WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of payments

  1. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  2. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  3. Trends and Challenges of India’s Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Dr Jomon

    2013-01-01

    Balance of Payments (BoP), being a record of the monetary transactions over a period with the rest of the world, reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners and all payments and obligations received from foreigners. In this sense, the balance of payments is one of the major indicators of a country's status in international trade. BoP accounting serves to highlight a country's competitive strengths and weaknesses and helps in achieving balanced economic-growth. It can significantly af...

  4. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  5. Greenland's balance of Payments and Self-governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (NOV 2009)...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  8. Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.

  9. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  10. Crisis of the balance of payments: factors, indicators and prevention methods

    OpenAIRE

    O. Chernyak, V. Khomiak

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyze the structure and main factors of the crisis of balance of payments in Ukraine's economy. The article considers the existing methods and indicators, which may signal about the approaching balance of payments crisis, as well as the main approaches to modeling such crises, among which the most suitable for Ukraine ones are defined. The authors provide models of the main components of balance of payments, which signal about the crisis and select a set of indicators producing ...

  11. Incorporating derivatives data in the National Accounts and Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cullinane

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYThis article outlines forthcoming changes to the National Accounts and Balance of Payments. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) aims to introduce data on derivatives business of UK banks into the financial accounts and balance sheets for the 2010 Blue Book and Balance of Payments Pink Book. Revisions will go back to the start of 2006.In the National Accounts, currently only limited transaction data is published for the bank, central government and rest of the world sectors. Data f...

  12. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  13. Leading indicators of balance-of-payments crises: a partial review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chui

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the theory of balance-of-payments crises, and its implications for identifying potential leading indicators of crises. It discusses and evaluates three different empirical approaches to balance-of-payments crises: the signalling, discrete-choice, and structural approaches. Despite claims of success in predicting currency crises, we note some serious theoretical and empirical qualifications which throw these claims into question. Nevertheless, we conclude that a range of ind...

  14. 5 CFR 843.211 - Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance. 843.211 Section 843.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... unexpended balance. Someone entitled to an annuity for purposes of §§ 843.203 and 843.204 includes a...

  15. Criticisms and defences of the balance-of-payments constrained growth model: some old, some new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S.L. McCombie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses various critiques that have been levelled over the years against Thirlwall’s Law and the balance-of-payments constrained growth model. It starts by assessing the criticisms that the law is largely capturing an identity; that the law of one price renders the model incoherent; and that statistical testing using cross-country data rejects the hypothesis that the actual and the balance-of-payments equilibrium growth rates are the same. It goes on to consider the argument that calculations of the “constant-market-shares” income elasticities of demand for exports demonstrate that the UK (and by implication other advanced countries could not have been balance-of-payments constrained in the early postwar period. Next Krugman’s interpretation of the law (or what he terms the “45-degree rule”, which is at variance with the usual demand-oriented explanation, is examined. The paper next assesses attempts to reconcile the demand and supply side of the model and examines whether or not the balance-of-payments constrained growth model is subject to the fallacy of composition. It concludes that none of these criticisms invalidate the model, which remains a powerful explanation of why growth rates differ.

  16. THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SUSTAINABILITY AND THE EUROZONE ACCESSION CONVERGENCE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the balance of payments (BoP is identified as representing the long term need of equilibrium and stability of the international payments and revenues. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that influence the balance of payments of a certain country, by using a rigorous classification that reveals the complexity of these factors. Our conclusions are very relevant, especially for countries like Romania, because, in order to achieve the external equilibrium, it seems that every county must adopt a mix of internal economic policies, and although theoretically this can be realised, sometimes in practice it can prove to be impossible on account of inability or refusing to combine the appropriate economic policies.

  17. Change the Pattern of Foreign Trade Growth Balance China 's International Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo CAI; Yantai CHEN; Xiaohuan QIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's external economic imbalance is becoming the focus under the circumstance of global economic imbalance. Recently, the Chinese central government attached great importance to this issue, while promoting balance of payments (BOP) is clearly regarded as key task to maintain macroeconomic stability in 2010 Central Economic Conference.

  18. Japanese Structural Adjustment and the Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Sachs; Peter Boone

    1988-01-01

    Policy discussions in Japan have increasingly recognized the important role of land values and land-use patterns in Japanese macroeconomic adjustment. In Japan in recent years, land wealth constitutes more than half of financial wealth, a proportion that is much higher than in the United States and other industrialized economies. Consequently, shifts in land-use patterns can have important effects on Japanese savings and investment patterns, and thereby on the Japanese trade balance and curre...

  19. The analysis of the interconnections between the indicators of the external payment balance and the macroeconomic aggregates of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The payment balance (BP may be defined, generally, as a statistic image of the international economic transactions between resident and non-resident agents of a country. These transactions are considered during one period of time (year, trimester, month. In spite of its denomination, BP concerns not only the usual payments, but all transactions, even if a part of them does not comprise the cash payments.

  20. The early warnings of balance-of-payments problems: Kaminsky and Reinhart revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds upon the model of Kaminsky and Reinhart (1999) and extends it to triplecrises. It applies a new visualisation approach combining elements of an event study analysis and a fan chart technique. This approach illustrates the deviation of fundamentals in the runup to balance-of-payments problems. The results suggest that both systemic banking crises and deteriorating government finances are highly significant leading indicators. Taking these indicators into account helps build a...

  1. Output Costs of Currency and Balance of Payments Crises in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Michael M.; Ilan Noy

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the output effects of severe currency crises in emerging markets. Using a panel data set over the 1975-97 period and covering 24 emerging-market economies, we find that currency and balance of payments crises—even after controlling for other factors—reduce output by about 5-8 percent over a two-three year period. This adverse effect is two- to four times larger than the average output loss in a developing economy. Typically, growth tends to return to trend by the third year fol...

  2. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  3. ROMANIAN MACROECONOMIC STABILITY BETWEEN THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT ASSISTANCE AND THE EUROPEAN SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dragan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The first EU Alert Mechanism Report demonstrates the vulnerable macroeconomic external position of Romania, the current Romanian’s balance of payments reflecting a severe need of financing and capitalization. On the other hand, the 2007-2013 programming period potentially provided a significant amount of EU money for investments (around 29 billion euro through Structural Funds. However, five years after the beginning of the current financial framework, the level of absorption remains extremely low. The paper focuses on the main Romanian macroeconomic imbalances (the current account balance,international investment position and on the most important sources for financing investments and development - the EU financial structural instruments: ERDF and Cohesion Fund.

  4. Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the Balance of Payments Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2014-09-01

    The study assesses the presence and magnitude of global trends in health tourism using health-related travel (HRT) spending reported in the International Monetary Fund's Balance of Payments Statistics database. Linear regression and quantile regression are applied to estimate secular trends of the import and export of HRT based on a sample of countries from 2003 to 2009. The results show that from 2003 to 2009 the import and export of health tourism rose among countries with a high volume of such activities (accounting for the upper 40% of the countries), but not among those with a low volume. The uneven growth in health tourism has generated greater contrast between countries with high and low volumes of health tourism activities. However, the growth in the total import of health tourism did not outpace the population growth, implying that in general the population's tendency to engage in health tourism remained static. PMID:23872786

  5. Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the Balance of Payments Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2014-09-01

    The study assesses the presence and magnitude of global trends in health tourism using health-related travel (HRT) spending reported in the International Monetary Fund's Balance of Payments Statistics database. Linear regression and quantile regression are applied to estimate secular trends of the import and export of HRT based on a sample of countries from 2003 to 2009. The results show that from 2003 to 2009 the import and export of health tourism rose among countries with a high volume of such activities (accounting for the upper 40% of the countries), but not among those with a low volume. The uneven growth in health tourism has generated greater contrast between countries with high and low volumes of health tourism activities. However, the growth in the total import of health tourism did not outpace the population growth, implying that in general the population's tendency to engage in health tourism remained static.

  6. Modelli di crescita limitata dalla bilancia dei pagamenti: storia e panoramica (Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.  JEL Codes: F32; F40; F43Keywords: Balance of payments; growth; Thirlwall’s Law; dynamic Harrod multiplier

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used..., Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore; (8) Free Trade Agreement country end product means an article that— (i) Is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a Free Trade...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...,” “component,” “domestic end product,” “Free Trade Agreement country,” “Free Trade Agreement country end... States,” as used in this provision, have the meanings given in the Buy American Act—Free Trade......

  9. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  10. Towards harmonised balance of payments and international investment position statistics – the experience of the European compilers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Marc Israël; Carlos Sánchez Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    External statistics – specifically balance of payments and international investment position statistics – are among the primary statistics on which policy-making bodies and markets rely as a basis for their decisions in globalised economies. Monitoring and enhancing data quality in the context of rapidly changing economies impose heavy constraints on compilers of these statistics. As it becomes increasingly important worldwide to adhere to a set of international statistical standards in order...

  11. Assessing Accuracy and Reliability; A Note Basedon Approaches Used in National Accounts and Balance of Payments Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Carol S. Carson; Lucie Laliberté

    2002-01-01

    Both national accounts and balance of payments are based on multiple, complex source data and typically undergo several routine revisions as more and better source data are incorporated into the final estimates. As a result, neither dataset can be subjected directly to the usual statistical measures of sampling biases, variances, and other measurement error properties. In this context, this note, which is addressed to those interested in these datasets and others, explores four approaches tha...

  12. The economics of payment card fee structure: what is the optimal balance between merchant fee and payment card rewards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically considers the optimal balance between the merchant fee and the cardholder fee (rewards) from both efficiency and equity perspectives. First, the paper constructs the models that can be used by the U.S. policymakers. Because theoretical results are very sensitive to the assumptions of the models, it is important to construct models that reflect the reality of the market. Second, the most efficient fee structure and product price are considered under the various combina...

  13. Balance-of-Payment-Constrained Growth: The Case of China, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbok Jeon

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically test the validity of Thirlwall’s Law in China during the reform period of 1979-2002. For the income elasticity of import demand, an aggregate import demand function for the Chinese economy is estimated using ARDL-UECM model and the bounds test. This study finds (1) that for 1979-2002, the Chinese economy has grown on average as fast as Thirlwall’s Law predicts, the average actual growth rate and predicted growth rate were, respectively, 9.25 and 8.55, w...

  14. Catching up and lagging behind in a balance-of-payments-constrained dual economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavopa, A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of nations in the path towards economic development hinges heavily on the emergence and dynamism of a modern sector capable of simultaneously absorbing an increasing share of the labour force while reducing the technological gap with the world's frontier. Failure to do so would eventuall

  15. Are international growth rates constrained by the balance of payments? A comment on Professor Thirlwall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.L. MCCOMBIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article A.P. Thirlwall derived what he termed a “fundamental law” which he argued explains the disparate post-war growth rates of advanced countries. In this note, the author takes issue with Thirlwall’s model, showing that together with the empirical evidence it is not capable of discriminating between the demand and the supply orientated approaches to growth.

  16. Payment mechanisms and the composition of physician practices: balancing cost-containment, access, and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Victoria; Milliken, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We take explicit account of the way in which the supply of physicians and patients in the economy affects the design of physician remuneration schemes, highlighting the three-way trade-off between quality of care, access, and cost. Both physicians and patients are heterogeneous. Physicians choose both the number of patients and the quality of care to provide to their patients. When determining physician payment rates, the principal must ensure access to care for all patients. When physicians can adjust the number of patients seen, there is no incentive to over-treat. In contrast, altruistic physicians always quality stint: they prefer to add an additional patient, rather than to increase the quality of service provided. A mixed payment mechanism does not increase the quality of service provided with respect to capitation. Offering a menu of compensation schemes may constitute a cost-effective strategy for inducing physicians to choose a given overall caseload but may also generate difficulties with access to care for frail patients. PMID:24990110

  17. The Evolution of China’s International Balance of Payments Structure%我国国际收支格局的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文海; 李景跃

    2016-01-01

    The international balance of payments can reflect the influence of a country in the international com-munity,the level of economic development and the degree of opening up to the outside world. In the future,Chinese international balance of payments will be on the normal situation of“current account surplus and capital and finan-cial account deficit”,and should maintain and promote the international balance of payments,vigorously develop the service industry,promote trade in services,increase the proportion of trade in services,promote our country into the high-end field of the global industrial chain,and promote the transformation from a big trading country to trade power. Accelerate to realize the convertibility of RMB in the capital account;improve the cross-border capital flow risk monitoring and early warning system,perfect the system of international revenue and expenditure management, avoid the harm to the domestic economics caused by the short-term cross-border capital flows for the purpose of arbitrage;improve the allocation of resources,control liquidity risk,alleviate the problem of foreign exchange market supply and demand imbalance,realize the external economic equilibrium.%一国国际收支能够反映该国在国际社会中的影响力、经济发展水平和对外开放程度。未来我国国际收支将以“经常账户顺差和资本与金融账户逆差”为常态,应保持和促进国际收支均衡,大力发展服务业,推动服务贸易,增加服务贸易占比,推动我国进入全球产业链的高端领域,促进由贸易大国向贸易强国的转变。加快实现人民币资本项目下的可兑换;完善跨境资本流动风险监测预警系统,健全国际收支管理体系,避免以套利为目的短期跨境流动资本对本国经济造成危害;提高资源配置,控制流动性风险,缓解外汇市场供需不均衡问题,实现外部经济均衡。

  18. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choi...

  19. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  20. 进入中国的FDI的行为变迁对国际收支的影响研究%The Research about the Impact of FDI Behavior Changes on the Chinese Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小波; 傅强

    2012-01-01

    近年来,进入中国的FDI不断从出口导向型向市场寻求型转变,快速抢占中国市场。本文通过建立差分模型,考察FDI这一行为变迁对国际收支的影响。研究表明以占领东道国市场为目的FDI将在长时期内不断削减FDI产生的净出口效应,使得东道国国际收支顺差不断减小,且随着寻求市场型FDI存量占FDI的比重不断增大,极有可能导致FDI产生的国际收支净效益转为逆差,甚至引发国际收支危机。%Recent years has seen a continuous shift from export-oriented FDI to market-seeking FDI in china in order to occupy the Chinese market.This paper introduces a simple difference model to investigate the impact of FDI behavior changes on the balance of payments.The research indicates that as HFDI increases in domestic market,the level of net exports brought by FDI will be incessantly put down and cause the decreasing of the surplus of balance of payments;what's worse,as the proportion of HDI in FDI increases,the net effect of balance of payments brought by the FDI will very likely become deficit and even lead to a balance-of-payment crisis.

  1. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  2. FDI与我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差%FDI and China' s Capital and Financial Account Surplus in Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹浩华

    2012-01-01

    本文从我国引进FDI的历程及FDI的结构特点入手,深入分析了FDI对我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差的具体贡献,还从我国利用外资政策导向、受世界经济波动的影响程度、资金转移的便利性、对就业的贡献等方面,探讨了我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差主要源自FDI的机理,并提出相应的对策建议。%China has maintained double surplus pattern in balance of pay ments for 17 years since 1994 to 2010.This phenomenon is rare in the world. In the double surplus pattern in balance of payments, foreign direct investment (FDI) results in not only China' s surplus of capital and financial account direct ly, but also China' s surplus of current account indirectly through its dominant position in processing trade, so FDI plays an extremely important role in China' s double surpluses in balance of payments. This paper firstly analyzes the cours es of China' s introduction of FDI and the structural characteristics of FDI, and then analyzes the specific contribution of FDI to China' s capital and financial account surplus in balance of payments in depth. Furthermore,the paper research es the mechanism of China' s capital and financial account surplus mainly origi nating from FDI from the aspects of China' s policy concerning foreign invest ment, the influential degree of world economic fluctuations, the convenience of transferring funds and the contribution to employment. In the end, the paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  3. Implications of Credit Policies for Output and the Balance of Payments (Les conséquences de la politique du crédit sur la production et la balance des paiements) (Las repercusiones de las medidas de política crediticia en la producción y la balanza de pagos)

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter M.

    1980-01-01

    Stabilization programs supported by use of Fund resources typically contain limitations on credit expansion by the domestic banking system and on foreign borrowing by the public sector. This paper analyzes some of the implications of credit policies for output and growth and how they relate to the development of the current account and overall balance of payments. The framework chosen for the analysis is one in which the availability of financing is a direct and major determinant of current a...

  4. Analysis of the European Debt Crisis from the Point of View of International Balance Payments Adjustment%从国际收支调节看欧债危机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊昱静; 公衍照

    2013-01-01

    In view of the balance of payments (BP), the European debt crisis is caused by the lack of adjustment mechanism of balance of payments for member states in Euro Zone, which is rooted in the design defects of EMU in integration process. Before the complete integration of Euro Zone, each member state can not escape the external constraints. Improvements of the adjustment mechanisms of BP of member states must be the basic condition for the smooth process of European integrations.%从国际收支角度看,欧债危机是欧元区成员国国际收支调节机制的缺失造成的,这根源于一体化进程中欧洲经济货币联盟的设计缺陷。在欧元区完全一体化之前,各成员国的国际收支约束不会消失,完善内部成员国之间的国际收支调节机制是欧洲一体化顺利发展的基本条件。

  5. The Pricing of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  6. Pricing of payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  7. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  8. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...

  9. 75 FR 10190 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Payment of Costs Prior to Definitization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...; Payment of Costs Prior to Definitization-Definition of Contract Action (DFARS Case 2009-D035) AGENCY... Fiscal Year 2010. Section 812 is entitled ``Revision of Defense Supplement Relating to Payment of Costs... case implements the balance of section 812, which makes the limitations on payment of costs prior...

  10. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both EN payment systems use the payment calculation base as defined in § 411.500(a)(1) or (a)(2),...

  11. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with limi

  12. Fiscal Pressure of Interest Payments in Serbia - a Time Series Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Andric, Vladimir; Arsic, Milojko; Nojkovic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the response of primary fiscal balance to interest payments and borrowing costs on Serbian public debt before and in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Our analysis reveals: i) policy makers financed up to 50% of each percentage point increase in interest payments to GDP ratio with new public debt issuance; ii) the government has responded to rising interest payments and borrowing costs by reducing primary fiscal balance from the onset of the global financial crisis; ii...

  13. Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Helme, Arne

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  14. 42 CFR 423.329 - Determination of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 423.104(d)(5)(iii). (2) Payment method. Payments under this section are based on a method that CMS determines. (i) Payments during the coverage year. CMS establishes a payment method by which payments of... coverage year is the amount described in § 423.782. (2) Payment method. Payments under this section...

  15. 平衡计酬卡(BCC)的落地与实施--关于高校试行平衡计酬卡的思考%The implementation of BCC--think about trial balance payment CARDS in colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江燕

    2015-01-01

    The balance payment card (BCC) is a kind of compensation strategy management tool. This paper is to review the main ideas of the balanced scorecard and balance payment card, on the basis of trying to further explore the BCC and BSC in the integration of design, import, and fall to the ground.%平衡计酬卡(BCC)是一种薪酬战略管理工具。本文主要在回顾平衡计分卡和平衡计酬卡的主要思想的基础上,试图进一步探索高校内BCC与BSC的整合设计、导入及落地问题。

  16. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  17. Payment and value of care - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures and value of care displays – provider data. This data set includes provider data for the payment measures and value of care displays associated...

  18. 42 CFR 422.322 - Source of payment and effect of MA plan election on payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment. 422.322 Section 422.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Payments to Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.322 Source of payment and effect of MA plan election on payment. (a) Source...

  19. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies tho...... framework and shows, through examples of new digital payment platforms, how transitions and substitutions might occur. Finally we discuss how possible venues and routes of transitions appear in the genesis and evolution of digital payment platforms....

  20. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters...... in the payment industry. These actors issue four types of payment systems, and we can observe that three of four platforms types can be classified as multi-sided platforms (MSP). All alternatives seek foothold by issuing evolutionary payment instruments, which are intertwined with digital payment platforms....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 4 Method of payment. The General Agent shall prepare check drawn on the NSA Special bank...

  2. The future of e-commerce payments

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz; Marilyn Bochicchio

    2002-01-01

    On June 19, 2002, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Electronic Funds Transfer Association's Electronic Commerce Payments Council (eCPC) sponsored a joint conference. This meeting was part of the regularly scheduled quarterly council meetings that bring together stakeholders interested in developing or enhancing e-commerce payment alternatives. The session included both Federal Reserve staff and industry leaders discussing how electronic payments are ...

  3. A General Equilibrium Approach of Retail Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ilyés; Lóránt Varga

    2015-01-01

    In our paper, we introduce the Hungarian Payment System Model (HUPS), a computable general equilibrium model with detailed payment services which can be used for policy evaluation and forecast. In the last years, several studies investigated different aspects of payment systems and some papers used equilibrium theory to study a specific segment or question of retail payments. In our paper, we take a step forward as we extend this research using the general equilibrium approach. The HUPS model...

  4. The irrationality of payment behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Frank van der Horst; Ester Matthijsen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efforts that commercial banks have made to promote the use of debit cards and the introduction of new payment methods, the migration from cash to electronic payment methods is not proceeding as quickly as sometimes expected. Why do people pay by cash on one occasion and by bank card on another? How conscious is people's decision-making? How rational are their reasons for choosing one method over another? For policy makers at a central bank it is relevant to have insight into the p...

  5. Cooperation for Innovation in Payment Systems: The Case of Mobile Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Bourreau; Marianne Verdier

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the development of mobile payments as an innovation in developed countries. In particular, we introduce five cooperation models that have emerged or could emerge between banks, mobile network operators, and payment systems, for the development of this new payment method. We also discuss the regulatory issues posed by the presence of mobile operators in the payments market

  6. Technology payment cards communication with banking institutions in the field of cashless payment

    OpenAIRE

    Němcová, Zuzana; Dvořák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The aim is now used to describe the infrastructure of payment cards, ATMs, now used to describe the infrastructure of payment systems, mainly the payment cards and NFC technology and secure payment throw the internet. In this article, we examine a new technology application which is coming into its own around the world, in association with the revolution in wireless connectivity. Our findings are intended to guide in dealing with the economic aspects of mobile payments, and to help identif...

  7. The economics of payment card fee structure: what drives payment card rewards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates potential market forces that cause payment card rewards even when providing payment card rewards is not the most efficient. Three factors-oligopolistic merchants, output-maximizing card networks, and the merchant's inability to set different prices across payment methods-may potentially explain the prevalence of payment card rewards programs in the United States today. The paper also points out that competition among card networks may potentially make payment rewards t...

  8. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  9. 40 CFR 66.62 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 66.62 Section 66.62... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.62 Method of payment. Payments in excess of $10,000..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Payment by check is made...

  10. Card versus cash: empirical evidence of the impact of payment card interchange fees on end users’ choice of payment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Guerino

    2013-01-01

    Interchange fees in card payments are a mechanism to balance costs and revenues between banks for the joint provision of payment services. However, such fees represent a relevant input cost used as a reference price for the final fee charged to the merchants, who may be reluctant to accept cards and induce the cardholder to withdraw cash. In this paper, we empirically verify for the first time the effect of the interchange fee on the decision to withdraw cash and compare it with that of payin...

  11. The economics of payment finality

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; William Roberds

    2002-01-01

    Payment finality is critical to decentralized exchange. By specifying how the transfer of one type of claim extinguishes another, the rules governing finality minimize opportunities for default along credit chains and allocate other risks. ; The authors provide a basic analysis of finality and its role in facilitating exchange. They first present a simple, historically based model of transferable debt and finality. The discussion demonstrates the desirability of transferable debt and why rule...

  12. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section... Payments to States § 457.626 Prevention of duplicate payments. (a) General rule. No payment shall be made... CFR 144.103, which is not part of, or wholly owned by, a governmental entity. Prompt payment...

  13. 25 CFR 175.31 - Methods and terms of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods and terms of payment. 175.31 Section 175.31... UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.31 Methods and terms of payment. Payments shall be made... refuse, for cause, to accept personal checks for payment of bills....

  14. 42 CFR 447.203 - Documentation of payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.203 Documentation of payment rates. (a) The agency must maintain documentation of payment rates and make it... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of payment rates. 447.203 Section...

  15. 42 CFR 447.207 - Retention of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.207 Retention of payments. (a) Payment methodologies must permit the provider to receive and retain the full amount of the total computable payment for services furnished under the approved State plan (or...

  16. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  17. Measuring the costs of retail payment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi; Keeton, William R.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, retail payments have experienced a dramatic shift from paper-based payment methods to electronic methods. Accurate cost information for the two types of methods would help central banks decide how hard to push for a complete transition to electronic methods and which methods to promote. ; To obtain such information, a number of central banks have recently conducted comprehensive studies of the costs of retail payment methods. Differences in the results of these studie...

  18. Chablis - Market Analysis of Digital Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ricarda Weber

    2016-01-01

    Order and delivery of digital information with costs requires an economic method of instant digital payment especially when dealing with widely distributed, anonymous users and small amounts. Such factors make traditional invoicing processes economically unfeasible. A large number of digital payment schemes and system proposals have been devised. This report provides a classification and market study of digital payment systems. An extensive criteria catalogue is presented explaining typical f...

  19. Inheritance of Electronic Payment Accounts: Practice Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillova EA; Bogdan VV; Pozdnyakova EV; Zenin SS; Ustinovich ES

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the inheritance of electronic payment accounts (wallets), such as Yandex Money, WebMoney, and similar. In terms of safety and ease, electronic money calculation is the most promising calculation method in Internet. Payments with non-cash settlements are much more beneficial from all points of view. They greatly accelerate the payment process, simplify it, and help to reduce transaction costs. This is most clearly seen in the example, where the buyer and seller are locat...

  20. Payment method and perceptions of ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Erki, Berna

    2013-01-01

    How consumers pay influences how they feel about a transaction. In particular, paying by card has been argued to have an effect on the perception of cost; making it less salient and painful. We propose and show that payment method also influences how consumers feel about the acquired good. Specifically we focus on effects of the payment method on psychological ownership, i.e. the perception of an object as "mine". We propose that cash payment results in stronger psychological o...

  1. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  2. The impact of voting on tax payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ingrid; Muehlbacher, Stephan; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-02-01

    This study examines whether participating in governmental decisions influences taxpayers' cooperation. The results of experiment 1 show that participants tend to contribute more when they can vote on different rules for a public good game. Experiment 2 reveals that tax payments are lowest in a tax simulation when participants benefit from tax payments and can not vote. However, when the participants did not benefit from tax payments, voting had no impact and cooperation was about the same as when participants benefited and could vote. Furthermore, voting increases procedural fairness and trust mediates the effect of procedural fairness on tax payments.

  3. Efficiency and costs of payments: some new evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Takala, Kari; Viren, Matti

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal payment systems. The issue boils down to how large are the costs of different payment media, which can be interpreted as a question of the efficiency of the means of payment. However, there are other qualifications related to the choice of payment media. Here, at least three issues can be distinguished. First is the question of optimal payment medium for each individual payment (size, location, EFTPOS etc.). This choice is not independent of the individual charac...

  4. Utilisation of payment instruments at a retail chain in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan M. Bester; Seugnet Bronkhorst

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of race and income on the preferred payment instrument at pay points in a retail store in Pretoria Gauteng.Problem investigated: The method of payment, as well as the way these payment methods have been utilised, has evolved throughout history. Cash has stayed at the top of the payment instrument deck as a payment choice for the past 10 decades. With the expansion of technology payment instruments evolved to facilitate excha...

  5. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...

  6. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  7. 30 CFR 218.155 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 218.155 Section 218.155....155 Method of payment. (a) Payment of royalties and rentals. With the exception of first-year rental... notice of each lease offering. EFT may be used as a method of payment for the one-fifth bonus bid...

  8. 37 CFR 1.23 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of payment. 1.23... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.23 Methods of payment. (a) All payments of money required for United States Patent and Trademark Office...

  9. 37 CFR 2.207 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of payment. 2.207... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Fees and Payment of Money in Trademark Cases § 2.207 Methods of payment. (a) All payments of money required in trademark cases, including fees for the...

  10. 28 CFR 74.12 - Order of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of payment. 74.12 Section 74.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.12 Order of payment. Payment will be made in the order of date of birth...

  11. Inheritance of Electronic Payment Accounts: Practice Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova EA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inheritance of electronic payment accounts (wallets, such as Yandex Money, WebMoney, and similar. In terms of safety and ease, electronic money calculation is the most promising calculation method in Internet. Payments with non-cash settlements are much more beneficial from all points of view. They greatly accelerate the payment process, simplify it, and help to reduce transaction costs. This is most clearly seen in the example, where the buyer and seller are located in a distance from each other in different countries. In development of the electronic money and online money transactions, a question occurs about the legal aspects and the rights of the heirs of the electronic payment accounts. This topic is relevant today, as almost every person every day faces in the electronic payments, but not everyone knows what they are and how they operate. The main objective of the study is to determine the legal status of the electronic payment accounts and the possibility of their inheritance by law. A lot of scientists devoted their works to the problems of studying the theoretical foundations of the electronic payment system, its place and role in the financial system, and its development. However, for the first time the legal matter of inheritance is considered from the practical aspect, wherein the novelty of the present study lays. The article concludes on the need to verify the owner of the electronic wallet for the rights of his heirs.

  12. 27 CFR 19.519 - Methods of tax payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of tax payment. 19... Determination and Payment of Tax § 19.519 Methods of tax payment. The tax on spirits shall be paid pursuant to a... the provisions of § 70.61 (Payment by check or money order) and which is acceptable to him....

  13. 27 CFR 46.104 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 46.104... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Rules for Special (Occupational) Tax Payment of Special Tax § 46.104 Method of payment. Payment of special tax must be made in cash, or by check or money order payable to Alcohol...

  14. 46 CFR 502.605 - Payment of penalty: Method; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of penalty: Method; default. 502.605 Section 502... Payment of penalty: Method; default. (a) Method. Payment of penalties by the respondent is to be made by... instruments submitted in payment of claims shall be made payable to the Federal Maritime Commission....

  15. 75 FR 81832 - Prevention of Payments to Deceased Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 707 RIN 0560-AH91 Prevention of Payments to Deceased Persons AGENCY... Farm Bill, the authority for this rule concerning prevention of improper payments to the deceased, uses... payments. The causes of erroneous payments did not appear to be fraud, because while FSA did not have...

  16. 24 CFR 203.400 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 203.400 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Payment of Insurance Benefits § 203.400 Method of payment. If the application for insurance benefits is acceptable to the Commissioner payment...

  17. 24 CFR 576.63 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 576.63 Section... Grant Administration § 576.63 Method of payment. Payments are made to a grantee upon its request after...-day period in payment of eligible activity costs....

  18. 48 CFR 3452.232-72 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3452... 3452.232-72 Method of payment. As prescribed in 3432.170, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts: Method of Payment (AUG 1987) (a) Payments under this contract will be made...

  19. 24 CFR 206.25 - Calculation of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of payments. 206.25 Section 206.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Calculation of payments. (a) Initial payment. At closing an initial payment shall be made by the mortgagee...

  20. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of incentive payment. 305.31 Section 305.31... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.31 Amount of incentive payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment...

  1. 7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment; advance deposit. 27.92 Section 27... Micronaire § 27.92 Method of payment; advance deposit. Any payment or advance deposit under this subpart...,” and may not be made in cash except in cases where the total payment or deposit does not exceed...

  2. 20 CFR 404.2119 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 404.2119 Section 404.2119...- ) Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 404.2119 Method of payment. Payment to the State VR agencies or alternate participants pursuant to this subpart will be made either...

  3. Payment of research subjects for more than minimal risk trials is unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Bernstein, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This article explores the ethics of paying research participants for studies involving more than minimal risk using arguments grounded in morality, logic and pragmatism, as well as patient responses from a focused qualitative study. The authors argue that payment of research participants is ethically unacceptable. Balanced against the probability of harmful risks, guaranteed payment to participants represents excessive and undue influence and leads to commodification of human health. Patients range in their opinions on whether payment for research participation is ethical, considering issues of justice and nonmaleficence. From basic assumptions about the correlation between risks, financial need and willingness to participate in studies, the authors demonstrate that payments lead to unjustly influencing patients, especially the financially needy to participate in potentially harmful studies. Previous commentators have offered methods to regulate payment to participants, but these models do not seem feasible or ethically sound. PMID:21804364

  4. Direct pricing of retail payment methods: Norway vs. US

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Callado Muñoz; Jana Hromcová; Natalia Utrero González

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general equilibrium model that helps explaining payment choice at the retail level: cash, electronic and paper-based instruments. In particular, it provides theoretical foundations to reconcile previous empirical evidence on this issue. The payment pattern of a given country can be shaped by the payment infrastructure, the cost of each payment instrument, the degree of technology development and the interest rate. We show that the introduction of a cheaper payment i...

  5. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  6. Fraud prevention in the system of payments

    OpenAIRE

    Foglar, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with fraud perpetrated on non-cash payments. There is characterized the most common forms of non-cash payment fraud. It deals with the prevention of fraud in three main areas: financial literacy and education, law and institutions. It is a comparison of the effectiveness of these areas of prevention of fraud perpetrated on the territory of the Czech Republic and the EU for a certain period. There is also explained exactly how to prevent fraud.

  7. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...... with different production orientations and land management types was modeled under the presence and absence of direct payments using a combination of agent-based and bio-economic modeling. We found that the initial characteristics of the regions, such as the historical farm structure and regional site conditions......, greatly influence the impact of direct support elimination and cause regionally different development trends. The results for the four regions were summarized in four specific storylines that emphasize how much the diversity of European regions matters for future policy decisions. An explicitly regional...

  8. The Postponement of Retirement Age and Payment Balance of Pension Plan: Mechanisms and Policy Effects%延迟退休年龄与养老保险收支余额:作用机制及政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熠

    2011-01-01

    文章通过连续时间养老金收支模型分析认为延迟退休年龄对养老保险计划收支余额的影响来自四个方面的效应,即缴费年限效应、领取年限效应、替代率效应和差异效应。改革的最终效果是上述四种效应共同作用的结果。短期看,前两种效应占据主导;长期看,后两种效应也具有显著影响。延迟退休年龄的政策效果和工资增长率、养老金增长率、改革速度以及未来参保人口结构有关。理论分析和实证检验结果表明,无论从改革过程还是从对养老保险计划收支余额的影响看,延迟退休年龄都是一个复杂而渐进的过程,延迟退休年龄必将减轻政府在养老保险方面负担的传统说法%By the analysis of a continuous-time model of pension payments, this paper considers that the effects of the postponement of retirement age on the payment balance of pension plan stem from payment period effect, obtainment period effect, substitution rati

  9. Payment portals

    OpenAIRE

    Röschel, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Work is focused on presenting payment portals in online world, describing their begins, development and daily using. There are explained basic facts about fees, security, use and implementation of payment portals. Advantages and disadvantages of payment portals are presented in compare with others online payment methods. Work is also compared in global situation, situation in Czech Republic and situation in public sector. A part of work is also presentation of a few largest payment portals...

  10. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  11. 24 CFR 203.259 - Method of payment of MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment of MIP. 203.259 Section 203.259 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.259 Method of payment of MIP. The payment of any MIP under this subpart shall be made to...

  12. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA)

  13. The unintended consequences of bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N

    2013-01-01

    Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.

  14. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  15. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters...... in the payment industry. These actors issue four types of payment systems, and we can observe that three of four platforms types can be classified as multi-sided platforms (MSP). All alternatives seek foothold by issuing evolutionary payment instruments, which are intertwined with digital payment platforms....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  16. Condition based payment: improving care of chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    DiPiero, Albert; Sanders, David G

    2005-01-01

    Fee-for-service is more than a payment method; it defines the method of care. Fee-for-condition—a payment method that rewards superior results and encourages innovation—could greatly improve care for chronic conditions

  17. Internet payments and the development of electronic business in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mereshenko, K.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of the development of Internet payments in Ukraine. The author of the article examines the Internet payment like effective co-operation of the user and salesman. The author analyses the features of the use of electronic payments such as WebMoney, PayCash, PayPal and credits-cards.

  18. 26 CFR 1.6654-5 - Payments of estimated tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated tax. 1.6654-5 Section 1... Payments of estimated tax. (a) In general. A payment of estimated tax by an individual shall be determined on Form 1040-ES. For the purpose of determining the estimated tax, the amount of gross income...

  19. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts of payment. 410.152 Section 410.152 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Payment of SMI Benefits § 410.152 Amounts of payment. (a)...

  20. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive payments. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, DOE shall make incentive payments under...

  1. 42 CFR 412.116 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... costs of medical education, which are not included in prospective payments but are reimbursed as... October 1, 1991 and the estimated cost of approved medical education programs (applicable to inpatient... payment must be approved by the intermediary and CMS. (3) Amount of payment. The amount of the...

  2. 5 CFR 591.404 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 591.404 Section 591... DIFFERENTIALS Separate Maintenance Allowance for Duty at Johnston Island § 591.404 Method of payment. (a... rates as follows: (1) Divide the annual rate of payment by the number of days in the applicable...

  3. Methods of Employees Payments – Empirical Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Król

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this announcement, the empirical research results of methods of employees payments are presented. The research was made in 232 Polish organizations, mainly in the limited companies. Empirical test included the middle industry companies, which realized their economic activities on the international markets. The research applied on amount of payments, their flexibility, basic and others factors of payment.

  4. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  5. How consumers pay: Adoption and use of payments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey on consumer payment behavior, we estimate Heckman two-stage regressions on the adoption and use of seven different payment instruments. We find that the characteristics of payments are important in determining consumer payment behavior, even when controlling for demographic and financial attributes: setup and record keeping are especially important in explaining adoption, while security is important in explaining which methods consumers use f...

  6. 48 CFR 32.503-2 - Supervision of progress payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of progress... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.503-2 Supervision of progress payments. (a) The extent of progress payments supervision, by prepayment review...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.105 - Attribution of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) A payment made directly to a person or legal entity will be combined with the pro rata interest... reduced by the pro rata share of the person or legal entity. (b) A payment made to a legal entity will be... payment of the legal entity has been reduced by the pro rata share of the person. (c) Attribution...

  8. 30 CFR 218.301 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Method of payment. The payor shall tender all payments in accordance with 30 CFR 218.51. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 218.301 Section 218.301 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...

  9. 7 CFR 277.5 - Methods of payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... meeting the requirements for the LOC method of payment or failing to meet LOC reporting requirements... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of payment 277.5 Section 277.5 Agriculture... § 277.5 Methods of payment (a) This section sets forth FNS methods for authorizing funds for...

  10. 7 CFR 1410.43 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 1410.43 Section 1410.43... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.43 Method of payment. Except as provided in § 1410.50, payments made by CCC under this part may be made in...

  11. 42 CFR 414.313 - Initial method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial method of payment. 414.313 Section 414.313... Charges Under the ESRD Program § 414.313 Initial method of payment. (a) Basic rule. Under this method, the... payment for all the ESRD facility patients that he or she attends. (2) The initial method of...

  12. 48 CFR 3432.170 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3432... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 3432.170 Method of payment. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.232-72, Method of Payment, in all solicitations...

  13. 12 CFR 1410.4 - Payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of premiums. 1410.4 Section 1410.4 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.4 Payment of premiums. (a) Payments. Each insured bank shall pay to the Corporation the amount of the premium due to the...

  14. 24 CFR 241.1050 - Method of loan payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of loan payment. 241.1050 Section 241.1050 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1050 Method of loan payment. The loan shall provide for monthly payments on...

  15. 30 CFR 219.102 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 219.102 Section 219.102... (EFT). Should a State prefer to receive its payment by EFT, it should request this payment method in... DISTRIBUTION AND DISBURSEMENT OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, AND BONUSES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 219.102 Method...

  16. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  17. 77 FR 20295 - Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Payment of Premiums CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1927 to End, revised as of July 1, 2011, on page 933, Sec. 4007.5 is reinstated to read as...

  18. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the pr

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.275 - May a SASP accept personal checks and non-official payment methods in payment of service charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP accept personal checks and non-official payment methods in payment of service charges? 102-37.275 Section 102-37... non-official payment methods in payment of service charges? No, service charge payments must...

  20. The Reality of Electronic Payments in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Amie Esezobor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria wants its financial system to operate like in the developed economies of the world so that come year 2020, it will be seen and recognized as one of the leading economies in the world. To achieve this lofty target, the payment system was directed by fiat by the apex bank, Central Bank of Nigeria to be by electronic methods so that the system of paying cash for virtually every purchase will now give way to electronic payment. Lagos State was selected as a pilot study for five other states in the country to join 1st July, 2013. There are far-reaching implications for a country with a mammoth population of 140 million people; the majority of whom are not aware of the new payment direction. This research aimed therefore to find out how prepared and willing Nigerians are in embracing electronic payments system. I found out at the end of the study, that Nigerians were not impressed with the cashless policy and the attempt to introduce N5,000 cash note along with a repackaging of new coins to replace the existing lower denominations of cash in notes. Rather, they want policy makers and the government to address the grave insecurity to life and property in the land and provide stable electricity and water supply.

  1. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack,...

  2. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS OF THE PAYMENT CARD'S USE AS A PAYMENT METHOD IS RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyze theoretical and practical questions of payment cards use in Russian Federation and abroad. Authors discuss historical and practical reasons for choosing payment cards as payment method, as well as reasons for different kinds of cards use. Authors pay discuss questions of payment card use in Russian Federation at the present time and analyze questions of such payment method use after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR. Author’s discussion is based on the analyses of the current state of the Russian Federation banking system, its development and current state. During discussion authors use statistical data, including data on the largest banks in Russian Federation at the present time. In conclusion authors present ideas on possible ways of Russian Federation banking system future development in regard to payment cards (both debit and credit use as a method of the non-cash payment implementation.

  3. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  4. 29 CFR 3.10 - Methods of payment of wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Methods of payment of wages. 3.10 Section 3.10 Labor Office... IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.10 Methods of payment of wages. The payment of wages shall be by cash, negotiable instruments payable on demand, or the additional forms...

  5. 12 CFR 37.5 - Method of payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment of fees. 37.5 Section 37.5... AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS § 37.5 Method of payment of fees. Except as provided in § 37.3(c)(2), a bank may offer a customer the option of paying the fee for a contract in a single payment, provided...

  6. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  7. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  8. 24 CFR 206.19 - Payment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY... repayment. The interest charged on the mortgage balance shall be added to the mortgage balance monthly as provided in the mortgage. Under all payment options, repayment of the mortgage balance including...

  9. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  10. Electronic payments using payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Waaij, B. D.; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a mobile communication device (1) and a payment card (2), both the mobile communication device (1) and the payment card (2) being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least the mobile communication device (1) being provided with an input unit (12) for inputting data. The method comprises the steps of: etc.

  11. 5 CFR 1650.13 - Monthly payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly payment amount calculated based on life expectancy. Payments based on life expectancy are determined using the factors set forth in the Internal Revenue Service life expectancy tables codified at 26... balance by the factor from the IRS life expectancy tables based upon the participant's age as of his...

  12. 10 CFR 603.810 - Method and frequency of payment requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method and frequency of payment requests. 603.810 Section... payment requests. The procedure and frequency for payment requests depend upon the payment method, as... forms or formats described in 10 CFR 600.312(d). (b) If the payments are based on payable...

  13. Evolution of Retail Payments in Finland in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, Jussi

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s the availability of location-specific retail payment services in Finland declined substantially, but at the same time there was a surge of development of self-service methods. These new methods, which make use eg of mobile phones and the Internet, dramatically increased the availability of payment services that are not tied to location. More traditional forms of payment still exist; for example, the use of cash remains significant. In Europe there are marked differences betwe...

  14. Security of retail payments: The new strategic objective

    OpenAIRE

    Stavins, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Reserve Financial Services Strategic Plan for 2012 - 2016 specifies five main policy goals for the next few years. The second of its goals is to "Maintain public confidence in the end-to-end safety and security of clearing and settlement systems." Indeed, in each annual Survey of Consumer Payment Choice (SCPC), respondents consistently rank security as the most important characteristic of payment methods. However, in regressions of consumer payment use, security is not as signific...

  15. Impact of Complementary National Direct Payments on Cattle Breeding Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Řezbová, K. Tomšík

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a topic of Complementary National Direct Payments (CNDP in the Czech Republic. It is focused on a relationship between allocated financial sources (in CZK and selected indicators of cattle breeding as heads of dairy cows, milk yield, milk balance, self-sufficiency ratio and heads of suckler cows.Main aim of the article is to evaluate an influence of CNDP on cattle breeding in the Czech Republic, especially on dairy sector and sector of suckler cows in the period 2007 - 2012.Used methods are chain and base indexes.Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  16. The impact of retail payment innovations on cash usage

    OpenAIRE

    Ben S.C. Fung; Huynh, Kim P.; Sabetti, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Many predict that innovations in retail payment may render cash obsolete. We investigate this possibility in the context of recent payment innovations such as contactless-credit and stored-value cards. We apply causal inference methods on the 2009 Bank of Canada Method of Payment survey, a representative sample of adult Canadians' shopping behaviour for retail consumption over a three-day period. We find that using contactless credit cards and stored-value cards lead to a reduction in average...

  17. Credit card debt and payment use

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Charles; Stavins, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Approximately half of credit card holders in the United States regularly carry unpaid credit card debt. These so-called "revolvers" exhibit payment behavior that differs from that of those who repay their entire credit card balance every month. Previous literature has focused on the adoption of debit cards by people who carry credit card balances, but so far there has been no empirical analysis exploring the relationship between revolving behavior and patterns of payment use, such as substitu...

  18. 7 CFR 3.45 - USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false USDA payment authorizing agency offset of pro rata... of pro rata share of payments due entity in which debtor participates. (a) A USDA payment authorizing..., may offset: (1) A debtor's pro rata share of USDA payments due any entity in which the...

  19. Value Added Services and Adoption of Mobile Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... existing literature and empirically tested through an experimental design survey, in which the experimental group is exposed to a mobile payment solution with VAS, including receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons, and the control group is exposed to a mobile payment solution without VAS. Our findings show...

  20. Understanding consumers’ acceptance of mobile payments : a theoretical model and empirical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiajun

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates consumer acceptance of mobile payments. Mobile payments offer an alternative payment method for consumers, and allow consumers to make point-of-sales payments through mobile devices, such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). It aims to present a better understanding of mobile payments, developing a consumer acceptance model for mobile payments. Moreover, it offers a reference and a source of literature for the industry and academic researchers in...

  1. 18 CFR 381.105 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 381.105 Section 381.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES FEES General Provisions § 381.105 Method of payment. Fee...

  2. 32 CFR 203.15 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES § 203.15 Method of payment. The SAP set forth in FAR (48 CFR part 13) require purchase orders to... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 203.15 Section 203.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE...

  3. 37 CFR 260.6 - Verification of royalty payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... verification of the payment of royalty fees to those parties entitled to receive such fees, according to terms... single audit of the entity making the royalty payment during any given calendar year. (c) Notice of intent to audit. Interested parties must submit a notice of intent to audit the entity making the...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.313 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document evidencing payment of assessments. 1260.313 Section 1260.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.313 Document evidencing payment of...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.314 - Document evidencing payment of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document evidencing payment of assessments. 1220.314 Section 1220.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Document evidencing payment of assessments. (a) Each first purchaser responsible for remitting...

  6. 7 CFR 97.177 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 97.177 Section 97.177 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Fees and Charges § 97.177 Method of payment. Checks or money orders...

  7. 29 CFR 4047.4 - Payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 4047.4 Section 4047.4 Labor... OF TERMINATING AND TERMINATED PLANS § 4047.4 Payment of premiums. (a) General. Upon restoration of a plan pursuant to ERISA section 4047, the obligation to pay PBGC premiums pursuant to ERISA section...

  8. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS OF THE PAYMENT CARD’S USE AS A PAYMENT METHOD IS RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Galushkin; Valeriy V. Grebennikov; Dmitriy A. Pashentsev; Igor M. Potashnik; Marat S. Shaykhullin; Elena V. Maystrovich; Anastasiya S. Zhykovec

    2014-01-01

    In the present article authors analyze theoretical and practical questions of payment cards use in Russian Federation and abroad. Authors discuss historical and practical reasons for choosing payment cards as payment method, as well as reasons for different kinds of cards use. Authors pay discuss questions of payment card use in Russian Federation at the present time and analyze questions of such payment method use after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Author&a...

  9. 42 CFR 409.102 - Amounts of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Payment of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.102 Amounts of payment. (a) The amounts Medicare pays for hospital insurance benefits are generally determined in accordance with part...

  10. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer...

  11. 12 CFR 627.2755 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of claims. 627.2755 Section 627.2755 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2755 Payment of claims. (a) All claims of...

  12. 42 CFR 57.309 - Payment of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of nursing student loans. 57.309 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.309 Payment of nursing student loans. (a) Nursing student loans from any fund may be paid...

  13. 46 CFR 308.507 - Security for payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for payment of premiums. 308.507 Section 308... premiums. Clause 21 of the policy requires the assured to maintain with the Maritime Administrator a collateral deposit fund or a surety bond, to secure the payment of the premiums, in an amount which shall...

  14. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of... are furnished and that the seller is not overpaying for them. The customer should expend the...

  15. 48 CFR 871.207 - Payment of tuition or fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Payment for tuition or fees must be made in arrears and must be prorated in installments over the school... date on which the refund expires. (c) Proration of charges does not apply to a fee for noncontinuing service, such as a registration fee, etc. (d) The period for which payment of charges may be made is...

  16. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment only: (1) At the beginning of an ordinary school year; or (2) At the beginning of any other....C. 3680(g)) (g) Payments for courses which are repeated. VA may pay subsistence allowance to a veteran who repeats a course under conditions described in § 21.132. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3680(a))...

  17. 49 CFR 1021.6 - Method of claim payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of claim payment. 1021.6 Section 1021.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... § 1021.6 Method of claim payment. (a) Debtors: Debtors shall be required to settle claims by: (1)...

  18. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  19. 20 CFR 416.2219 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 416.2219 Section 416.2219 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 416.2219 Method...

  20. The Ethics of Payment for Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES is an economic tool that has emerged in recent years as a mechanism to promote conservation of natural resources, as well as that of various goods and services commonly used. However, its application in practice raises a number of ethical concerns that this study seeks to discuss. The concept and benefits of PES are discussed, emphasizing its neoclassical economic nature background and how the initial anthropogenic position has evolved into a more holistic ecosystem vision. The paper examines some of the relationships between ethics and ecosystem services as well as the natural conflicts emerging from the opposition of utilitarian economic values versus moral arguments and deontological ethical systems. Then, a justification for ethics in payment for ecosystem services is provided as an attempt to solve perceived conflicts between conservation and human welfare. Later, the right to benefit from natural resources and PES is discussed. The conflict between natural resources as public goods whose use is a universal right for all human beings and the property rights, either legal or ancestral, of indigenous and originary people is stressed. Finally, the future of ethics and ecosystem services on issues such as the well-being of future generations and the search of an efficient integration based on land planning and conservation management strategies is discussed. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for a better, integrated accounting of the benefits and costs of nature conservation, which will probably only occur when teams of natural and social scientists work together.

  1. 75 FR 44028 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... collection of information under Part 4007 of its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212... 202-326- 4040.) The premium payment regulation and the premium instructions (including illustrative... of the premium payment regulation, plan administrators are required to file premium payments...

  2. Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate: Interrelation Dialectics Платежный баланс и валютный курс: диалектика взаимосвязи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veriga Anna V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article systemises principles of levelling the balance of payments stated in IMF Charter and Main Principles of Monetary and Credit Policy of the National Bank of Ukraine. It analyses dynamics of indicators of the state of the balance of payments of Ukraine and official exchange rate of UAH during the period from 1998 till 2011. It studies correlation and regressive links between the following indicators: balance of the current account of the balance of payments, export of goods and services, import of goods and services, gross foreign debt, official reserve assets, and official exchange rate of UAH to USD. It gives economic interpretation of the obtained statistical results. It provides a correlation and regressive model of official exchange rate, which allows identification of quantitative parameters of devaluation of UAH in the event of growth of the foreign debt and revaluation in the event of growth of volumes of reserve assets. It gives recommendations on the use of inter-state methods of regulation of the balance of payments.В статье систематизированы принципы выравнивания платежного баланса, зафиксированные Уставом МВФ и Основными принципами денежно-кредитной политики Национального банка Украины. Проанализирована динамика показателей состояния платежного баланса Украины и официального курса гривни в течение 1998 – 2011 гг. Исследованы корреляционно-регрессионные связи между такими показателями: сальдо текущего счета платежного баланса, экспорт товаров и услуг, импорт товаров и услуг, валовой внешний долг, о

  3. 26 CFR 301.6315-1 - Payments of estimated income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated income tax. 301.6315-1... Payments of estimated income tax. The payment of any installment of the estimated income tax (see sections... the estimate is made. The aggregate amount of the payments of estimated tax should be entered upon...

  4. Time Efficiency Of Point-Of-Sale Payment Methods: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Micha ł Polasik,; Jakub Górka; Gracjan Wilczewski; Janusz Kunkowski; Karolina Przenajkowska

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a wide range of differ ent payment methods used at Point-Of-Sales from traditional cash and standard cards to contactless cards, RFID stickers and mobile payments (NFC and remote). All payment instruments are compared under the criterion of time efficiency that means the duration of a payment tr ansaction. The measurement of payment transactions was undertaken with the help of a novel research technique based on a digital chronography of vid...

  5. Using the non-cash forms of payment of foreign invoices

    OpenAIRE

    Rusanov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor’s work dealing with cashless payment transactions with orientation on foreign payments. The dissertation is divided into two parts: The first part consists of the classification and characteristics of non-cash forms of payment which you can use in foreign payments. It also includes a description of the legal standards and the course of transaction. The second part is analyzed and described by selected commercial payment transaction, is given specific examples and the way of pay...

  6. The development of contactless payment market in Poland and in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Kunkowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess factors that stimulate cashless payment organizations to introduction of contactless payment onto market, as well as the barrier for the development of this innovation. The paper presents the development directions of innovative payment methods. The article describes the evolution and functioning of contactless technology offered by the major payment organizations.

  7. Positive Prerequisites for the Use of Reliefs in the Payment of Dues on Social Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ofiarski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is permissible to use reliefs in the payment of social security contributions, based either on a definitive waiver by the creditor of the whole or relevant part of the amount due (partial or complete remission or only a temporary waiver of such amounts (payment deferral or payment in installments. The use of such reliefs is possible upon the occurrence of conditions laid down in the Act, for example, in the case of total non-recovery of contributions, for economic or other reasons worth considering, if justified by important interests of the person concerned. The prerequisites mentioned above have a nature of general clauses, allowing for their flexible adjustment to specific situations. Entities authorized to grant reliefs in the payment of social security contributions act within the limits of administrative discretion. But it is not a fully free operation, because the economic impact resulting from the use of such reliefs has a direct impact on the financial balance of earmarked funds which finance social security benefits, in particular pensions, disability allowances and other benefits.

  8. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  9. 75 FR 9142 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... (74 FR 61294), announced that a public hearing on proposed regulations relating to information... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public...

  10. 7 CFR 760.20 - Payments to manufacturers of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. 760.20... Payments to Manufacturers Affected by Pesticides § 760.20 Payments to manufacturers of dairy products. An... for payment when dairy products are contaminated by chemicals, toxic substances (other than...

  11. 42 CFR 447.362 - Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Prepaid Capitation Plans § 447.362 Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract....

  12. Merchant acceptance, costs, and perceptions of retail payments: A Canadian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos; Taylor, Varya

    2008-01-01

    Using the results of a survey on accepted means of payment, the authors examine merchant preferences and perceptions of retail payment reliability, risk, and costs; the share of each type of payment method over total sales; and the costs involved in accepting payments. Models are developed for each means of payment in order to determine how merchant characteristics may influence their responses. The authors find that the average transaction value, total transaction volume, and/or number of po...

  13. Consumer awareness and the use of payment media: evidence from young Finnish consumers

    OpenAIRE

    HYYTINEN, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas

    2008-01-01

    In the market for payment media, some consumers use only one medium when paying for their point-of-sale transactions, while others use many. This pattern reflects the diffusion of new payment media, because a payment method innovation is typically first used simultaneously with the established methods. We study the use of multiple payment media by employing data on young Finnish consumers. We find that the use of multiple payment media is directly related to consumer awareness and that not co...

  14. Creating an Association of Southeast Asian Nations payment system: Policy and regulatory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Khiaonarong, Tanai

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is expected to benefit from the significant growth in the Asia-Pacific payments market. Growth in economic activity would increase the size, scale, and scope of payment transactions. Enabling the scale and scope of payments would in turn increase economic activity. This would also require national payment systems to be regionalized and operate with cross-border and multi-currency capabilities. As existing regional payment arrangements have il...

  15. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...

  16. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  17. Non-tangible methods of payment and monetary theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CESARANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a strong interest in the topic of monetary standards has developed in two distinct fields of investigation: monetary policy and innovation in the payments system. In the latter, the developments stem from the concrete possibility of creating payment systems that do away with physical or tangible means of payment entirely. In this case, changes in the institutional framework provoke new perspectives in monetary analysis with regard to various themes: the organisational form of the system, the relationships between the functions of money, the minimum requirements of a monetary system, the means of implementing an optimal monetary policy, the theory of the bank, etc. The present work discusses some aspects of particular importance with regard to these issues. After describing the essential components of innovation in the payments system, the author identifies some critical points that have yet to be clarified by the recent literature.

  18. 7 CFR 220.5 - Method of payment to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.5 Method of payment to States. Funds to be paid to any State for the School Breakfast Program shall be made available by means of Letters...

  19. 27 CFR 25.163 - Method of tax payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of tax payment. 25..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns § 25.163 Method of tax payment. A brewer shall pay the tax on beer by return on Form 5000.24, as provided in §§...

  20. The Problems and Suggestions of the Statistical Monitoring of the Balance of Payments under the New Situation%浅析新形势下国际收支统计监测面临的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有良; 梁驰

    2015-01-01

    2015, will be the key point in the global economic recovery. At this point, the dollar's short-term appreciation of the euro and the yen in the short term is a high probability event, two-way fluctuations in the RMB has become the norm. This creates a convenient circulation environment for the abnormal cross-border capital lfows and the huge arbitrage space. This paper puts forward new problems and new challenges to the international revenue and expenditure statistics and monitoring of foreign exchange bureau. This paper makes a review of the abnormal cross-border capital flows.%2015年,将是全球经济复苏的关键时点,而在这个时点下,美元短期内升值、欧元和日元短期内贬值是高概率事件,人民币双向波动已经成为常态.这就为异常跨境资金流动创造了便利的流通环境以及丰厚的套利空间,这对外汇局国际收支统计监测工作提出了新问题和新挑战,本文对异常跨境资金流动渠道进行了梳理,并提出了统计监测方面的相关问题及建议.

  1. Interim Study of Alternative Payment Localities under the...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare is statutorily required to adjust payments for physician fee schedule services to account for differences in costs due to geographic location. There are...

  2. What's really new about the new forms of retail payment?

    OpenAIRE

    William Roberds

    1997-01-01

    Rapid developments in technology have brought about new methods of retail payment-such as remote banking, electronic cash, and debit, stored-value, and smart cards-that were unavailable a decade ago. Some observers believe that these alternative payment methods will differ from traditional methods not only in a technological but also in an economic sense and will alter how consumers and businesses interact. ; This article examines the question of whether, from the standpoint of economic theor...

  3. 34 CFR 691.75 - Determination of eligibility for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-half of the credit hours of the payment period; and (4) If enrolled in a credit-hour program without terms or a clock-hour program, has completed the payment period as defined in 34 CFR 668.4 for which he...) If enrolled in a self-paced credit-hour program without terms or a self-paced clock-hour program,...

  4. Changes in the fees on payment services and the structure of payments following the introduction of the financial transaction tax

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ilyés; Kristóf Takács; Lóránt Varga

    2014-01-01

    Payment service providers passed the transaction tax on to their clients in several steps and to a significant degree, both in the spring, upon introduction of the tax, and in the autumn, when the rates of tax were raised. For cash withdrawals and bank transfers, the tax was typically passed on by being charged against the transaction directly. The tax was passed on directly at a much lower average rate among card purchases; however, the annual fees of payment cards were increased considerabl...

  5. Research on the negative effects of continued double surplus China's international balance of payments%论我国国际收支持续“双顺差”的负面效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙恒有; 崔华伟

    2011-01-01

    The world financial crisis remind us the urgency of our country's "restructuring" in the economy,but,we should change from passive adjustment to active adjustment.Faced with the argument "China and other export-oriented economies' external imbalances lead to the global financial crisis" which come from Western countries,we first should review the continued "double surplus" in China in recent years.The "double surplus" lead to the external economic imbalances directly and cause many negative effects.Our country's continued "double surplus" has its internal and external reasons.In order to properly cope with the "double surplus" and its negative effects,we should have a philosophical perspective and establish a comprehensive,coordinated and sustainable concept.%世界金融危机昭示我国经济"转型"迫在眉睫,我们应该变被动调整为主动调整。面对来自西方国家的"中国等出口导向型经济体的外部经济失衡导致全球金融危机"论调,我们首先应当对近年我国持续多年的国际收支"双顺差"进行一番重新审视。持续"双顺差"的直接后果是外部经济失衡,顺差的积累造成很多负面效应。我国国际收支持续"双顺差"既有内部原因又有外部原因。我们必须以哲学的眼光,树立全面、协调、可持续的观念,才能恰当的把握"双顺差"及其带来的负面效应。

  6. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  7. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  8. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  9. Balance of a race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With their atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the USA ended the second World War. One year later, efforts to have the development of atomic weapons controlled by an international authority were abandoned because of a veto by the Soviet Union. The final goal of this effort would have been the destruction of all atomic weapons. For 35 years, politicians have talked about disarmament and have, at the same time continued to arm with nuclear weapons. (orig.)

  10. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  11. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    -making process is formalized. This kind of information-processing makes software increasingly powerful and there is therefore a need for the 'e-governance community' to be reflexive about this development and constantly ponder the trade-offs between structured semantics and looser types of classification....

  12. The Boston Fed study of consumer behavior and payment choice: a survey of Federal Reserve System employees

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Marques; Blair, Krista; Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The way people pay for goods and services is changing dramatically, but little data and research on consumer behavior and payment choice are publicly available. This paper describes the results of a survey of payment behavior and attitudes taken by Federal Reserve employees in 2004. Major contributions of the survey are that it asks: 1) why payment choices are made; 2) why individual payment behavior has changed; and 3) why individual-specific payment characteristics matter for payment choice...

  13. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal p...

  14. The Impact of Hospital Payment Schemes on Healthcare and Mortality: Evidence from Hospital Payment Reforms in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubulihasimu, Parida; Brouwer, Werner; van Baal, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    In this study, aggregate-level panel data from 20 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries over three decades (1980-2009) were used to investigate the impact of hospital payment reforms on healthcare output and mortality. Hospital payment schemes were classified as fixed-budget (i.e. not directly based on activities), fee-for-service (FFS) or patient-based payment (PBP) schemes. The data were analysed using a difference-in-difference model that allows for a structural change in outcomes due to payment reform. The results suggest that FFS schemes increase the growth rate of healthcare output, whereas PBP schemes positively affect life expectancy at age 65 years. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, as results are sensitive to model specification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26080792

  15. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  16. In-Application Payment from Mobile Apps: A study of In-App Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Jøran Christiansen; Hanssen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate and compare existing serviceproviders of in-app payment solutions and their APIs, and then concludewhat would be the best choice for hobby developers when deciding on whatservice provider to use for their application.We gained hands-on experience by developing a simple Quiz game appthat featured the implementation of in-app purchase. We took a look atthe major service providers; Apple, Google, PayPal and Windows to getrelevant information and eva...

  17. Costs, advantages and drawbacks of the various means of payment

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2006-01-01

    The total macroeconomic costs of the payment instruments used in the points of sale can be estimated to be 2.034 million euros, or 0.74 p.c. of Belgian GDP in 2003. The payment costs arising from cash were 0.58 p.c. of GDP, compared to 0.11 p.c. for debit cards, 0.04 p.c. for credit cards and 0.02 p.c. for the electronic purse Proton. About 50.5 p.c. of the payment costs originate in points of sale, whilst 47.1 p.c. come from the financial sector and 2.3 p.c. from currency-issuing institution...

  18. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  19. The evolution of the check as a means of payment: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Stephen; Roberds, William

    2008-01-01

    Though checks' popularity is now waning in favor of electronic payments, checks were, for much of the twentieth century, the most widely used noncash payment method in the United States. How did such a relatively inefficient form of payment become so dominant? This article traces the historical evolution of the check, focusing on its relation to complementary and competing payment technologies. ; Originating in the eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium as a convenient form of paym...

  20. 19 CFR 181.51 - Prevention of improper payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of improper payment of claims. 181.51 Section 181.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...-Deferral Programs § 181.51 Prevention of improper payment of claims. (a) Double payment of claim....

  1. 77 FR 20122 - Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards AGENCY: Financial... ``Voucher for Payment of Awards.'' DATES: Written comments should be received on or before June 4, 2012... Service solicits comments on the collection of information described below: Title: Voucher for Payment...

  2. The effect of transaction pricing on the adoption of electronic payments: a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; David Humphrey; Roland Uittenbogaard

    2005-01-01

    Pricing should speed up the substitution of low cost electronic payments for expensive paper-based transactions and cash. But by how much? Norway has explicitly priced individual payment transactions and rapidly shifted to electronic payments while the Netherlands has experienced the same shift without direct pricing. Controlling for differences between countries, the authors estimate the incremental effect of pricing on the shift to electronic payments. If users strongly value the improved c...

  3. Physicians in health care management: 5. Payment of physicians and organization of medical services.

    OpenAIRE

    Vayda, E

    1994-01-01

    The financing, payment and organization of medical services are closely related. Canada's health care system is financed publicly, from tax revenue, and administered in each province by a single government payer. Although the chief method of payment to physicians is fee for service (FFS), the need to control costs and organize practice more efficiently has led to increased interest in FFS variants, such as capping payments at a certain level or fixing a budget, and alternative payment methods...

  4. Attitudes towards mobile payment : An empirical study of the consumers’ perception of security, privacy and convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbäck, Karin; Blommé, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Mobile payment is a new payment method that is being introduced on the Swedish market, but has not yet come to its breakthrough. This thesis investigates the attitude the Swedish consumer has towards mobile payment. Based on previous surveys and theory, three main attributes, security, privacy and convenience, were chosen to represent the attitude of the consumer towards mobile payment. In order to analyze the data obtained from the surveys conducted, the multi-attribute attitude model was us...

  5. 75 FR 28304 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... control number 1212-0007; expires April 30, 2011) and intends to request that the Office of Management and... 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the premium instructions (including illustrative... of the premium payment regulation, plan administrators are required to file premium payments...

  6. The evolution of the payments system: A theoretical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GIANNINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the payments system is vitally important for exchange, its interest among economists has fallen over the past fifty years. This has become especially apparent over the last decade, in the face of large-scale phenomena of innovation, such as the application of electronic technologies for the transmission of money, the emergence of new payment services and the rapid spread of commercial credit. While some reports in recent years have accumulated a large amount of statistical information on these phenomena, there are still considerable uncertainties about their future developments and their implications. The present work aims to integrate the literature with an analysis of the logical foundations of the payments system, in order to identify theoretical points of reference in order to interpret the empirical-institutional evidence contained in the official reports.

  7. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the regulatory environment and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature of the mobile phone, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established structure into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure......The payment field is being rapidly transformed. New players have emerged and are threatening the well-established positions of the incumbents. This process is driven by technology change and market forces, and it is shaped by the increasing role of the regulator. When considering the change....... The model captures the formation and development of the digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s and innovator’s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change which are followed by short and rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage...

  8. Integrated Health Care Payment Methods: Typology, Evidence And Pre-Conditions Of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Igor M. Sheiman

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have recently started the search for new payments methods with the specific objective to encourage integration in health care delivery – teamwork of providers, their coordination and continuity of care. This paper suggests the typology of three major integrated payment methods – pay-for-performance, episode based bundled payment and global payment. A brief overview of these methods in the USA and Europe, including Russia, indicates that there is still no strong evidence of thei...

  9. The Payment Vehicle Used in CV Studies of Environmental Goods Does Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ivehammar, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the payment vehicle on the valuation of an environmental good with the contingent valuation method (CVM). Results from three CV studies comparing different payment vehicles by using split samples when valuing environmental encroachment caused by roads in Sweden are presented and compared to results from other such split-sample studies of payment vehicle effects. The results are consistent and show that the payment vehicle affects the valuation, but not always...

  10. Resolving Reverse-Payment Settlements With The Smoking Gun Of Stock Price Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Elhauge, Einer Richard; McGuire, Thomas G; Drake, Keith; Hartman, Raymond S.; Starr, Martha Louise

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court recently held that in reverse payment settlements of drug patent disputes, anticompetitive effects can be inferred if the reverse payment exceeds the patent holder’s anticipated litigation costs, absent some offsetting justification. Application of this standard is problematic because defendants usually (a) obscure the amount of the reverse payment and (b) claim their settlement was justified by risk aversion. Further, even if a net reverse payment can be proven, it is littl...

  11. E-Payment Strategies of Bank Card Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the business st rategy in managing pay ment innovations. Particularly, the study looks at the smart card - electronic cash (e-cash innovation in the financial service industry. The smart card e-cash has yet to overcome obstacles to its diffusion. Given the e-commerce opportunity, banks and non-banks compete to deploy smart card technology for Internet use. A revi ew of previous payment innovations is also carried out to provide suggesting direction on the innovation proliferation. The paper firstly examines the payment market on the whole (the global review. The subsequent section discusses the challenges in the e-payment world and the strategies to support the diffusion of the smart card innovations.

  12. 41 CFR 102-38.290 - What types of payment may we accept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are not acceptable. (b) Irrevocable commercial letters of credit issued by a United States bank... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of payment... PROPERTY Completion of Sale Payments § 102-38.290 What types of payment may we accept? You must adopt...

  13. Allocation of time under different payment systems by GPs in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.; Groenewegen, P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Payment of GPs is relevant from two points of view: fair payment and effects on the quality of care. Fair pay is especially important in capitation systems (does the amount correctly reflect the invested work). Secondly, payment affects the allocation of time, and thus indirect the quali

  14. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which payment methods... Carrier Transportation § 301-51.101 Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash? Use of one of the following payment methods of this section to procure common carrier transportation...

  15. 37 CFR 383.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payments, late fees, statements of account, audit and verification of royalty payments and distributions... Collective, late fees, statements of account, audit and verification of royalty payments and distributions... royalty fees. 383.4 Section 383.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY...

  16. Effect of Medicaid Payment on Rehabilitation Care for Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Wodchis, Walter P; Richard A Hirth; Fries, Brant E

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in examining how Medicaid payment affects nursing home care. This study examines the effect of Medicaid payment methods and reimbursement rates on the delivery of rehabilitation therapy to Medicaid nursing home residents in six States from 1992-1995. In States that changed payment from prospective facility-specific to prospective case-mix adjusted payment methods, Medicaid residents received more rehabilitation therapy after the change. While residents in States...

  17. Design of secure mobile payment protocols for restricted connectivity scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez Isaac, Jesús Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of mobile and wireless networks made posible the extensión of electronic commerce to a new area of research: mobile commerce called m-commerce, which includes mobile payment), that refers to any e-commerce transaction made from a mobile device using wireless networks. Most of the mobile payment systems found in the literatura are based on the full connectivity scenario where all the entities are directly connected one to another but do not support business models with direct com...

  18. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the... notice also lists the following information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution...

  19. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  20. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  2. 77 FR 10714 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC41 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment... Regulation (DTAR) to implement use of the Internet Payment Platform, a centralized electronic invoicing and payment information system, and to change the definition of bureau to reflect the consolidation on July...

  3. 20 CFR 663.840 - How is the level of needs-related payments determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the level of needs-related payments determined? 663.840 Section 663.840 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Services § 663.840 How is the level of needs-related payments determined? (a) The payment level for...

  4. 48 CFR 252.232-7003 - Electronic submission of payment requests and receiving reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7003 Electronic submission of payment... administering the contract for payment has determined, in writing, that electronic submission would be unduly... non-electronic payment requests using the method or methods specified in Section G of the contract....

  5. 45 CFR 234.11 - Assistance in the form of money payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assistance in the form of money payments. 234.11... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.11 Assistance in the form of money payments. (a) Federal financial participation is available in money payments made under a State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of...

  6. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON ASSESSMENT OF PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timeea Maria DUMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Payment and settlement systems are financial instruments that are significant to the financial and banking system. Payment systems are a source of current information and an operative intervention tool by providing oversight use funds in the accounts of the banks. Since their implementation in the banking system structure these systems have evolved continuously in the market requirements, we are encountering major problems are mostly due to strict compliance with international standards, which ensure a high level of safety in their operation and measures by the central bank.

  8. 77 FR 5229 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural... availability of up to $25 million to make payments to advanced biofuel producers for the production of eligible... participating in the Advanced Biofuel Payment Program for Fiscal Year 2012 were accepted from October 1,...

  9. 42 CFR 413.196 - Notification of changes in rate-setting methodologies and payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413... payment system described in § 413.220 by the ESRD bundled market basket percentage increase factor....

  10. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460)....

  11. 22 CFR 201.26 - Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments... § 201.26 Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments. Unless otherwise authorized by USAID, any marine insurance loss payment under a marine insurance policy financed pursuant to this part 201 received by...

  12. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... rata MIP shall not be due or payable where the mortgagee notifies the Commissioner that foreclosure...

  13. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-3 - Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. 1.404(k)-3 Section 1.404(k)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.404(k)-3 Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments. Q-1: Are payments to reacquire stock held by an ESOP applicable dividends that are deductible under section 404(k)(1)? A-1:...

  14. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Outpatient Hospital and Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits...: Application of upper payment limits. 447.321 Section 447.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  15. 42 CFR 447.325 - Other inpatient and outpatient facility services: Upper limits of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Upper limits of payment. 447.325 Section 447.325 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Other Inpatient and Outpatient...

  16. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  17. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  18. The role of the radiologist in new payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Duszak, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many economists and policy makers believe that United States healthcare costs are rising at an unsustainable rate. In response, newer payment systems such as bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and population health management have been proposed. These new paradigms all aim to encourage collaboration between health care providers to conserve costs and increase quality. To succeed in this evolving environment, radiologists should consider embracing change by working to standardize radiology practice, participating in radiology utilization management, working with vendors to increase storage of radiology imaging data to improve access and interconnectivity, and exploring targeted screening in high risk populations. PMID:26960723

  19. 75 FR 41509 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; LOCCS Voice Response System Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... System Payment Vouchers for Public and Indian Housing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... Payment Vouchers for Public and Indian Housing Programs. OMB Control Number: 2577-0166. Agency form number... voice activated system. The information collected on the payment voucher will also be used as...

  20. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  1. The economics of payment card fee structure: policy considerations of payment card rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers possible public policies that could improve efficiency and welfare distribution in the U.S. retail payments industry. Mainly, four options, i) encouraging competition; ii) allowing merchants to surcharge; iii) regulating merchant fees; and iv) regulating payment card rewards, are discussed, but each option has advantages and disadvantages. Any single option may not achieve the policymakers' objective; rather, combining several policy options may be required. ; Also issued...

  2. Improvement of organization and payment on NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of introducing advanced methods and organization forms of work on increase of labour productivity during the NPP construction is shown. Role of progressive forms of payment for work in reducing terms and improving the quality of works performed is examined

  3. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  4. 28 CFR 79.75 - Procedures for payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for payment of claims. 79.75 Section 79.75 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION... awarded under the Act and to verify the identity of the claimant or, in the case of a deceased...

  5. 75 FR 20299 - Garnishment of Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... nature of the funds in the account, i.e., \\7/9\\ of the withdrawal, or $311, is treated as withdrawn from... only if the financial institution generally imposes a fee of this nature and amount for its accounts... Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Fiscal Service...

  6. Romanian Consumer Psychology Relating to the Methods of Online Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodim Liliana; Croitoru Gabriel; Negoi Eugen Remus

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of products and services offered online, buyers have the opportunity to purchase goods of lower prices than the traditional environment. Online market has grown exponentially in recent years, but in Romania, had a weight gain. One of the most important reasons in online shopping stagnation in Romania is distrust of online payment methods.

  7. 9 CFR 50.21 - Schedule of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule of payments. 50.21 Section 50.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  8. Bundled Payment in Total Joint Care: Survey of AAHKS Membership Attitudes and Experience with Alternative Payment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Atul F; Courtney, Paul M; Bozic, Kevin J; Mehta, Samir; Parsley, Brian S; Froimson, Mark I

    2015-12-01

    The goal of alternative payment models (APMs), particularly bundling of payments in total joint arthroplasty (TJA), is to incentivize physicians, hospitals, and payers to deliver quality care at lower cost. To study the effect of APMs on the field of adult reconstruction, we conducted a survey of AAHKS members using an electronic questionnaire format. Of the respondents, 61% are planning to or participate in an APM. 45% of respondents feel that a bundled payment system will be the most effective model to improve quality and to reduce costs. Common concerns were disincentives to operate on high-risk patients (94%) and uncertainty about revenue sharing (79%). While many members feel that APMs may improve value in TJA, surgeons continue to have reservations about implementation.

  9. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  10. 7 CFR 505.6 - Payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (NTIS) of the United States Department of Commerce. The NAL encourages users to establish deposit accounts with NTIS. Payment for services will be made by check, money order or credit card in U.S. funds directly to the NTIS upon receipt of invoice from NTIS. Subject to a reduction for the actual costs...

  11. 41 CFR 105-60.305-9 - Form of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of payment. 105-60.305-9 Section 105-60.305-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 60-PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS AND INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 60.3-Availability of...

  12. 41 CFR 105-60.305-7 - Assurance of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance of payment. 105-60.305-7 Section 105-60.305-7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 60-PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS AND INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS 60.3-Availability of...

  13. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially...

  14. Impact of the Transition to ICD-10 on Medicare Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Although the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10 version of MS-DRGs resulted in 1.68 percent of the patients being assigned to a different MS-DRG, payment...

  15. 24 CFR 213.260 - Allowable methods of premium payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable methods of premium... Allowable methods of premium payment. Premiums shall be payable in cash or in debentures at par plus accrued interest. All premiums are payable in advance and no refund can be made of any portion thereof except...

  16. The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective” presents the aspects concerning the impact of the electronic payment system on the development of nowadays society as an economic and a managerial perspective. Our research focuses on issues related to the payments sector, the Smartcard, the Electronic Banking,payment systems based on bank cards, the Cyber cash, and the electronic payment systems (1 Net Cash and (2 E-Cash, Micro-payment systems with (1 Millicent and (2 Cyber Coin, as well as the electronic check payments.

  17. 75 FR 7551 - Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... procedure; Blind; Disability benefits; Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance; Reporting and..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Subpart U-- 0 1. The authority citation for subpart U of part....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background Our representative payment regulations are in Subpart U of part...

  18. 20 CFR 617.48 - Time and method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment. 617.48 Section... ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.48 Time and method... necessary to assure an individual's entitlement to a relocation allowance at any time, before or after...

  19. 48 CFR 32.906 - Making payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency head determines— (1) To make earlier payment on a case-by-case basis; or (2) That the use of accelerated payment methods are necessary (see 32.903(a)(5)). (b) Payment office. The designated payment... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.906 Making payments. (a) General. The Government will...

  20. 42 CFR 414.707 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the table. Drug Percentage used to calculate 2004 payment limit EPOETIN ALFA 87 LEUPROLIDE ACETATE 81 GOSERELIN ACETATE 80 RITUXIMAB 81 PACLITAXEL 81 DOCETAXEL 80 CARBOPLATIN 81 IRINOTECAN 80... of cancer must report the beneficiary's most recent hemoglobin or hematocrit level; (2) Each...

  1. 42 CFR 411.24 - Recovery of conditional payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may initiate recovery as soon as it learns that payment has been made or could be made under workers' compensation, any liability or no-fault insurance, or an employer group health plan. (c) Amount of recovery. (1... under employer group health plans, workers' compensation insurance or plan, and no-fault insurance,...

  2. 42 CFR 411.33 - Amount of Medicare secondary payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 411.33 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Insurance Coverage...) Services for which CMS pays on a Medicare fee schedule or reasonable charge basis. The Medicare...

  3. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    OpenAIRE

    Babić Uroš; Soldatović Ivan; Vuković Dejana; Šantrić-Milićević Milena; Stjepanović Mihailo; Kojić Dejan; Argirović Aleksandar; Vukotić Vinka

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR) is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obt...

  4. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  5. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  6. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  7. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  8. 32 CFR 37.810 - What should my TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method and frequency of recipients' payment requests? 37.810 Section 37.810 National Defense Department... TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment requests? The procedure and frequency for payment requests depend upon the payment method, as follows: (a) For...

  9. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In general—(1) Overview....

  10. The determinants of the method of payment in corporate takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Νισιώτης, Δημήτριος

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the determinants which significantly affect the choice of payment method in Greek mergers and acquisitions. Using a sample of 321 deals, separated into stock and cash financed deals, and including a binary Probit model we reached the following results. When bidder and target are not in the same country, the probability of cash financing increases. Also the probability increases when the target is a subsidiary firm. Finally looking at the bidder firm we find ...

  11. Payments for scenic beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Rohit; Kerr, John

    2007-01-01

    Although payments for scenic beauty are older than payment schemes for most other environmental services, scenic beauty itself is hard to define. It often encompasses a range of environmental services for consumptive (hunting, fishing) or non-consumptive (bird watching, boating) use. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  12. PAYMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICE FOR CARBON CREDITS FROM ITALIAN OLIVE GROVES. SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE MODE OF PAYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coderoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, olive farming is one of the most interesting examples of carbon sink in agricultural soils. The olive agro-ecosystems can in fact ensure effective action in CO2 fixation encouraging the process of carbon storage on the organic matter of the soil. Starting from the assumption that a different and more “carbon oriented” management of Italian olive groves system could represent a promising way to increase the carbon stored in agricultural land, this paper explores the possibility to implement a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES scheme to increase the provision of carbon sink by olive groves. The analysis focuses on the definition of the sealable ecosystem service, according to the actual policy framework and on the mode of payment that could be established. Results, suggest that an output-based payment, though more environmentally efficient, could not be enough to incentivise farmers to join the PES, as the payment per hectare might be lower using this approach.

  13. 76 FR 52862 - Time for Payment of Certain Excise Taxes, and Quarterly Excise Tax Payments for Small Alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ..., as a final rule, regulations contained in a temporary rule pertaining to the semimonthly payments of... include those regulations contained in the temporary rule pertaining to part 19 of the TTB regulations..., 1995, ATF published a temporary rule (T.D. ATF-365) in the Federal Register at 60 FR 33665,...

  14. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  15. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  16. Architecture of a Mediation System for Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutahar Jaouad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of our daily. Exceeding the role of a communication apparatus, and benefitting from the evolution of technology, it could be used for several uses other than telephony, energy of photography, the geolocation, until the control of the health condition and the quality of the air, by measuring the cardiac pulsations, the temperature and the ambient content water. In this context, financial institutions wishing to take advantage of this wave of technological change and taking advantage of the telecom infrastructure robust and secure existing began to innovate to offer a new range of payment services based on mobile phone. Thus, in this article we present a proposal for an implementation of a mediation system of payment per mobile based on the technology of the Webservices.

  17. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  18. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  19. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.)

  20. Institutionalization of the payment environment of e-commerce in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Article about problems of Institutionalization of the payment environment of e-commerce. The author analyzes tendencies of development of payment institutes and prospect of creation of the International financial Centre in Russia on the basis of primary development of e-commerce in spheres B2C and C2C. The author proves, that in the conditions of globalization of the consumer markets the analysis of a role and a place of transboundary private payments in structure of National payment system o...

  1. Role of Crypto-currency in payment process

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Franc

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the diploma thesis is to describe the alternative way of payment by using virtual and digital currencies. We try to find out, whether these systems are appropriate for general integration in existing solutions. Firstly, we explain the importance of introducing cryptography in online communication and the operating of hash functions. Next, there are definitions of all significant roles of external systems connected to digital currencies, followed by the description of crypto cur...

  2. Application Neutrality and a Paradox of Side Payments

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Kesidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate over "net neutrality" covers a broad set of issues related to the regulation of public networks. This paper contains two separate contributions: (a) an extension of the quadratic-utility framework we proposed in a previous paper to study the impact of side payments in a system involving pluralities of access and content providers; and (b) a variation of this model to deal with the question of application neutrality. Our analysis of the generalized framework (a) reveals an interesting "paradox" that did not occur with monopolistic players: side payments handicap the providers who perceive them. Application neutrality (b) refers to price discrimination: ISPs charging consumers different fees depending on their use of the network (web surfing, VoIP, file sharing, etc.). We analyze the consequences of such discrimination for a simple two-application setting.

  3. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  4. The Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey: Methodology and key results

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos; Welte, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the methodology and main findings of the Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey, a detailed investigation of consumer payment behaviour in Canada. The survey targeted the 18- to 75-year-old Canadian resident population. During November 2009, participants answered a questionnaire about their demographics, personal finance, and payment instrument habits and perceptions. Of the 6,868 questionnaire respondents, about half also completed a 3-day shopping diary, recordi...

  5. Application of Benford's Law in Payment Systems Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Žgela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems auditing activities are mandatory in today business environments. There are numerous useful methods that can be conducted in such audits. One of contemporary methods is application of so-called Benford's Law. In this paper we examine ways of application of this law in investigation of certain number set with aim to make a conclusion if number set conforms to Benford's Law. As an examination target we used foreign payment system messages which are issued between foreign and domestic business entities i.e. commercial and central banks. We chose sample of 1.745.311 transactions and conducted examination for first, second and first two digits. We examine certain data subsets, created according to certain payment types, and investigate how Benford’s Law tests can be used in auditing. We also compare practical usefulness and note differences between various conformity tests in auditing environment. Results we achieved prove adequate potential of this law in audit practice.

  6. Framework for Mobile Payments Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    . This inertia has stalled the design of sustainable revenue models for a mobile payments ecosystem. Merchants and consumers in the meantime are being seduced by the convenience of on‑line and mobile payment solutions. Adopting the purchase and payment process as the unit of analysis, the current mobile payment...

  7. Loyalty program of payment cards, solution based on DWH

    OpenAIRE

    Jersák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis is covering topics of customer's loyalty, loyalty programs in banking and mainly topic is loyalty programs of payment cards in banking industry. First theoretical parts is guiding us though concept of customer's loyalty in banking industry and is describing specifics of this loyalty compared to loyalty to sales businesses. Further, this thesis is trying to show opportunities to be used to support customer's loyalty in bank with participation of credit and debit cards. In t...

  8. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  9. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  10. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  11. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  12. 9 CFR 130.50 - Payment of user fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., testing, certification or quarantine of animals, animal products or other commodities. 3 Monday-Saturday... commuted travel time.) 3 See § 97.1(a) of this chapter or 7 CFR 354.3 for details. 4 See § 97.1(a)(3) of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of user fees. 130.50...

  13. Role of Data Mining in E-Payment systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanaik, Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Data Mining deals extracting hidden knowledge, unexpected pattern and new rules from large database. Various customized data mining tools have been developed for domain specific applications such as Biomedicine, DNA analysis and telecommunication. Trends in data mining include further efforts towards the exploration of new application areas and methods for handling complex data types, algorithm scalability, constraint based data mining and visualization methods. In this paper we will present domain specific Secure Multiparty computation technique and applications. Data mining has matured as a field of basic and applied research in computer science in general. In this paper, we survey some of the recent approaches and architectures where data mining has been applied in the fields of e-payment systems. In this paper we limit our discussion to data mining in the context of e-payment systems. We also mention a few directions for further work in this domain, based on the survey.

  14. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  15. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. PMID:26808168

  16. Risk-Reducing Effectiveness of Revenue versus Yield Insurance in the Presence of Government Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Power, Gabriel J.

    2008-01-01

    Government farm support programs such as Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP) and Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) have payoff structures that effectively make them costless price insurance instruments. A combination of these payments with yield insurance may provide a viable alternative to revenue insurance. This paper finds that, contrary to expectations, the revenue product analyzed is uniformly superior to yield insurance under both current (2002) and proposed (2008) Farm Bill structures of gove...

  17. Nothing is free: A survey of the social cost of the main payment instruments in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Turján, Anikó; Divéki, Éva; Keszy-Harmath, Éva; Kóczán, Gergely; Takács, Kristóf

    2011-01-01

    The study applies two approaches for the estimation of the social costs of main payment instruments (cash, debit card and credit card transactions, credit transfers, direct debits, business-to-business direct debits, postal inpayment money orders, postal outpayment money orders for pensions) used in Hungary in 2009. The first approach is based on the current payment structure, while the second approach is based on a more modern, hypothetical payment structure involving less cash, with no use ...

  18. Effectiveness of Cross-Bord er Corporate Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Goldmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At the age of cutthroat global competition and razor thin Internet-transparent margins, corporate cash management is one of just a few remaining sources of increased profitability. Efficient cash management allows for substantial cost reduction and improved corporate Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC. The companies that neglect to pay sufficient attention to their security, privacy and payment fraud issues might find themselves disappearing literarily overnight

  19. The Determinants of Dividend Payments in UK: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation is to investigate the determinants of dividend payments in UK. In this study, 50 firms listed in UKfrom five industries are selected to use as sample dataset between 2005 and 2011. Six determinants (profitability, firm size, liquidity, investment opportunity, and leverage and asset structure) are chose based on the previous studies and theories. Moreover, six hypotheses of these determinants have been established and tested by using regression model. Empirical findi...

  20. Pricing and welfare implications of payment card network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how competition among payment card networks three-party scheme networks and four-party scheme networks affects pricing as well as the welfare of various parties. A competing network has an incentive to provide rewards to its card users. By providing more generous rewards than its rival networks, the network can increase its own card transactions because multihoming cardholders who hold multiple networks cards choose to use its card instead of using its rivals. Although a m...

  1. THE IMPACT OF COMPENSATION PAYMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT, IN REGIONAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta JULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation payments are considered active labour market policies designed to increase efficiency, to mitigate unemployment and to sustaining employment. We tested this hypothesis for the period 1993-2013, in territorial structures (42 counties through a dynamic panel model (confirmed by Granger causality tests – Toda-Yamamoto version, and by means of error correction model. We found that the dynamics of regional employment are positively related to expenditure incurred for active policies and there are negatively correlated with the ratio between the unemployment average indemnity (and support allowance and the average net nominal monthly salary earnings. But, the connexion between employment and compensation payments converges extremely slowly for a long-term stable relationship.

  2. Dimensions of Balance in an Administrator's Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a new model for viewing and implementing balance in the lives of higher education administrators derived from a review of the educational, psychological, and management literature. Rejecting the traditional, two dimensional model for balancing work with the rest of life, the new model envisions four concentric circles of…

  3. The Effect of Payment Schemes on Inventory Decisions: The Role of Mental Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; A. Gürhan Kök; Jordan D. Tong

    2013-01-01

    Does the payment scheme have an effect on inventory decisions in the newsvendor problem? Keeping the net profit structure constant, we examine three payment schemes that can be interpreted as the newsvendor's order being financed by the newsvendor herself (scheme O), by the supplier through delayed order payment (scheme S), and by the customer through advanced revenue (scheme C). In a laboratory study, we find that inventory quantities exhibit a consistent decreasing pattern in the order of s...

  4. Impact of interchange fees rates on the Polish payment cards market

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Maciejewski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to indicate the importance of the interchange fee on the payment card market in Poland and its impact on the development of the acceptance network. The paper uses a descriptive and comparative analysis, as well as results of analyses and research, including a survey conducted by the author among seven acquirers. Of key importance for the development of payment card acceptance network are costs of payment card acceptance. One of the main components of Merchant Service ...

  5. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  6. Discussions and Issues Related to Estimation Method of "Travel"

    OpenAIRE

    Maiko Wada

    2006-01-01

    "Travel" in Japan's balance of payments statistics is currently compiled in accordance with the definitions stipulated by the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition (BPM5), which is the international guideline for compiling the balance of payments statistics. Specifically, expenditures of travelers are estimated based on instruments of payment used by them. This current method presents several problems. First, expenditures that should be recorded under other components in the balance o...

  7. Optimal Financing Order Decisions of a Supply Chain under the Retailer's Delayed Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real supply chain, a capital-constrained retailer has two typical payment choices: the up-front payment to receive a high discount price or the delayed payment to reduce capital pressure. We compare with the efficiency of optimal decisions of different participants, that is, supplier, retailer, and bank, under both types of payments based on a game equilibrium analysis. It shows that under the equilibrium, the delayed payment leads to a greater optimal order quantity from the retailer compared to the up-front payment and, thus, improves the whole benefit of the supply chain. The numerical simulation for the random demand following a uniform distribution further verifies our findings. This study provides novel evidence that a dominant supplier who actively offers trade credit helps enhance the whole efficiency of a supply chain.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity ma

  9. Mobilising resiliency in times of economic hardship: Emerging themes in migrant worker remittance payments

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Garlan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the global financial crisis and the remittance markets of Mexico and India, along with introducing new and emerging payment technologies that will help facilitate the growth of remittances worldwide. Overall resiliency is found in most markets but some are impacted differently by economic hardship. With that we also explore the area of emerging payment methods and how they can help nations weather this economic strife. Mobile payments are highlighted as one of...

  10. 16 CFR 801.33 - Consummation of an acquisition by acceptance of tendered shares of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.33 Consummation of an acquisition by acceptance of tendered shares of payment. The acceptance for payment of any shares tendered in a tender offer is the consummation of an... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consummation of an acquisition by...

  11. Electronic Retail Payment Systems : User Acceptability & Payment Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah, Alexander; Agyemang, Fred

    2004-01-01

    ELECTRONIC RETAIL PAYMENT SYSTEMS: USER ACCEPTABILITY AND PAYMENT PROBLEMS IN GHANA The payment system in Ghana has undergone considerable change as electronic payment has gained increasingly popularity, especially in the cities. In Ghana, most bills are paid by walk-in customers. Because of limited transportation, many customers prefer paying by other means that may not include traveling. Customers are now looking for a way that they can easily make payments without going to each biller’s lo...

  12. A Study on the Finance Transfer Payment of Government-Subsidized Student's Loan (GSSL)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Huang; Hong Shen

    2009-01-01

    Since the new system of Government-Subsidized Student’s Loan (GSSL) was in function, each provincial government need to pay interest in finance and risk compensation fund. So it is inevitably for them to ask for the finance transfer payment from the central government. In this article, the author analyzes theoretically the finance transfer payment of GSSL, on the basis of this work, he takes foreign experiences as reference, designs the proposal on the finance transfer payment of GSSL combini...

  13. Multilateral interchange fees in Serbia and their impact on card payment systems development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Slobodan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of policies and incentives for the issuance and card acceptance worldwide is the necessary basis for the development of card based payment instruments. Multilateral interchange fees (MIF played a major role in creating the appropriate sets of incentives for acceptance and issuance while balancing the interests of market participants. The goal of this paper is to present the developments in the area of MIF regulation across the European Member States, as well as in Serbian payment cards market, and to suggest the way forward towards possible Serbian payment systems participation in the Single European Payment Area (SEPA in the future.

  14. The Impacts of Payments for Watershed Services in Ecuador: Emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Echavarria, M.; Vogel, J.; Albán, M.; Meneses, F.

    2004-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) is a topic of increasing interest in Ecuador, particularly as a way to leverage funding for environmental protection. Payments systems are emerging, but as Ecuador's experience of PES is only recent, the implications for national and local welfare are not yet clear. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide guidance in order to ensure that policies support payments systems that are beneficial to the poor, as well as to the environment. This rep...

  15. The Influence of Market Returns and Government Payments on Canadian Farmland Values

    OpenAIRE

    Vyn, Richard J.; Haq, Zahoor Ul; Weerahewa, Jeevika; Meilke, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of changes in market returns and government payments on farmland values across Canada using data from 1959 to 2009. A recursive simultaneous equation model is estimated to account for the counter-cyclical relationship between market returns and government payments. The results indicate that farmland values are more responsive to changes in market returns than in government payments, but both are important drivers of land values. The elasticity of land values wi...

  16. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A VOLUNTARY GREEN PAYMENT PROGRAM UNDER ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junjie; Babcock, Bruce A.

    1995-01-01

    Green payment programs, where the government pays farmers directly for environmental benefits, are an alternative to the current method of achieving environmental benefits which restricts farming practices in exchange for deficiency payments. This article presents a voluntary green payment program using the principles of mechanism design under asymmetric information. Information asymmetry arises because the government knows only the distribution of farmersÂ’' production situations, rather tha...

  17. A survey and risk analysis of selected non-bank retail payments systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chande, Nikil

    2008-01-01

    Payment services offered by non-banks have flourished in recent years. The author provides an overview of the different kinds of non-bank retail payments schemes currently available in Canada, illustrating each by focusing on a specific example. Current players in the Canadian marketplace include electronic bill consolidators, such as epost; online payment providers, like PayPal; and pre-funded schemes, such as retailers' gift cards. The author also discusses the main risks associated with ea...

  18. 42 CFR 412.521 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... day and cost data for that patient at both the acute care hospital and the LTCH in determining the... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care...-term care hospitals receive a predetermined payment amount per discharge for inpatient...

  19. Analysis of payment cards in terms of user

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to assess people’s knowledge of payment cards for those that already have one or are considering getting one, and to establish a profile of a normal cardholder. Another goal of this thesis is to perform a comparative analysis of three banks on the Czech banking market from the perspective of selected types of fees billed for card services, and from these three, to select the bank with the most favourable fees from the perspective of the customer. Bibliograph...

  20. Influence of completed payment on production profitability of starch potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ginter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a formal member of the European Union. New rules of Common Agriculture Policy (CAP, the same as in all countries belonging to the European Union (EU operate on agricultural markets. The accession to the EU is beneficial for Polish starch potato producers due to the higher level of profits from productions and selling starch potatoes. The research showed, that completed payment for producers of starch potatoes is very important and they created the level of profitability of this plant.

  1. Envelopes and Geometrical Covers of Side-Payment Games and their Market Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Artzner, Philippe; d'Aspremont, Claude; Gérard-Varet, Louis-André

    1986-01-01

    International audience This paper deals with issues concerning the core as a solution concept for games in coalitional form as well as the use of these games in representing economies of a certain formal type. Side-payment games are imbedded in the more general class of no-side-payment games. It is shown that to a given side-payment game having an empty core one may associate two different no-side payment games with the same (nonempty) core: the "envelope" and the "geometrical cover". The ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6164-4 - Payment of remainder of tax where extension relates to only part of the tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relates to only part of the tax. 1.6164-4 Section 1.6164-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....6164-4 Payment of remainder of tax where extension relates to only part of the tax. (a) Time for payment. If an extension of time relates to only part of the tax, the time for payment of the remainder...

  3. 25 CFR 117.2 - Payment of taxes of adult Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of adult Indians. 117.2 Section 117.2... COMPETENCY § 117.2 Payment of taxes of adult Indians. The superintendent may cause to be paid out of any money heretofore accrued or hereafter accruing to the credit of any adult Indian all taxes of every...

  4. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  5. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  6. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  7. A Micro- Payment Based Isolation of Misbehavior Secure Routing for Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; WEI Wei; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Micro-payment based Isolation of Misbehavior(MIM) secure routing protocol. The protocol contains three parts: micro-payment scheme, routing discovery and malicious nodes detection. The micro-payment scheme proposed in MIM is the first virtual currency system that can be suit for sensor network environment. Based on the micro-payment scheme, we device an en ergy aware routing protocol, which forwards packets by auction. Furthermore, the base station can detect and isolate misbehave or non-cooperate nodes according to the routing information.

  8. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  9. 48 CFR 32.503-3 - Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payments and review of accounting system. 32.503-3 Section 32.503-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... on Costs 32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system. (a) For..., (2) possessed of an adequate accounting system and controls, and (3) in sound financial...

  10. 48 CFR 32.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 32.006 Section 32.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  11. 48 CFR 432.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 432.006 Section 432.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  12. 48 CFR 1532.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 1532.006 Section 1532.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  13. 48 CFR 1332.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud. 1332.006 Section 1332.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments under finding of fraud....

  14. 48 CFR 232.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 232.006 Section 232.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... FINANCING 232.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  15. 48 CFR 832.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 832.006 Section 832.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  16. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment...

  17. Issues in the use of payments in lieu of taxes to provide nuclear waste facility siting incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level, nuclear waste isolation facilities will be federally owned and therefore exempt from local taxation. Because local residents view tax payments as a major benefit of industrial development, the absence of these payments, coupled with the inherent undesirability of hazardous-materials-handling activities, may discourage communities from accepting a facility. One method to overcome this disincentive is for the facility to make payments in lieu of taxes to localities. This paper examines the concept of payments in lieu of taxes and presents statistics describing local fiscal characteristics. The range these payments might take under alternative-payment arrangements is calculated, and the impact of such payments on the facility's user-free schedule is estimated. It is concluded that a payment plan based on hypothetical property-tax liabilities for an identical, but taxable, facility would have a significant revenue impact on most localities but would not increase user fees significantly. (Auth.)

  18. 32 CFR 32.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods... issuance or redemption of checks, warrants, or payment by other means by the recipients. Payment methods of... CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an...

  19. 48 CFR 632.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 632.006 Section 632.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  20. 48 CFR 932.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 932.006 Section 932.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  1. Comparison of energy balances in public buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Avguštin, Nejc

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with a comparative analysis of energy balance of public buildings before and after energy renovation. Most of the energy renovations of public buildings in Slovenia between 2010 and 2015 was co-financed by the Cohesion Fund of the European Union. The analysis is based on the calculations of energy balances of the buildings before and after renovation. The calculations were carried out by designers prior to submitting the project application for subsidy. We had ...

  2. 75 FR 59284 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown Payment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice activated system. The... Grant recipients use the payment vouchers to request funds from HUD through the LOCCS/VRS voice... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Grant Drawdown...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1210 - Payment of leverage fee upon receipt of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of leverage fee upon... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1210 Payment of leverage fee upon receipt...

  4. Energy balance of algal biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Milledge, J.J.; Heaven, S.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic energy balance model was successfully developed for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of micro-algal biomass from raceways. The energy balance model was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of production scenarios, and to identify the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output of the model demonstrated that no single method of harvesting studied (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation), produced a sufficiently gr...

  5. Analysis of Applicability of ISO 9564 PIN based Authentication to Closed-Loop Mobile Payment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Payment transactions initiated through a mobile device are growing and security concerns must be addressed. People coming from payment card industry often talk passionately about porting ISO 9564 PIN standard based authentication in open-loop card payment to closed-loop mobile financial transactions and certification of closed-loop payment product or solution against this standard. In reality, so far this standard has not been adopted in closed-loop mobile payment authentication and applicability of this ISO standard must be studied carefully before adoption. The authors do a critical analysis of the applicability of this ISO specification and make categorical statement about relevance of compliance to closed-loop mobile payment. Security requirements for authentication in closed-loop mobile payment systems are not standardised through ISO 9564 standard, Common Criteria [3], etc. Since closed-loop mobile payment is a relatively new field, the authors make a case for Common Criteria Recognition Agreement (CCRA or other standards organization to push for publication of a mobile device-agnostic Protection Profile or standard for it, incorporating the suggested authentication approaches.

  6. 77 FR 55879 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... instructions for ] the 2013 plan year. On May 8, 2012 (at 77 FR 27099), PBGC gave public notice that it was... information under its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212-0007; expires December 31...-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the...

  7. 77 FR 27099 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... valid OMB control number. PBGC estimates that it will receive 29,900 premium filings per year from 24... information under its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212-0007; expires December 31...-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the...

  8. 20 CFR 340.10 - Waiver of recovery of erroneous payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conclusion when asked for facts); (iii) Failure to return a payment which the individual knew or should have..., but are not limited to: (i) Government benefits such as Black Lung, Social Security, Workers... payments such as rent or pensions; and (iv) Investment income. (3) For purposes of this section,...

  9. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment... of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  10. 42 CFR 413.81 - Direct GME payments: Application of community support and redistribution of costs in determining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct GME payments: Application of community... PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.81 Direct GME payments: Application of community support and redistribution of costs in determining...

  11. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  12. Motivational Aspects Of New Payment System In Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Cherkasov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the change of tariffication net of payment for medical personnel, i.e. paramedical and junior medical staff, the minimum income has been increased. Data received from questionnaires of paramedical and junior medical staff have revealed the fact that with time working enthusiasm decreases and tendency to material welfare increases. While young specialists are intended to find out more prestigious and well-paid place of work. The main task of managers is to provide optimal labour conditions and motivational background for high-quality and effective work of medical staff

  13. Climate change and balance of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a global climate agreement, countries employ local policies to curb pollution and introduce clean energy. These policies limit domestic consumption of a traded energy source but increase exports thus improving a country’s energy balance and its balance of trade. While focusing on US energy policy, we show this phenomenon for both petroleum products and for coal.

  14. Mass-balance parameters derived from a synthetic network of mass-balance glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Paul, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Glacier mass-balance parameters such as the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) play an important role when working with large glacier samples. While the number of observational mass-balance series to derive such parameters is limited, more and more modeled data are becoming available. Here we explore the possibilities of analyzing such ‘synthetic’ mass-balance data with respect to mass-balance parameters. A simplified energy-balance model is driven by bias-corrected regional climate model output...

  15. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital inpatient prospective payment system cost of living adjustment factors; (iii) Includes, where applicable, adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs of serving a disproportionate... inpatient prospective payment system adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs...

  16. 30 CFR 285.542 - What makes a State eligible for payment of revenues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of revenues? A State is eligible for payment of revenues if any part of the State's coastline is... State is not eligible for revenue sharing if all parts of that State's coastline are more than 15 miles... the submerged lands of that State or if there are no States with a coastline less than 15 miles...

  17. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS § 341.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of precedence... the above, to the child or children of the owner and the descendants of deceased children...

  18. Means of Payment in E-Commerce (Credit Cards and E-Money)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Loredana LAPADUSI

    2008-01-01

    Once the web has spread and due to the great mass of users, firms with trade activity intesified their commercial tranzactions on-line. Thus the e-commerce implies e-payments which lead to creating e-money and implicitly some specific means of payment, all of these used with the aim of deployment and development of commercial tranzactions on-line.

  19. Paying for primary care: a cross-sectional analysis of cost and morbidity distributions across primary care payment models in Ontario Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, David; Laporte, Audrey; Barnsley, Janet; Glazier, Richard H; Deber, Raisa B

    2015-01-01

    Policy-makers desire an optimal balance of financial incentives to improve productivity and encourage improved quality in primary care, while also avoiding issues of risk-selection inherent to capitation-based payment. In this paper we analyze risk-selection in capitation-based payment by using administrative data for patients (n = 11,600,911) who were rostered (i.e., signed an enrollment form, or received a majority of care) with a primary care physician (n = 8621) in Ontario, Canada in 2010/11. We analyze this data using a relative distribution approach and compare distributions of patient costs and morbidity across primary care payment models. Our results suggest a relationship between being in a capitation-based payment scheme and having low cost patients (and presumably healthy patients) compared to fee-for-service physicians. However, we do not have evidence that physicians in capitation-based models are reducing the care they provide to sick and high cost patients. These findings suggest there is a relationship between payment type and risk-selection, particularly for low-cost and healthy patients. PMID:25461858

  20. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  1. 7 CFR 1785.68 - Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account... FOR ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS RUS Cushion of Credit Account Computations and Procedures § 1785.68 Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account. A cushion of credit account shall...

  2. 31 CFR 206.10 - Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from...

  3. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  4. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  5. 21 CFR 1309.12 - Time and method of payment; refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment; refund. 1309.12 Section 1309.12 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF... Reregistration § 1309.12 Time and method of payment; refund. (a) For each application for registration...

  6. 7 CFR 800.73 - Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Fees § 800.73 Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation and payment of service fees; general fee information. 800.73 Section 800.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  7. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  8. Hacking point of sale payment application secrets, threats, and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gomzin, Slava

    2014-01-01

    Must-have guide for professionals responsible for securing credit and debit card transactions As recent breaches like Target and Neiman Marcus show, payment card information is involved in more security breaches than any other data type. In too many places, sensitive card data is simply not protected adequately. Hacking Point of Sale is a compelling book that tackles this enormous problem head-on. Exploring all aspects of the problem in detail - from how attacks are structured to the structure of magnetic strips to point-to-point encryption, and more - it's packed with practical recommendati

  9. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  10. 5 CFR 838.1010 - Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums. 838.1010 Section 838.1010 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1010 Court orders or decrees preventing payment of...

  11. 10 CFR 950.23 - Claims process for payment of covered costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims process for payment of covered costs. 950.23 Section 950.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Claims Administration Process § 950.23 Claims process for payment of covered costs. (a) General. No more than 120...

  12. 29 CFR 825.210 - Employee payment of group health benefit premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the new premium rates. Maintenance of health insurance policies which are not a part of the employer's... FMLA leave is unpaid, the employer has a number of options for obtaining payment from the employee. The... charge may be added to the employee's premium payment for administrative expenses. The employer...

  13. 22 CFR 19.9-3 - Computation and payment of pension to former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation and payment of pension to former... FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.9-3 Computation and payment of pension to former spouse. (a) A pension to a former spouse is paid monthly on...

  14. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  15. 5 CFR 575.405 - Calculation and payment of supervisory differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Supervisory Differentials § 575.405 Calculation and payment of supervisory differential... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation and payment of supervisory differential. 575.405 Section 575.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  16. 5 CFR 179.217 - Non-waiver of rights by payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-waiver of rights by payments. 179.217 Section 179.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.217 Non-waiver of rights by payments. An employee's...

  17. 48 CFR 232.610 - Demand for payment of contract debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract debt. 232.610 Section 232.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.610 Demand for payment of contract debt. When issuing a demand for payment of a contract...

  18. 37 CFR 201.6 - Payment and refund of Copyright Office fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment and refund of Copyright Office fees. 201.6 Section 201.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.6 Payment and refund of Copyright...

  19. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  20. 21 CFR 1314.42 - Self-certification fee; time and method of fee payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-certification fee; time and method of fee... fee; time and method of fee payment. (a) A regulated seller must pay a fee for each self-certification... substances. (c) A regulated seller shall pay the fee at the time of self-certification. (d) Payment shall...

  1. Potential effects of direct transfer payments on farmland habitat diversity in a marginal European landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Birgit; Sheridan, Patrick; Simmering, Dietmar; Otte, Annette; Waldhardt, Rainer

    2009-06-01

    Farmland habitat diversity in marginal European landscapes changed significantly in the past decades. Further changes toward homogenization are expected, particularly in the course of European agricultural policy. Based on three alternative transfer payment schemes, we modeled spatially explicit potential effects on the farmland habitat diversity in a marginal European landscape. We defined (1) a scenario with direct transfer payments coupled to production, (2) a scenario with direct transfer payments decoupled from production, and (3) a scenario phasing out all direct transfer payments. We characterized habitat diversity with three indices: habitat richness, evenness, and rarity. The habitat pattern in 1995 served as reference for comparison. All scenarios predicted a general trend of homogenization of the farmland habitat pattern, yet to a differing extent. Transfer payments coupled to production (Scenario 1) favored the abandonment of agricultural production, particularly in low-productive areas and arable land use in more productive areas. Habitat richness and habitat evenness had intermediate values in this scenario. Decoupling transfer payments from production (Scenario 2) supported grassland as most profitable farming system. This led to a grassland-dominated landscape with low values of all habitat diversity indices. Phasing out transfer payments (Scenario 3) resulted in complete abandonment or afforestation of agricultural land and extremely low values in all habitat diversity indices. Scenario results indicate that transfer payments may prevent cessation of agricultural production, but may not counteract homogenization in marginal landscapes. Conserving high farmland habitat diversity in such landscapes may require support schemes, e.g., Pillar Two of EU Common Agricultural Policy.

  2. 77 FR 5232 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... Amount of payments. The Agency will determine the amount of payments to be made to a biorefinery by taking into consideration the percentage reduction in fossil fuel used by the biorefinery (including the... individual biorefinery can receive. The maximum amount an individual biorefinery can receive under...

  3. 75 FR 1446 - Rate of Payment for Medical Records Received Through Health Information Technology (IT) Necessary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rate of Payment for Medical Records Received Through Health Information Technology (IT) Necessary... national rate of Federal payment for medical records received through health IT. SUMMARY: We have set $15... records through health IT in response to a request. We will pay the uniform national rate to a...

  4. An Analysis of Medicare's Incentive Payment Program for Physicians in Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Ricketts III, Thomas C.; Beaver, Shelli K.

    2004-01-01

    Medicare's Incentive Payment (MIP) program provides a 10% bonus payment to providers who treat Medicare patients in rural and urban areas where there is a shortage of generalist physicians. Purpose: To examine the experience of Alaska, Idaho, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington with the MIP program. We determined the program's…

  5. 77 FR 37892 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans SUMMARY: The Preauthorized Debit Account (PDA) Application is used to establish... records. Title of Collection: Electronic Debit Payment Option for Student Loans. OMB Control Number:...

  6. 26 CFR 1.162(k)-1 - Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. 1.162(k)-1 Section 1.162(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.162(k)-1 Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments. (a) In general... corporation to reacquire its stock from an ESOP that are used in a manner described in section...

  7. 78 FR 38682 - Information Collection; Application for Payment of Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...; Application for Payment of Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared, or Have Been Declared Incompetent... Amounts Due Persons Who Have Died, Disappeared, or Have Been Declared Incompetent. OMB Control Number... declared incompetent must complete a form FSA-325, Application for Payment of Amounts Due Persons Who...

  8. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.216-87 - Submission of vouchers for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... original voucher should be submitted to: (2) For any period that the Defense Contract Audit Agency has... payment, subject to final audit. (3) Copies of vouchers should be submitted as directed by the Contracting...) Public vouchers for payment of fee shall be prepared similarly to the procedures in paragraphs (b) or...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns regarding payments of remuneration for... Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c) (d... withholding agent. (B) Returns of information are not required for payments of remuneration for services...

  11. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment No. 2) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-02

    These Regulations amend the Pneumoconiosis, etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1988 to provide that certain payments under the Pneumoconiosis, etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Northern Ireland) Order 1979 are reduced by the amount of any lump sum payment in respect of diffuse mesothelioma made under section 1 of the Mesothelioma, etc., Act (Northern Ireland) 2008.

  12. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  13. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  14. 76 FR 13349 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... payments to be made to a biorefinery taking into consideration the percentage reduction in fossil fuel used by the biorefinery (including the quantity of fossil fuels a renewable biomass system is replacing... no minimum payment amount that an individual biorefinery can receive. The maximum amount...

  15. 47 CFR 69.606 - Computation of average schedule company payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of average schedule company... schedule company payments. (a) Payments shall be made in accordance with a formula approved or modified by the Commission. Such formula shall be designed to produce disbursements to an average schedule...

  16. 48 CFR 32.503-6 - Suspension or reduction of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension or reduction of payments. 32.503-6 Section 32.503-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... reduce or suspend progress payments, or to increase the liquidation rate, under specified...

  17. 42 CFR 411.25 - Primary payer's notice of primary payment responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsibility. 411.25 Section 411.25 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Insurance Coverage That Limits Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.25 Primary payer's notice...

  18. 42 CFR 411.22 - Reimbursement obligations of primary payers and entities that received payment from primary payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Insurance Coverage That Limits Medicare Payment: General... is a determination or admission of liability) of payment for items or services included in a...

  19. 42 CFR 130.11 - Who is eligible for payment under the Act-survivors of persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) The term parent includes fathers and mothers through adoption. ... the time of payment, the payment shall be made in equal shares to the parents of the individual who are living at the time of payment (hereinafter referred to as “the surviving parent(s))'. (c) If...

  20. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional method for payment of estimated import... THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.4 Optional method for payment of... been given to me to use such procedure. (d) Use of deferred payment method. (1) The port director...

  1. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  2. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS...

  3. Challenges of introducing and implementing mobile payments : A Qualitative study of the Swedish mobile payment application WyWallet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    Citizens of Sweden are now facing a large shift in their habits of managing money transferring using mobile phones. They are now forced to use an application called WyWallet when making purchases with cell-phones. WyWallet is an application based on a new EU-directive that has led to a law concerning the new payment service act that wants to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. This has led to a lot of consequences for the citizens and also other agencies relying on donations via...

  4. 38 CFR 17.1008 - Balance billing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Balance billing prohibited. 17.1008 Section 17.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Facilities § 17.1008 Balance billing prohibited. Payment by VA under 38 U.S.C. 1725 on behalf of a veteran...

  5. The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response ...

  6. End-to-end encryption in on-line payment systems : The industry reluctance and the role of laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    Various security breaches at third-party payment processors show that online payment systems are the primary target for cyber-criminals. In general, the security of online payment systems relies on a number of factors, namely technical factors, processing factors, and legal factors. The industry giv

  7. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  8. Card, Internet and mobile payments in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna; Paunonen, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Retail payment methods are in a stage of rapid development. New service providers and technological developments enable new payment services through a variety of channels. Payment solutions are being developed based eg on the Internet and on mobile phones. Presumably, the use of paper-based payment instruments will decrease further in the future thanks to electronification in the retail payment area. In this paper we focus on card payments in Finland and certain other countries. We also look ...

  9. 42 CFR 411.408 - Refunds of amounts collected for physician services not reasonable and necessary, payment not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....408 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Payment for Certain Excluded... beneficiary for services otherwise covered if Medicare payment is denied because the services are found to...

  10. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  11. Regimes of validity for balanced models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Peter R.; McWilliams, James C.

    1983-07-01

    Scaling analyses are presented which delineate the atmospheric and oceanic regimes of validity for the family of balanced models described in Gent and McWilliams (1983a). The analyses follow and extend the classical work of Charney (1948) and others. The analyses use three non-dimensional parameters which represent the flow scale relative to the Earth's radius, the dominance of turbulent or wave-like processes, and the dominant component of the potential vorticity. For each regime, the models that are accurate both at leading order and through at least one higher order of accuracy in the appropriate small parameter are then identified. In particular, it is found that members of the balanced family are the appropriate models of higher-order accuracy over a broad range of parameter regimes. Examples are also given of particular atmospheric and oceanic phenomena which are in the regimes of validity for the different balanced models.

  12. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  13. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  14. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  15. Securitization of tobacco settlement payments to reduce states' conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Jody; Falba, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Securitization of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) payments from tobacco companies is hotly debated in states and policy circles. Securitization is issuing a bond backed by future payments in return for up-front money. Many public health advocates are strongly against securitization. However, securitization itself does not rob states of tobacco control. Rather, the issue is lack of commitment to tobacco control by states. Further, securitization can mitigate states' conflict of interest between keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy to ensure their MSA payments and reducing tobacco sales for health reasons. States should not align with tobacco companies with the common interest of keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy. PMID:15371384

  16. Survey of Customers’ Conceptions of Security and Trust in E-Payment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddin Maroofi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine issues related to e-payment security from the viewpoint of customers. This study proposes a conceptual model that delineates the determinants of consumers’ observed security and observed trust, as well as the effects of observed security and observed trust on the use of e-payment systems. To test the model, structural equation modeling is employed to analyze data collected from 219 respondents in Iran. This research provides a theoretical foundation for academics and also practical guidelines for service providers in dealing with the security characteristic of e-payment systems.

  17. 30 CFR 218.201 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., rather than the Form MMS-2014. (b) For Form MMS-4430 payments, include both your customer identification and your customer document identification numbers on your payment document, rather than the..., include the MMS Courtesy Notice when provided or write your customer identification number and...

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF PAYMENTS ON ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleskerov F.T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the dynamic analysis of the processes, which take place on electricity market during the transition period is shown. The system of equations, which describes electricity market between adjacent regions and allows forecasting electricity consumption volumes and electricity prices in these regions for given time interval, is examined. A model on electricity consumption and prices dynamics is described. Criterion of maximization of total revenue of the companies producing electricity in examined regions is considered.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF PAYMENTS ON ELECTRICITY MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Aleskerov F.T.; Sit B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the dynamic analysis of the processes, which take place on electricity market during the transition period is shown. The system of equations, which describes electricity market between adjacent regions and allows forecasting electricity consumption volumes and electricity prices in these regions for given time interval, is examined. A model on electricity consumption and prices dynamics is described. Criterion of maximization of total revenue of the companies producing electrici...

  20. The Use of Payment Methods for the Settlement of International Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Crăciun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case of payments through a letter of credit or collection, there will be a commercial contract between the parties, in which the payment method that will be used will be clearly stipulated, and the exporter will proceed to preparing the set of documents and their transmission. If the factoring is used as a payment method, the factor will proceed to an analysis of the accounts receivable, after which the seller’s accounts receivable will be taken over or not.

  1. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  2. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

  3. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  4. The political economy of FEMA disaster payments

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Thomas A.; Russell S. Sobel

    2002-01-01

    We find that presidential and congressional influences affect the rate of disaster declaration and the allocation of FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) disaster expenditures across states. States politically important to the president have a higher rate of disaster declaration by the president, and disaster expenditures are higher in states having congressional representation on FEMA oversight committees. Election year impacts are also found. Our models predict that nearly half of all...

  5. SCENE OF INTERMEDIATE MANAGEMENT BALANCES FOR COMPANIES IN THE FIELD OF TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of profit and loss account for the three types of activities allows to release some balances of potential monetary accumulation designed to accomplish a certain payment function for production factor and funding the future activity, called intermediate management balances (IMB. To achieve this goal it is required to analyse previously the profit and loss account to highlight: the workings and the enterprise profitability as commercial margin, production of year, added value, gross operating surplus, a result of operating, current result and net result for the year. The company considered into the analysis is S. C. GENERAL AGROCOM SERVICE S.R.L., and through the used calculation are underlined strategies and policies that the enterprise management should adopt to improve the year result.

  6. The impact of the Directive on Payment Services in the Internal Market on Danish and Belgium Legislation on Fraudulent Payment Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation of liabi......In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation...... and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European Directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonization, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether the implementations are in accordance with the Directive and finally, whether...... the Directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promotes the creation of a common internal market for payment services...

  7. Decoupled Payments and the Localization of Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Karine; Kilkenny, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the impacts of (de)coupled farm sector support on the locations of farming and agro-industrial activity. An economic geography model is developed which has two types of regions, one with extensive agricultural production (rural), the other with intensive farming that is more densely populated (urban). The farm and agro-industrial sectors are vertically linked. A service sector that is not directly linked to either basic industry is also explicit. We show that coupled an...

  8. A Brief Insight into the Study of Informal Health Care Payments in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ionuţ UNGUREANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Informal health care payments are a frequently studied topic in Eastern European health care systems, given their impact on the financing of the health care sector. The Romanian health care system is facing the issue of informal payments for a long period. However, little evidence exists regarding the dimension of these payments, or the stakeholders’ attitudes towards them. This article aims at identifying people’s sources of informal payments, as well as their perceptions about the settings where informal payments are offered. Data were collected by means of a telephonic interview. 1,500 individuals who were part of a nationally representative sample were interviewed, out of which, for the present article, a subsample of 647 respondents was extracted. To serve this purpose, a 5-part questionnaire was developed by the research team. The amount of money offered as informal payments varied between 2 and 3,000 Euros. Out of the total sample population, 44.2% believe that in the inpatient surgery care services gifts are offered most frequently, while 55.31% of respondents place inpatient surgery care as being the place where highest amounts of money are given. This may represent a threat for people’s access to this type of services, as well as for the equity of care across different socio-economic categories. As such, policies aimed at addressing informal payments should take into account these particularities.

  9. Determinant Factors of Dividend Payments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Augusto Borges Forti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies factors that shaped cash disbursement distribution policies employed by Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA from 1995 to 2011. Relationships between Dividends/Total Assets and potential determinants discussed in the literature, including firm size, corporate governance, profitability, leverage, market to book, liquidity, investment, risk, profit growth, information asymmetry and agency conflict, are examined. The following econometric methods are employed: (1 Tobit, given the nature of the dividend data, and (2 the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to control for endogenous regressors. Significant positive variables found include size, return on assets (ROA, market to book, liquidity and profit growth. It can thus be inferred that larger firm size, profitability, market value, liquidity and profit growth correlate with greater firm pro pensity to distribute money to shareholders, thus supporting the theory of corporate finance. Significant negative variables found include leverage, liquidity squared, capex, beta and tag along 100%. It is thus inferred that more significantly leveraged companies that invest more heavily in fixed assets and that exhibit high liquidity, higher risk and less conflict between controlling and minority shareholders will be less likely to pay dividends to shareholders.

  10. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  11. Review of Potential Wind Tunnel Balance Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Williams, Quincy L.; Phillips, Ben D.; Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathon D.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews design, manufacture, materials, sensors, and data acquisition technologies that may benefit wind tunnel balances for the aerospace research community. Current state-of-the-art practices are used as the benchmark to consider advancements driven by researcher and facility needs. Additive manufacturing is highlighted as a promising alternative technology to conventional fabrication and has the potential to reduce both the cost and time required to manufacture force balances. Material alternatives to maraging steels are reviewed. Sensor technologies including piezoresistive, piezoelectric, surface acoustic wave, and fiber optic are compared to traditional foil based gages to highlight unique opportunities and shared challenges for implementation in wind tunnel environments. Finally, data acquisition systems that could be integrated into force balances are highlighted as a way to simplify the user experience and improve data quality. In summary, a rank ordering is provided to support strategic investment in exploring the technologies reviewed in this manuscript.

  12. Payment cards on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Vybíralová, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with payment options on the Internet and is primarily focused on payment cards both in terms of their risks of use, and their popularity from the perspective of merchants and customers. The thesis is divided into six chapters. The first part talks about available payment methods when paying in Czech e-shops. The second part is relates to payment cards in terms of the brief description of its development, current situation, classification, security, security risks and securit...

  13. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  14. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  15. Angra-1: Balance of an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of experience got during the construction of Angra-1 nuclear power plant which had built by FURNAS CENTRAIS ELETRICAS S.A. is done. It is analyzed the problems in level of management, including technology transfer. A balance of the real costs and benefits from the definition of the specifications to energy generation is done. (M.C.K.)

  16. Payment Card Rewards Programs and Consumer Payment Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Andrew; Hayashi, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  17. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  18. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Amy R; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4-7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12-30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments.

  19. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  20. Upfront Payments and Listing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Baake, Pio; von Schlippenbach, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the listing decisions of a retailer who may ask her suppliers to make upfront payments in order to be listed. We consider a sequential game with upfront payments being negotiated before short-term delivery contracts. We show that the retailer is more likely to use upfront payments the higher her bargaining power and the higher the number of potential suppliers. Upfront payments tend to lower the number of products offered by the retailer when the products are rather close substitut...

  1. The Adaptation of Ways and Methods of Risk Minimization in Local Payment Systems in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Avdaev Mausar Yushaevich

    2014-01-01

    The problems of risk management gain special relevance in the conditions of payment systems development in public passenger transport in Russia. The risk carriers as well as the sources of their occurrence are revealed; the characteristics of private risks of individual participants in the system of public passenger transport are presented. The directions of risk management in relation to the payment system in public transport are reasoned and structured. It is proved that the choice of speci...

  2. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  3. Innovation in Electronic Payment Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; World Economic Forum

    2016-01-01

    This report aims to deepen the understanding of barriers to and incentives for the acceptance and use of electronic payments, from the perspective of micro, small and medium retailers (merchants). Developing and accelerating acceptance of electronic payments by these merchants is essential to expanding financial access. A basic transaction account for payments and deposits is considered an...

  4. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  5. The effects of capitation payment on the organizational structure of medical group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, J E; Wingert, T D; Knutson, D J; Johnson, C E; Veazie, P J

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the effects of capitation payment on the structural elements used by medical group practices to control physician-directed use of resources and the quality of patient care. Forty-five medical groups located in the highly competitive Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area were studied. The range of capitation payment in these medical group practices is from 2% to 87%. Although the practices vary considerably in the extent to which they have developed these control mechanisms, it does not appear that capitation payment is a major factor influencing that pattern. It appears that many of these medical group practices either use less formal mechanisms than those included in this study to control resource use and the quality of care or use none at all. In either event, the data suggest that the effects of capitation payment on the structure of medical practices may be overestimated.

  6. 29 CFR 1208.6 - Schedule of fees and methods of payment for services rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Debt Collection Act of 1982, (Pub. L. 97-365, 96 Stat. 1749) including disclosure to consumer... history of payment; or (2) A requester has previously failed to pay a fee charge in a timely fashion...

  7. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  8. Role and tasks of payment integrators in the Polish e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Kunkowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the role of payment integrators in the Polish e-commerce and estimates the factors which have a major impact on cooperation between an online store and the integrator. Author use the statistical data and results of the empirical research which have been conducted by him. The aim of this article is to show the model of payment integrators working and their significance for the development of e-commerce in Poland. It also describes the main changes on the e-payment market wit...

  9. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  10. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  11. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  12. Improving security for remote payments

    OpenAIRE

    Nour Abdul-Razzak; Katy Jacob; Richard D. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing popularity of e-commerce and m-commerce over the past few years, remote payments have become commonplace. Unfortunately, remote payments fraud has grown in response. On September 26, 2011, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Secure Remote Payment Council (SRPc) co-hosted a symposium to discuss strategies that help reduce such forms of fraud.

  13. Child Benefit Support and Method of Payment: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Huysentruyt; Eva Lefevere

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence from a randomized Öeld experiment explictly designed to shed light on the role of standard information, goal framed information, and decision task complexity in individualsí choice of payment method. The experiment encouraged 19,707 Clients of the Belgian National O¢ ce for Family BeneÖts to change from benefit payment by check to payment via direct transfer via a one-time mailing. The direct mailings multiplied the switching rate of these treated individuals (relative to ...

  14. HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL BALANCE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a functional design aspects of the economic agent is an economic entity, which aims at producing goods and services, for which exercise economic functions of consumption, distribution, investment and divestiture and financing.Main indicators of functional balance are functional working capital or net working capital globally, need working capital for exploration and exploitation and outside the Treasury functional. Also, to achieve financial equilibrium phases are rendered functional.

  15. Implications of prospective payment under DRGs for hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, S; Ziegenfuss, J T; Chao, P

    1988-12-01

    The authors analyze the hospital marketing implications of Medicare's prospective payment system under DRGs. They take an appropriately broad view of marketing and consider related impacts on culture, structure, and management, in addition to the traditional marketing mix. The article serves to present in one place the ideas and discussions on the subject from a wide and disparate literature. The aim throughout is to identify those marketing responses warranting recommendation. The recommendations are assembled in a concluding section. Though many of the ideas are not new, they have yet to be widely adopted by hospitals. Hence they represent untapped marketing opportunities attributable to the advent of the DRG system. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:10312785

  16. Implications of prospective payment under DRGs for hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, S; Ziegenfuss, J T; Chao, P

    1988-12-01

    The authors analyze the hospital marketing implications of Medicare's prospective payment system under DRGs. They take an appropriately broad view of marketing and consider related impacts on culture, structure, and management, in addition to the traditional marketing mix. The article serves to present in one place the ideas and discussions on the subject from a wide and disparate literature. The aim throughout is to identify those marketing responses warranting recommendation. The recommendations are assembled in a concluding section. Though many of the ideas are not new, they have yet to be widely adopted by hospitals. Hence they represent untapped marketing opportunities attributable to the advent of the DRG system. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research.

  17. Review of Agri-Environment Indexes and Stewardship Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Collins, Kerry; Cattaneo, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Agri-environment programs aim to secure environmental and social stewardship services through payments to farmers. A critical component of many agri-environment programs is an agri-environment index (AEI) used to quantify benefits and target investments. An AEI will typically comprise multiple indicators, which are weighted and combined using a utility function, to measure the benefit of investment options (e.g., projects, farms, regions). This article presents a review of AEIs with 11 case studies from agri-environment programs in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. We identify a generic procedure used to define AEIs and explore the implications of alternative methodological approaches. We conclude that AEIs have become an extremely important policy instrument and make suggestions for their improvement.

  18. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  19. Using the stated preference technique for eliciting valuations: the role of the payment vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2013-10-01

    At the core of the stated preference method is choice of payment vehicle. Since payment vehicle is an intrinsic characteristic of a good, the choice of payment vehicle will naturally impact on the valuation of the good. Typical payment vehicles applied in the context of health are income tax levies, out-of-pocket payments at the point of consumption or private health insurance premiums. Where out-of-pocket payments will elicit use value only, private health insurance premiums will also disclose option value, i.e. the utility of knowing that one has access to a healthcare service should one need it. Income tax levies will disclose what in this paper is referred to as citizen's preferences, i.e. individual preferences that include use value, option value as well as (caring) externalities. This paper advocates that researchers design stated preference studies that encompass all relevant dimensions of value, and that serious thought is given to choice of payment vehicle. However, it is important to acknowledge that choice of payment vehicle has other potential implications for valuations. Payment vehicle and provider of services may be strongly linked in people's minds. If respondents implicitly associate a specific type of provider with a certain type of payment vehicle, it is important that any misperception is corrected by way of a precise description of the good being valued. Further, a pertinent issue is the extent to which respondents 'protest' to the stated preference question and how we should deal with these 'protesters'. No agreement currently exists about the procedure used to separate genuine zero values from protest values, nor about the treatment of protest responses in subsequent analyses. Beliefs are strongly associated with protesting, and exclusion of protest bids may therefore exclude individuals who have strong preferences for a payment vehicle. If it is acknowledged that payment vehicle is an intrinsic component of a good, exclusion of respondents

  20. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... give rise to qualification and allocation conflicts for tax treaty purposes in cross-border situations. The main challenges concern to what extent dividend related payments may be covered by the term “dividends” in article 10 of the OECD double tax convention and to what extent the lender in a share...

  1. USE OF PAYMENT OPTIONS BY WOMEN: WITH REFERENCE TO JALGAON CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Lohar

    2015-01-01

    In old days, for every purchase, payment was done in cash. Hence there was no need to take decisions while paying at point of sale. Cash was the king in the market. Now those days are gone long back. In today’s world, though cash is still king in the market, now a day consumer has lots of choices for making a payment at point of sale. This is due to growth in technology in the market. This leads to simplification in payment instruments & option for cash. He can decide to pay whether by cash, ...

  2. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  3. 37 CFR 380.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensee commences to do so. (e) Late payments and statements of account. A Licensee shall pay a late fee...; (2) The name, address, business title, telephone number, facsimile number (if any), electronic...

  4. 37 CFR 262.4 - Terms for making payment of royalty fees and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... month in which the Licensee commences to do so. (e) Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 0... the month; (2) The name, address, business title, telephone number, facsimile number, electronic...

  5. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  6. 7 CFR 205.641 - Payment of fees and other charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Fees § 205.641 Payment of fees and...

  7. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-4 - Payment of amounts equivalent to tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE CONTRACT COVERAGE OF EMPLOYEES OF FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(10)-4 Payment of amounts equivalent to tax. A domestic corporation which has...

  8. Landslides: a question of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students the mechanics of mass movements

  9. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  10. DEBT AMORTIZATION AND SIMPLE INTEREST: THE CASE OF PAYMENTS IN AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis José Daudt Lyra Darrigue Faro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the argument that, necessarily, compound interest implies anatocism, the Brazilian Judiciary has been determining that, specially for the case of  debt amortization in accordance with the so called Tabela Price, when we have constant payments, the use of simple interest. With the same determination occurring in the case of the Constant Amortization Scheme, when the payments follow arithmetic progressions.  However, as simple interest lacks the property of time subdivision, it is shown that as in the case of constant payments, the adoption of simple interest in the case of payments following an arithmetic progression results in amortization schemes that are financially inconsistent. In the sense that the determination of the outstanding principal in accordance with the prospective, retrospective and of recurrence methods lead to conflicting  results. To this end, four different variations of the use of simple interest are numerically analyzed.

  11. Contactless Mobile Payments entering Europe : The contactless mobile payment ecosystem and potential on the European market

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén Meiton, Emelie; Lagström, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Contactless mobile payments are a payment method done with a mobile phone and a contactless technology. Instead of paying with cash, a payment card or a cheque, a user can tap its mobile phone onto a terminal to pay. Across the globe, several markets have been embracing the need for new payment methods. In Asia, contactless mobile payments have been used since 2004. In some of the African countries, due to an insufficient banking industry, mobile payments have been the only electroni...

  12. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  13. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  14. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development Under a Emerging SEPA Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature the mobile phone permeates, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure. The model captures......The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) is probably the most ambitious self-regulatory project aimed at creating a single integrated European digital payments market since the introduction of the Euro. SEPA aims to make EU more innovative and competitive. When considering the SEPA initiative...... the formation and development of digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change following by short rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage is portrayed by its evolutionary dynamics, the nature...

  15. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  16. Indian retailing entrepreneurs : an analysis of migrant entrepreneurship in the Spanish market for retail payment services

    OpenAIRE

    MORÉ MARTINEZ, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    DEMO: India-EU MaP - Developing Evidence based Management and Operations in India-EU Migration and Partnership Indian migrants have become one of the leading groups of retail entrepreneurs in Spain in payment services. We have found that 310 Indian entrepreneurs are agents of payment institutions in Spain, and that they have a strong preference for Spain's Mediterranean regions: 256, or 82% of them are based there. Half of the 310 Indian agents have traditional Sikh names, suggesting that ...

  17. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    İkram Daştan; Cem Gürler

    2016-01-01

    The world witnessed a rapid growth in the e-commerce in the recent years. Widespread use of mobile devices in the e-commerce has a role in this augmentation. Associated with growth of trading volume and the introduction of new devices, new products and solutions emerge and they diversify concerning online payments. Consumer attitudes and behaviors may change according to these developments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors effecting adoption of mobile payment systems by...

  18. Online Behavior and Loyalty Program Participation-parameters Influencing the Acceptance of Contactless Payment Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Fiedler; Ali Öztüren

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the central perceptions of consumers influencing the decision to use contactless payment instruments. Aim is to define a customer core group narrowed down by several variables and to find a basis for a purposeful communication of advantages of the new payment process, as investment into this technology bears the risk of total loss if the customer group is declining acceptance and the image of a company might be excessively damaged. External variables in context with the us...

  19. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  20. Optimization of project payment schedules with Nash equilibrium model and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ze-min; GAO Chun-ping; LI Zhong-xue

    2007-01-01

    To minimize the deviations of the net present values of project payment for both the owner and the client and optimize project payment schedules, a Nash equilibrium model based on game theory was set up and a genetic algorithm was developed to work out the Nash equilibrium solution with a two-stage backward inductive approach that requires the client responds to the owner's payment schedule with an activity schedule so as to maximize the client's net present value of cash flows. A case study demonstrated that a payment schedule at the Nash equilibrium position enables both the owner and the client to gain their desirable interests, thus is a win-win solution for both parties. Despite the computation time of the proposed algrithm in need of improving, combining Nash equilibrium and genetic algorithm into a complete-information dynamic-game model is a promising method for project management optimization.