms, such as bundled payment models. This issue brief describes Medicare's payment systems for post-acute care providers, evidence of problems that have been identified with the payment systems, and policies that have been proposed or enacted to remedy those problems.

  19. Society of Gynecologic Oncology Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force report: The Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model (ECAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Emily M; Havrilesky, Laura J; Alvarez, Ronald D; Zivanovic, Oliver; Boyd, Leslie R; Jewell, Elizabeth L; Timmins, Patrick F; Gibb, Randall S; Jhingran, Anuja; Cohn, David E; Dowdy, Sean C; Powell, Matthew A; Chalas, Eva; Huang, Yongmei; Rathbun, Jill; Wright, Jason D

    2018-05-01

    Health care in the United States is in the midst of a significant transformation from a "fee for service" to a "fee for value" based model. The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 has only accelerated this transition. Anticipating these reforms, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology developed the Future of Physician Payment Reform Task Force (PPRTF) in 2015 to develop strategies to ensure fair value based reimbursement policies for gynecologic cancer care. The PPRTF elected as a first task to develop an Alternative Payment Model for thesurgical management of low risk endometrial cancer. The history, rationale, and conceptual framework for the development of an Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model are described in this white paper, as well as directions forfuture efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tautologies of work life balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van F.M.; Vos, J.P.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    This conceptual contribution resembles the central theme of the 2002 SUSTAIN meeting and is about tautologies of Work Life Balance. It will be argued, that in Open-Systems Thinking the tautological character of work and non-work is obscured because the system and its environment are defined in an

  1. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  2. 42 CFR 413.172 - Principles of prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End... methodology used to establish payment rates and the changes specified in § 413.196(b) in the Federal Register...

  3. Management of Tax Payments Under the Definitive Value Added Tax Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large value added tax fraud in the European Union. The current value added tax system is universal as tax is applied to all parties involved in the chain transactions, thus creating a risk of tax losses if one of the parties involved in the chain transaction does not pay tax in good faith. There is the action plan to introduce the definitive value added tax to prevent tax fraud in intra-community transactions. However, in order to ensure normal value added tax administration in all member states, a number of measures are needed to be done. It is necessary to develop a mutual settlement mechanism in cases of intra-community transactions. The aim of this research is to develop a possible solution for the management of tax payments under the definitive value added tax regime. The results of the research show that to manage tax payments, several payment management systems can be used. However, as a solution, a special clearing system could be introduced. Quantitative research methods such as statistical methods were used in order to analyze the situation of tax fraud in EU and its main causes, as well as mathematical modeling methods to analyze the definitive VAT system and to calculate the balance between countries in an example for clearing mechanism.

  4. 12 CFR 8.7 - Payment of interest on delinquent assessments and examination and investigation fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... thereafter up to and including the day payment is received. Interest will be simple interest, calculated for... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of interest on delinquent assessments..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENT OF FEES § 8.7 Payment of interest on delinquent assessments and...

  5. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  6. Allocation of time under different payment systems by GPs in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.; Groenewegen, P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Payment of GPs is relevant from two points of view: fair payment and effects on the quality of care. Fair pay is especially important in capitation systems (does the amount correctly reflect the invested work). Secondly, payment affects the allocation of time, and thus indirect the

  7. 26 CFR 49.4261-7 - Examples of payments subject to tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Examples of payments subject to tax. 49.4261-7...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4261-7 Examples of payments subject to tax. The following are examples of payments for transportation which, unless...

  8. 7 CFR 1951.11 - Application of payments on real estate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Application of payments on real estate accounts. 1951... Servicing Policies § 1951.11 Application of payments on real estate accounts. (a) Regular payments. If a borrower owes more than one type of real estate loan, or has received initial and subsequent real estate...

  9. 76 FR 13349 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries AGENCY: Rural... announces the acceptance of applications for payments to eligible biorefineries to encourage the use of... operation of these eligible biorefineries. To be eligible for payments, biorefineries must have been in...

  10. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-87 - Submission of vouchers for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.216-87 Submission of vouchers for payment. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(e), insert the following clause: Submission for Vouchers for Payment (MAR 1998) (a) The designated billing office for cost vouchers for purposes of the Prompt Payment clause of this contract is indicated below...

  12. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and..., if applicable: 2535-0102. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment...

  13. 18 CFR 11.17 - Procedures for payment of charges and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be a percentage of the estimate by the Commission staff of what the final charge will be, as follows... under § 11.15(d)(2). (6) Payment under protest. Any payment of a final charge required by this section... payment received for final charges from bills issued pursuant to this section in a special account. No...

  14. A Comparison of Three Models to Predict Liquidity Flows between Banks Based on Daily Payments Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of payment data has become an important task for operators and overseers of financial market infrastructures. Payment data provide an accurate description of how banks manage their liquidity over time. In this paper we compare three models to predict future liquidity flows from payment

  15. 45 CFR 234.11 - Assistance in the form of money payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assistance in the form of money payments. 234.11... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.11 Assistance in the form of money payments. (a) Federal financial participation is available in money payments made under a State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1235 - Exclusion of certain payments related to tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments related to tax credits. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), we... Internal Revenue Code (relating to the earned income tax credit); (2) Any payment from an employer under section 3507 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to advance payment of the earned income tax credit...

  17. 24 CFR 203.22 - Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of insurance premiums or... Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.22 Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege. (a) Payment of periodic insurance premiums or charges. Except with respect to mortgages for which...

  18. 48 CFR 871.207 - Payment of tuition or fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prorated on the basis of attendance, regardless of the refund policy. (3) If an institution customarily charges for the amount of credit or number of hours of attendance for which a trainee enrolls, payment may... policy providing for a graduated scale of charges for purposes of determining refunds may be paid part or...

  19. 7 CFR 765.405 - Payment of costs associated with transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transferee, with Agency approval, may pay these costs provided: (a) Any cash equity due the transferor is applied first to payment of costs and the transferor does not receive any cash payment above these costs... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of costs associated with transfers. 765.405...

  20. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures.

  1. 32 CFR 536.70 - Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers... Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers. (a) An unrepresented claimant will be listed as the sole payee... attorney, only one payment voucher will be issued with the claimant and the attorney as joint payees. The...

  2. 78 FR 10579 - TRICARE Revision to CHAMPUS DRG-Based Payment System, Pricing of Hospital Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... 0720-AB58 TRICARE Revision to CHAMPUS DRG-Based Payment System, Pricing of Hospital Claims AGENCY... change TRICARE's current regulatory provision for hospital claims priced under the DRG-based payment... under the DRG- based payment system from the beneficiary's date of admission, to pricing such claims...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460). ...

  4. 10 CFR 1015.105 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES General § 1015.105 Form of payment. Claims may be paid in the form of money or, when a contractual basis exists, the Government may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific services. ...

  5. 34 CFR 686.33 - Frequency of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of payment. 686.33 Section 686.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM...

  6. 7 CFR 28.958 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... officers in charge of testing laboratories to all persons from whom payment of fees and costs under the... order of “Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA.” [35 FR 8532, June 3, 1970. Redesignated at 46 FR 30075...

  7. 41 CFR 105-55.005 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.005 Form of payment. Claims may be paid in the form of money or, when a contractual basis exists, the General Services Administration may demand the return of specific property or the performance of specific services. ...

  8. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    Construction of Technology' and it shows how the framing of the portals and the concrete digital choices taken in relation to the infrastructure are influenced by the social intentions of relevant social groups as well as by the technical limitations on computers abilities to process semantic data......'. The paper accordingly concludes that there is a co-production of technical infrastructures and social values taking place in the process of designing these types of portals and it is thereby illustrated that if machines are to play a significant role in policy-making it is necessary that part of the policy......This paper presents an analysis of official documents and white papers pertaining to the two web-portals The Policy Grid Project and FEED that are launched by the UK and the EU respectively. The aim of the portals is to filter and synthesize information relevant for policy discussions and thereby...

  9. Balance of plan gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An increment of 10% is observed, in the supply of the gas propane in 1996 being generated big expectations in the initiation of the Natural Gas program, these achievements in those that comes participating the private sector actively, have given to the plan gas a dynamics peculiar to the investments fundamentally in the exploration areas, production, transport and distribution, being configured in the country a transition phase for the use of this resource, characterized by the change from a state manager to a state regulator that even reflective holes and serious focus problems to allow a competitive handling of this industry. With the entrance in operation of the new platform in the Guajira at the end of 1998 and the production expectations in the opon Area, the possibilities are increased of gas supply for the short term, however in the medium and long term they think about queries before the uncertainty and opportune exploitation of the gas in the piedemonte llanero areas, for the recruiting problems that it is trusted, they will be overcome for benefit of the parts, with all the volume of proven and probable reserves of gas it shows a readiness for 35 years if they stay the production levels and it demands

  10. 75 FR 41509 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; LOCCS Voice Response System Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; LOCCS Voice Response System Payment Vouchers for Public and Indian... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: LOCCS Voice Response System Payment Vouchers for... system. The information collected on the payment voucher will also be used as an internal control measure...

  11. 42 CFR 412.304 - Implementation of the capital prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.304 Implementation of the capital prospective payment system. (a) General rule. As described in §§ 412.312 through 412.370...

  12. Factors influencing the Use of Mobile Payments in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa (JOLTE), Vol. 5 no. 2 2014 .... acceptance or non-acceptance of technical product innovations such as mobile payments. This paper is based on the ... Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB (Ajzen, 1991 cited in ibid), Diffusion of Innovation, DOI. (Rogers, 1995 ...

  13. 20 CFR 71.5 - Payment of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a member, such benefits will be paid, upon the request of such person, to such church or to such... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of benefits. 71.5 Section 71.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY...

  14. 28 CFR 24.309 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of award. 24.309 Section 24.309 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN... decision is not being sought in the United States courts, or that the process for seeking review of the...

  15. 32 CFR 270.8 - Authorization of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM... purpose. Any payment authorized to a person under a legal disability, may, in the discretion of the Commission, be paid for the use of the person, to the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, or...

  16. 40 CFR 303.30 - Criteria for payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for payment of award. 303.30 Section 303.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... have obtained knowledge of the violation in a timely manner absent claimant's information; (c...

  17. 24 CFR 235.1210 - Recapture of assistance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appreciation of the property. (c) The term net appreciation of the property as used in this section means any... this section when the mortgagor: (1) Disposes of the property or a homeowner not qualified to receive assistance payments, or (2) Has rented the property (or rented the owner's unit in the case of a two- to four...

  18. 38 CFR 9.5 - Payment of proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., discounted to the date of his or her death at the same rate used for inclusion of interest in the computation... remain unpaid will be discounted to the date of payment at the same rate used for inclusion of interest... is extended due to total disability converts the group insurance to an individual policy which is...

  19. 22 CFR 134.30 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will pay the amount awarded to the applicant within 60 days, unless judicial review of the award or of... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of award. 134.30 Section 134.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT; IMPLEMENTATION Procedures for...

  20. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pay periods equals 546 days, and 546 days divided by 365 days equals 1.50 years. (c)(1) An authorized... pay a relocation incentive— (1) As an initial lump-sum payment at the commencement of the service... employee in a service period may not exceed 25 percent of the annual rate of basic pay of the employee at...

  1. 5 CFR 2610.311 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 2610.311 Payment of award..., Suite 500, 1201 New York Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20005-3917. The Office will pay the amount awarded to the applicant within 60 days, unless judicial review of the award or of the underlying decision of...

  2. From Disparity to Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation in Australia: A Proposal for a Dual Process of Adjudication based upon Size of Progress Payment Claim

    OpenAIRE

    Coggins, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act into New South Wales in 1999, construction industry payment legislation has progressively been enacted on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis throughout Australia. Of the eight Australian Acts, two distinct legislative models can be discerned – what have been termed the ‘East Coast’ and ‘West Coast’ models. This article compares the two models with respect to their payment s...

  3. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal p...

  4. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such period...

  5. 50 CFR 11.17 - Payment of final assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND... administrative decision becomes effective in accordance with this part 11, the respondent shall have 20 calendar days from the date of the final administrative decision within which to make full payment of the...

  6. 37 CFR 260.6 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... verification of the payment of royalty fees to those parties entitled to receive such fees, according to terms... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verification of royalty... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION...

  7. 37 CFR 382.6 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of royalty fees to those parties entitled to receive such fees, according to terms promulgated by the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verification of royalty payments. 382.6 Section 382.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF...

  8. 14 CFR 187.15 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.15 Payment of fees. (a) The fees of this part are payable to the Federal Aviation Administration by check, money order, wire transfers, draft, payable in U.S. currency and drawn on a U.S. bank, or by credit card payable in U.S. currency, prior to the provision of any service under this part. (b...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6285 - Recipient payment of response costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of response costs. The recipient may pay for its share of response costs using cash, services... costs in the form of cash. (b) Services. The recipient may provide equipment and services to satisfy its... CFR part 300). (d) Excess cash cost share contributions/overmatch. The recipient may direct EPA to...

  10. Impact of the Transition to ICD-10 on Medicare Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Although the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10 version of MS-DRGs resulted in 1.68 percent of the patients being assigned to a different MS-DRG, payment...

  11. Netherlands: The potentials of integrating care via payment reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Jeroen N.; Drewes, Hanneke W.; Heijink, Richard; Baan, Caroline A.

    This chapter provides insight in the potential of integrating care through payment reform in the Netherlands. We begin by briefly outlining the main characteristics of the Dutch health care system, which has been transformed into a system of managed competition in the past decade. We focus on health

  12. 15 CFR 785.19 - Payment of final assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of final assessment. 785.19 Section 785.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785...

  13. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially or...

  14. 17 CFR 201.59 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as authorized by law, unless judicial review of the award has been sought by the applicant. [54 FR... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.59 Payment of award. An applicant seeking... decision granting the award, accompanied by a sworn statement that the applicant will not seek review of...

  15. 20 CFR 617.35 - Time and method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment. 617.35 Section 617.35 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.35 Time and method...

  16. The evolution of balanced scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Eremina G.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the evolution of the Balanced scorecard (BSC) as one of the world's most popular systems of measuring performance. The BSC, developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton as a strategic management tool, has been constantly changing with the accumulation of practical experience of its use. The author of the article establishes the chronology of the publication of articles and books that have become milestones on the way of development of the BSC and traces of system changes ...

  17. 25 CFR 117.28 - Payment of claims against estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPETENCY § 117.28 Payment of claims against estates. The superintendent may disburse to the executor or... the Indian. (b) Expenses incurred pending the qualifications of an executor or administrator under... executor or administrator, transcript fees and appraiser fees. (d) Living expenses incurred within 90 days...

  18. 38 CFR 61.33 - Payment of per diem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States, from departments of State and local governments, from private entities or organizations...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.33 Payment of per diem. (a) A capital grant... non-grant recipient for those homeless veterans— (1) Who VA referred to the grant recipient or non...

  19. 24 CFR 206.25 - Calculation of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.25... principal limit set aside as a line of credit including any set asides for repairs and first year property... credit separately or with monthly payments. If the mortgagor has a line of credit, separately or combined...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1112 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission. Failure to comply with the Commission's procedures will result in the return of the application... not receive final payment and such failure is not excused by bank error. (2) The Commission will... attached to the receipt copy a stamped self-addressed envelope of sufficient size to contain the date...

  1. 10 CFR 1023.329 - Payment of award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official. The agency will pay the amount awarded to the applicant within 60 days. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of award. 1023.329 Section 1023.329 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONTRACT APPEALS Procedures Relating to Awards Under the Equal...

  2. 30 CFR 219.102 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... writing to the Minerals Management Service, Minerals Revenue Management, P.O. Box 5760, Denver, Colorado... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 219.102 Section 219.102 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT...

  3. 14 CFR 1206.705 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by check or money order payable to the “National Aeronautics and Space Administration” and sent per... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of payment. 1206.705 Section 1206.705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS...

  4. 31 CFR 337.13 - Payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance premiums. When book-entry debentures are being purchased prior to maturity to pay for mortgage insurance premiums, the difference between the amount of the debentures purchased and the mortgage insurance... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of mortgage insurance...

  5. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  6. Out-of-pocket payment for health services: constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study brings to the fore the fact that most government employees and their dependants in Abakaliki have difficulties in accessing quality health care services via paying for them out-of-pocket. Keywords: Health services, payment, constraints, government employees. African Health Sciences 2011; 11(3): 481 ...

  7. 75 FR 7551 - Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0067] RIN 0960-AH08 Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Final rule...

  8. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decimal places. For example, a service period covering 39 biweekly pay periods equals 546 days, and 546 days divided by 365 days equals 1.50 years. (c)(1) An authorized agency official may request that OPM... pay a recruitment incentive-(1) As an initial lump-sum payment at the commencement of the service...

  9. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  10. The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective” presents the aspects concerning the impact of the electronic payment system on the development of nowadays society as an economic and a managerial perspective. Our research focuses on issues related to the payments sector, the Smartcard, the Electronic Banking,payment systems based on bank cards, the Cyber cash, and the electronic payment systems (1 Net Cash and (2 E-Cash, Micro-payment systems with (1 Millicent and (2 Cyber Coin, as well as the electronic check payments.

  11. 38 CFR 10.50 - Section 601 and section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. Cash payments and the first installment of installment payments authorized in sections 601 and 603, respectively of title VI of the World War Adjusted... 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. 10.50 Section 10.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and...

  12. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  13. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  14. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  15. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  16. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  17. Comparative analysis of the current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Uroš; Soldatović, Ivan; Vuković, Dejana; Milićević, Milena Šantrić; Stjepanović, Mihailo; Kojić, Dejan; Argirović, Aleksandar; Vukotić, Vinka

    2015-03-01

    Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR) is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. The data were obtained from the information system used in the Clinical Hospital Center "Dr. Dragiša Mišović"--Dedinje in Belgrade, Serbia. The implemented hospital information system was the main criterion for selection of healthcare institutions. The study included 994 randomly selected patients treated surgically and conservatively in 2012. Average costs under the current payment method were slightly higher than those projected by DRG, however, the variability was twice as high (54,111 ± 69,789 compared to 53,434 ± 32,509, p payment method as well as with the projected one by DRG was observed in relation to the number of days of hospitalization (ρ = 0.842, p payment system (β = 0.843, p payment system (β = 0.737, p payment method and the pro- jected DRG payment methods (β = 0.501, p Payment under the DRG system is administratively more complex because it requires detailed and standardized coding of diagnoses and procedures, as well as the information on the average consumption of resources (costs) per DRG. Given that aggregate costs of treatment under two hospital payment methods compared in the study are not significantly different, the focus on minor surgeries both under the current hospital payment method and under the introduced DRG system would be far more cost-effective for a hospital as great variations in treatment performance (reductions of days of hospitalization and complications), and consequently invoiced amounts would be reduced.

  18. Issues of law concerning the boycotting of electricity rate payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studenkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is for the first time that a Regional Court has handed down a decision on the so-called boycotting of electricity rate payments at first instance. Above all, the Court has confirmed the right of the electricity supply utility to shut off electricity. In the future, this will make it easier to make use of power stoppages vis-a-vis electricity rate payment boycotters after giving the warning required according to Sect. 30 (2) of the General Conditions and Terms Governing Electricity Supply. Fortunately, the Court's decision clearly subscribes to the maintenance of our constitutional order. It does not allow a civil action to be turned into a forum of political debate an the pros and cons of the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  19. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Industry Financial Relationships in Neurosurgery in 2015: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lotbiniere-Bassett, Madeleine P; McDonald, Patrick J

    2018-03-23

    The 2013 Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates that all U.S. drug and device manufacturers disclose payments to physicians. All payments are made available annually in the Open Payments Database (OPD). Our aim was to determine prevalence, magnitude, and nature of these payments to physicians performing neurologic surgery in 2015 and to discuss the role that financial conflicts of interest play in neurosurgery. All records of industry financial relationships with physicians identified by the neurological surgery taxonomy code in 2015 were accessed via the OPD. Data were analyzed in terms of type and amounts of payments, companies making payments, and comparison with previous studies. In 2015, 83,690 payments (totaling $99,048,607) were made to 7613 physicians by 330 companies. Of these, 0.01% were >$1 million, and 73.2% were <$100. The mean payment ($13,010) was substantially greater than the median ($114). Royalties and licensing accounted for the largest monetary value of payments (74.2%) but only 1.7% of the total number. Food and beverage payments were the most commonly reported transaction (75%) but accounted for only 2.5% of total reported monetary value. Neurologic surgery had the second highest average total payment per physician of any specialty. The neurological surgery specialty receives substantial annual payments from industry in the United States. The overall value is driven by a small number of payments of high monetary value. The OPD provides a unique opportunity for increased transparency in industry-physician relationships facilitating disclosure of financial conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple Sources of Prescription Payment and Risky Opioid Therapy Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William C; Fenton, Brenda T; Brandt, Cynthia A; Doyle, Erin L; Francis, Joseph; Goulet, Joseph L; Moore, Brent A; Torrise, Virginia; Kerns, Robert D; Kreiner, Peter W

    2017-07-01

    Opioid overdose and other related harms are a major source of morbidity and mortality among US Veterans, in part due to high-risk opioid prescribing. We sought to determine whether having multiple sources of payment for opioids-as a marker for out-of-system access-is associated with risky opioid therapy among veterans. Cross-sectional study examining the association between multiple sources of payment and risky opioid therapy among all individuals with Veterans Health Administration (VHA) payment for opioid analgesic prescriptions in Kentucky during fiscal year 2014-2015. Source of payment categories: (1) VHA only source of payment (sole source); (2) sources of payment were VHA and at least 1 cash payment [VHA+cash payment(s)] whether or not there was a third source of payment; and (3) at least one other noncash source: Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance [VHA+noncash source(s)]. Our outcomes were 2 risky opioid therapies: combination opioid/benzodiazepine therapy and high-dose opioid therapy, defined as morphine equivalent daily dose ≥90 mg. Of the 14,795 individuals in the analytic sample, there were 81.9% in the sole source category, 6.6% in the VHA+cash payment(s) category, and 11.5% in the VHA+noncash source(s) category. In logistic regression, controlling for age and sex, persons with multiple payment sources had significantly higher odds of each risky opioid therapy, with those in the VHA+cash having significantly higher odds than those in the VHA+noncash source(s) group. Prescribers should examine the prescription monitoring program as multiple payment sources increase the odds of risky opioid therapy.

  2. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  3. PAYMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICE FOR CARBON CREDITS FROM ITALIAN OLIVE GROVES. SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE MODE OF PAYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coderoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, olive farming is one of the most interesting examples of carbon sink in agricultural soils. The olive agro-ecosystems can in fact ensure effective action in CO2 fixation encouraging the process of carbon storage on the organic matter of the soil. Starting from the assumption that a different and more “carbon oriented” management of Italian olive groves system could represent a promising way to increase the carbon stored in agricultural land, this paper explores the possibility to implement a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES scheme to increase the provision of carbon sink by olive groves. The analysis focuses on the definition of the sealable ecosystem service, according to the actual policy framework and on the mode of payment that could be established. Results, suggest that an output-based payment, though more environmentally efficient, could not be enough to incentivise farmers to join the PES, as the payment per hectare might be lower using this approach.

  4. 75 FR 49821 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ...-value cards (including gift cards). All of these provisions are retained in the final regulations... statutory definition are met. Electronic benefit transactions for the purchase of goods or services, made on... goods or services to (1) send a purchase invoice electronically to customers; and (2) accept payment...

  5. 42 CFR 412.541 - Method of payment under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inpatient operating costs and capital-related costs for each discharge only following submission of a..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL... education program, blood clotting factors, anesthesia services furnished by hospital-employed nonphysician...

  6. Medical ethics: enhanced or undermined by modes of payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Janus, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    In the medical literature [1, 2, 7], the view prevails that any change away from fee-for-service (FFS) jeopardizes medical ethics, defined as motivational preference in this article. The objective of this contribution is to test this hypothesis by first developing two theoretical models of behavior, building on the pioneering works of Ellis and McGuire [4] and Pauly and Redisch [11]. Medical ethics is reflected by a parameter α, which indicates how much importance the physician attributes to patient well-being relative to his or her own income. Accordingly, a weakening of ethical orientation amounts to a fall in the value of α. While traditional economic theory takes preferences as predetermined, more recent contributions view them as endogenous (see, e.g., Frey and Oberholzer-Gee [5]). The model variant based on Ellis and McGuire [4] depicts the behavior of a physician in private practice, while the one based on Pauly and Redisch [11] applies to providers who share resources such as in hospital or group practice. Two changes in the mode of payment are analyzed, one from FFS to prospective payment (PP), the other to pay-for-performance (P4P). One set of predictions relates physician effort to a change in the mode of payment; another, physician effort to a change in α, the parameter reflecting ethics. Using these two relationships, a change in ethics can observationally be related to a change in the mode of payment. The predictions derived from the models are pitted against several case studies from diverse countries. A shift from FFS to PP is predicted to give rise to a negative observed relationship between the medical ethics of physicians in private practice under a wide variety of circumstances, more so than a shift to P4P, which can even be seen as enhancing medical ethics, provided physician effort has a sufficiently high marginal effectiveness in terms of patient well-being. This prediction is confirmed to a considerable degree by circumstantial evidence

  7. Formal balancing of chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Abraham; Rao, S.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we recall and extend the main results of Van der Schaft, Rao, Jayawardhana (2015) concerning the use of Kirchhoff’s Matrix Tree theorem in the explicit characterization of complex-balanced reaction networks and the notion of formal balancing. The notion of formal balancing corresponds

  8. Participation of distributed generation in balance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed generation is not yet considered to participate in balance management in power systems. Low marginal costs and poor predictability make them less attractive for this application. However, further integration of distributed generation will make participation in balance management a

  9. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  10. Effect of Bundled Payments and Health Care Reform as Alternative Payment Models in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ahmed; White, Peter B; Mistry, Jaydev B; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Nace, James; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to control rising healthcare costs, healthcare reforms have developed initiatives to evaluate the efficacy of alternative payment models (APMs) for Medicare reimbursements. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center (CMMSIC) introduced the voluntary Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) model experiment as a means to curtail Medicare cost by allotting a fixed payment for an episode of care. The purpose of this review is to (1) summarize the preliminary clinical results of the BPCI and (2) discuss how it has led to other healthcare reforms and alternative payment models. A literature search was performed using PubMed and the CMMSIC to explore different APMs and clinical results after implementation. All studies that were not in English or unrelated to the topic were excluded. Preliminary results of bundled payment models have shown reduced costs in total joint arthroplasty largely by reducing hospital length of stay, decreasing readmission rates, as well as reducing the number of patients sent to in-patient rehabilitation facilities. In order to refine episode of care bundles, CMMSIC has also developed other initiatives such as the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) pathway and Surgical Hip and Femur Fracture (SHFFT). Despite the unknown future of the Affordable Care Act, BPCI, and CJR, preliminary results of alternative models have shown promise to reduce costs and improve quality of care. Moving into the future, surgeon control of the BPCI and CJR bundle should be investigated to further improve patient care and maximize financial compensation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  12. PERCEPTIONS OF EXECUTIVE PAYMENT ABUSE IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, executive compensation abuse has been deeply criticized. Thus, the actuality of research is undeniable. The article highlights the importance of learning from other institutions’ past and present executive compensation abuse experiences by presenting the participants’ shared experiences (having to do with executive compensation abuse and by studying how participants perceive executive compensation abuse. The main objective of this research lies in exploring participants’ shared experiences concerning executive compensation abuse, as well as their perceptions, discrepancies and unsolved questions – presented within an ample, interconnected qualitative and quantitative methodological approach. A sample of 20 individuals was chosen for the triangulation method. From the resultant triangulation six new themes derive from the interview/questionnaire questions specifically referring to executive payment abuse namely: (a ethics means distinguishing between right and wrong, (b perspectives of ethical behaviour, (c types of executive payment abuse, (d the participant’s perceptions of institution and colleagues.

  13. Application of Benford's Law in Payment Systems Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Žgela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems auditing activities are mandatory in today business environments. There are numerous useful methods that can be conducted in such audits. One of contemporary methods is application of so-called Benford's Law. In this paper we examine ways of application of this law in investigation of certain number set with aim to make a conclusion if number set conforms to Benford's Law. As an examination target we used foreign payment system messages which are issued between foreign and domestic business entities i.e. commercial and central banks. We chose sample of 1.745.311 transactions and conducted examination for first, second and first two digits. We examine certain data subsets, created according to certain payment types, and investigate how Benford’s Law tests can be used in auditing. We also compare practical usefulness and note differences between various conformity tests in auditing environment. Results we achieved prove adequate potential of this law in audit practice.

  14. How different types of participant payments alter task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers typically use incentives (such as money or course credit in order to obtain participants who engage in the specific behaviors of interest to the researcher. There is, however, little understanding or agreement on the effects of different types and levels of incentives used. Some results in the domain of statistical reasoning suggest that performance differences --- previously deemed theoretically important --- may actually be due to differences in incentive types across studies. 704 participants completed one of five variants of a statistical reasoning task, for which they received either course credit, flat fee payment, or performance-based payment incentives. Successful task completion was more frequent with performance-based incentives than with either of the other incentive types. Performance on moderately difficult tasks (compared to very easy and very hard tasks was most sensitive to incentives. These results can help resolve existing debates about inconsistent findings, guide more accurate comparisons across studies, and be applied beyond research settings.

  15. AN INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE BTRACKS BALANCE PLATE AND SPORTS BALANCE SOFTWARE FOR CONCUSSION DIAGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Manyak, Kristin A; Abdenour, Thomas E; Rauh, Mitchell J; Baweja, Harsimran S

    2016-04-01

    As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (balance testing with gold standard accuracy. The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Cross-Sectional Study. Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the greatest concussion sensitivity of any balance testing instrument reported to date. Level 2

  16. Loyalty program of payment cards, solution based on DWH

    OpenAIRE

    Jersák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis is covering topics of customer's loyalty, loyalty programs in banking and mainly topic is loyalty programs of payment cards in banking industry. First theoretical parts is guiding us though concept of customer's loyalty in banking industry and is describing specifics of this loyalty compared to loyalty to sales businesses. Further, this thesis is trying to show opportunities to be used to support customer's loyalty in bank with participation of credit and debit cards. In t...

  17. Managerial accounting in the system of payments with enterprise buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegel'nik N.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the period of global changes in different spheres of social activity, the issue of managerial accounting in the system of payments with buyers is actual enough as the efficiency of management of enterprise economic activity to a great extent depends exactly on the information resources of managerial accounting. The managerial accounting in the system of payments with buyers is adjusted on the implementation of enterprise strategies, that is the construction of administrative accounting depends on the strategy of market scope. There is a necessity to make the decision about how many places for selling products should be opened on a certain geographical territory to satisfy the necessities of present and potential clients of a special purpose group in products, commodities and services. The system of tasks of administrative accounting in the system of payments with buyers is formulated, that allows to unite all the information about the products sold, will do the information integral and will enable users, in particular, the leader of an enterprise, to a great extent to take the opportunity to get the complete information on the state of calculations with buyers and to make administrative decisions correctly in order to avoid complicated and contradictory situations with buyers. The paper determines the directions for further researches in relation to the development of issues, which have direct regard to the buyers of purchase-sale contractual relations.

  18. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  19. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. CONTROVERSIES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Neoliberal performatives and the 'making' of Payments for Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kolinjivadi, V.; Hecken, Van, G.; Vela Almeida, D.; Dupras, J.; Kosoy, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This paper argues that Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) serve as a neoliberal performative act, in which idealized conditions are re-constituted by well-resourced and networked epistemic communities with the objective of bringing a distinctly instrumental and utilitarian relationality between humans and nature into existence. We illustrate the performative agency of hegemonic epistemic communities advocating (P)ES imaginaries to differentiate between the cultural construction o...

  3. THE IMPACT OF COMPENSATION PAYMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT, IN REGIONAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta JULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation payments are considered active labour market policies designed to increase efficiency, to mitigate unemployment and to sustaining employment. We tested this hypothesis for the period 1993-2013, in territorial structures (42 counties through a dynamic panel model (confirmed by Granger causality tests – Toda-Yamamoto version, and by means of error correction model. We found that the dynamics of regional employment are positively related to expenditure incurred for active policies and there are negatively correlated with the ratio between the unemployment average indemnity (and support allowance and the average net nominal monthly salary earnings. But, the connexion between employment and compensation payments converges extremely slowly for a long-term stable relationship.

  4. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  5. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS ON THE NEW EUROPEAN REGULATION IN TERMS OF PAYMENT SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bulearcă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that each Member State of the European Union had its own regulation in the matter of payments, the European Commission considered it necessary to adopt an uniform legislation in this regard. Consequently was adopted Directive 2007/64/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council which regulated payment services in the EU and the EEA (European Economic Area. In virtue of the obligation to transpose into the national law the provisions of this Directive, with effect from November 1, 2009 Romania adopted the Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which regulated its own legislation on the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC. Given the experience gained so far, considering the technological opportunities in the matter of payments and the change in habits of payment of the EU citizens and not only, in conjunction with the development of electronic commerce and increasing facilities offered by the payment service providers in the field of payments via mobile terminals, it has been concluded that provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC are largely overcome by the technological evolution. Wishing to maintain the regulations in the matter of payment services at the current technological level to guarantee the security of payment operations at the same time with the adaptation of the market of EU payments to the opportunities offered by the single market and simultaneously with supporting the EU economy growth, the European Commission has adopted a package of measures which include both a new directive relating to services of payment as well as a proposal for a regulation on inter-bank fees for card payments. The purpose of the regulation is the transparency of bank information on payment services; creating a single legal framework at the EU and EEA level in the matter of payment services and the protection of payment service consumers. The new regulation applies not only to payment transactions in the EU or EEA but also to payments made or received to

  6. Association of Industry Payments to Physicians With the Prescribing of Brand-name Statins in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Franklin, Jessica M; Avorn, Jerry; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industry payments to physicians may affect prescribing practices and increase costs if more expensive medications are prescribed. Determine the association between industry payments to physicians and the prescribing of brand-name as compared with generic statins for lowering cholesterol. Cross-sectional linkage of the Part D Medicare prescriptions claims data with the Massachusetts physicians payment database including all licensed Massachusetts physicians who wrote prescriptions for statins paid for under the Medicare drug benefit in 2011. The exposure variable was a physician's industry payments as listed in the Massachusetts database. The outcome was the physician's rate of prescribing brand-name statins. We used linear regression to analyze the association between the intensity of physicians' industry relationships (as measured by total payments) and their prescribing practices, as well as the effects of specific types of payments. Among the 2444 Massachusetts physicians in the Medicare prescribing database in 2011, 899 (36.8%) received industry payments. The most frequent payment was for company-sponsored meals (n = 639 [71.1%]). Statins accounted for 1 559 003 prescription claims; 356 807 (22.8%) were for brand-name drugs. For physicians with no industry payments listed, the median brand-name statin prescribing rate was 17.8% (95% CI, 17.2%-18.4%). For every $1000 in total payments received, the brand-name statin prescribing rate increased by 0.1% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.13%; P associated with a 4.8% increase in the rate of brand-name prescribing (P = .004); other forms of payments were not. Industry payments to physicians are associated with higher rates of prescribing brand-name statins. As the United States seeks to rein in the costs of prescription drugs and make them less expensive for patients, our findings are concerning.

  7. Design and impact of bundled payment for detox and follow-up care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Hodgkin, Dominic; Perloff, Jennifer N; Stewart, Maureen T; Brolin, Mary; Lane, Nancy; Horgan, Constance M

    2017-11-01

    Recent payment reforms promote movement from fee-for-service to alternative payment models that shift financial risk from payers to providers, incentivizing providers to manage patients' utilization. Bundled payment, an episode-based fixed payment that includes the prices of a group of services that would typically treat an episode of care, is expanding in the United States. Bundled payment has been recommended as a way to pay for comprehensive SUD treatment and has the potential to improve treatment engagement after detox, which could reduce detox readmissions, improve health outcomes, and reduce medical care costs. However, if moving to bundled payment creates large losses for some providers, it may not be sustainable. The objective of this study was to design the first bundled payment for detox and follow-up care and to estimate its impact on provider revenues. Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries' behavioral health, medical, and pharmacy claims from July 2010-April 2013 were used to build and test a detox bundled payment for continuously enrolled adults (N=5521). A risk adjustment model was developed using general linear modeling to predict beneficiaries' episode costs. The projected payments to each provider from the risk adjustment analysis were compared to the observed baseline costs to determine the potential impact of a detox bundled payment reform on organizational revenues. This was modeled in two ways: first assuming no change in behavior and then assuming a supply-side cost sharing behavioral response of a 10% reduction in detox readmissions and an increase of one individual counseling and one group counseling session. The mean total 90-day detox episode cost was $3743. Nearly 70% of the total mean cost consists of the index detox, psychiatric inpatient care, and short-term residential care. Risk mitigation, including risk adjustment, substantially reduced the variation of the mean episode cost. There are opportunities for organizations to gain revenue

  8. Assessing catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care payments in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kwesiga, Brendan; Zikusooka, Charlotte M; Ataguba, John E

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct out-of-pocket payments for health care are recognised as limiting access to health care services and also endangering the welfare of households. In Uganda, such payments comprise a large portion of total health financing. This study assesses the catastrophic and impoverishing impact of paying for health care out-of-pocket in Uganda. Methods Using data from the Uganda National Household Surveys 2009/10, the catastrophic impact of out-of-pocket health care payments is defined ...

  9. Energy balance of solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, V.; Berg, W.; Kaulfuss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The input and output of energy are two important factors used to determine the energetic and ecological usefulness of a fuel or its production technology. In this paper, a number of different methods for the production of five biofuels which can be produced in agriculture and forestry are analysed and energetic balances are presented. The results show that the energetic input is relatively low compared to the output, especially for by-products and residual substances such as cereal straw and forest pruning timber (thinning). Whenever fuel crops are cultivated, the energetic efficiency is critically determined by the quantity of nitrogen applied. Depending on the crop and technology, each gigajoule of energy input can provide 7-30 GJ or with by-products up to 50 GJ of thermally utilizable energy without any additional CO 2 pollution. (author)

  10. Payment reform will shift home health agency valuation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A D

    1998-12-01

    Changes authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 have removed many of the payment benefits that motivated past home health agency acquisition activity and temporarily have slowed the rapid pace of acquisitions of home health agencies. The act required that Medicare's cost-based payment system be replaced with a prospective payment system (PPS) and established an interim payment system to provide a framework for home health agencies to make the transition to the PPS. As a consequence, realistic valuations of home health agencies will be determined primarily by cash flows, with consideration given to operational factors, such as quality of patient care, service territory, and information systems capabilities. The limitations imposed by the change in payment mechanism will cause acquisition interest to shift away from home health agencies with higher utilization and revenue expansion to agencies able to control costs and achieve operating leverage.

  11. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they are finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard conditions

  12. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they could be finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard

  13. Optimal Financing Order Decisions of a Supply Chain under the Retailer's Delayed Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real supply chain, a capital-constrained retailer has two typical payment choices: the up-front payment to receive a high discount price or the delayed payment to reduce capital pressure. We compare with the efficiency of optimal decisions of different participants, that is, supplier, retailer, and bank, under both types of payments based on a game equilibrium analysis. It shows that under the equilibrium, the delayed payment leads to a greater optimal order quantity from the retailer compared to the up-front payment and, thus, improves the whole benefit of the supply chain. The numerical simulation for the random demand following a uniform distribution further verifies our findings. This study provides novel evidence that a dominant supplier who actively offers trade credit helps enhance the whole efficiency of a supply chain.

  14. Truth in Advertising: Disclosure of Participant Payment in Research Recruitment Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Largent, Emily A; Shachar, Carmel; Cohen, I Glenn; Bierer, Barbara E

    2018-05-01

    The practice of paying research participants has received significant attention in the bioethics literature, but the focus has been almost exclusively on consideration of factors relevant to determining acceptable payment amounts. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to what happens once the payment amount is set. What are the ethical parameters around how offers of payment may be advertised to prospective participants? This article seeks to answer this question, focusing on the ethical and practical issues associated with disclosing information about payment, and payment amounts in particular, in recruitment materials. We argue that it is permissible-and indeed typically ethically desirable-for recruitment materials to disclose the amount that participants will be paid. Further, we seek to clarify the regulatory guidance on "emphasizing" payment in a way that can facilitate design and review of recruitment materials.

  15. The key drivers and barriers to the use of Mobile Payments from consumer's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sunna, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence and the continually expanding capabilities of the mobile devices as well as the evolution of the smartphones provide an additional channel for payments, improve the shopping experience and present cutting-edge opportunities for merchants to involve consumers, and drive sales. Despite the positive prediction in past years in relation to the growth, mobile payment services have failed to seduce consumers. The problem of the mass adoption of mobile payments in gene...

  16. Current Mobile Payment Procedures on the German Market from the View of Customer Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Zenker, M.

    2003-01-01

    The key to mobile payment acceptance is in the hands of customers. In this paper we use the results of the mobile payment survey MP1 in order to identify and roughly weigh the most relevant acceptance criteria. The outcome of the paper is an evaluation scheme containing the covered payment scenarios, important main criteria (security, costs and convenience) and additional functionality requirements for each MP procedure. The scheme is based on empirical results and can assess a given MP proce...

  17. Security of payment regime in construction industry: are Malaysian sub-contractors ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah; Mohammad, Mohammad Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the particularly small sized sub-contractors are definitely benefited from payment provisions in the proposed Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication Act (CIPA Act), but need to enhance their knowledge in order to improve their awareness of the benefits of the Act. Accordingly, this on-going research attempts to introduce proper guidelines to the sub-contractors, in giving the knowledge, to claim for payment. Firstly, the research explored the problems and legal issues rel...

  18. MOBILE ADVERTISING EFFECT: INVESTIGATING FACTORS AFFECTING THE USAGE OF MOBILE PAYMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ching-Wei; Wang, Yu-Bing; Fang, Chun Hao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this study is tobuild a set of hypotheses and a novel conceptual model around the adoption ofmobile payment. In brief, it is to discuss how mobile advertisement effectaffects the intention to use the mobile payment. Methodology- The study aims to apply a partialleast squares (PLS) path modeling technique to demonstrate exploring therelationship between mobile trust and involvement along with customers’ attitudeand mobile payment intention. Findings- The findings reveal...

  19. Bundle Payment Program Initiative: Roles of a Nurse Navigator and Home Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiritsch, Heather

    2017-06-01

    With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) introduced a new value-based payment model, the Bundle Payment Care Initiative. The CMS Innovation (Innovation Center) authorized hospitals to participate in a pilot to test innovative payment and service delivery models that have a potential to reduce Medicare expenditures while maintaining or improving the quality of care for beneficiaries. A hospital-based home care agency, Abington Jefferson Health Home Care Department, led the initiative for the development and implementation of the Bundled Payment Program. This was a creative and innovative method to improve care along the continuum while testing a value-based care model.

  20. 19 CFR 162.96 - Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.96 Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest... for purposes of collection of any fees, costs or interest from the Government. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees...

  1. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh; Aparajit B. Dey, MD; Mohammed E. Hussain, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  2. The Adaptation of Ways and Methods of Risk Minimization in Local Payment Systems in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdaev Mausar Yushaevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of risk management gain special relevance in the conditions of payment systems development in public passenger transport in Russia. The risk carriers as well as the sources of their occurrence are revealed; the characteristics of private risks of individual participants in the system of public passenger transport are presented. The directions of risk management in relation to the payment system in public transport are reasoned and structured. It is proved that the choice of specific ways to minimize the risks in local payment systems in public transport is conditioned by the following factors – the nature of the payment system integration in public transport areas, the temporary nature of risk components effect due to the improvement of organizational, economic and technological factors, the change of the stages of payment systems development, the evaluation of risks effects. The article reasons the possibility of using and adjusting traditional ways (risk evasion, risk compensation, decrease in risk level, risk transfer, distribution of risk between participants and the methods of risk management in the payment systems in public transport according to the stages of their development and functioning for the processing center, passenger motor transport organizations, financial center and passengers (payers. The authors justify the directions of integrating the local payment systems of public transport in the national payment system, taking into account the risks involved in the activity of its members.

  3. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax is...

  4. 19 CFR 171.24 - Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Disposition of Petitions § 171.24 Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest. Any seizure... fees, costs or interest from the Government. [T.D. 00-88, 65 FR 78093, Dec. 14, 2000] ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees...

  5. 7 CFR 1463.113 - Issuance of payments in event of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of payments in event of death. 1463.113 Section 1463.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program ...

  6. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment of...

  7. 48 CFR 32.503-3 - Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payments and review of accounting system. 32.503-3 Section 32.503-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... on Costs 32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system. (a) For... review (within the last 12 months) to be (1) reliable, competent, and capable of satisfactory performance...

  8. 31 CFR 357.30 - Cases of delay or suspension of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cases of delay or suspension of payment. 357.30 Section 357.30 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.30 Cases of delay or suspension of payment. If evidence...

  9. 37 CFR 261.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 261.4 Section 261.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR... payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) A Licensee shall make the royalty payments due...

  10. 37 CFR 262.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 262.4 Section 262.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR... REPRODUCTIONS § 262.4 Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) Payment to...

  11. 37 CFR 380.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees and statements of account. 380.4 Section 380.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR CERTAIN... § 380.4 Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account. (a) Payment to the...

  12. The Effect of Green Payments on the Diffusion of Conservation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Nathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits from green payments for the adoption of a conservation technology or practice are reduced if the technology would have eventually been adopted regardless of the green payment. This source of additionality is likely a significant concern for some technologies subsidized by EQIP.

  13. The impact of the design of payment scales on the willingness to pay for health gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Soeteman (Lotte); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A. Bobinac (Ana)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe questionnaire format applied in a CV study represents the way in which the WTP estimates are obtained. Payment scales are often used in CV studies as the questionnaire format of choice. The study summarized here analyzes the impact of the design of two payment scales (PS) on the

  14. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone or to a Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse...

  15. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  16. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; King, Romaine; Mohan, Helen M; Gavin, Blanaid; McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking. Our aim was to examine REC policies, experiences and concerns with respect to the payment of participants in research projects in Ireland. Postal survey of all RECs in Ireland. Response rate was 62.5% (n=50). 80% of RECs reported not to have any established policy on the payment of research subjects while 20% had refused ethics approval to studies because the investigators proposed to pay research participants. The most commonly cited concerns were the potential for inducement and undermining of voluntary consent. There is considerable variability among RECs on the payment of research participants and a lack of clear consensus guidelines on the subject. The development of standardised guidelines on the payment of research subjects may enhance recruitment of research participants.

  17. Issues in the use of payments in lieu of taxes to provide nuclear waste facility siting incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Goss, E.

    1981-01-01

    High-level, nuclear waste isolation facilities will be federally owned and therefore exempt from local taxation. Because local residents view tax payments as a major benefit of industrial development, the absence of these payments, coupled with the inherent undesirability of hazardous-materials-handling activities, may discourage communities from accepting a facility. One method to overcome this disincentive is for the facility to make payments in lieu of taxes to localities. This paper examines the concept of payments in lieu of taxes and presents statistics describing local fiscal characteristics. The range these payments might take under alternative-payment arrangements is calculated, and the impact of such payments on the facility's user-free schedule is estimated. It is concluded that a payment plan based on hypothetical property-tax liabilities for an identical, but taxable, facility would have a significant revenue impact on most localities but would not increase user fees significantly. (Auth.)

  18. Balance of bacterial species in the gut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Balance of bacterial species in the gut. Protective. Lactobacillus species. Bifidobacterium species. Selected E. coli. Saccharomyces boulardii. Clostridium butyricum.

  19. Motivational Aspects Of New Payment System In Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Cherkasov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the change of tariffication net of payment for medical personnel, i.e. paramedical and junior medical staff, the minimum income has been increased. Data received from questionnaires of paramedical and junior medical staff have revealed the fact that with time working enthusiasm decreases and tendency to material welfare increases. While young specialists are intended to find out more prestigious and well-paid place of work. The main task of managers is to provide optimal labour conditions and motivational background for high-quality and effective work of medical staff

  20. The Institutional Work of Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristjan; Gallemore, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    creation in the context of the literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). While a large literature outlines ideal PES models, PES literature tends to overlook the demanding everyday work involved in building and maintaining the institutions upon which successful PES models depend. Drawing...... on the theory of institutional work, we conduct an extensive survey of the literature on PES to find examples of everyday work undertaken to build and maintain PES institutions, or else to disrupt institutions that stand in the way. Finding very limited discussion of the work of institutional creation, we...

  1. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  2. Welfare payments and other economic determinants of female migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui, M E

    1997-07-01

    "This article investigates the effects of welfare payments, wages, and unemployment on women's probability of interstate migration [in the United States]. It also investigates if the income attraction of locations varies with recency of labor market experience. Welfare gains increase the probability of interstate migration. Welfare effects are largest for single mothers with small children and stronger among women with no recent labor market experience. The welfare effects, albeit small, are larger than the wage effects. The wage effects are weaker among women with no recent work experience. Ethnic-specific analyses suggest differences in migration behavior among Anglos, African-Americans, and Puerto Ricans." excerpt

  3. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  4. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance.

  5. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-01-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.) [de

  6. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  7. Stuttgart Regional Court: Decision of October 3, 1980 - on the boycotting of electricity rate payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Due to lawsuit economy, the interest of the electricity supply utility in obtaining a declaratory judgment, stating that an electricity rate payment boycotter has no right of refusal to pay, and no right to withhold payment of, rates with regard to future claims from electricity supplies, has to be advocated. To affirm interest in a declaratory action, it is sufficient that the future obligations of the electricity rate payment boycotter can be described as the result of present electricity supply relationships. Vis-a-vis the electricity supply utility, the electricity rate payment boycotter has no right of refusal to pay, and no right to withhold payment of, rates because of the operation of a nuclear power station. (orig.) [de

  8. Distribution and Determinants of 90-Day Payments for Multilevel Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Medicare Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nikhil; Phillips, Frank M; Khan, Safdar N

    2018-04-01

    A retrospective, economic analysis. The objective of this article is to analyze the distribution of 90-day payments, sources of variation, and reimbursement for complications and readmissions for primary ≥3-level posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) from Medicare data. A secondary objective was to identify risk factors for complications. Bundled payments represent a single payment system to cover all costs associated with a single episode of care, typically over 90 days. The dollar amount spent on different health service providers and the variation in payments for ≥3-level PLF have not been analyzed from a bundled perspective. Administrative claims data were used to study 90-day Medicare (2005-2012) reimbursements for primary ≥3-level PLF for deformity and degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Distribution of payments, sources of variation, and reimbursements for managing complications were studied using linear regression models. Risk factors for complications were studied by stepwise multiple-variable logistic regression analysis. Hospital payments comprised 73.8% share of total 90-day payment. Adjusted analysis identified several factors for variation in index hospital payments. The average 90-day Medicare payment for all multilevel PLFs without complications was $35,878 per patient. The additional average cost of treating complications with/without revision surgery within 90 days period ranged from $17,284 to $68,963. A 90-day bundle for ≥3-level PLF with readmission ranges from $88,648 (3 levels) to $117,215 (8+ levels). Rates and risk factors for complications were also identified. The average 90-day payment per patient from Medicare was $35,878 with several factors such as levels of surgery, comorbidities, and development of complications influencing the cost. The study also identifies the risks and costs associated with complications and readmissions and emphasize the significant effect these would have on bundled payments (additional burden of up

  9. From Disparity to Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation in Australia: A Proposal for a Dual Process of Adjudication based upon Size of Progress Payment Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Coggins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act into New South Wales in 1999, construction industry payment legislation has progressively been enacted on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis throughout Australia. Of the eight Australian Acts, two distinct legislative models can be discerned – what have been termed the ‘East Coast’ and ‘West Coast’ models. This article compares the two models with respect to their payment systems and adjudication schemes, procedural justice afforded, incursion upon freedom of contract, uptake rates and efficiency. From this comparison, the strengths and weaknesses of the two models are identified. Finally, a dual process of adjudication based on progress payment claim size is proposed for a harmonised model, developed from previous proposals put forward by other authors, which aims to combine the strengths of the two existing models.

  10. Hacking point of sale payment application secrets, threats, and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gomzin, Slava

    2014-01-01

    Must-have guide for professionals responsible for securing credit and debit card transactions As recent breaches like Target and Neiman Marcus show, payment card information is involved in more security breaches than any other data type. In too many places, sensitive card data is simply not protected adequately. Hacking Point of Sale is a compelling book that tackles this enormous problem head-on. Exploring all aspects of the problem in detail - from how attacks are structured to the structure of magnetic strips to point-to-point encryption, and more - it's packed with practical recommendati

  11. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS § 341.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of precedence... representation; (4) If none of the above, to the parents of the owner, or the survivor of them; (5) In none of...

  12. 78 FR 73104 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Agency Requirements for Payment of Expenses Connected With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... the approval of the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501, et seq. E. Small Business... for Payment of Expenses Connected With the Death of Certain Employees and Family Members AGENCY... requirements for payment of expenses connected with the death of certain employees and family members. This...

  13. 31 CFR 346.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of... by representation; (4) If none of the above, to the parents of the owner, or the survivor of them; (5...

  14. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  15. 24 CFR 983.352 - Vacancy payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.352 Vacancy payment. (a) Payment for move-out month. If an assisted family moves out of the unit, the owner may keep the housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacancy payment. 983.352 Section...

  16. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Uroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obtained from the information system used in the Clinical Hospital Center “Dr. Dragiša Mišović” - Dedinje in Belgrade, Serbia. The implemented hospital information system was the main criterion for selection of healthcare institutions. The study included 994 randomly selected patients treated surgically and conservatively in 2012. Results. Average costs under the current payment method were slightly higher than those projected by DRG, however, the variability was twice as high (54,111 ± 69,789 compared to 53,434 ± 32,509, p < 0,001 respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the highest correlation with the current payment method as well as with the projected one by DRG was observed in relation to the number of days of hospitalization (ρ = 0.842, p < 0.001, and ρ = 0.637, p < 0.001, respectively. Multivariate regression models confirmed the influence of the number of hospitalization days to costs under the current payment system (β = 0.843, p < 0.001 as well as under the projected DRG payment system (β = 0.737, p < 0.001. The same predictor was crucial for the difference in the current payment method and the projected DRG payment methods (β = 0.501, p <0.001. Conclusion. Payment under the DRG system is administratively more complex because it requires detailed and standardized coding of diagnoses and procedures, as well as the information on the average consumption of resources (costs per DRG. Given that aggregate costs of treatment under two hospital payment methods compared

  17. 78 FR 5449 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission of OMB Review; Advance Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...; Submission of OMB Review; Advance Payments AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning advance payments. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43083, on... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of functions of the Federal Acquisition...

  18. 37 CFR 383.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 383.4 Section 383.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... fees. (a) Subject to the provisions of this section, terms governing timing and due dates of royalty payments, late fees, statements of account, audit and verification of royalty payments and distributions...

  19. 31 CFR 206.10 - Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from the...

  20. 22 CFR 19.9-3 - Computation and payment of pension to former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation and payment of pension to former... Computation and payment of pension to former spouse. (a) A pension to a former spouse is paid monthly on the... for a pension or any combination of pensions to former spouses of any one principal which exceeds the...

  1. 26 CFR 49.4261-8 - Examples of payments not subject to tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Examples of payments not subject to tax. 49.4261...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4261-8 Examples..., 4293, or 4294 the following are examples of payments not subject to tax: (a) Exchange of prepaid order...

  2. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe......, and that the material in the second precipitation step was often of higher apparent molecular weight anti had an increased overall absorbance coefficient.......In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments...... indicates that in temperature experiments as well as in solvent series experiments the precipitation of heavy asphaltenes affects the following precipitation of lighter asphaltenes. In both cases the mass balance using standard separation techniques cannot be closed, as less material is precipitated...

  3. Computer-Simulation of Balance Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massen, C.H.; Swüste, C.H.W.; Robens, E.; Poulis, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Several decades ago, when working in the field of magnetism, we had to use a balance the sensitivity of which was limited only by Brownian motion. This balance was a very slow one and to calculate the moment of force measured by it we used its equation of motion, T=Ja+ka+Ca, where we measured the

  4. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-09-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the 'single payer' of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objective of the reforms has been to replace the burgeoning system of unofficial informal payments for health care with a transparent official co-payment, thereby reducing the financial burden of health care spending for the poor. This article investigates trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care using the results of a series of nationally representative household surveys conducted over the period 2001-2007, when the reforms were being rolled out. The analysis shows that there has been a significant improvement in financial access to health care amongst the population. The proportion paying state providers for consultations fell between 2004 and 2007. As a result of the introduction of co-payments for hospital care, fewer inpatients report making payments to medical personnel, but when they are made, payments are high, especially to surgeons and anaesthetists. However, although financial access for outpatient care has improved, the burden of health care payments amongst the poor remains significant.

  5. 28 CFR 301.203 - Payment of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of lost-time wages. 301.203... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.203 Payment of lost-time wages. (a) An inmate worker may receive lost-time wages for the number of regular work hours absent from work due to injury sustained in...

  6. 24 CFR 982.635 - Homeownership option: Amount and distribution of monthly homeownership assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Homeownership Option § 982.635 Homeownership option: Amount and distribution of monthly homeownership assistance payment. (a) Amount of monthly homeownership... distribution of monthly homeownership assistance payment. 982.635 Section 982.635 Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 77 FR 59420 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Pell Grants and the Payment of Unemployment Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Collection; Pell Grants and the Payment of Unemployment Benefits to Individuals in Approved Training... Pell Grants and the payment of unemployment benefits to individuals in approved training. DATES... November 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance...

  8. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved] ...

  9. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... selected by the insured. If no designated beneficiary survives, the present value of any remaining unpaid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly...

  10. 20 CFR 725.521 - Commutation of payments; lump sum awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... present value of future benefit payments commuted, computed at 4 percent true discount compounded annually... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments; lump sum awards. 725.521 Section 725.521 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1494-1 - Returns; payment and collection of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income taxes. If the plan has been so... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns; payment and collection of tax. 1.1494...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Transfers to Avoid Income Tax § 1.1494-1 Returns; payment and...

  12. A Comparison of Three Models to Predict Liquidity Flows between Banks Based on Daily Payments Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M.A. Triepels (Ron); H.A.M. Daniels (Hennie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe analysis of payment data has become an important task for operators and overseers of financial market infrastructures. Payment data provide an accurate description of how banks manage their liquidity over time. In this paper we compare three models to predict future liquidity flows

  13. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of...

  14. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  15. Thermal balance of Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change ( P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable ( P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.

  16. Student Understanding of Chemical Equation Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarroch, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of interviews with high school chemistry students (N=14) during equation-solving sessions indicate that those who were able to construct diagrams consistent with notation of their balanced equation possessed good concepts of subscript and the balancing rule. Implications for chemistry teaching are discussed. (DH)

  17. Challenges of introducing and implementing mobile payments : A Qualitative study of the Swedish mobile payment application WyWallet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    Citizens of Sweden are now facing a large shift in their habits of managing money transferring using mobile phones. They are now forced to use an application called WyWallet when making purchases with cell-phones. WyWallet is an application based on a new EU-directive that has led to a law concerning the new payment service act that wants to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. This has led to a lot of consequences for the citizens and also other agencies relying on donations via...

  18. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities include...

  19. 42 CFR 460.42 - Suspension of enrollment or payment by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of enrollment or payment by CMS. 460.42... enrollment or payment by CMS. (a) Enrollment. If a PACE organization commits one or more violations specified in § 460.40, CMS may suspend enrollment of Medicare beneficiaries after the date CMS notifies the...

  20. Pricing of payment cards, competition, and efficiency : A possible guide for SEPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes equilibrium pricing of payment cards and welfare consequences of payment card competition. In particular, we model competition between debit and credit cards. The paper argues that optimal consumer and merchant fees must take safety, income uncertainty, default risk, and the

  1. 37 CFR 260.3 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 260.3 Section 260.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... Terms for making payment of royalty fees. (a) All royalty payments shall be made to a designated agent(s... the month succeeding the month in which the royalty fees are set. (c) The agent designated to receive...

  2. 42 CFR 413.196 - Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in rate-setting... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.196 Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates. Link to an amendment...

  3. 34 CFR 691.63 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grade level progression. A student may not progress to the next year during a payment period. The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period. 691.63... MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.63...

  4. A model for use-centered design of payment instruments applied to banknotes : Upid-model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    People use banknotes to pay retailers for person-to-person payments and for travelling. However, in the Netherlands the number of cash payments is declining. People rather use debit cards, as they provide them better services. Modern banknotes face a usage threat, instead of a new counterfeit

  5. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... loan agreement fulfils the beneficial ownership requirement....

  6. Introducing out-of-pocket payment for general practice in Denmark: feasibility and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Camilla Aavang

    2014-07-01

    The financing of General Practice (GP) is a much-debated topic. In spite of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for other primary health care provided by self-employed professionals, there is no OOP payment for the use of GP in Denmark. This article aims to explore the arguments, the actors and the decision-making context. An analysis of the healthcare-policy debate in Parliament and the media from 1990 until September 2012. The materials are parliamentary hearings/discussions and newspaper articles. Kingdon's model on Policy Windows and the Advocacy Coalition framework by Sabatier and Jenkins are used to investigate explanations. The arguments from the proponents are: that OOP payment for GP will reduce pressure on the primary sector; that the current allocation of OOP payment in the sector is historically conditioned; and that resistance towards OOP payment is based on emotions. The main argument from the opponents is that OOP payment will increase social inequality in health. There is little connection between the attitudes and ideological backgrounds of the political parties. Despite factors such as perceived expert/scientific evidence for OOP payment, changes of government, financial crisis and a market-based reform wave, no government has introduced OOP payment for GP. This article suggests that governmental positions, public- and especially health-professional support are important factors in the decision-making context. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. 7 CFR 1962.29 - Payment of fees and insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Payment of fees and insurance premiums. 1962.29... Security § 1962.29 Payment of fees and insurance premiums. (a) Fees. (1) Security instruments. Borrowers... the service cannot be obtained without cost. (b) Insurance premiums. County Supervisors are authorized...

  8. [Influence of ski boots on balance performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, E; Lembert, S; Raschner, C

    2010-03-01

    Modern ski carving technique demands that skiers have a strong sense of balance and edge their skis with precision and feeling. Stiff ski boots facilitate the transfer of power to the ski but increase the difficulty of balancing. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of ski boots on balance performance of alpine skiers. 76 experienced skiers (female 33/male 43) and 76 ski racers of the Skigymnasium Stams (female 31/male 45) were tested on the MFT S 3 Check with and without ski boots. Ski boots significantly influenced balance. There were also significant differences between experienced skiers and ski racers, but gender differences were minimal. In addition to general conditioning, skiers should utilise general and ski-specific balance and sensomotor training which could help in ski injury prevention, especially knee injuries. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  9. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and U.S. hospital operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Needleman, Jack

    The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 initiated several changes to Medicare payment policy in an effort to slow the growth of hospital Medicare payments and ensure the future of the Medicare Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Although subsequent federal legislation relaxed some original proposals, restored funds were limited and directed to specific types of hospitals. In addition, these Medicare policy changes came at a time when hospitals faced private sector payment constraints. This paper assesses the short-term effects of the BBA on operations of nonprofit hospitals in the United States and compares these effects to those observed in the early 1980s during implementation of the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). We found that some operational changes instituted by hospitals facing financial pressures from the BBA were similar to those observed for hospitals that faced pressure from Medicare PPS, including efforts to contain Medicare cost growth, to expand outpatient service provision, and to contain hospital staffing. However, during PPS implementation hospitals experienced declining inpatient use and growing profit margins, whereas post-BBA hospitals experienced growing inpatient use and declining margins.

  10. Ethical Implications of Case-Based Payment in China: A Systematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pingyue; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

    2015-12-01

    How health care providers are paid affects how medicine is practiced. It is thus important to assess provider payment models not only from the economic perspective but also from the ethical perspective. China recently started to reform the provider payment model in the health care system from fee-for-service to case-based payment. This paper aims to examine this transition from an ethical perspective. We collected empirical studies on the impact of case-based payment in the Chinese health care system and applied a systematic ethical matrix that integrates clinical ethics and public health ethics to analyze the empirical findings. We identified eleven prominent ethical issues related to case-based payment. Some ethical problems of case-based payment in China are comparable to ethical problems of managed care and diagnosis related groups in high-income countries. However, in this paper we discuss in greater detail four specific ethical issues in the Chinese context: professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, access to care and patient autonomy. Based on the analysis, we cautiously infer that case-based payment is currently more ethically acceptable than fee-for-service in the context of China, mainly because it seems to lower financial barriers to access care. Nonetheless, it will be difficult to justify the implementation of case-based payment if no additional measures are taken to monitor and minimize its existing negative ethical implications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Strategic interaction among hospitals and nursing facilities: the efficiency effects of payment systems and vertical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D; Parker, E; Wendel, J

    2001-03-01

    Rising post-acute care expenditures for Medicare transfer patients and increasing vertical integration between hospitals and nursing facilities raise questions about the links between payment system structure, the incentive for vertical integration and the impact on efficiency. In the United States, policy-makers are responding to these concerns by initiating prospective payments to nursing facilities, and are exploring the bundling of payments to hospitals. This paper develops a static profit-maximization model of the strategic interaction between the transferring hospital and a receiving nursing facility. This model suggests that the post-1984 system of prospective payment for hospital care, coupled with nursing facility payments that reimburse for services performed, induces inefficient under-provision of hospital services and encourages vertical integration. It further indicates that the extension of prospective payment to nursing facilities will not eliminate the incentive to vertically integrate, and will not result in efficient production unless such integration takes place. Bundling prospective payments for hospitals and nursing facilities will neither remove the incentive for vertical integration nor induce production efficiency without such vertical integration. However, bundled payment will induce efficient production, with or without vertical integration, if nursing facilities are reimbursed for services performed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. 76 FR 13329 - Reinstatement of Coverage Pertaining to Final Payment Under Construction and Building Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ13 Reinstatement of Coverage Pertaining to Final Payment Under Construction and Building.... SUMMARY: GSA is proposing to amend the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) to amend the GSAR to restore guidance on making final payments under construction and building service...

  13. 37 CFR 382.3 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty fees. 382.3 Section 382.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF... royalty fees. (a) Payment to the Collective. All royalty payments shall be made to the Collective... month for that month, commencing with the month succeeding the month in which the royalty fees are set...

  14. 41 CFR 102-38.290 - What types of payment may we accept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment policy that protects the Government against fraud. Acceptable payments include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) U.S. currency or any form of credit instrument made payable on demand in U.S. currency, e.g., cashier's check, money order. Promissory notes and postdated credit instruments...

  15. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services... SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Outpatient Hospital and Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits...

  16. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated...

  17. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity

  19. Types and Distribution of Payments From Industry to Physicians in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringale, Kathryn R; Marshall, Deborah; Mackey, Tim K; Connor, Michael; Murphy, James D; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-05-02

    Given scrutiny over financial conflicts of interest in health care, it is important to understand the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians. To determine the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians in 2015 and the association of physician specialty and sex with receipt of payments from industry. Observational, retrospective, population-based study of licensed US physicians (per National Plan & Provider Enumeration System) linked to 2015 Open Payments reports of industry payments. A total of 933 295 allopathic and osteopathic physicians. Outcomes were compared across specialties (surgery, primary care, specialists, interventionalists) and between 620 166 male (66.4%) and 313 129 female (33.6%) physicians using regression models adjusting for geographic Medicare-spending region and sole proprietorship. Physician specialty and sex. Reported physician payment from industry (including nature, number, and value), categorized as general payments (including consulting fees and food and beverage), ownership interests (including stock options, partnership shares), royalty or license payments, and research payments. Associations between physician characteristics and reported receipt of payment. In 2015, 449 864 of 933 295 physicians (133 842 [29.8%] women), representing approximately 48% of all US physicians were reported to have received $2.4 billion in industry payments, including approximately $1.8 billion for general payments, $544 million for ownership interests, and $75 million for research payments. Compared with 47.7% of primary care physicians (205 830 of 431 819), 61.0% of surgeons (110 604 of 181 372) were reported as receiving general payments (absolute difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 13.1-13.6; odds ratio [OR], 1.72; P sole proprietorship, men within each specialty had a higher odds of receiving general payments than did women: surgery, 62.5% vs 56.5% (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.26-1.31); primary

  20. Balance confidence is related to features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with sub-acute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months post-discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, while medio-lateral centre of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. PMID:27955809

  1. Payment and Economic Evaluation of Integrated Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tsiachristas (Apostolos)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The rapid growth and ageing of global population accompanied by unhealthy health behaviour (i.e. smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and harmful use of alcohol) lead to increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. Worldwide, non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

  2. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty. (a...

  3. 45 CFR 264.70 - What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provisional payment of contingency funds? 264.70 Section 264.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Contingency Fund? § 264.70 What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds? (a) In order to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds, a State must: (1) Be a needy...

  4. Invoicing, Payments Info

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Vendors Invoicing, Payments Info Bidding Opportunities Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts Business

  5. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  6. End-to-end encryption in on-line payment systems : The industry reluctance and the role of laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    Various security breaches at third-party payment processors show that online payment systems are the primary target for cyber-criminals. In general, the security of online payment systems relies on a number of factors, namely technical factors, processing factors, and legal factors. The industry

  7. Determinant Factors of Dividend Payments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Augusto Borges Forti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies factors that shaped cash disbursement distribution policies employed by Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA from 1995 to 2011. Relationships between Dividends/Total Assets and potential determinants discussed in the literature, including firm size, corporate governance, profitability, leverage, market to book, liquidity, investment, risk, profit growth, information asymmetry and agency conflict, are examined. The following econometric methods are employed: (1 Tobit, given the nature of the dividend data, and (2 the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to control for endogenous regressors. Significant positive variables found include size, return on assets (ROA, market to book, liquidity and profit growth. It can thus be inferred that larger firm size, profitability, market value, liquidity and profit growth correlate with greater firm pro pensity to distribute money to shareholders, thus supporting the theory of corporate finance. Significant negative variables found include leverage, liquidity squared, capex, beta and tag along 100%. It is thus inferred that more significantly leveraged companies that invest more heavily in fixed assets and that exhibit high liquidity, higher risk and less conflict between controlling and minority shareholders will be less likely to pay dividends to shareholders.

  8. 'Business before pleasure': the golden rule of sex work, payment schedules and gendered experiences of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth; Bungay, Vicky

    2017-03-01

    A widespread rule of sex work is that payment occurs before service provision. Drawing on a subset of data collected as part of an ethnographic study conducted in metro Vancouver, Canada, this paper explores the temporal and gendered connections between payment and financial violence in a semi-criminalised indoor sex industry. A detailed examination of the timing of payment with 51 independent indoor sex workers reveals the gendered nature of the violence and its direct connection to anti-violence strategies indoor sex workers employ. We found that women (including transgender women) (n = 26) and men (n = 25) use payment schedules to minimise potential violence, but in divergent ways. Sex workers adhere to, negotiate and reject the golden rule of payment in advance based on different experiences of gendered violence. Through a gendered relational analysis, we show the contextual relationship between men and women as they negotiate payment schedules in their sex work interactions. These findings offer insight into the significance that the timing of payment has in sex workers' anti-violence practices.

  9. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS Certification...

  10. 32 CFR 37.810 - What should my TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should my TIA's provisions specify for the... TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment requests? The procedure... reimbursements or advance payments, your TIA must allow recipients to submit requests for payment at least...

  11. 78 FR 63488 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Grant Drawdown Payment Request/LOCCS/VRS Voice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .... Public and Indian Housing Grant recipients use the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the... system. The information collected on the payment voucher will also be used as an internal control measure... Information Collection: Grant Drawdown Payment Request/LOCCS/VRS Voice Activated AGENCY: Office of the...

  12. 13 CFR 120.1881 - How are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the SISMBD Loan? Unless otherwise provided in the Loan Agreements for a particular SISMBD Loan, any payment on Collateral... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are payments on the Collateral...

  13. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In general—(1) Overview. This... were employed by a single employer. (b) Maintenance of balances—(1) Prefunding balance—(i) In general...) In general. If the plan sponsor of a plan elects to add to the plan's prefunding balance, as of the...

  14. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-01-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  15. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS PAYMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC SECURITY OF THE COUNTRY, PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF OVERCOMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kiyanchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of customs payments as one of the main revenue sources of the state budget of Ukraine. The volume of receipt of customs payments to the state budget is characterized. The structure of receipts from customs payments for 2016-2017 is considered. Problems that violate the stable level of economic security of the country are identified. The complex of measures proposed to resolve deficiencies in the system of collection of customs payments to the State Budget of Ukraine is considered. The purpose of this article is to reveal the content and role of revenues from customs payments to the state budget and their impact on the country’s economic security. The subject of research: the impact of customs payments on the country’s economic security. The methodological basis of the study is a set of general, scientific, specific scientific and special methods and approaches, which helped to realize the conceptual unity of the research. In particular: an integrated approach that is used to analyse the collection of customs payments methods of induction and deduction, formalization to study the mechanism of charging customs payments, the method of analysis – in the study of the main elements of the collection of customs payments in Ukraine. Positive and normative research methods are used to develop proposed budget revenues from receipt of customs payments and to ensure stable economic security. Results. Thus, according to the results of the analysis, in 2017, there is a clear tendency to increase revenues to the state budget, including from customs payments. Thus, in 2017, the total amount of customs payments amounted to 277.27 billion UAH, which is 57.24 billion UAH more than the previous year (220.03 billion UAH. That is, customs payments increased by 26%. Economic implications. However, there are some problems in collecting customs payments to the state budget, which in turn violate a stable level of economic security of

  16. Towards an Understanding of Atmospheric Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    During a 35 year period I published 30+ pear-reviewed papers and technical reports concerning, in part or whole, the topic of atmospheric balance. Most used normal modes, either implicitly or explicitly, as the appropriate diagnostic tool. This included examination of nonlinear balance in several different global and regional models using a variety of novel metrics as well as development of nonlinear normal mode initialization schemes for particular global and regional models. Recent studies also included the use of adjoint models and OSSEs to answer some questions regarding balance. lwill summarize what I learned through those many works, but also present what l see as remaining issues to be considered or investigated.

  17. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  18. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  19. The impact of the Directive on Payment Services in the Internal Market on Danish and Belgium Legislation on Fraudulent Payment Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation of liabi......In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation...... and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European Directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonization, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether the implementations are in accordance with the Directive and finally, whether...... the Directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promotes the creation of a common internal market for payment services...

  20. Assessing catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care payments in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesiga, Brendan; Zikusooka, Charlotte M; Ataguba, John E

    2015-01-22

    Direct out-of-pocket payments for health care are recognised as limiting access to health care services and also endangering the welfare of households. In Uganda, such payments comprise a large portion of total health financing. This study assesses the catastrophic and impoverishing impact of paying for health care out-of-pocket in Uganda. Using data from the Uganda National Household Surveys 2009/10, the catastrophic impact of out-of-pocket health care payments is defined using thresholds that vary with household income. The impoverishing effect of out-of-pocket health care payments is assessed using the Ugandan national poverty line and the World Bank poverty line ($1.25/day). A high level and intensity of both financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket payments are recorded. Using an initial threshold of 10% of household income, about 23% of Ugandan households face financial ruin. Based on both the $1.25/day and the Ugandan poverty lines, about 4% of the population are further impoverished by such payments. This represents a relative increase in poverty head count of 17.1% and 18.1% respectively. The absence of financial protection in Uganda's health system calls for concerted action. Currently, out-of-pocket payments account for a large share of total health financing and there is no pooled prepayment system available. There is therefore a need to move towards mandatory prepayment. In this way, people could access the needed health services without any associated financial consequence.

  1. A Mechanism for Fair Distribution of Resources without Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Anta, Antonio Fernández; Santos, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    We design a mechanism for Fair and Efficient Distribution of Resources (FEDoR) in the presence of strategic agents. We consider a multiple-instances, Bayesian setting, where in each round the preference of an agent over the set of resources is a private information. We assume that in each of r rounds n agents are competing for k non-identical indivisible goods, (n > k). In each round the strategic agents declare how much they value receiving any of the goods in the specific round. The agent declaring the highest valuation receives the good with the highest value, the agent with the second highest valuation receives the second highest valued good, etc. Hence we assume a decision function that assigns goods to agents based on their valuations. The novelty of the mechanism is that no payment scheme is required to achieve truthfulness in a setting with rational/strategic agents. The FEDoR mechanism takes advantage of the repeated nature of the framework, and through a statistical test is able to punish the misreporting agents and be fair, truthful, and socially efficient. FEDoR is fair in the sense that, in expectation over the course of the rounds, all agents will receive the same good the same amount of times. FEDoR is an eligible candidate for applications that require fair distribution of resources over time. For example, equal share of bandwidth for nodes through the same point of access. But further on, FEDoR can be applied in less trivial settings like sponsored search, where payment is necessary and can be given in the form of a flat participation fee. FEDoR can be a good candidate in a setting like that to solve the problem of starvation of publicity slots for some advertisers that have a difficult time determining their true valuations. To this extent we perform a comparison with traditional mechanisms applied to sponsored search, presenting the advantage of FEDoR. PMID:27227992

  2. A Mechanism for Fair Distribution of Resources without Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Anta, Antonio Fernández; Santos, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    We design a mechanism for Fair and Efficient Distribution of Resources (FEDoR) in the presence of strategic agents. We consider a multiple-instances, Bayesian setting, where in each round the preference of an agent over the set of resources is a private information. We assume that in each of r rounds n agents are competing for k non-identical indivisible goods, (n > k). In each round the strategic agents declare how much they value receiving any of the goods in the specific round. The agent declaring the highest valuation receives the good with the highest value, the agent with the second highest valuation receives the second highest valued good, etc. Hence we assume a decision function that assigns goods to agents based on their valuations. The novelty of the mechanism is that no payment scheme is required to achieve truthfulness in a setting with rational/strategic agents. The FEDoR mechanism takes advantage of the repeated nature of the framework, and through a statistical test is able to punish the misreporting agents and be fair, truthful, and socially efficient. FEDoR is fair in the sense that, in expectation over the course of the rounds, all agents will receive the same good the same amount of times. FEDoR is an eligible candidate for applications that require fair distribution of resources over time. For example, equal share of bandwidth for nodes through the same point of access. But further on, FEDoR can be applied in less trivial settings like sponsored search, where payment is necessary and can be given in the form of a flat participation fee. FEDoR can be a good candidate in a setting like that to solve the problem of starvation of publicity slots for some advertisers that have a difficult time determining their true valuations. To this extent we perform a comparison with traditional mechanisms applied to sponsored search, presenting the advantage of FEDoR.

  3. The Investment of the Payment Instruments with Executory Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Manea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The judge-made-law is not unitary regarding the necessity to invest with executory formula the cheque and the bills payable to order, and the same courts interpreted the dispositions from the civil procedure code excluding the special laws which established the juridical conditions for the cheque and bill payable to order. At the same time, other courts grant priority to the special laws which established the regime of writ of execution for this payment instruments. Because of this disparity the attorney general has filed an appeal in the interest of law and the solution of the Highest Court of Cassation and Justice was to admit the appeal and to dispose to invest them with executory formula.

  4. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  5. The 5 Clinical Pillars of Value for Total Joint Arthroplasty in a Bundled Payment Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kelvin; Iorio, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Our large, urban, tertiary, university-based institution reflects on its 4-year experience with Bundled Payments for Care Improvement. We will describe the importance of 5 clinical pillars that have contributed to the early success of our bundled payment initiative. We are convinced that value-based care delivered through bundled payment initiatives is the best method to optimize patient outcomes while rewarding surgeons and hospitals for adapting to the evolving healthcare reforms. We summarize a number of experiences and lessons learned since the implementation of Bundled Payments for Care Improvement at our institution. Our experience has led to the development of more refined clinical pathways and coordination of care through evidence-based approaches. We have established that the success of the bundled payment program rests on the following 5 main clinical pillars: (1) optimizing patient selection and comorbidities; (2) optimizing care coordination, patient education, shared decision making, and patient expectations; (3) using a multimodal pain management protocol and minimizing narcotic use to facilitate rapid rehabilitation; (4) optimizing blood management, and standardizing venous thromboembolic disease prophylaxis treatment by risk standardizing patients and minimizing the use of aggressive anticoagulation; and (5) minimizing post-acute facility and resource utilization, and maximizing home resources for patient recovery. From our extensive experience with bundled payment models, we have established 5 clinical pillars of value for bundled payments. Our hope is that these principles will help ease the transition to value-based care for less-experienced healthcare systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cash and Payments Management Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Prompt Payment Act, along with the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, requires the timely payment of commercial obligations for supplies and services using...

  7. Development of material balance evaluation technique(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Doo

    2000-06-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on material balance is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as measurement uncertainties and measurement bias. Nuclear material accounting reports, the results of DA and NDA, the summarized lists of material stratified by inspector are necessary for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts and evaluation methods of material balance evaluation such as the estimation techniques of random and systematic errors, MUF, D and MUF-D are described. As a conclusion, it is possible for national inspection to evaluate the material balance by applying the evaluation methods of the IAEA such as error estimation using operator-inspector paired data, inspector MUF(IMUF) evaluation

  8. Implications of prospective payment under DRGs for hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, S; Ziegenfuss, J T; Chao, P

    1988-12-01

    The authors analyze the hospital marketing implications of Medicare's prospective payment system under DRGs. They take an appropriately broad view of marketing and consider related impacts on culture, structure, and management, in addition to the traditional marketing mix. The article serves to present in one place the ideas and discussions on the subject from a wide and disparate literature. The aim throughout is to identify those marketing responses warranting recommendation. The recommendations are assembled in a concluding section. Though many of the ideas are not new, they have yet to be widely adopted by hospitals. Hence they represent untapped marketing opportunities attributable to the advent of the DRG system. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research.

  9. Techniques Applied for Accounting of Revenues with Deferred Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Cristin Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In accounting of the entities it is not always clear difference between income and gains. Gainsarising from transactions that are associated with the operations that are not ordinary and thatcan sometimes be significant. For example, the headquarters of a company in wich it operates canbe sold later to realize a profit from the sale. An investment company can own because they cangenerate revenue through sales. When properties are sold, the resulting gain will be included in thetotal turnover. Such a society will include properties held in current assets category. Normally,other business records and property and property held any gain from their sale will be reflected inan account that is not part of the turnover. The paper describes specific aspects of accounting ofrevenues from sales with deferred payments.

  10. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  11. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  12. Participation determinants in the DRG payment system of obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Kook; Kim, Chang-yup

    2010-03-01

    The Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment system, which has been implemented in Korea since 1997, is based on voluntary participation. Hence, the positive impact of this system depends on the participation of physicians. This study examined the factors determining participation of Korean obstetrics & gynecology (OBGYN) clinics in the DRG-based payment system. The demographic information, practice-related variables of OBGYN clinics and participation information in the DRG-based payment system were acquired from the nationwide data from 2002 to 2007 produced by the National Health Insurance Corporation and the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. The subjects were 336 OBGYN clinics consisting of 43 DRG clinics that had maintained their participation in 2003-2007 and 293 no-DRG (fee-for-service) clinics that had never been a DRG clinic during the same period. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with the participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system. The factors affecting participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system were as follows (psystem are more likely to participate in the DRG-based payment system. Therefore, to ensure adequate participation of physicians, a payment system with a stronger financial incentive might be more suitable in Korea.

  13. Social Determinants of Health in Managed Care Payment Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Arlene S; Mick, Eric O; Ellis, Randall P; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan J; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    Managed care payment formulas commonly allocate more money for medically complex populations, but ignore most social determinants of health (SDH). To add SDH variables to a diagnosis-based payment formula that allocates funds to managed care plans and accountable care organizations. Using data from MassHealth, the Massachusetts Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program, we estimated regression models predicting Medicaid spending using a diagnosis-based and SDH-expanded model, and compared the accuracy of their cost predictions overall and for vulnerable populations. MassHealth members enrolled for at least 6 months in 2013 in fee-for-service (FFS) programs (n = 357 660) or managed care organizations (MCOs) (n = 524 607). We built cost prediction models from a fee-for-service program. Predictors in the diagnosis-based model are age, sex, and diagnoses from claims. The SDH model adds predictors describing housing instability, behavioral health issues, disability, and neighborhood-level stressors. Overall model explanatory power and overpayments and underpayments for subgroups of interest for all Medicaid-reimbursable expenditures excepting long-term support services (mean annual cost = $5590 per member). We studied 357 660 people who were FFS participants and 524 607 enrolled in MCOs with a combined 806 889 person-years of experience. The FFS program experience included more men (49.6% vs 43.6%), older patients (mean age of 26.1 years vs 21.6 years), and sicker patients (mean morbidity score of 1.16 vs 0.89) than MCOs. Overall, the SDH model performed well, but only slightly better than the diagnosis-based model, explaining most of the spending variation in the managed care population (validated R2 = 62.4) and reducing underpayments for several vulnerable populations. For example, raw costs for the quintile of people living in the most stressed neighborhoods were 9.6% ($537 per member per year) higher than average. Since greater

  14. Changes in out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Vietnam and its impact on equity in payments, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Roy, Kakoli

    2008-10-01

    Economic reforms in Vietnam initiated in the late 1980s included deregulation of the health system resulting in extensive changes in health care delivery, access, and financing. One aspect of the health sector reform was the introduction of user fees at both public and private health facilities, which was in stark contrast to the former socialized system of free medical care. Subsequently, health insurance and free health care cards for the poor were introduced to mitigate the barriers to seeking care and financial burden imposed by out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments as a result of the user fees. To examine the determinants of seeking care and OOP payments as well as the relationship between individual out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures and household ability to pay (ATP) during 1992-2002. The data are drawn from 1992-93 and 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standard Surveys (VLSS) and 2002 Vietnam Household and Living Standards Survey (VHLSS). We use a two-part model where the first part is a probit model that estimates the probability that an individual will seek treatment. The second part is a truncated non-linear regression model that uses ordinary least-squares and fixed effects methods to estimate the determinants of OOP payments that are measured both as absolute as well as relative expenditures. Based on the analysis, we examine the relationship between the predicted shares of individual OOP health payments and household's ATP as well as selected socioeconomic characteristics. Our results indicate that payments increased with increasing ATP, but the consequent financial burden (payment share) decreased with increasing ATP, indicating a regressive system during the first two periods. However, share of payments increased with ATP, indicating a progressive system by 2002. When comparing across years, we find horizontal inequities in all the years that worsened between 1992 and 1998 but improved by 2002. The regressivity in payments noted during 1992 and 1998 might

  15. Effect of Balance Board Exercises on Balance Tests and Limits of Stability by Biodex Balance System in Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Esmaeili

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite tilt-board exercises benefits and its role in ligamentus us injury prevention, little research has been done in this case. The goal of this study is investigation of balance exercises effect for six weeks on balance tests and strength of lower extremity ligaments. Materials & Methods: In present Quasi experimental study, case group was consisted of two 17 subjects groups which did balance exercises for 6 weeks (one group on dominant limb and another on non-dominant limb.Control group did not do any exercise in this period. These groups were evaluated and re-evaluated before and after the exercise period by Biodex Balance System. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between groups (P<0/05. Conclusion: According to our results it can be concluded that tilt-board exercises can be used as a suitable tool to prevent ligamentus us injuries.

  16. 76 FR 77590 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Request for Payment of Federal Benefit by Check, EFT Waiver Form AGENCY: Financial Management... to Financial Management Service, 3700 East West Highway, Records and Information Management Branch...

  17. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL CONTRACTING... finding of fraud. ...

  18. The value of balanced growth for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Ohio Balanced Growth Program is a voluntary, locally-driven, incentive-driven program which aims to encourage : compact, nodal development patterns. The Ohio Department of Transportation provided support for this research to evaluate : potential ...

  19. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  20. Patient Perception of Value in Bundled Payments for Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Adam J; Fraser, James F; Shannon, Allison M; Jackson, Nikki T; Raghu, T S

    2016-12-01

    A central concern for providers in a bundled payment model is determining how the bundle is distributed. Prior studies have shown that current reimbursement rates are often not aligned with patients' values. While willingness-to-pay (WTP) surveys are perhaps useful in a fee-for-service arrangement to determine overall reimbursement, the percentage of payment distribution might be as or more important in a bundled payment model. All patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty by a single surgeon were offered participation in a preoperative WTP survey. At a minimum 3 months postoperatively, patients were mailed instructions for an online follow-up survey asking how they would allocate a hypothetical bonus payment. From January through December 2014, 45 patients agreed to participate in the preoperative WTP survey. Twenty patients who were minimum 3 months postoperative also completed the follow-up survey. Patients valued total knee and hip arthroplasty at $28,438 (95% confidence interval [CI]: $20,551-36,324) and $39,479 (95% CI: $27,848-$51,112), respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, patients distributed a hypothetical bonus payment 55.5% to the surgeon (95% CI: 47.8%-63.1%), 38% to the hospital (95% CI: 30.3%-45.7%), and 6.5% (95% CI: -1.2% to 14.2%) to the implant manufacturer (P < .001). The data suggest that total joint arthroplasty patients have vastly different perceptions of payment distributions than what actually exists. In contrast to the findings of this study, the true distribution of payments for an episode of care averages 65% to the hospital, 27% to the implant manufacturer, and 8% to the surgeon. While many drivers of payment distribution exist, this study suggests that patients would allocate a larger proportion of a bundled payment to surgeons than is currently disbursed. This finding may also provide a plausible explanation for patients' consistent overestimation of surgeon reimbursements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Payment card rewards programs and consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ching; Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  2. THE BILL OF EXCHANGE AS A MEANS OF PAYMENT AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The bill of exchange is a kind of paper in order that its holder shall entitle the debtor named in the document to pay a certain amount of payments. The bill of exchange represents a means of payment and an instrument of providing the payment. It is an unconditional order given by the drawer to the drawee to pay a certain amount to the payee listed on the bill of exchange. The bill of exchange is generally a paper on the orders but it can be issued as value paper to a name. It is such promissory notes where the issuer becomes a clause not by order. The bill of exchange though it appears as a means of payment and an instrument for securing the payment it also appears as a means of international payment, because the bill of exchange can become a modern instrument of crediting and payment. With the development of the credit market and the bill of exchange becomes a means for the drawer and the drawee. This means that instead of the bill of exchange to be paid after the expiry of a certain deadline for submission of the bill of exchange the holder may sell or discount, or to pay before the deadline for submission. With this the bill of exchange becomes a toll for discount. Based on this we can conclude that the bill of exchange has the following roles: -bill of exchange serves as a means of credit; -bill of exchange serves as means of payment; -bill of exchange serves as a means for discount by.

  3. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  4. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  5. Informal payments for healthcare services and short-term effects of the introduction of visit fee on these payments in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Petra; Pavlova, Milena; Gulácsi, László; Zsófia, Homolyáné Csete; Groot, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the short-term effects of the introduction of the visit fee in Hungary in 2007 on informal patient payments. We present the pattern of informal payments in primary, out-patient specialist and in in-patient care in the period before and shortly after the visit fee was introduced. We also analyse whether in the short run, the introduction of visit fee decreased the probability of paying informally. For the analysis, we use a dataset for a representative sample of 2500 respondents collected in 2007 shortly after the introduction of the visit fee, which contains data on informal payments for healthcare services. According to our results, 9% of the patients paid informally during their last visit to GP (2 Euros on average), 14% paid informally for specialist care (35 Euros on average) and 50% paid informally for hospitalisation (58 Euros on average). We find a significant reduction in the probability of paying informally only for elderly patients in case of in-patient care. Our results suggest that informal payments are widely spread in Hungary, especially in in-patient care. The short run potential of the introduction of the visit fee to reduce informal payments seems to be minor. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The variance of length of stay and the optimal DRG outlier payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    Prospective payment schemes in health care often include supply-side insurance for cost outliers. In hospital reimbursement, prospective payments for patient discharges, based on their classification into diagnosis related group (DRGs), are complemented by outlier payments for long stay patients. The outlier scheme fixes the length of stay (LOS) threshold, constraining the profit risk of the hospitals. In most DRG systems, this threshold increases with the standard deviation of the LOS distribution. The present paper addresses the adequacy of this DRG outlier threshold rule for risk-averse hospitals with preferences depending on the expected value and the variance of profits. It first shows that the optimal threshold solves the hospital's tradeoff between higher profit risk and lower premium loading payments. It then demonstrates for normally distributed truncated LOS that the optimal outlier threshold indeed decreases with an increase in the standard deviation.

  7. Episode-Based Payment and Direct Employer Purchasing of Healthcare Services: Recent Bundled Payment Innovations and the Geisinger Health System Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Ross, Olivia A; Newman, Eric D; Comrey, Janet L; Watson, Victoria; Lee, Rachel V; Brosious, Megan M; Gerrity, Gloria; Davis, Scott M; Paul, Jacquelyn; Miller, E Lynn; Feinberg, David T; Toms, Steven A

    2017-04-01

    One significant driver of the disjointed healthcare often observed in the United States is the traditional fee-for-service payment model which financially incentivizes the volume of care delivered over the quality and coordination of care. This problem is compounded by the wide, often unwarranted variation in healthcare charges that purchasers of health services encounter for substantially similar episodes of care. The last 10 years have seen many stakeholder organizations begin to experiment with novel financial payment models that strive to obviate many of the challenges inherent in customary quantity-based cost paradigms. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has allowed many care delivery systems to partner with Medicare in episode-based payment programs such as the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative, and in patient-based models such as the Medicare Shared Savings Program. Several employer purchasers of healthcare services are experimenting with innovative payment models to include episode-based bundled rate destination centers of excellence programs and the direct purchasing of accountable care organization services. The Geisinger Health System has over 10 years of experience with episode-based payment bundling coupled with the care delivery reengineering which is integral to its ProvenCare® program. Recent experiences at Geisinger have included participation in BPCI and also partnership with employer-purchasers of healthcare through the Pacific Business Group on Health (representing Walmart, Lowe's, and JetBlue Airways). As the shift towards value-focused care delivery and patient experience progresses forward, bundled payment arrangements and direct purchasing of healthcare will be critical financial drivers in effecting change. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  8. A study on factors influencing the acceptance of mobile payment applications in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wollny, Lisa; Ahrenstedt, Simon; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    Mobile payments is a topic that is gaining increased attention in both research and in the media. Trends have been identified that show an increase in the use of both smartphones and mobile applications. At the same time there has been a decrease in cash use, with a move towards alternative cashless means of payment in Sweden. Existing research has focused on this type of trend research and also looking at mobile payments in a general sense. There is a gap in the research where the acceptance...

  9. Financial catastrophe and poverty impacts of out-of-pocket health payments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen Narcı, Hacer; Şahin, İsmet; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of catastrophic health payments, examine the determinants of catastrophic expenditures, and assess the poverty impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Data came from the 2004 to 2010 Household Budget Survey. Catastrophic health spending was defined by health payments as percentage of household consumption expenditures and capacity to pay at a set of thresholds. The poverty impact was evaluated by poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP health payments. The percentage of households that catastrophically spent their consumption expenditure and capacity to pay increased from 2004 to 2010, regardless of the threshold used. Households with a share of more than 40% health spending in both consumption expenditure and capacity to pay accounted for less than 1% across years. However, when a series of potential confounders were taken into account, the study found statistically significantly increased risk for the lowest threshold and decreased risk for the highest threshold in 2010 relative to the base year. Household income, size, education, senior and under 5-year-old members, health insurance, disabled members, payment for inpatient care and settlement were also statistically significant predictors of catastrophic health spending. Overall, poverty head counts were below 1%. Poverty gaps reached a maximum of 0.098%, with an overall increase in 2010 compared to 2004. Catastrophe and poverty increased from 2004 to 2010. However, given that the realization of some recent policies will affect the financial burden of OOP payments on households, the findings of this study need to be replicated.

  10. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  11. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  12. Analysis of the payment rates and classification of services on radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, K. H.; Shin, H. S.; Pyo, H. R.; Lee, K. C.; Lee, Y. T.; Myoung, H. B.; Yeom, Y. K.

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop new payment rates for services of radiation oncology, considering costs of treating patients. A survey of forty hospitals has been conducted in order to analyze the costs of treating patients. Before conducting the survey, we evaluated and reclassified the individual service items currently using as payments units on the fee-for-service reimbursement system. This study embodies the analysis of replies received from the twenty four hospitals. The survey contains information about the hospitals' costs of 1995 for the reclassified service items on radiation oncology. After we adjust the hospital costs by the operating rate of medical equipment, we compare the adjusted costs with the current payment rates of individual services. The current payment rates were 5.05-6.58 times lower than the adjusted costs in treatment planning services, 2.22 times lower in block making service, 1.57-2.86 times lower in external beam irradiation services, 3.82-5.01 times lower in intracavitary and interstitial irradiation and 1.12-2.55 times lower in total body irradiation. We could conclude that the current payment system on radiation oncology does not only reflect the costs of treating patients appropriately but also classify the service items correctly. For an example, when the appropriate costs and classification are applied to TBI, the payment rates of TBI should be increased five times more than current level. (author)

  13. 24 CFR 206.129 - Payment of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limit on the claim amount. (c) Shared appreciation mortgages. The terms mortgage balance and accrued... appreciated value of the property. (d) Amount of payment—mortgagee acquires title or is unsuccessful bidder...) subtracting from that total the amount for which the property was sold (or the appraised value determined...

  14. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  15. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  16. The influence of work-life balance on employees' commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of work-life balance on employees' commitment among bankers in Accra, ... balanced their work and family roles better than their married counterparts. ... There was a weak positive relationship between work-life balance and ...

  17. Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Boekholt, H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies including longitudinal nitrogen balance studies could provide insight into protein metabolism in pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to determine the development of nitrogen balance during pregnancy compared with nitrogen balance before pregnancy in women consuming

  18. 22 CFR 102.11 - Arranging for the payment of expenses attendant upon an accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.11 Arranging for the payment of... authorizes in advance the expenditure of such funds on a reimbursable basis. In the absence of such advance...

  19. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e...

  20. DEBT AMORTIZATION AND SIMPLE INTEREST: THE CASE OF PAYMENTS IN AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis José Daudt Lyra Darrigue Faro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the argument that, necessarily, compound interest implies anatocism, the Brazilian Judiciary has been determining that, specially for the case of  debt amortization in accordance with the so called Tabela Price, when we have constant payments, the use of simple interest. With the same determination occurring in the case of the Constant Amortization Scheme, when the payments follow arithmetic progressions.  However, as simple interest lacks the property of time subdivision, it is shown that as in the case of constant payments, the adoption of simple interest in the case of payments following an arithmetic progression results in amortization schemes that are financially inconsistent. In the sense that the determination of the outstanding principal in accordance with the prospective, retrospective and of recurrence methods lead to conflicting  results. To this end, four different variations of the use of simple interest are numerically analyzed.