WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance of payments

  1. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  2. Trends and Challenges of India’s Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Dr Jomon

    2013-01-01

    Balance of Payments (BoP), being a record of the monetary transactions over a period with the rest of the world, reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners and all payments and obligations received from foreigners. In this sense, the balance of payments is one of the major indicators of a country's status in international trade. BoP accounting serves to highlight a country's competitive strengths and weaknesses and helps in achieving balanced economic-growth. It can significantly af...

  3. Super Debt: Managing America's Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Benjamin J

    2005-01-01

    The second Bush Administration will face many demanding challenges in foreign economic policy – the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks, regional and bilateral trade negotiations, poor-country debt problems, rising energy prices, the competitive threat of China, and more. But most demanding of all will be the critical issue of America's balance of payments. Persistent external deficits have led to an unprecedented growth of foreign debt for the United States, now in excess of $3 trillion...

  4. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  5. The estimate of regional balances of payments in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Filipić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the region, as part of the state, nor regional development has occupied the centre of attention in the theory of international trade. There are several reasons, both theoretical and methodological, as well as entirely practical, including the want of any adequate statistics, particularly those necessary for the construction of Croatian regional balances of payments. Accordingly, there are several objectives to this work. After the introduction in which reference is made to the limitations of the running of individual regional economic policies, comes a chapter in which the content of an ideal regional balance of payments is defined. On the way from the ideal to the objective content of regional balances of payments, that is, one reflecting the available data, many methodological problems had to be solved and suitable statistics set up. In the sequel, the analysis of the balances of payments reveals a whole scale of regions that are negative or positive in terms of foreign currency. Although the quantities of the individual balances and items are interesting in themselves, it is important to understand that the different regional exposures to monetary policy possibly require a selective approach from economic policy. At the end, making use of the regional balances of payments, the influence of the depreciation of the kuna on the gross domestic product of the regions is analysed. It is established that in some hypothetical depreciation, if foreign currency transactions were treated ceteris paribus in relation to other economic aggregates, there would be important gains and losses, which would lead to ever greater developmental inequality in Croatia.

  6. Balance-of-Payments Constrained Growth: the Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda HALICIOGLU

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the existence of Thirlwall’s law for Turkey during the period of 1980-2008, bounds test approach to cointegration is applied. The empirical results suggest that Thirlwall’s law holds for Turkey. This study also suggests some policy recommendations to curb the deficits in the balance-of-payments.

  7. Greenland's balance of Payments and Self-governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    Why is the current account of Greenland a topical issue, while those of Denmark and of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea are not? Has the current account anything to do with future inde­pendence? It is ar­gued that balance of payments and foreign debt are closely connected to political and...

  8. Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.

  9. Crisis of the balance of payments: factors, indicators and prevention methods

    OpenAIRE

    O. Chernyak, V. Khomiak

    2011-01-01

    The authors analyze the structure and main factors of the crisis of balance of payments in Ukraine's economy. The article considers the existing methods and indicators, which may signal about the approaching balance of payments crisis, as well as the main approaches to modeling such crises, among which the most suitable for Ukraine ones are defined. The authors provide models of the main components of balance of payments, which signal about the crisis and select a set of indicators producing ...

  10. Oil imports and the US balance of payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of the historical data for the US during a period of major swings in our oil import bill shows little continuing relationship to measures of our overall international balance. A look at other major oil importers all more dependent on imported oil than we will be even by the end of the century shows they handled similar wide swings in their oil import bills even while improving their international balances. Some, perhaps a major part, or our increased payments for oil imports is likely to return as payment for imports from us by the oil exporters. What seems more important is that we remain competitive in our export industries, and some measures suggested to reduce our oil imports, such as a unilateral US oil import tariff are likely to work against this competitiveness by raising oil and energy costs to our industries above those of our competitors. In terms of our international balances at least, the cures for rising oil imports are likely to be much worse than the disease

  11. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Blecker

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural model of the balance of payments, with disaggregated exports (manufactured and non-manufactured) and imports (final and intermediate goods), and a reduced form model of the trade balance for the Mexican economy. The analysis identifies several structural breaks, implying a division of the entire sample period into five phases. The results indicate that a tightening of the balance-of-payments constraint may account for the slowdown in Mexico’s growth only duri...

  12. Incorporating derivatives data in the National Accounts and Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cullinane

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYThis article outlines forthcoming changes to the National Accounts and Balance of Payments. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) aims to introduce data on derivatives business of UK banks into the financial accounts and balance sheets for the 2010 Blue Book and Balance of Payments Pink Book. Revisions will go back to the start of 2006.In the National Accounts, currently only limited transaction data is published for the bank, central government and rest of the world sectors. Data f...

  13. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  14. Leading indicators of balance-of-payments crises: a partial review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chui

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the theory of balance-of-payments crises, and its implications for identifying potential leading indicators of crises. It discusses and evaluates three different empirical approaches to balance-of-payments crises: the signalling, discrete-choice, and structural approaches. Despite claims of success in predicting currency crises, we note some serious theoretical and empirical qualifications which throw these claims into question. Nevertheless, we conclude that a range of ind...

  15. Tradeoffs in the design of health plan payment systems: Fit, power and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruso, Michael; McGuire, Thomas G

    2016-05-01

    In many markets, including the new U.S. Marketplaces, health insurance plans are paid by risk-adjusted capitation, sometimes combined with reinsurance and other payment mechanisms. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the de facto insurer incentives embedded in these complex payment systems. We discuss fit, power and balance, each of which addresses a distinct market failure in health insurance. We implement empirical metrics of fit, power, and balance in a study of Marketplace payment systems. Using data similar to that used to develop the Marketplace risk adjustment scheme, we quantify tradeoffs among the three classes of incentives. We show that an essential tradeoff arises between the goals of limiting costs and limiting cream skimming because risk adjustment, which is aimed at discouraging cream-skimming, weakens cost control incentives in practice. A simple reinsurance system scores better on our measures of fit, power and balance than the risk adjustment scheme in use in the Marketplaces. PMID:26922122

  16. Criticisms and defences of the balance-of-payments constrained growth model: some old, some new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S.L. McCombie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses various critiques that have been levelled over the years against Thirlwall’s Law and the balance-of-payments constrained growth model. It starts by assessing the criticisms that the law is largely capturing an identity; that the law of one price renders the model incoherent; and that statistical testing using cross-country data rejects the hypothesis that the actual and the balance-of-payments equilibrium growth rates are the same. It goes on to consider the argument that calculations of the “constant-market-shares” income elasticities of demand for exports demonstrate that the UK (and by implication other advanced countries could not have been balance-of-payments constrained in the early postwar period. Next Krugman’s interpretation of the law (or what he terms the “45-degree rule”, which is at variance with the usual demand-oriented explanation, is examined. The paper next assesses attempts to reconcile the demand and supply side of the model and examines whether or not the balance-of-payments constrained growth model is subject to the fallacy of composition. It concludes that none of these criticisms invalidate the model, which remains a powerful explanation of why growth rates differ.

  17. Japanese Structural Adjustment and the Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Sachs; Peter Boone

    1988-01-01

    Policy discussions in Japan have increasingly recognized the important role of land values and land-use patterns in Japanese macroeconomic adjustment. In Japan in recent years, land wealth constitutes more than half of financial wealth, a proportion that is much higher than in the United States and other industrialized economies. Consequently, shifts in land-use patterns can have important effects on Japanese savings and investment patterns, and thereby on the Japanese trade balance and curre...

  18. The analysis of the interconnections between the indicators of the external payment balance and the macroeconomic aggregates of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The payment balance (BP may be defined, generally, as a statistic image of the international economic transactions between resident and non-resident agents of a country. These transactions are considered during one period of time (year, trimester, month. In spite of its denomination, BP concerns not only the usual payments, but all transactions, even if a part of them does not comprise the cash payments.

  19. Recent evolution of large-value payment systems : balancing liquidity and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Martin

    2005-01-01

    Large-value payment systems have evolved rapidly in the last 20 years, continually striking a balance between providing liquidity and keeping settlement risk under control. Changes to the design or to the risk management policies of such systems were needed, in part, due to the growth in the value of transactions on these systems. For example, in the United States the value of transactions on Fedwire, the Federal Reserve’s large-value payment system, increased from about 50 times GDP in 1989 ...

  20. Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth: the case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    J.-C. MORENO-BRID

    1998-01-01

    An analytical model for balance-of-payment constraints is developed to analyse the economic crisis which swept the entire Mexican region during the early 1980s. Analytical results suggest that a modification of the long-term income multipliers of the proposed framework may be effected by implementing a long-term constant ratio of the current account to nominal gross domestic product. It is further shown that Mexico's economic instability was largely caused by the inadequacy of foreign exchang...

  1. The early warnings of balance-of-payments problems: Kaminsky and Reinhart revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds upon the model of Kaminsky and Reinhart (1999) and extends it to triplecrises. It applies a new visualisation approach combining elements of an event study analysis and a fan chart technique. This approach illustrates the deviation of fundamentals in the runup to balance-of-payments problems. The results suggest that both systemic banking crises and deteriorating government finances are highly significant leading indicators. Taking these indicators into account helps build a...

  2. Linkages Between External Debt Data and Balance of Payments, Government Finance and Monetary Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Bové

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between key macroeconomic statistics: external debt, balance of payments, government finance, and monetary statistics, which enable analysts and policy makers to monitor economic developments. The paper reviews statistical compilation issues and concludes that, while considerable progress has been made in recent years to account for external debt and related flows, further progress must be made. It makes recommendations, such as improved communication among co...

  3. The Balance of Payments of Oil Importing Countries: An Aggregate Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beenstock, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Using annual data drawn from 1963-1983 we estimate an econometric model of the balance of payments of oil-importing LDCs. The model consists of equations for the quantities of exports and imports, unit value indices for exports and imports, capital flows, reserves and the exchange rate. An important feature of the model is the way in which shortages of foreign exchange affect imports, external borrowing and the exchange rate. A number of simulation exercises are carried out to determine the m...

  4. Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth: the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. MORENO-BRID

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for balance-of-payment constraints is developed to analyse the economic crisis which swept the entire Mexican region during the early 1980s. Analytical results suggest that a modification of the long-term income multipliers of the proposed framework may be effected by implementing a long-term constant ratio of the current account to nominal gross domestic product. It is further shown that Mexico's economic instability was largely caused by the inadequacy of foreign exchange resources necessary in driving domestic growth.

  5. Output Costs of Currency and Balance of Payments Crises in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Michael M.; Ilan Noy

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the output effects of severe currency crises in emerging markets. Using a panel data set over the 1975-97 period and covering 24 emerging-market economies, we find that currency and balance of payments crises—even after controlling for other factors—reduce output by about 5-8 percent over a two-three year period. This adverse effect is two- to four times larger than the average output loss in a developing economy. Typically, growth tends to return to trend by the third year fol...

  6. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  7. ROMANIAN MACROECONOMIC STABILITY BETWEEN THE BALANCE OF PAYMENT ASSISTANCE AND THE EUROPEAN SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dragan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The first EU Alert Mechanism Report demonstrates the vulnerable macroeconomic external position of Romania, the current Romanian’s balance of payments reflecting a severe need of financing and capitalization. On the other hand, the 2007-2013 programming period potentially provided a significant amount of EU money for investments (around 29 billion euro through Structural Funds. However, five years after the beginning of the current financial framework, the level of absorption remains extremely low. The paper focuses on the main Romanian macroeconomic imbalances (the current account balance,international investment position and on the most important sources for financing investments and development - the EU financial structural instruments: ERDF and Cohesion Fund.

  8. Modelli di crescita limitata dalla bilancia dei pagamenti: storia e panoramica (Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.  JEL Codes: F32; F40; F43Keywords: Balance of payments; growth; Thirlwall’s Law; dynamic Harrod multiplier

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used..., Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore; (8) Free Trade Agreement country end product means an article that— (i) Is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a Free Trade...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...,” “component,” “domestic end product,” “Free Trade Agreement country,” “Free Trade Agreement country end... States,” as used in this provision, have the meanings given in the Buy American Act—Free Trade......

  11. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  12. Towards harmonised balance of payments and international investment position statistics – the experience of the European compilers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Marc Israël; Carlos Sánchez Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    External statistics – specifically balance of payments and international investment position statistics – are among the primary statistics on which policy-making bodies and markets rely as a basis for their decisions in globalised economies. Monitoring and enhancing data quality in the context of rapidly changing economies impose heavy constraints on compilers of these statistics. As it becomes increasingly important worldwide to adhere to a set of international statistical standards in order...

  13. Assessing Accuracy and Reliability; A Note Basedon Approaches Used in National Accounts and Balance of Payments Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Carol S. Carson; Lucie Laliberté

    2002-01-01

    Both national accounts and balance of payments are based on multiple, complex source data and typically undergo several routine revisions as more and better source data are incorporated into the final estimates. As a result, neither dataset can be subjected directly to the usual statistical measures of sampling biases, variances, and other measurement error properties. In this context, this note, which is addressed to those interested in these datasets and others, explores four approaches tha...

  14. The impact of trade liberalisation on exports, imports, the balance of payments and growth: The case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco-López, Penélope

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to disentangle the effects of trade liberalisation during the mid-1980s from the liberalisation involved in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on exports, imports and the balance of payments in Mexico. The main empirical results suggest that the trade reforms during the mid-1980s had a significant impact of trade, exports and imports; however, the effects of NAFTA are negligible. Since the mid-1980s, the propensity to import has exceeded the propensity to...

  15. The economics of payment card fee structure: what is the optimal balance between merchant fee and payment card rewards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically considers the optimal balance between the merchant fee and the cardholder fee (rewards) from both efficiency and equity perspectives. First, the paper constructs the models that can be used by the U.S. policymakers. Because theoretical results are very sensitive to the assumptions of the models, it is important to construct models that reflect the reality of the market. Second, the most efficient fee structure and product price are considered under the various combina...

  16. Farm Support Payments and Risk Balancing: Implications for Financial Riskiness of Canadian Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeaa, Florentina Nicoleta; Poon, Kenneth; Sparling, David; Weersink, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    The risk balancing literature suggests that business risk management (BRM) programs may, through risk balancing (offsetting adjustments between business risk and financial risk), lead farmers to take on more financial risk than they would take otherwise, which, in turn, increases the risk of equity loss. Business risk management continues to be the central objective of Canadian agricultural policy, and this was re-enforced with the recent introduction of the Growing Forward II policy framewor...

  17. Balance-of-Payment-Constrained Growth: The Case of China, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbok Jeon

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically test the validity of Thirlwall’s Law in China during the reform period of 1979-2002. For the income elasticity of import demand, an aggregate import demand function for the Chinese economy is estimated using ARDL-UECM model and the bounds test. This study finds (1) that for 1979-2002, the Chinese economy has grown on average as fast as Thirlwall’s Law predicts, the average actual growth rate and predicted growth rate were, respectively, 9.25 and 8.55, w...

  18. Are international growth rates constrained by the balance of payments? A comment on Professor Thirlwall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.L. MCCOMBIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article A.P. Thirlwall derived what he termed a “fundamental law” which he argued explains the disparate post-war growth rates of advanced countries. In this note, the author takes issue with Thirlwall’s model, showing that together with the empirical evidence it is not capable of discriminating between the demand and the supply orientated approaches to growth.

  19. Government Expenditure and the Balance of Payments : Budget Deficit, Financial Integration, and Economic Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shibuya, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the international and intertemporal implications of increased government expenditure. First, it reviews the conventional proposition that increased government expenditure raises interest rates, crowds out investment, and reduces growth. Then, it shows that this proposition does not necessarily hold in an open economy with integrated international capital markets. This creates a possibility of the strategic intertemporal macroeconomic policy, which minimizes the adverse effe...

  20. The Evolution of China’s International Balance of Payments Structure%我国国际收支格局的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文海; 李景跃

    2016-01-01

    The international balance of payments can reflect the influence of a country in the international com-munity,the level of economic development and the degree of opening up to the outside world. In the future,Chinese international balance of payments will be on the normal situation of“current account surplus and capital and finan-cial account deficit”,and should maintain and promote the international balance of payments,vigorously develop the service industry,promote trade in services,increase the proportion of trade in services,promote our country into the high-end field of the global industrial chain,and promote the transformation from a big trading country to trade power. Accelerate to realize the convertibility of RMB in the capital account;improve the cross-border capital flow risk monitoring and early warning system,perfect the system of international revenue and expenditure management, avoid the harm to the domestic economics caused by the short-term cross-border capital flows for the purpose of arbitrage;improve the allocation of resources,control liquidity risk,alleviate the problem of foreign exchange market supply and demand imbalance,realize the external economic equilibrium.%一国国际收支能够反映该国在国际社会中的影响力、经济发展水平和对外开放程度。未来我国国际收支将以“经常账户顺差和资本与金融账户逆差”为常态,应保持和促进国际收支均衡,大力发展服务业,推动服务贸易,增加服务贸易占比,推动我国进入全球产业链的高端领域,促进由贸易大国向贸易强国的转变。加快实现人民币资本项目下的可兑换;完善跨境资本流动风险监测预警系统,健全国际收支管理体系,避免以套利为目的短期跨境流动资本对本国经济造成危害;提高资源配置,控制流动性风险,缓解外汇市场供需不均衡问题,实现外部经济均衡。

  1. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choice...... to use the technology. We conducted the study in the context of Denmark, a Northern European country, with three well established payment technologies: cash, payment cards, and Internet banking. Following a focus group of identifying and defining four types of consumption values associated with each...

  2. An a priori analysis of how solar energy production will affect the balance of payment account in one developing Latin American country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavy, Michael [Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies a model developing Latin American country (hypotheria) with a weak currency (the hypo is the monetary unit), a trade deficit (including being a net importer of fossil fuels) and a sensitive balance of payments situation. There is an a priori analysis of the effect of domestic solar energy production on Hypotheria's positive effect is the BoP Value of domestic solar energy. Many forms of solar energy are not cost competitive with fossil fuels. Because solar energy production does not emit greenhouse Value and the BoP Value of solar energy should be used to reduce the cost of solar energy projects in Hypotheria and to make the solar energy cost competitive with fossil fuels. [Spanish] Este articulo estudia un modelo de un pais Latinoamericano en desarrollo (Hypoteria) con moneda debil (el hypo es la unidad monetaria), un deficit comercial (incluyendo el ser un importador neto de combustibles fosiles) y un balance precario en la situacion de pagos. Existe un analisis a priori sobre el efecto de la produccion domestica de energia solar en un efecto positivo de Hypoteria que es el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos (BoP) de la energia solar domestica. Muchas formas de energia solar no son competitivas en costo con los combustibles fosiles debido a que la produccion de energia solar no emite un Valor de invernadero, y el Valor de la Balanza de Pagos, debe ser utilizado para reducir los costos de los proyectos de energia solar en Hypoteria y asi hacer el costo de la energia solar competitiva con los combustibles fosiles.

  3. 进入中国的FDI的行为变迁对国际收支的影响研究%The Research about the Impact of FDI Behavior Changes on the Chinese Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小波; 傅强

    2012-01-01

    近年来,进入中国的FDI不断从出口导向型向市场寻求型转变,快速抢占中国市场。本文通过建立差分模型,考察FDI这一行为变迁对国际收支的影响。研究表明以占领东道国市场为目的FDI将在长时期内不断削减FDI产生的净出口效应,使得东道国国际收支顺差不断减小,且随着寻求市场型FDI存量占FDI的比重不断增大,极有可能导致FDI产生的国际收支净效益转为逆差,甚至引发国际收支危机。%Recent years has seen a continuous shift from export-oriented FDI to market-seeking FDI in china in order to occupy the Chinese market.This paper introduces a simple difference model to investigate the impact of FDI behavior changes on the balance of payments.The research indicates that as HFDI increases in domestic market,the level of net exports brought by FDI will be incessantly put down and cause the decreasing of the surplus of balance of payments;what's worse,as the proportion of HDI in FDI increases,the net effect of balance of payments brought by the FDI will very likely become deficit and even lead to a balance-of-payment crisis.

  4. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  5. Implications of Credit Policies for Output and the Balance of Payments (Les conséquences de la politique du crédit sur la production et la balance des paiements) (Las repercusiones de las medidas de política crediticia en la producción y la balanza de pagos)

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter M.

    1980-01-01

    Stabilization programs supported by use of Fund resources typically contain limitations on credit expansion by the domestic banking system and on foreign borrowing by the public sector. This paper analyzes some of the implications of credit policies for output and growth and how they relate to the development of the current account and overall balance of payments. The framework chosen for the analysis is one in which the availability of financing is a direct and major determinant of current a...

  6. FDI与我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差%FDI and China' s Capital and Financial Account Surplus in Balance of Payments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹浩华

    2012-01-01

    本文从我国引进FDI的历程及FDI的结构特点入手,深入分析了FDI对我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差的具体贡献,还从我国利用外资政策导向、受世界经济波动的影响程度、资金转移的便利性、对就业的贡献等方面,探讨了我国国际收支资本和金融项目顺差主要源自FDI的机理,并提出相应的对策建议。%China has maintained double surplus pattern in balance of pay ments for 17 years since 1994 to 2010.This phenomenon is rare in the world. In the double surplus pattern in balance of payments, foreign direct investment (FDI) results in not only China' s surplus of capital and financial account direct ly, but also China' s surplus of current account indirectly through its dominant position in processing trade, so FDI plays an extremely important role in China' s double surpluses in balance of payments. This paper firstly analyzes the cours es of China' s introduction of FDI and the structural characteristics of FDI, and then analyzes the specific contribution of FDI to China' s capital and financial account surplus in balance of payments in depth. Furthermore,the paper research es the mechanism of China' s capital and financial account surplus mainly origi nating from FDI from the aspects of China' s policy concerning foreign invest ment, the influential degree of world economic fluctuations, the convenience of transferring funds and the contribution to employment. In the end, the paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  7. Analysis of the European Debt Crisis from the Point of View of International Balance Payments Adjustment%从国际收支调节看欧债危机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊昱静; 公衍照

    2013-01-01

    In view of the balance of payments (BP), the European debt crisis is caused by the lack of adjustment mechanism of balance of payments for member states in Euro Zone, which is rooted in the design defects of EMU in integration process. Before the complete integration of Euro Zone, each member state can not escape the external constraints. Improvements of the adjustment mechanisms of BP of member states must be the basic condition for the smooth process of European integrations.%从国际收支角度看,欧债危机是欧元区成员国国际收支调节机制的缺失造成的,这根源于一体化进程中欧洲经济货币联盟的设计缺陷。在欧元区完全一体化之前,各成员国的国际收支约束不会消失,完善内部成员国之间的国际收支调节机制是欧洲一体化顺利发展的基本条件。

  8. The Pricing of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  9. Pricing of payments

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Malte

    2009-01-01

    The pricing of payments has received increasing attention of regulators. In many cases, regulators are concerned that consumers do not face cost based prices. They argue that without cost based prices consumers will make inefficient choices. In this paper, it is argued that both, economics of scale and the particular laws governing pricing in two-sided markets provide a case against cost based pricing.

  10. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  11. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with limi

  12. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the payment industry. These actors issue four types of payment systems, and we can observe that three of four platforms types can be classified as multi-sided platforms (MSP). All alternatives seek foothold by issuing evolutionary payment instruments, which are intertwined with digital payment platforms...

  13. 42 CFR 413.76 - Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for...-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.76 Direct GME payments: Calculation of payments for GME...

  14. 42 CFR 423.329 - Determination of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 423.104(d)(5)(iii). (2) Payment method. Payments under this section are based on a method that CMS determines. (i) Payments during the coverage year. CMS establishes a payment method by which payments of... coverage year is the amount described in § 423.782. (2) Payment method. Payments under this section...

  15. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  16. Payment and value of care - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures and value of care displays – provider data. This data set includes provider data for the payment measures and value of care displays associated...

  17. The 2008 survey of consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Kevin; Meijer, Erik; Schuh, Scott; Zabek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the 2008 version of the Survey of Consumer Payment Choice (SCPC), a nationally representative survey developed by the Consumer Payments Research Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and implemented by the RAND Corporation with its American Life Panel. The survey fills a gap in knowledge about the role of consumers in the transformation of payments from paper to electronic by providing a broad-based assessment of U.S. consumers' adoption and use of nine payment inst...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 4 Method of payment. The General Agent shall prepare check drawn on the NSA Special bank...

  19. The future of e-commerce payments

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz; Marilyn Bochicchio

    2002-01-01

    On June 19, 2002, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Electronic Funds Transfer Association's Electronic Commerce Payments Council (eCPC) sponsored a joint conference. This meeting was part of the regularly scheduled quarterly council meetings that bring together stakeholders interested in developing or enhancing e-commerce payment alternatives. The session included both Federal Reserve staff and industry leaders discussing how electronic payments are ...

  20. A General Equilibrium Approach of Retail Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ilyés; Lóránt Varga

    2015-01-01

    In our paper, we introduce the Hungarian Payment System Model (HUPS), a computable general equilibrium model with detailed payment services which can be used for policy evaluation and forecast. In the last years, several studies investigated different aspects of payment systems and some papers used equilibrium theory to study a specific segment or question of retail payments. In our paper, we take a step forward as we extend this research using the general equilibrium approach. The HUPS model...

  1. Regional impacts of abolishing direct payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Priorr, Annette; Zander, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The direct payment system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) provides income transfers to European farmers. Recently, several countries including England and Sweden have advocated the elimination of direct payments after 2013. The extent to which an elimination of direct payments would affect...

  2. Cooperation for Innovation in Payment Systems: The Case of Mobile Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Bourreau; Marianne Verdier

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the development of mobile payments as an innovation in developed countries. In particular, we introduce five cooperation models that have emerged or could emerge between banks, mobile network operators, and payment systems, for the development of this new payment method. We also discuss the regulatory issues posed by the presence of mobile operators in the payments market

  3. The irrationality of payment behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Frank van der Horst; Ester Matthijsen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efforts that commercial banks have made to promote the use of debit cards and the introduction of new payment methods, the migration from cash to electronic payment methods is not proceeding as quickly as sometimes expected. Why do people pay by cash on one occasion and by bank card on another? How conscious is people's decision-making? How rational are their reasons for choosing one method over another? For policy makers at a central bank it is relevant to have insight into the p...

  4. 36 CFR 51.79 - May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a franchise fee or other payments? 51.79 Section 51.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property....79 May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments? The Director may not waive the concessioner's payment of a franchise fee or other payments or consideration required by...

  5. Technology payment cards communication with banking institutions in the field of cashless payment

    OpenAIRE

    Němcová, Zuzana; Dvořák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The aim is now used to describe the infrastructure of payment cards, ATMs, now used to describe the infrastructure of payment systems, mainly the payment cards and NFC technology and secure payment throw the internet. In this article, we examine a new technology application which is coming into its own around the world, in association with the revolution in wireless connectivity. Our findings are intended to guide in dealing with the economic aspects of mobile payments, and to help identif...

  6. The economics of payment card fee structure: what drives payment card rewards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates potential market forces that cause payment card rewards even when providing payment card rewards is not the most efficient. Three factors-oligopolistic merchants, output-maximizing card networks, and the merchant's inability to set different prices across payment methods-may potentially explain the prevalence of payment card rewards programs in the United States today. The paper also points out that competition among card networks may potentially make payment rewards t...

  7. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  8. 40 CFR 66.62 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 66.62 Section 66.62... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.62 Method of payment. Payments in excess of $10,000..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Payment by check is made...

  9. Card versus cash: empirical evidence of the impact of payment card interchange fees on end users’ choice of payment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Guerino

    2013-01-01

    Interchange fees in card payments are a mechanism to balance costs and revenues between banks for the joint provision of payment services. However, such fees represent a relevant input cost used as a reference price for the final fee charged to the merchants, who may be reluctant to accept cards and induce the cardholder to withdraw cash. In this paper, we empirically verify for the first time the effect of the interchange fee on the decision to withdraw cash and compare it with that of payin...

  10. 25 CFR 175.31 - Methods and terms of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods and terms of payment. 175.31 Section 175.31... UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.31 Methods and terms of payment. Payments shall be made... refuse, for cause, to accept personal checks for payment of bills....

  11. 42 CFR 447.203 - Documentation of payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.203 Documentation of payment rates. (a) The agency must maintain documentation of payment rates and make it... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of payment rates. 447.203 Section...

  12. 42 CFR 457.626 - Prevention of duplicate payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of duplicate payments. 457.626 Section... Payments to States § 457.626 Prevention of duplicate payments. (a) General rule. No payment shall be made... CFR 144.103, which is not part of, or wholly owned by, a governmental entity. Prompt payment...

  13. 42 CFR 447.207 - Retention of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.207 Retention of payments. (a) Payment methodologies must permit the provider to receive and retain the full amount of the total computable payment for services furnished under the approved State plan (or...

  14. The economics of payment finality

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; William Roberds

    2002-01-01

    Payment finality is critical to decentralized exchange. By specifying how the transfer of one type of claim extinguishes another, the rules governing finality minimize opportunities for default along credit chains and allocate other risks. ; The authors provide a basic analysis of finality and its role in facilitating exchange. They first present a simple, historically based model of transferable debt and finality. The discussion demonstrates the desirability of transferable debt and why rule...

  15. Measuring the costs of retail payment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi; Keeton, William R.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, retail payments have experienced a dramatic shift from paper-based payment methods to electronic methods. Accurate cost information for the two types of methods would help central banks decide how hard to push for a complete transition to electronic methods and which methods to promote. ; To obtain such information, a number of central banks have recently conducted comprehensive studies of the costs of retail payment methods. Differences in the results of these studie...

  16. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  17. Chablis - Market Analysis of Digital Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ricarda Weber

    2016-01-01

    Order and delivery of digital information with costs requires an economic method of instant digital payment especially when dealing with widely distributed, anonymous users and small amounts. Such factors make traditional invoicing processes economically unfeasible. A large number of digital payment schemes and system proposals have been devised. This report provides a classification and market study of digital payment systems. An extensive criteria catalogue is presented explaining typical f...

  18. Inheritance of Electronic Payment Accounts: Practice Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillova EA; Bogdan VV; Pozdnyakova EV; Zenin SS; Ustinovich ES

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the inheritance of electronic payment accounts (wallets), such as Yandex Money, WebMoney, and similar. In terms of safety and ease, electronic money calculation is the most promising calculation method in Internet. Payments with non-cash settlements are much more beneficial from all points of view. They greatly accelerate the payment process, simplify it, and help to reduce transaction costs. This is most clearly seen in the example, where the buyer and seller are locat...

  19. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actor...

  20. Payment method and perceptions of ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Erki, Berna

    2013-01-01

    How consumers pay influences how they feel about a transaction. In particular, paying by card has been argued to have an effect on the perception of cost; making it less salient and painful. We propose and show that payment method also influences how consumers feel about the acquired good. Specifically we focus on effects of the payment method on psychological ownership, i.e. the perception of an object as "mine". We propose that cash payment results in stronger psychological o...

  1. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  2. Efficiency and costs of payments: some new evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Takala, Kari; Viren, Matti

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal payment systems. The issue boils down to how large are the costs of different payment media, which can be interpreted as a question of the efficiency of the means of payment. However, there are other qualifications related to the choice of payment media. Here, at least three issues can be distinguished. First is the question of optimal payment medium for each individual payment (size, location, EFTPOS etc.). This choice is not independent of the individual charac...

  3. The Cost of Consumer Payments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Segendorf, Björn; Jansson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the social and private costs of consumer-to-business payments in Sweden in 2009. The combined social cost for these payments was 0.68 per cent of GDP. At the point of sale, cash is socially less costly than debit cards for payments below EUR 1.88 (SEK 20) and credit cards below EUR 42.37 (SEK 450). The corresponding thresholds for the individual consumer are higher for debit cards and much lower for credit cards. Using unique survey data we show that consumers' payment behaviour i...

  4. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  5. Utilisation of payment instruments at a retail chain in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan M. Bester; Seugnet Bronkhorst

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of race and income on the preferred payment instrument at pay points in a retail store in Pretoria Gauteng.Problem investigated: The method of payment, as well as the way these payment methods have been utilised, has evolved throughout history. Cash has stayed at the top of the payment instrument deck as a payment choice for the past 10 decades. With the expansion of technology payment instruments evolved to facilitate excha...

  6. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Man S.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central playe...

  7. THE SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA - THE POTENTIAL OF CASHLESS PAYMENTS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Gabriela PALADE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single euro payments area is the natural outcome of the creation of the monetary union and the single currency adoption. This large project that aimed at standardizing and harmonizing the payments instruments, the legal framework, the business rules, etc might represent an opportunity for developing cashless payments in Romania.

  8. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...

  9. 30 CFR 218.155 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 218.155 Section 218.155....155 Method of payment. (a) Payment of royalties and rentals. With the exception of first-year rental... notice of each lease offering. EFT may be used as a method of payment for the one-fifth bonus bid...

  10. 28 CFR 74.12 - Order of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Order of payment. 74.12 Section 74.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.12 Order of payment. Payment will be made in the order of date of birth...

  11. 37 CFR 1.23 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of payment. 1.23... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.23 Methods of payment. (a) All payments of money required for United States Patent and Trademark Office...

  12. 37 CFR 2.207 - Methods of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of payment. 2.207... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Fees and Payment of Money in Trademark Cases § 2.207 Methods of payment. (a) All payments of money required in trademark cases, including fees for the...

  13. 27 CFR 19.519 - Methods of tax payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of tax payment. 19... Determination and Payment of Tax § 19.519 Methods of tax payment. The tax on spirits shall be paid pursuant to a... the provisions of § 70.61 (Payment by check or money order) and which is acceptable to him....

  14. 42 CFR 412.116 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 412.116 Section 412.116 Public... Payment Systems § 412.116 Method of payment. (a) General rules. (1) Unless the provisions of paragraphs (b... section is removed from that method of payment at its own request, it may reelect to receive...

  15. 27 CFR 46.104 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 46.104... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Rules for Special (Occupational) Tax Payment of Special Tax § 46.104 Method of payment. Payment of special tax must be made in cash, or by check or money order payable to Alcohol...

  16. 46 CFR 502.605 - Payment of penalty: Method; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of penalty: Method; default. 502.605 Section 502... Payment of penalty: Method; default. (a) Method. Payment of penalties by the respondent is to be made by... instruments submitted in payment of claims shall be made payable to the Federal Maritime Commission....

  17. 24 CFR 203.400 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 203.400 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Payment of Insurance Benefits § 203.400 Method of payment. If the application for insurance benefits is acceptable to the Commissioner payment...

  18. 24 CFR 576.63 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 576.63 Section... Grant Administration § 576.63 Method of payment. Payments are made to a grantee upon its request after...-day period in payment of eligible activity costs....

  19. 48 CFR 3452.232-72 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3452... 3452.232-72 Method of payment. As prescribed in 3432.170, insert the following clause in all solicitations and contracts: Method of Payment (AUG 1987) (a) Payments under this contract will be made...

  20. 49 CFR 209.109 - Payment of penalty; compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Internet at https://www.pay.gov/paygov/. Instructions for online payment are found on the Web site... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of penalty; compromise. 209.109 Section... Civil Penalties § 209.109 Payment of penalty; compromise. (a) Payment of a civil penalty may be made...

  1. Inheritance of Electronic Payment Accounts: Practice Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova EA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inheritance of electronic payment accounts (wallets, such as Yandex Money, WebMoney, and similar. In terms of safety and ease, electronic money calculation is the most promising calculation method in Internet. Payments with non-cash settlements are much more beneficial from all points of view. They greatly accelerate the payment process, simplify it, and help to reduce transaction costs. This is most clearly seen in the example, where the buyer and seller are located in a distance from each other in different countries. In development of the electronic money and online money transactions, a question occurs about the legal aspects and the rights of the heirs of the electronic payment accounts. This topic is relevant today, as almost every person every day faces in the electronic payments, but not everyone knows what they are and how they operate. The main objective of the study is to determine the legal status of the electronic payment accounts and the possibility of their inheritance by law. A lot of scientists devoted their works to the problems of studying the theoretical foundations of the electronic payment system, its place and role in the financial system, and its development. However, for the first time the legal matter of inheritance is considered from the practical aspect, wherein the novelty of the present study lays. The article concludes on the need to verify the owner of the electronic wallet for the rights of his heirs.

  2. 24 CFR 206.25 - Calculation of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of payments. 206.25 Section 206.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Calculation of payments. (a) Initial payment. At closing an initial payment shall be made by the mortgagee...

  3. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of incentive payment. 305.31 Section 305.31... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.31 Amount of incentive payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment...

  4. 7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment; advance deposit. 27.92 Section 27... Micronaire § 27.92 Method of payment; advance deposit. Any payment or advance deposit under this subpart...,” and may not be made in cash except in cases where the total payment or deposit does not exceed...

  5. 30 CFR 218.201 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 218.201 Section 218.201... Method of payment. You must tender all payments in accordance with § 218.51, except as follows: (a) For... and your customer document identification numbers on your payment document, rather than...

  6. 20 CFR 404.2119 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 404.2119 Section 404.2119...- ) Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 404.2119 Method of payment. Payment to the State VR agencies or alternate participants pursuant to this subpart will be made either...

  7. Payment instrument choice: the case of prepaid cards

    OpenAIRE

    Sujit Chakravorti; Victor Lubasi

    2006-01-01

    The costs and benefits to payment system participants can differ depending on which payment mechanism is used. The authors specifically explore the costs and benefits of prepaid card applications versus other payment instruments, such as cash, checks, and debit cards, for certain payment segments, including gift, payroll, and employer-initiated and government benefit programs.

  8. Payment of research subjects for more than minimal risk trials is unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Bernstein, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This article explores the ethics of paying research participants for studies involving more than minimal risk using arguments grounded in morality, logic and pragmatism, as well as patient responses from a focused qualitative study. The authors argue that payment of research participants is ethically unacceptable. Balanced against the probability of harmful risks, guaranteed payment to participants represents excessive and undue influence and leads to commodification of human health. Patients range in their opinions on whether payment for research participation is ethical, considering issues of justice and nonmaleficence. From basic assumptions about the correlation between risks, financial need and willingness to participate in studies, the authors demonstrate that payments lead to unjustly influencing patients, especially the financially needy to participate in potentially harmful studies. Previous commentators have offered methods to regulate payment to participants, but these models do not seem feasible or ethically sound. PMID:21804364

  9. Size Matters: Economies of Scale in European Payment Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Beijnen, Christine; Bolt, Wilko

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence and extent of economies of scale in the European payment processing industry. It is expected that the creation of a Single European Payments Area (SEPA) will spur consolidations and mergers among European payment processors to more fully realize payment economies of scale. We find evidence for the existence of significant economies of scale using data of eight European payment processors during the years 1990-2005. The analysis also reveals that ownership...

  10. Methods of Payment to Banks:e- Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Petronella VLAD; Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-01-01

    E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accoun...

  11. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  12. Direct pricing of retail payment methods: Norway vs. US

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Callado Muñoz; Jana Hromcová; Natalia Utrero González

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general equilibrium model that helps explaining payment choice at the retail level: cash, electronic and paper-based instruments. In particular, it provides theoretical foundations to reconcile previous empirical evidence on this issue. The payment pattern of a given country can be shaped by the payment infrastructure, the cost of each payment instrument, the degree of technology development and the interest rate. We show that the introduction of a cheaper payment i...

  13. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  14. Study of Mobile Payment Services in India : Distribution of the roles, responsibilities and attitudes amongst actors of the payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sing Sambhy, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Information technology and payment systems have witnessed the introduction, acceptance and wide scale deployment of electronic payment systems. The payment system ecosystem has now witnessed the introduction of mobile payment systems and their associated services. Major actors involved in mobile payment systems include telecom operators, banks, merchants and consumers. They need to aggregate their resources and develop a coherent ecosystem which would help the individual actors while also ben...

  15. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section 203.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE PAYMENT OF FEDERAL TAXES AND THE...

  16. RESEARCH OF METHODS OF RECEPTION OF PAYMENTS IN INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Тихенко, Володимир Олегович; Толстобров, Андрій Вікторович

    2010-01-01

    These are common approaches in receiving payment in the Internet. The variants of these approaches to domestic electronic resources. A unified approach for the realization of the possibility of receiving the basic types of payments on its share.

  17. Towards a European payments market: survey results on cross-border payment behaviour of Dutch consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Jonker; Anneke Kosse

    2008-01-01

    National noncash retail payment markets in the euro area will gradually migrate to a single euro payments area (SEPA) from 2008 onwards. Within SEPA, citizens will be able to make and receive payments to and from other euro countries as easily and safely, and on the same conditions, as in their own country using one bank account and one set of payment instruments (debit card, credit transfer and direct debit). This study reveals that the Dutch pay differently for their cross-border purchases ...

  18. The Postponement of Retirement Age and Payment Balance of Pension Plan: Mechanisms and Policy Effects%延迟退休年龄与养老保险收支余额:作用机制及政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熠

    2011-01-01

    文章通过连续时间养老金收支模型分析认为延迟退休年龄对养老保险计划收支余额的影响来自四个方面的效应,即缴费年限效应、领取年限效应、替代率效应和差异效应。改革的最终效果是上述四种效应共同作用的结果。短期看,前两种效应占据主导;长期看,后两种效应也具有显著影响。延迟退休年龄的政策效果和工资增长率、养老金增长率、改革速度以及未来参保人口结构有关。理论分析和实证检验结果表明,无论从改革过程还是从对养老保险计划收支余额的影响看,延迟退休年龄都是一个复杂而渐进的过程,延迟退休年龄必将减轻政府在养老保险方面负担的传统说法%By the analysis of a continuous-time model of pension payments, this paper considers that the effects of the postponement of retirement age on the payment balance of pension plan stem from payment period effect, obtainment period effect, substitution rati

  19. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA)

  20. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  1. Payment portals

    OpenAIRE

    Röschel, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Work is focused on presenting payment portals in online world, describing their begins, development and daily using. There are explained basic facts about fees, security, use and implementation of payment portals. Advantages and disadvantages of payment portals are presented in compare with others online payment methods. Work is also compared in global situation, situation in Czech Republic and situation in public sector. A part of work is also presentation of a few largest payment portals...

  2. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  3. 24 CFR 203.259 - Method of payment of MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment of MIP. 203.259 Section 203.259 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.259 Method of payment of MIP. The payment of any MIP under this subpart shall be made to...

  4. State of the Art Review of Mobile Payment Technology

    OpenAIRE

    McKetterick, David; Dowling, Jim

    2003-01-01

    [Introduction] Mobile payments will gain significant traction in the coming years as the mobile and payment technologies mature and become widely available. Various technologies are competing to become the established standards for physical and virtual mobile payments, yet it is ultimately the users who will determine the level of success of the technologies through their adoption. Only if it becomes easier and cheaper to transact business using mobile payment applications than...

  5. Analysis of payment cards at selected Czech banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rybová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns with payment cards - one of the most popular banking instruments of the modern world. Theoretical part describes origin and history of payment cards, characteristics and usage. There is also a classification of payment cards according to several criteria and the brief description of technology background. In the practical part, there is an analysis of payment cards offered by two major Czech banks operating in the Czech Republic – Československá obchodní banka, a. s. and ...

  6. The Dual Role of Mobile Payment in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia Chaix; Dominique Torre

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capacity of mobile-payment solutions to improve financial inclusion in developing countries. It elaborates from rural East African countries experiences where mobile payment services have developed rapidly. With a simple dynamic model which rationalizes traders' adoption process of distant mobile payment services, we analyze the role of telephonic operators in financial inclusion. We point out the interest of a diversified supply of m-payment services, including simpli...

  7. Condition based payment: improving care of chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    DiPiero, Albert; Sanders, David G

    2005-01-01

    Fee-for-service is more than a payment method; it defines the method of care. Fee-for-condition—a payment method that rewards superior results and encourages innovation—could greatly improve care for chronic conditions

  8. Internet payments and the development of electronic business in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mereshenko, K.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of the development of Internet payments in Ukraine. The author of the article examines the Internet payment like effective co-operation of the user and salesman. The author analyses the features of the use of electronic payments such as WebMoney, PayCash, PayPal and credits-cards.

  9. Will online bill payment spell the demise of paper checks?

    OpenAIRE

    James C. McGrath

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years, the emergence and adoption of electronic payment instruments have acutely affected check usage. This transition has been especially evident at the point of sale as debit and credit cards have become pervasive. Today, the rapid growth of online bill payment looks to threaten checks’ last redoubt. However, bill payment technology is still in its adolescence; the interplay of many stakeholders in the industry, including technology firms, banks, billers, payment cards...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6654-5 - Payments of estimated tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated tax. 1.6654-5 Section 1... Payments of estimated tax. (a) In general. A payment of estimated tax by an individual shall be determined on Form 1040-ES. For the purpose of determining the estimated tax, the amount of gross income...

  11. Consumer Spending and the Economic Stimulus Payments of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan A. Parker; Nicholas S. Souleles; Johnson, David S.; Robert McClelland

    2013-01-01

    We measure the response of household spending to the economic stimulus payments (ESPs) disbursed in mid-2008, using special questions added to the Consumer Expenditure Survey and variation arising from the randomized timing of when the payments were disbursed. We find that, on average, households spent about 12-30% (depending on the specification) of their stimulus payments on nondurable expenditures during the three-month period in which the payments were received. Further, there was also a ...

  12. Analysis of the Norwegian NFC Mobile Payment Business Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Erlend Glück; Kähler, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) has for a long time been assumed to become the technology that would finally bring mobile payment services to consumers on a large scale. However, a broad adoption of such services still remains to be seen. In Norway, the most prominent bank and mobile network operator created the joint venture TSM Nordic with the purpose of releasing the mobile payment wallet application, Valyou.This payment service solution requires the establishment of a new payment ecosystem...

  13. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  14. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive payments. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, DOE shall make incentive payments under...

  15. 5 CFR 591.404 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 591.404 Section 591... DIFFERENTIALS Separate Maintenance Allowance for Duty at Johnston Island § 591.404 Method of payment. (a... rates as follows: (1) Divide the annual rate of payment by the number of days in the applicable...

  16. Methods of Employees Payments – Empirical Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Król

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this announcement, the empirical research results of methods of employees payments are presented. The research was made in 232 Polish organizations, mainly in the limited companies. Empirical test included the middle industry companies, which realized their economic activities on the international markets. The research applied on amount of payments, their flexibility, basic and others factors of payment.

  17. How consumers pay: Adoption and use of payments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey on consumer payment behavior, we estimate Heckman two-stage regressions on the adoption and use of seven different payment instruments. We find that the characteristics of payments are important in determining consumer payment behavior, even when controlling for demographic and financial attributes: setup and record keeping are especially important in explaining adoption, while security is important in explaining which methods consumers use f...

  18. 48 CFR 32.503-2 - Supervision of progress payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of progress... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.503-2 Supervision of progress payments. (a) The extent of progress payments supervision, by prepayment review...

  19. 30 CFR 218.301 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Method of payment. The payor shall tender all payments in accordance with 30 CFR 218.51. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 218.301 Section 218.301 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...

  20. 7 CFR 277.5 - Methods of payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... meeting the requirements for the LOC method of payment or failing to meet LOC reporting requirements... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of payment 277.5 Section 277.5 Agriculture... § 277.5 Methods of payment (a) This section sets forth FNS methods for authorizing funds for...

  1. 7 CFR 1410.43 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 1410.43 Section 1410.43... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.43 Method of payment. Except as provided in § 1410.50, payments made by CCC under this part may be made in...

  2. 42 CFR 414.313 - Initial method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial method of payment. 414.313 Section 414.313... Charges Under the ESRD Program § 414.313 Initial method of payment. (a) Basic rule. Under this method, the... payment for all the ESRD facility patients that he or she attends. (2) The initial method of...

  3. 48 CFR 3432.170 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of payment. 3432... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 3432.170 Method of payment. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.232-72, Method of Payment, in all solicitations...

  4. Exploring the new face of retail payments (special issue)

    OpenAIRE

    Katy Jacob; Anna Lunn

    2011-01-01

    At the Chicago Fed’s 2011 Payments Conference, held on May 19–20, participants discussed how changes in consumers’ behavior in the wake of the financial crisis and recession can translate into opportunities and challenges for both traditional and nascent payment providers. They also focused on the impact of payment innovations and new consumer protection regulations.

  5. 45 CFR 1801.53 - Postponement of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponement of payment. 1801.53 Section 1801.53... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.53 Postponement of payment... other circumstances. (b) If the Foundation grants a postponement, it may impose conditions as it...

  6. 24 CFR 241.1050 - Method of loan payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of loan payment. 241.1050 Section 241.1050 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1050 Method of loan payment. The loan shall provide for monthly payments on...

  7. 30 CFR 219.102 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 219.102 Section 219.102... (EFT). Should a State prefer to receive its payment by EFT, it should request this payment method in... DISTRIBUTION AND DISBURSEMENT OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, AND BONUSES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 219.102 Method...

  8. 44 CFR 354.6 - Billing and payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing and payment of fees. 354.6 Section 354.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM § 354.6 Billing and payment of fees. (a) Electronic billing and payment....

  9. 75 FR 24384 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions Policy on Payment System Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... contractual clearing balances and would not be available for general payments or other activities. \\1\\ 74 FR... was a ``service'' in direct competition with private-sector deposits and funds management services... commenters cited the ability to maintain flexibility in the event of changing financial circumstances....

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.275 - May a SASP accept personal checks and non-official payment methods in payment of service charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP accept personal checks and non-official payment methods in payment of service charges? 102-37.275 Section 102-37... non-official payment methods in payment of service charges? No, service charge payments must...

  11. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters in...... the payment industry. These actors issue four types of payment systems, and we can observe that three of four platforms types can be classified as multi-sided platforms (MSP). All alternatives seek foothold by issuing evolutionary payment instruments, which are intertwined with digital payment...

  12. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the pr

  13. The Reality of Electronic Payments in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Amie Esezobor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria wants its financial system to operate like in the developed economies of the world so that come year 2020, it will be seen and recognized as one of the leading economies in the world. To achieve this lofty target, the payment system was directed by fiat by the apex bank, Central Bank of Nigeria to be by electronic methods so that the system of paying cash for virtually every purchase will now give way to electronic payment. Lagos State was selected as a pilot study for five other states in the country to join 1st July, 2013. There are far-reaching implications for a country with a mammoth population of 140 million people; the majority of whom are not aware of the new payment direction. This research aimed therefore to find out how prepared and willing Nigerians are in embracing electronic payments system. I found out at the end of the study, that Nigerians were not impressed with the cashless policy and the attempt to introduce N5,000 cash note along with a repackaging of new coins to replace the existing lower denominations of cash in notes. Rather, they want policy makers and the government to address the grave insecurity to life and property in the land and provide stable electricity and water supply.

  14. An Analysis of the Mobile Payment Problem in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile payment is crucial for, but not limited to mobile commerce. But a role as an established payment system still seems to be a distant prospect for it. In this paper we examine the basic conditions to mobile payment with special regard to the European market. Based on this, we analyze the current deadlock on the mobile payment market in order to develop a set of requirements to an integrative solution in the form of a Universal Mobile Payment System (UMPS). Finally, applications and const...

  15. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the beneficiary's inpatient admission and the hospital does not attest that such service is... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care...

  16. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... described in this subpart for inpatient hospital services furnished in to Medicare Part A fee-for-service... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient...

  17. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack,...

  18. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  19. A puzzle of card payment pricing : why are merchants still accepting card payments?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents models that explain why merchants accept payment cards even when the fees they face exceed the transactional benefits they receive from a card transaction. Such merchant behaviors can be explained by competition among merchants and/or the effectiveness of the merchant’s card acceptance in shifting cardholders’ demand for goods upward. The prevalent assumption used in payment card literature—merchants accept cards only when their transactional benefits are higher than the f...

  20. Disclosure of Industry Payments to Physicians: An Epidemiologic Analysis of Early Data From the Open Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah C; Jackson, Madeleine E; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Open Payments program implements Section 6002 of the Affordable Care Act requiring medical product manufacturers to report payments made to physicians or teaching hospitals as well as ownership or investment interests held by physicians in the manufacturer. To determine the characteristics and distribution of these industry payments by specialty, we analyzed physician payments made between August 1, 2013, and December 31, 2013, that were publicly disclosed by Open Payments. We compared payments between specialty types (medical, surgical, and other) and across specialties within each type using the Pearson χ(2) test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The number of physicians receiving payments was compared with the total number of active physicians in each specialty in 2012. We also analyzed physician ownership interests. Allopathic and osteopathic physicians received 2.43 million payments totaling $475 million. General payments represented 90% of payments by total value ($430 million) (per-physician median, $100; interquartile range [IQR], $31-$273; mean ± SD, $1407±$23,766), with the remaining 10% ($45 million) as research payments (median, $2365; IQR, $592-$8550; mean ± SD, $12,880±$66,743). Physicians most likely to receive general payments were cardiovascular specialists (78%) and neurosurgeons (77%); those least likely were pathologists (9%). Reports of ownership interest in reporting entities included $310 million in dollar amount invested and $447 million in value of interest held by 2093 physicians. In conclusion, the distribution and characteristics of industry payments to physicians varied widely by specialty during the first half-year of Open Payments reporting. PMID:26763512

  1. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS OF THE PAYMENT CARD'S USE AS A PAYMENT METHOD IS RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyze theoretical and practical questions of payment cards use in Russian Federation and abroad. Authors discuss historical and practical reasons for choosing payment cards as payment method, as well as reasons for different kinds of cards use. Authors pay discuss questions of payment card use in Russian Federation at the present time and analyze questions of such payment method use after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR. Author’s discussion is based on the analyses of the current state of the Russian Federation banking system, its development and current state. During discussion authors use statistical data, including data on the largest banks in Russian Federation at the present time. In conclusion authors present ideas on possible ways of Russian Federation banking system future development in regard to payment cards (both debit and credit use as a method of the non-cash payment implementation.

  2. 29 CFR 3.10 - Methods of payment of wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Methods of payment of wages. 3.10 Section 3.10 Labor Office... IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.10 Methods of payment of wages. The payment of wages shall be by cash, negotiable instruments payable on demand, or the additional forms...

  3. 12 CFR 37.5 - Method of payment of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment of fees. 37.5 Section 37.5... AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS § 37.5 Method of payment of fees. Except as provided in § 37.3(c)(2), a bank may offer a customer the option of paying the fee for a contract in a single payment, provided...

  4. 26 CFR 1.636-1 - Treatment of production payments as loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the hands of the person carving out the production payment immediately after the transfer of such... payment created and retained upon the transfer of the mineral property burdened by such production payment... deferred payments in the case of a production payment created and retained upon the transfer of the...

  5. Transformation of payment systems: The case of European Union enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Callado Muñoz; Jana Hromcová; Natalia Utrero González

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a general equilibrium model on payment choice at retail level. We analyze how the accession to an economic and monetary union, and the influence of new institutions may shape the evolution of consumers’ payments in newly acceded countries. The model suggests that accessing countries approach accepting group attitudes towards payment choices as a consequence of institutional pressure and technology development. We apply the results of the model to 2004 European Union e...

  6. Utilisation of payment instruments at a retail chain in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M. Bester

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of race and income on the preferred payment instrument at pay points in a retail store in Pretoria Gauteng.Problem investigated: The method of payment, as well as the way these payment methods have been utilised, has evolved throughout history. Cash has stayed at the top of the payment instrument deck as a payment choice for the past 10 decades. With the expansion of technology payment instruments evolved to facilitate exchange between merchant and consumer. The preferred method of payment at a retail store in Gauteng, indicating whether consumers prefer cash payments or the use of cards was investigated. Further to this the difference in payment method between the different races and income groups was identified.Methodology: A quantitative survey research method was used. The statistical analysis entailed correlations using the Cramer’s V to test the dependency between two variables and the degree of dependency of variables, after which the Chi-Square test was also applied.Value of the research: The indication of consumer preference of payment method will have implications on which possibilities are available at the point of sale. Cash is no longer the only possible payment instrument; cards, debit and credit, are as easily used by consumers. Both banks and merchants will find this information important, since they need to make provision for different payment options. The results further distinguished consumer behaviour amongst different race groups and income groups.Conclusion: The research confirmed the previous findings in other countries that consumers have preconceived ideas on which payment instrument they would utilise at point of sale(POS.

  7. 10 CFR 603.810 - Method and frequency of payment requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method and frequency of payment requests. 603.810 Section... payment requests. The procedure and frequency for payment requests depend upon the payment method, as... forms or formats described in 10 CFR 600.312(d). (b) If the payments are based on payable...

  8. Electronic payments using payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Waaij, B. D.; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a mobile communication device (1) and a payment card (2), both the mobile communication device (1) and the payment card (2) being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least the mobile communication device (1) being provided with an input unit (12) for inputting data. The method comprises the steps of: etc.

  9. The Ethics of Payment for Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés; Ana Lid del-Ángel-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an economic tool that has emerged in recent years as a mechanism to promote conservation of natural resources, as well as that of various goods and services commonly used. However, its application in practice raises a number of ethical concerns that this study seeks to discuss. The concept and benefits of PES are discussed, emphasizing its neoclassical economic nature background and how the initial anthropogenic position has evolved into a more holi...

  10. Credit card debt and payment use

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Charles; Stavins, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Approximately half of credit card holders in the United States regularly carry unpaid credit card debt. These so-called "revolvers" exhibit payment behavior that differs from that of those who repay their entire credit card balance every month. Previous literature has focused on the adoption of debit cards by people who carry credit card balances, but so far there has been no empirical analysis exploring the relationship between revolving behavior and patterns of payment use, such as substitu...

  11. Evolution of Retail Payments in Finland in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, Jussi

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s the availability of location-specific retail payment services in Finland declined substantially, but at the same time there was a surge of development of self-service methods. These new methods, which make use eg of mobile phones and the Internet, dramatically increased the availability of payment services that are not tied to location. More traditional forms of payment still exist; for example, the use of cash remains significant. In Europe there are marked differences betwe...

  12. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  13. Security of retail payments: The new strategic objective

    OpenAIRE

    Stavins, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Reserve Financial Services Strategic Plan for 2012 - 2016 specifies five main policy goals for the next few years. The second of its goals is to "Maintain public confidence in the end-to-end safety and security of clearing and settlement systems." Indeed, in each annual Survey of Consumer Payment Choice (SCPC), respondents consistently rank security as the most important characteristic of payment methods. However, in regressions of consumer payment use, security is not as signific...

  14. Impact of Complementary National Direct Payments on Cattle Breeding Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Řezbová, K. Tomšík

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a topic of Complementary National Direct Payments (CNDP in the Czech Republic. It is focused on a relationship between allocated financial sources (in CZK and selected indicators of cattle breeding as heads of dairy cows, milk yield, milk balance, self-sufficiency ratio and heads of suckler cows.Main aim of the article is to evaluate an influence of CNDP on cattle breeding in the Czech Republic, especially on dairy sector and sector of suckler cows in the period 2007 - 2012.Used methods are chain and base indexes.Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  15. The impact of retail payment innovations on cash usage

    OpenAIRE

    Ben S.C. Fung; Huynh, Kim P.; Sabetti, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Many predict that innovations in retail payment may render cash obsolete. We investigate this possibility in the context of recent payment innovations such as contactless-credit and stored-value cards. We apply causal inference methods on the 2009 Bank of Canada Method of Payment survey, a representative sample of adult Canadians' shopping behaviour for retail consumption over a three-day period. We find that using contactless credit cards and stored-value cards lead to a reduction in average...

  16. Towards A Framework of Digital Payment Platform Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actor...

  17. The Effects of Premium Payment in Turkey Agricultural Supports System

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Gülistan; ERDAL, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of premium payment on cotton, sun flower, soybean, canola, aspire and maize productions in Turkey. This research was carried between 1980-2006 periods. Granger causality test was used to determine the relationship among production area, product prices and premium payment given in different years for these agricultural products. According to Granger causality test results, there was no relationship between production areas and premium payment...

  18. The changing nature of U.S. card payment fraud: industry and public policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    As credit and debit card payments have become the primary payment instrument in retail transactions, awareness of identity theft and concerns over the safety of payments has increased. Traditional forms of card payment fraud are still an important threat, but fraud resulting from unauthorized access to payment data appears to be rising, and we are only beginning to get a sense of the dimensions of the problem. ; Thus far, the role of public policy has been to encourage the card payment indust...

  19. Understanding consumers’ acceptance of mobile payments : a theoretical model and empirical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiajun

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates consumer acceptance of mobile payments. Mobile payments offer an alternative payment method for consumers, and allow consumers to make point-of-sales payments through mobile devices, such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). It aims to present a better understanding of mobile payments, developing a consumer acceptance model for mobile payments. Moreover, it offers a reference and a source of literature for the industry and academic researchers in...

  20. Incentives at the counter: An empirical analysis of surcharging card payment and payment behaviour in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; Nicole Jonker; Corry van Renselaar

    2008-01-01

    In card payment systems, no-surcharge rules prohibit merchants from charging consumers extra for card payments. However, Dutch retailers are allowed to surcharge consumers for their debit card use. This allows an empirical analysis of the impact of surcharging on the demand for debit card services, and the effect of removing the no-surcharge rule on card acceptance by retailers and on consumer payment choice. Based on consumer and retailer survey data, our analysis shows that surcharging stee...

  1. The electronification of transit fare payments: a look at the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority's New Payment Technologies Project

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade many of the nation's largest public transit providers have gone from fare-payment systems based on cash and coin to more modern electronic systems that implement payment cards, including agency-issued prepaid cards, credit cards, and debit cards. On September 16, 2008, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop to discuss the challenges and opportunities facing the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) as it...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4379 - Payment of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of insurance. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4379 Payment of insurance. (a) Upon the continuance of a default for a period of three months, the holder may proceed...

  3. 18 CFR 381.105 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 381.105 Section 381.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES FEES General Provisions § 381.105 Method of payment. Fee...

  4. 32 CFR 203.15 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES § 203.15 Method of payment. The SAP set forth in FAR (48 CFR part 13) require purchase orders to... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of payment. 203.15 Section 203.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE...

  5. 7 CFR 215.5 - Method of payment to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment to States. 215.5 Section 215.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.5 Method of payment to States. (a) Funds to be paid to any...

  6. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS OF THE PAYMENT CARD’S USE AS A PAYMENT METHOD IS RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Galushkin; Valeriy V. Grebennikov; Dmitriy A. Pashentsev; Igor M. Potashnik; Marat S. Shaykhullin; Elena V. Maystrovich; Anastasiya S. Zhykovec

    2014-01-01

    In the present article authors analyze theoretical and practical questions of payment cards use in Russian Federation and abroad. Authors discuss historical and practical reasons for choosing payment cards as payment method, as well as reasons for different kinds of cards use. Authors pay discuss questions of payment card use in Russian Federation at the present time and analyze questions of such payment method use after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Author&a...

  7. 7 CFR 97.177 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment. 97.177 Section 97.177 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Fees and Charges § 97.177 Method of payment. Checks or money orders...

  8. 32 CFR 716.7 - Payment of the death gratuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of the death gratuity. 716.7 Section 716.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.7 Payment of the death gratuity. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 57.309 - Payment of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of nursing student loans. 57.309 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.309 Payment of nursing student loans. (a) Nursing student loans from any fund may be paid...

  10. 31 CFR 103.77 - Payment of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of expenses. 103.77 Section 103.77 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Summons § 103.77 Payment of expenses....

  11. 12 CFR 627.2755 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of claims. 627.2755 Section 627.2755 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2755 Payment of claims. (a) All claims of...

  12. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer...

  13. Security issues of new innovative payments and their regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Gabriella, Gimigliano

    2016-01-01

    Kasiyanto discusses how the security issues of M-payments and Bitcoin as new forms of innovative payments challenge the existing EU regulatory frameworks, and whether the proposed regulatory frameworks suffice to address such challenges. The regulatory frameworks Kasiyanto discusses mainly focus on

  14. 49 CFR 1021.6 - Method of claim payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of claim payment. 1021.6 Section 1021.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... § 1021.6 Method of claim payment. (a) Debtors: Debtors shall be required to settle claims by: (1)...

  15. 24 CFR 213.260 - Allowable methods of premium payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable methods of premium payment. 213.260 Section 213.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Allowable methods of premium payment. Premiums shall be payable in cash or in debentures at par plus...

  16. 16 CFR 240.12 - Checking customer's use of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking customer's use of payments. 240.12... ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.12 Checking customer's use of... are furnished and that the seller is not overpaying for them. The customer should expend the...

  17. 75 FR 80977 - Disclosure of Payments by Resource Extraction Issuers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... contributes to sustainable development and poverty reduction.'' EITI Source Book (2005) at p. 4 (available at... compliance with host country laws, regulations and permits, and payments made to host country governments in respect of tax, royalties and other significant payments on a country by country basis) and Note...

  18. 20 CFR 416.2219 - Method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment. 416.2219 Section 416.2219 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 416.2219 Method...

  19. 75 FR 44028 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... collection of information under Part 4007 of its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212... 202-326- 4040.) The premium payment regulation and the premium instructions (including illustrative... of the premium payment regulation, plan administrators are required to file premium payments...

  20. Assessment of perioperative fluid balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbaširević V.; Marković D.; Vlajković G.; Sinđelić R.

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid ther...

  1. Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate: Interrelation Dialectics Платежный баланс и валютный курс: диалектика взаимосвязи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veriga Anna V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article systemises principles of levelling the balance of payments stated in IMF Charter and Main Principles of Monetary and Credit Policy of the National Bank of Ukraine. It analyses dynamics of indicators of the state of the balance of payments of Ukraine and official exchange rate of UAH during the period from 1998 till 2011. It studies correlation and regressive links between the following indicators: balance of the current account of the balance of payments, export of goods and services, import of goods and services, gross foreign debt, official reserve assets, and official exchange rate of UAH to USD. It gives economic interpretation of the obtained statistical results. It provides a correlation and regressive model of official exchange rate, which allows identification of quantitative parameters of devaluation of UAH in the event of growth of the foreign debt and revaluation in the event of growth of volumes of reserve assets. It gives recommendations on the use of inter-state methods of regulation of the balance of payments.В статье систематизированы принципы выравнивания платежного баланса, зафиксированные Уставом МВФ и Основными принципами денежно-кредитной политики Национального банка Украины. Проанализирована динамика показателей состояния платежного баланса Украины и официального курса гривни в течение 1998 – 2011 гг. Исследованы корреляционно-регрессионные связи между такими показателями: сальдо текущего счета платежного баланса, экспорт товаров и услуг, импорт товаров и услуг, валовой внешний долг, о

  2. The Ethics of Payment for Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES is an economic tool that has emerged in recent years as a mechanism to promote conservation of natural resources, as well as that of various goods and services commonly used. However, its application in practice raises a number of ethical concerns that this study seeks to discuss. The concept and benefits of PES are discussed, emphasizing its neoclassical economic nature background and how the initial anthropogenic position has evolved into a more holistic ecosystem vision. The paper examines some of the relationships between ethics and ecosystem services as well as the natural conflicts emerging from the opposition of utilitarian economic values versus moral arguments and deontological ethical systems. Then, a justification for ethics in payment for ecosystem services is provided as an attempt to solve perceived conflicts between conservation and human welfare. Later, the right to benefit from natural resources and PES is discussed. The conflict between natural resources as public goods whose use is a universal right for all human beings and the property rights, either legal or ancestral, of indigenous and originary people is stressed. Finally, the future of ethics and ecosystem services on issues such as the well-being of future generations and the search of an efficient integration based on land planning and conservation management strategies is discussed. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for a better, integrated accounting of the benefits and costs of nature conservation, which will probably only occur when teams of natural and social scientists work together.

  3. Value Added Services and Adoption of Mobile Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... existing literature and empirically tested through an experimental design survey, in which the experimental group is exposed to a mobile payment solution with VAS, including receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons, and the control group is exposed to a mobile payment solution without VAS. Our findings show...... that intention to adopt mobile payments increases as VAS are introduced and that this increase comes from a positive change in Perceived Usefulness, compatibility, and Convenience....

  4. Time Efficiency Of Point-Of-Sale Payment Methods: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Micha ł Polasik,; Jakub Górka; Gracjan Wilczewski; Janusz Kunkowski; Karolina Przenajkowska

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a wide range of differ ent payment methods used at Point-Of-Sales from traditional cash and standard cards to contactless cards, RFID stickers and mobile payments (NFC and remote). All payment instruments are compared under the criterion of time efficiency that means the duration of a payment tr ansaction. The measurement of payment transactions was undertaken with the help of a novel research technique based on a digital chronography of vid...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6315-1 - Payments of estimated income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments of estimated income tax. 301.6315-1... Payments of estimated income tax. The payment of any installment of the estimated income tax (see sections... the estimate is made. The aggregate amount of the payments of estimated tax should be entered upon...

  6. Using the non-cash forms of payment of foreign invoices

    OpenAIRE

    Rusanov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor’s work dealing with cashless payment transactions with orientation on foreign payments. The dissertation is divided into two parts: The first part consists of the classification and characteristics of non-cash forms of payment which you can use in foreign payments. It also includes a description of the legal standards and the course of transaction. The second part is analyzed and described by selected commercial payment transaction, is given specific examples and the way of pay...

  7. The development of contactless payment market in Poland and in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Kunkowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess factors that stimulate cashless payment organizations to introduction of contactless payment onto market, as well as the barrier for the development of this innovation. The paper presents the development directions of innovative payment methods. The article describes the evolution and functioning of contactless technology offered by the major payment organizations.

  8. The Costs of Paying – Private and Social Costs of Cash and Card Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Mats; Guibourg, Gabriela; Segendorf, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the central role of payments in theoretical and policy oriented economics, there is surprisingly little known about the costs of different payment instruments. We estimate social and private costs of cash, debit and credit card payments in Sweden in 2002. The combined social cost of providing these payment services is approximately 0.4 per cent of GDP. Debit and credit cards are socially less costly than cash for payments above EURO 8 and EURO 18, respectively. Corresponding threshold...

  9. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  10. 42 CFR 447.362 - Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Prepaid Capitation Plans § 447.362 Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract....

  11. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  12. 75 FR 49821 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., 2009, the Treasury Department and the IRS published in the Federal Register (74 FR 61294) proposed... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... payment card and third party network transactions. The final regulations implement section 6050W...

  13. 75 FR 9142 - Information Reporting for Payments Made in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... (74 FR 61294), announced that a public hearing on proposed regulations relating to information... in Settlement of Payment Card and Third Party Network Transactions; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... withholding requirements for payment card and third party network transactions. DATES: The public...

  14. Merchant acceptance, costs, and perceptions of retail payments: A Canadian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos; Taylor, Varya

    2008-01-01

    Using the results of a survey on accepted means of payment, the authors examine merchant preferences and perceptions of retail payment reliability, risk, and costs; the share of each type of payment method over total sales; and the costs involved in accepting payments. Models are developed for each means of payment in order to determine how merchant characteristics may influence their responses. The authors find that the average transaction value, total transaction volume, and/or number of po...

  15. Consumer awareness and the use of payment media: evidence from young Finnish consumers

    OpenAIRE

    HYYTINEN, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas

    2008-01-01

    In the market for payment media, some consumers use only one medium when paying for their point-of-sale transactions, while others use many. This pattern reflects the diffusion of new payment media, because a payment method innovation is typically first used simultaneously with the established methods. We study the use of multiple payment media by employing data on young Finnish consumers. We find that the use of multiple payment media is directly related to consumer awareness and that not co...

  16. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments. PMID:24199517

  17. Creating an Association of Southeast Asian Nations payment system: Policy and regulatory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Khiaonarong, Tanai

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is expected to benefit from the significant growth in the Asia-Pacific payments market. Growth in economic activity would increase the size, scale, and scope of payment transactions. Enabling the scale and scope of payments would in turn increase economic activity. This would also require national payment systems to be regionalized and operate with cross-border and multi-currency capabilities. As existing regional payment arrangements have il...

  18. Trends towards fragmentation of the mobile payment market in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Markendahl, Jan; Apanasevic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden many new mobile payment solutions and services have been proposed during the last years. Banks and payment providers have proposed different forms of person to person (P2P) and Point of Sales (PoS) services that are tested and taken into commercial use. The Swedish mobile operators have joined forces and formed a joint venture that offers a separate charging solution that can be used for mobile payments and e-commerce, i.e. not using the phone bill. Early 2013 the SMS ticket for pub...

  19. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  20. The Problems and Suggestions of the Statistical Monitoring of the Balance of Payments under the New Situation%浅析新形势下国际收支统计监测面临的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有良; 梁驰

    2015-01-01

    2015, will be the key point in the global economic recovery. At this point, the dollar's short-term appreciation of the euro and the yen in the short term is a high probability event, two-way fluctuations in the RMB has become the norm. This creates a convenient circulation environment for the abnormal cross-border capital lfows and the huge arbitrage space. This paper puts forward new problems and new challenges to the international revenue and expenditure statistics and monitoring of foreign exchange bureau. This paper makes a review of the abnormal cross-border capital flows.%2015年,将是全球经济复苏的关键时点,而在这个时点下,美元短期内升值、欧元和日元短期内贬值是高概率事件,人民币双向波动已经成为常态.这就为异常跨境资金流动创造了便利的流通环境以及丰厚的套利空间,这对外汇局国际收支统计监测工作提出了新问题和新挑战,本文对异常跨境资金流动渠道进行了梳理,并提出了统计监测方面的相关问题及建议.

  1. 7 CFR 220.5 - Method of payment to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.5 Method of payment to States. Funds to be paid to any State for the School Breakfast Program shall be made available by means of Letters...

  2. Effects of institutional environment and technology development on payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Callado-Muñoz, Francisco J.; Hromcová, Jana; Utrero-González, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the combination of institutional factors and technology advances as determinants of payment systems choice. The theoretical set up suggests that countries entering into a new institutional environment approach accepting group attitudes towards payment choices as a consequence of institutional pressure and technology development. We apply the results of the model to 2004 European Union enlargement process. Results confirm the relevance of both institutio...

  3. [Assessment of perioperative fluid balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelić, R; Vlajković, G; Marković, D; Bumbasirević, V

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid therapy and resuscitation. Fluid balance is the crucial factor in the maintenance of haemodynamic stability, tissue oxygenation and organ function. When the haemodynamic monitoring is applied in a rigorous and consistent manner, it reduces mortality and length of stay as well as costs incurred. There are a number of tests which describe the effectiveness of the invasive haemodynamic monitoring procedures usage. Since the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) had been introduced into clinical practice it was considered as a golden standard for cardiac output measurements, haemodynamic and fluid balance assessment. Nevertheless, in previous 10 years new minimally invasive and noninvasive simple techniques for haemodynamic monitoring and patient's hydroelectricity status evaluation have been developed. They can replace PAC under different clinical circumstances and some of these techniques PMID:19504992

  4. The Use of Card Payment Instruments : A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dagdemir, Canan; Sauer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of non-cash payment instruments, specifically debit and credit cards, has become a prominent feature of modern economies. With an interest in the explanation of this phenomenon and differences in use across countries, we apply a model of payment instrument use to model the relationship between the dependent variables (total volume of card transactions, debit card transactions, and credit card transactions) and the five independent variables based on income, infrast...

  5. Coordination on Use of Non-deferred Electronic Payment Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Pidong Huang; Manjong Lee

    2015-01-01

    In the use of electronic payment technology, there is strategic complementarity and hence room for self-fulfilling multiple equilibria. But existing relevant literature is silent about how agents¡¯ expectations become coordinated. This paper resolves the coordination problem in the use of a non-deferred electronic means of payment, which can be represented by a debit card. We focus on that because it is almost a perfect substitute for cash. The presence of exogenous shocks that have a fundame...

  6. 27 CFR 25.163 - Method of tax payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of tax payment. 25..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns § 25.163 Method of tax payment. A brewer shall pay the tax on beer by return on Form 5000.24, as provided in §§...

  7. Interim Study of Alternative Payment Localities under the...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare is statutorily required to adjust payments for physician fee schedule services to account for differences in costs due to geographic location. There are...

  8. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  9. What's really new about the new forms of retail payment?

    OpenAIRE

    William Roberds

    1997-01-01

    Rapid developments in technology have brought about new methods of retail payment-such as remote banking, electronic cash, and debit, stored-value, and smart cards-that were unavailable a decade ago. Some observers believe that these alternative payment methods will differ from traditional methods not only in a technological but also in an economic sense and will alter how consumers and businesses interact. ; This article examines the question of whether, from the standpoint of economic theor...

  10. Conditions for acceptance and usage of mobile payment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2003-01-01

    Mobile payment (MP) is crucial for, but not limited to mobile commerce. The key to mobile payment acceptance is in the hands of customers. In this paper we examine the conditions for acceptance and actual usage of MP procedures by the customer. We identify essential conditions which belong to the categories costs, security and convenience. Different preferences lead to an individual set of essential conditions for any single user. We propose a scheme for their representation and comparison an...

  11. Balance of a race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With their atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the USA ended the second World War. One year later, efforts to have the development of atomic weapons controlled by an international authority were abandoned because of a veto by the Soviet Union. The final goal of this effort would have been the destruction of all atomic weapons. For 35 years, politicians have talked about disarmament and have, at the same time continued to arm with nuclear weapons. (orig.)

  12. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of official documents and white papers pertaining to the two web-portals The Policy Grid Project and FEED that are launched by the UK and the EU respectively. The aim of the portals is to filter and synthesize information relevant for policy discussions and thereby...... improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social...... Construction of Technology' and it shows how the framing of the portals and the concrete digital choices taken in relation to the infrastructure are influenced by the social intentions of relevant social groups as well as by the technical limitations on computers abilities to process semantic data...

  13. A matter of balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Marie Louise; Owczarek, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Neurexins are primary located on the presynaptic membrane, whereas neuroligins are strictly postsynaptic proteins. Since their discovery, the knowledge of neurexins and neuroligins has expanded, implicating them in various neuronal...... processes, including the differentiation, maturation, stabilization, and plasticity of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Here, we review the most recent results regarding the structure and function of these cell adhesion molecules....

  14. Implementation of DRG Payment in France: issues and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Zeynep

    2014-08-01

    In France, a DRG-based payment system was introduced in 2004/2005 for funding acute services in all hospitals with the objectives of improving hospital efficiency, transparency and fairness in payments to public and private hospitals. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity of the reform, providers have become increasingly critical of the system because of the problems encountered during the implementation. In 2012 the government announced its intention to modify the payment model to better deal with its adverse effects. The paper reports on the issues raised by the DRG-based payment in the French hospital sector and provides an overview of the main problems with the French DRG payment model. It also summarises the evidence on its impact and presents recent developments for reforming the current model. DRG-based payment addressed some of the chronic problems inherent in the French hospital market and improved accountability and productivity of health-care facilities. However, it has also created new problems for controlling hospital activity and ensuring that care provided is medically appropriate. In order to alter its adverse effects the French DRG model needs to better align greater efficiency with the objectives of better quality and effectiveness of care. PMID:24962536

  15. Mobile payments in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Samia Y.

    2013-01-01

    This Asia Focus report explores the use of m-payments in Asia and evaluates the challenges it faces regarding wider adoption. Specifically, this report clarifies what an m-payment is, identifies which factors are facilitating and hindering the use of m-payments by consumers in certain economies of Asia, and summarizes key issues this new payment technology presents to government regulators.

  16. The impact of the Directive on Payment Services in the Internal Market on Danish and Belgium Legislation on Fraudulent Payment Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal. This Directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before the 1st November 2009, contains many rules on payments, including rules on the allocation of...... Directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promotes the creation of a common internal market for payment services...

  17. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  18. Changes in the fees on payment services and the structure of payments following the introduction of the financial transaction tax

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Ilyés; Kristóf Takács; Lóránt Varga

    2014-01-01

    Payment service providers passed the transaction tax on to their clients in several steps and to a significant degree, both in the spring, upon introduction of the tax, and in the autumn, when the rates of tax were raised. For cash withdrawals and bank transfers, the tax was typically passed on by being charged against the transaction directly. The tax was passed on directly at a much lower average rate among card purchases; however, the annual fees of payment cards were increased considerabl...

  19. The Boston Fed study of consumer behavior and payment choice: a survey of Federal Reserve System employees

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Marques; Blair, Krista; Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The way people pay for goods and services is changing dramatically, but little data and research on consumer behavior and payment choice are publicly available. This paper describes the results of a survey of payment behavior and attitudes taken by Federal Reserve employees in 2004. Major contributions of the survey are that it asks: 1) why payment choices are made; 2) why individual payment behavior has changed; and 3) why individual-specific payment characteristics matter for payment choice...

  20. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  1. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Malakjan, Stiv

    2010-01-01

    This thesis charts the evolution of Electronic payment systems and e-commerce. The goal is to create a complex picture about circumstances and causes that led to development and creation of new payment systems. The first part describes the evolution of money and payment systems that appeared during history. The second part focuses on e-money, electronic payment systems and the participants that are involved in payment processing trough this systems. It also explores the history of credit card...

  2. The Impact of Hospital Payment Schemes on Healthcare and Mortality: Evidence from Hospital Payment Reforms in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubulihasimu, Parida; Brouwer, Werner; van Baal, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    In this study, aggregate-level panel data from 20 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries over three decades (1980-2009) were used to investigate the impact of hospital payment reforms on healthcare output and mortality. Hospital payment schemes were classified as fixed-budget (i.e. not directly based on activities), fee-for-service (FFS) or patient-based payment (PBP) schemes. The data were analysed using a difference-in-difference model that allows for a structural change in outcomes due to payment reform. The results suggest that FFS schemes increase the growth rate of healthcare output, whereas PBP schemes positively affect life expectancy at age 65 years. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, as results are sensitive to model specification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26080792

  3. Costs, advantages and drawbacks of the various means of payment

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2006-01-01

    The total macroeconomic costs of the payment instruments used in the points of sale can be estimated to be 2.034 million euros, or 0.74 p.c. of Belgian GDP in 2003. The payment costs arising from cash were 0.58 p.c. of GDP, compared to 0.11 p.c. for debit cards, 0.04 p.c. for credit cards and 0.02 p.c. for the electronic purse Proton. About 50.5 p.c. of the payment costs originate in points of sale, whilst 47.1 p.c. come from the financial sector and 2.3 p.c. from currency-issuing institution...

  4. The evolution of the check as a means of payment: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Stephen; Roberds, William

    2008-01-01

    Though checks' popularity is now waning in favor of electronic payments, checks were, for much of the twentieth century, the most widely used noncash payment method in the United States. How did such a relatively inefficient form of payment become so dominant? This article traces the historical evolution of the check, focusing on its relation to complementary and competing payment technologies. ; Originating in the eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium as a convenient form of paym...

  5. On Water Balance of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problems concerning the water balance of the Black Sea. According to the new data river discharge is determined on the basis of which component elements of water balance are adjusted. (authors)

  6. In-Application Payment from Mobile Apps: A study of In-App Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Jøran Christiansen; Hanssen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate and compare existing serviceproviders of in-app payment solutions and their APIs, and then concludewhat would be the best choice for hobby developers when deciding on whatservice provider to use for their application.We gained hands-on experience by developing a simple Quiz game appthat featured the implementation of in-app purchase. We took a look atthe major service providers; Apple, Google, PayPal and Windows to getrelevant information and eva...

  7. 19 CFR 181.51 - Prevention of improper payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of improper payment of claims. 181.51 Section 181.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...-Deferral Programs § 181.51 Prevention of improper payment of claims. (a) Double payment of claim....

  8. The effect of transaction pricing on the adoption of electronic payments: a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Wilko Bolt; David Humphrey; Roland Uittenbogaard

    2005-01-01

    Pricing should speed up the substitution of low cost electronic payments for expensive paper-based transactions and cash. But by how much? Norway has explicitly priced individual payment transactions and rapidly shifted to electronic payments while the Netherlands has experienced the same shift without direct pricing. Controlling for differences between countries, the authors estimate the incremental effect of pricing on the shift to electronic payments. If users strongly value the improved c...

  9. Physicians in health care management: 5. Payment of physicians and organization of medical services.

    OpenAIRE

    Vayda, E

    1994-01-01

    The financing, payment and organization of medical services are closely related. Canada's health care system is financed publicly, from tax revenue, and administered in each province by a single government payer. Although the chief method of payment to physicians is fee for service (FFS), the need to control costs and organize practice more efficiently has led to increased interest in FFS variants, such as capping payments at a certain level or fixing a budget, and alternative payment methods...

  10. 42 CFR 413.70 - Payment for services of a CAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... payment under paragraph (a)(5) of this section, including the calculation of reasonable costs under §...

  11. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether they...... result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  12. Energy balances of OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewable and waste presented in energy balances. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. In the 1997 edition, key indicators have been provided back to 1960 instead of 1971 as in the previous editions. (author)

  13. Social costs of POS payments in the Netherlands 2002-2012: Efficiency gains from increased debit card usage

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Jonker

    2013-01-01

    The overall costs of the payment system to society are considerable. These costs depend on the relative usage of the available payment instruments, which differ in the costs that each entails to market participants in the payment chain. In the Netherlands, debit card payments have become less costly than cash payments. In 2012 an average cash payment cost EUR 0.44 whereas an average debit card payment cost EUR 0.30. Between 2002 and 2012, the number of debit card payments more than doubled to...

  14. Attitudes towards mobile payment : An empirical study of the consumers’ perception of security, privacy and convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbäck, Karin; Blommé, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Mobile payment is a new payment method that is being introduced on the Swedish market, but has not yet come to its breakthrough. This thesis investigates the attitude the Swedish consumer has towards mobile payment. Based on previous surveys and theory, three main attributes, security, privacy and convenience, were chosen to represent the attitude of the consumer towards mobile payment. In order to analyze the data obtained from the surveys conducted, the multi-attribute attitude model was us...

  15. 75 FR 28304 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... control number 1212-0007; expires April 30, 2011) and intends to request that the Office of Management and... 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the premium instructions (including illustrative... of the premium payment regulation, plan administrators are required to file premium payments...

  16. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  17. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  18. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  19. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  20. Integrated Health Care Payment Methods: Typology, Evidence And Pre-Conditions Of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Igor M. Sheiman

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have recently started the search for new payments methods with the specific objective to encourage integration in health care delivery – teamwork of providers, their coordination and continuity of care. This paper suggests the typology of three major integrated payment methods – pay-for-performance, episode based bundled payment and global payment. A brief overview of these methods in the USA and Europe, including Russia, indicates that there is still no strong evidence of thei...

  1. 42 CFR 412.82 - Payment for extended length-of-stay cases (day outliers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... average per diem payment for the applicable DRG, as calculated by dividing the Federal prospective payment... this part, by the arithmetic mean length of stay for that DRG. CMS issues the applicable percentage...

  2. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    regulatory environment and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature of the mobile phone, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established structure into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure......The payment field is being rapidly transformed. New players have emerged and are threatening the well-established positions of the incumbents. This process is driven by technology change and market forces, and it is shaped by the increasing role of the regulator. When considering the change in the....... The model captures the formation and development of the digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s and innovator’s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change which are followed by short and rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each...

  3. The Payment Vehicle Used in CV Studies of Environmental Goods Does Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ivehammar, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the payment vehicle on the valuation of an environmental good with the contingent valuation method (CVM). Results from three CV studies comparing different payment vehicles by using split samples when valuing environmental encroachment caused by roads in Sweden are presented and compared to results from other such split-sample studies of payment vehicle effects. The results are consistent and show that the payment vehicle affects the valuation, but not always...

  4. Resolving Reverse-Payment Settlements With The Smoking Gun Of Stock Price Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Elhauge, Einer Richard; McGuire, Thomas G; Drake, Keith; Hartman, Raymond S.; Starr, Martha Louise

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court recently held that in reverse payment settlements of drug patent disputes, anticompetitive effects can be inferred if the reverse payment exceeds the patent holder’s anticipated litigation costs, absent some offsetting justification. Application of this standard is problematic because defendants usually (a) obscure the amount of the reverse payment and (b) claim their settlement was justified by risk aversion. Further, even if a net reverse payment can be proven, it is littl...

  5. 41 CFR 301-51.101 - Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which payment methods... Carrier Transportation § 301-51.101 Which payment methods are considered the equivalent of cash? Use of one of the following payment methods of this section to procure common carrier transportation...

  6. 42 CFR 442.118 - Denial of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR... AND INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED Certification of ICFs/MR § 442.118 Denial of payments for new admissions to an ICF/MR. (a) Basis for denial of payments. The Medicaid...

  7. 41 CFR 102-38.290 - What types of payment may we accept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are not acceptable. (b) Irrevocable commercial letters of credit issued by a United States bank... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of payment... PROPERTY Completion of Sale Payments § 102-38.290 What types of payment may we accept? You must adopt...

  8. The balanced tensor product of module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Christopher L.; Schommer-Pries, Christopher; Snyder, Noah

    2014-01-01

    The balanced tensor product M (x)_A N of two modules over an algebra A is the vector space corepresenting A-balanced bilinear maps out of the product M x N. The balanced tensor product M [x]_C N of two module categories over a monoidal linear category C is the linear category corepresenting C-balanced right-exact bilinear functors out of the product category M x N. We show that the balanced tensor product can be realized as a category of bimodule objects in C, provided the monoidal linear cat...

  9. Effect of Medicaid Payment on Rehabilitation Care for Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Wodchis, Walter P; Richard A Hirth; Fries, Brant E

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in examining how Medicaid payment affects nursing home care. This study examines the effect of Medicaid payment methods and reimbursement rates on the delivery of rehabilitation therapy to Medicaid nursing home residents in six States from 1992-1995. In States that changed payment from prospective facility-specific to prospective case-mix adjusted payment methods, Medicaid residents received more rehabilitation therapy after the change. While residents in States...

  10. 45 CFR 234.11 - Assistance in the form of money payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assistance in the form of money payments. 234.11... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.11 Assistance in the form of money payments. (a) Federal financial participation is available in money payments made under a State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for rules concerning these... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction of employer liability payments. 1.404... Deduction of employer liability payments. (a) General rule. Employer liability payments shall be treated...

  12. 48 CFR 252.232-7003 - Electronic submission of payment requests and receiving reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.232-7003 Electronic submission of payment... administering the contract for payment has determined, in writing, that electronic submission would be unduly... non-electronic payment requests using the method or methods specified in Section G of the contract....

  13. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States...

  14. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  16. 77 FR 10714 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC41 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment... Regulation (DTAR) to implement use of the Internet Payment Platform, a centralized electronic invoicing and payment information system, and to change the definition of bureau to reflect the consolidation on July...

  17. The Evolution of Payment Costs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Stewart; Iris Chan; Crystal Ossolinski; David Halperin; Paul Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the costs borne by financial institutions, merchants, and consumers in making, facilitating and accepting consumer-to-business payments. It examines the resource costs incurred by these sectors, how these have changed since 2006, and how fees and other transfers determine which sectors ultimately bear these costs. It also examines how resource costs vary at different transaction sizes and, for merchants, how costs differ between small and large entities. The results sugges...

  18. E-Payment Strategies of Bank Card Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the business st rategy in managing pay ment innovations. Particularly, the study looks at the smart card - electronic cash (e-cash innovation in the financial service industry. The smart card e-cash has yet to overcome obstacles to its diffusion. Given the e-commerce opportunity, banks and non-banks compete to deploy smart card technology for Internet use. A revi ew of previous payment innovations is also carried out to provide suggesting direction on the innovation proliferation. The paper firstly examines the payment market on the whole (the global review. The subsequent section discusses the challenges in the e-payment world and the strategies to support the diffusion of the smart card innovations.

  19. Application Neutrality and a Paradox of Side Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Eitan; Caron, Stéphane; Kesidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate over net neutrality covers a broad set of issues related to the regulation of public networks. In two ways, we extend an idealized usage-priced game-theoretic framework based on a common linear demand-response model. First, we study the impact of "side payments" among a plurality of Internet service (access) providers and content providers. In the non-monopolistic case, our analysis reveals an interesting "paradox" of side payments in that overall revenues are reduced for t...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460)....

  1. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-3 - Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. 1.404(k)-3 Section 1.404(k)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.404(k)-3 Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments. Q-1: Are payments to reacquire stock held by an ESOP applicable dividends that are deductible under section 404(k)(1)? A-1:...

  2. Standardization of Type 2 Diabetes Outpatient Expenditure with Bundled Payment Method in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We argued that it is feasible to implement bundled payment on type 2 diabetes outpatient services. Bundled payment is effective to control the increase of outpatient expenditure. Further improvements are needed for the implementation of bundled payment reimbursement standards, together with relevant policies and measures.

  3. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Outpatient Hospital and Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits...: Application of upper payment limits. 447.321 Section 447.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  4. 42 CFR 447.325 - Other inpatient and outpatient facility services: Upper limits of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Upper limits of payment. 447.325 Section 447.325 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Other Inpatient and Outpatient...

  5. 22 CFR 201.26 - Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments... § 201.26 Expenditure of marine insurance loss payments. Unless otherwise authorized by USAID, any marine insurance loss payment under a marine insurance policy financed pursuant to this part 201 received by...

  6. Design of secure mobile payment protocols for restricted connectivity scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez Isaac, Jesús Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of mobile and wireless networks made posible the extensión of electronic commerce to a new area of research: mobile commerce called m-commerce, which includes mobile payment), that refers to any e-commerce transaction made from a mobile device using wireless networks. Most of the mobile payment systems found in the literatura are based on the full connectivity scenario where all the entities are directly connected one to another but do not support business models with direct com...

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON ASSESSMENT OF PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timeea Maria DUMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Payment and settlement systems are financial instruments that are significant to the financial and banking system. Payment systems are a source of current information and an operative intervention tool by providing oversight use funds in the accounts of the banks. Since their implementation in the banking system structure these systems have evolved continuously in the market requirements, we are encountering major problems are mostly due to strict compliance with international standards, which ensure a high level of safety in their operation and measures by the central bank.

  8. A study of security in wireless and mobile payments

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Mobile payments are increasing in popularity in recent years. New mobile solutions are being developed in the form of new Internet capable mobile devices such as the IPhone and new wireless networks such as the LTE and WiMAX networks. This report will present, explain and compare some of the most popular wireless networks that enable mobile payments, from a security point of view. The chosen networks are 3G with connection to GSM, and WLAN networks. The main security mechanisms involved in ea...

  9. The role of the radiologist in new payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Duszak, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many economists and policy makers believe that United States healthcare costs are rising at an unsustainable rate. In response, newer payment systems such as bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and population health management have been proposed. These new paradigms all aim to encourage collaboration between health care providers to conserve costs and increase quality. To succeed in this evolving environment, radiologists should consider embracing change by working to standardize radiology practice, participating in radiology utilization management, working with vendors to increase storage of radiology imaging data to improve access and interconnectivity, and exploring targeted screening in high risk populations. PMID:26960723

  10. Time Efficiency Of Point-Of-Sale Payment Methods: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha ł Polasik,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a wide range of differ ent payment methods used at Point-Of-Sales from traditional cash and standard cards to contactless cards, RFID stickers and mobile payments (NFC and remote. All payment instruments are compared under the criterion of time efficiency that means the duration of a payment tr ansaction. The measurement of payment transactions was undertaken with the help of a novel research technique based on a digital chronography of video material recorded by cameras installed in the biggest chain of convenient stores in Poland. Mo re than 4,000 transactions were gauged. It is empirically proven that cash is still the fastest means of executing transactions at the counter, although new innovative payment methods such as proximity cards and NFC mobile payments may be equally fast and sometim es even faster. There is a potential in accelerating the payment process of those la tter. Standard cards together with a remote mobile payments method tested lag behind. Obtained results could be practically used by merchants who want to optimise its payment process at cash registers. Drawn conclusions may also have value for the develope rs of payment schemes in the world

  11. Improvement of organization and payment on NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of introducing advanced methods and organization forms of work on increase of labour productivity during the NPP construction is shown. Role of progressive forms of payment for work in reducing terms and improving the quality of works performed is examined

  12. 34 CFR 686.33 - Frequency of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of payment. 686.33 Section 686.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT...

  13. The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “The Impact of the Electronic Payment System on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective” presents the aspects concerning the impact of the electronic payment system on the development of nowadays society as an economic and a managerial perspective. Our research focuses on issues related to the payments sector, the Smartcard, the Electronic Banking,payment systems based on bank cards, the Cyber cash, and the electronic payment systems (1 Net Cash and (2 E-Cash, Micro-payment systems with (1 Millicent and (2 Cyber Coin, as well as the electronic check payments.

  14. The economics of payment card fee structure: policy considerations of payment card rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers possible public policies that could improve efficiency and welfare distribution in the U.S. retail payments industry. Mainly, four options, i) encouraging competition; ii) allowing merchants to surcharge; iii) regulating merchant fees; and iv) regulating payment card rewards, are discussed, but each option has advantages and disadvantages. Any single option may not achieve the policymakers' objective; rather, combining several policy options may be required. ; Also issued...

  15. 40 CFR 610.14 - Payment of program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of program costs. 610.14 Section 610.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... the Administrator's initiative, including the cost of purchasing any necessary quantity of the...

  16. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  17. 28 CFR 79.75 - Procedures for payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for payment of claims. 79.75 Section 79.75 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION... awarded under the Act and to verify the identity of the claimant or, in the case of a deceased...

  18. Romanian Consumer Psychology Relating to the Methods of Online Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodim Liliana; Croitoru Gabriel; Negoi Eugen Remus

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of products and services offered online, buyers have the opportunity to purchase goods of lower prices than the traditional environment. Online market has grown exponentially in recent years, but in Romania, had a weight gain. One of the most important reasons in online shopping stagnation in Romania is distrust of online payment methods.

  19. 48 CFR 32.906 - Making payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agency head determines— (1) To make earlier payment on a case-by-case basis; or (2) That the use of accelerated payment methods are necessary (see 32.903(a)(5)). (b) Payment office. The designated payment... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.906 Making payments. (a) General. The Government will...

  20. 20 CFR 345.116 - Payment of contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....116 Payment of contributions. (a) The contribution required to be reported on an employer's... the contribution report as provided for in § 345.115 of this part. (b) An employer shall deposit the... Act and to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Administration Fund in accord with section 11 of...

  1. 20 CFR 617.35 - Time and method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment. 617.35 Section... ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.35 Time and method... necessary to assure entitlement of an individual to a job search allowance at any time, before or after...

  2. Impact of the Transition to ICD-10 on Medicare Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Although the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10 version of MS-DRGs resulted in 1.68 percent of the patients being assigned to a different MS-DRG, payment...

  3. 18 CFR 420.33 - Payment of bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of bills. 420.33 Section 420.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Entitlement; Measurement; Billing § 420.33...

  4. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially...

  5. 20 CFR 617.48 - Time and method of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment. 617.48 Section... ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.48 Time and method... necessary to assure an individual's entitlement to a relocation allowance at any time, before or after...

  6. 46 CFR 308.513 - Payment of premiums and fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.513 Payment of premiums and fees. The assured shall pay the premium, when his closing report is filed, for all shipments shown on...

  7. 32 CFR 37.810 - What should my TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method and frequency of recipients' payment requests? 37.810 Section 37.810 National Defense Department... TIA's provisions specify for the method and frequency of recipients' payment requests? The procedure and frequency for payment requests depend upon the payment method, as follows: (a) For...

  8. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  9. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  10. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  11. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  12. Effects of payment mechanisms on hospital behaviours in Brazil: evidence from a multi-payer and multi-payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couttolenc, Bernard F; Forgia, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    A variety of provider payment mechanisms (PPMs) are used in Brazil to direct funds to hospitals. This article examines their effect on hospital efficiency, cost and quality. Public hospitals funded through the traditional line-item public budget are the best least efficient. Those funded through global budgets and other decentralized budget modalities perform on a par with private providers funded mainly by private prepaid health plans. Private hospitals that are dependent on government payments exhibit lower levels of quality. However, the overall effects of PPMs on performance are less than expected for some groups of hospitals. Factors compromising the impact of PPMs on performance are examined. PMID:22235724

  13. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    OpenAIRE

    Babić Uroš; Soldatović Ivan; Vuković Dejana; Šantrić-Milićević Milena; Stjepanović Mihailo; Kojić Dejan; Argirović Aleksandar; Vukotić Vinka

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR) is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obt...

  14. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recruitment incentive is subject to the aggregate limitation on pay under 5 CFR part 530, subpart B. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED...

  15. 75 FR 7551 - Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background Our representative payment regulations are in Subpart U of part 404... Register and provided a 60-day comment period. 74 FR 52706. We received one letter with comments. We... toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social...

  16. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  17. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  18. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector. PMID:20709420

  19. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  20. The electronification of transit fare payments: Examining the case for partnership the case for partnerships between payments firms and transit agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2011-01-01

    Several of the nation’s largest payment-card-issuing banks are working with public transit agencies to enable consumers to pay fares by using payment cards, and more such partnerships may be on the horizon. On April 23, 2009, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop to discuss the potential adoption of electronic payments by transit agencies from the perspectives of several subject matter experts from J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. James Lock, vice presi...

  1. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.)

  2. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  3. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  4. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  5. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  6. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  7. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  8. Payments for scenic beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Rohit; Kerr, John

    2007-01-01

    Although payments for scenic beauty are older than payment schemes for most other environmental services, scenic beauty itself is hard to define. It often encompasses a range of environmental services for consumptive (hunting, fishing) or non-consumptive (bird watching, boating) use. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  9. The determinants of the method of payment in corporate takeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Νισιώτης, Δημήτριος

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the determinants which significantly affect the choice of payment method in Greek mergers and acquisitions. Using a sample of 321 deals, separated into stock and cash financed deals, and including a binary Probit model we reached the following results. When bidder and target are not in the same country, the probability of cash financing increases. Also the probability increases when the target is a subsidiary firm. Finally looking at the bidder firm we find ...

  10. Balanced Scorecard as Part of Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Balogh

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard has become one of the most popular and successful instrument for managing the organizations’ performance. This article sets the place of the balanced scorecard within the performance measurement system within the organizatin and presents, as an example, a way of implementing this method and establishing a composite index of performance.

  11. PAYMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICE FOR CARBON CREDITS FROM ITALIAN OLIVE GROVES. SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE MODE OF PAYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coderoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, olive farming is one of the most interesting examples of carbon sink in agricultural soils. The olive agro-ecosystems can in fact ensure effective action in CO2 fixation encouraging the process of carbon storage on the organic matter of the soil. Starting from the assumption that a different and more “carbon oriented” management of Italian olive groves system could represent a promising way to increase the carbon stored in agricultural land, this paper explores the possibility to implement a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES scheme to increase the provision of carbon sink by olive groves. The analysis focuses on the definition of the sealable ecosystem service, according to the actual policy framework and on the mode of payment that could be established. Results, suggest that an output-based payment, though more environmentally efficient, could not be enough to incentivise farmers to join the PES, as the payment per hectare might be lower using this approach.

  12. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the...

  13. Institutionalization of the payment environment of e-commerce in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Article about problems of Institutionalization of the payment environment of e-commerce. The author analyzes tendencies of development of payment institutes and prospect of creation of the International financial Centre in Russia on the basis of primary development of e-commerce in spheres B2C and C2C. The author proves, that in the conditions of globalization of the consumer markets the analysis of a role and a place of transboundary private payments in structure of National payment system o...

  14. Discussions and Issues Related to Estimation Method of "Travel"

    OpenAIRE

    Maiko Wada

    2006-01-01

    "Travel" in Japan's balance of payments statistics is currently compiled in accordance with the definitions stipulated by the IMF Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition (BPM5), which is the international guideline for compiling the balance of payments statistics. Specifically, expenditures of travelers are estimated based on instruments of payment used by them. This current method presents several problems. First, expenditures that should be recorded under other components in the balance o...

  15. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods: We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five m...

  16. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five mea...

  17. The Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey: Methodology and key results

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos; Welte, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the methodology and main findings of the Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey, a detailed investigation of consumer payment behaviour in Canada. The survey targeted the 18- to 75-year-old Canadian resident population. During November 2009, participants answered a questionnaire about their demographics, personal finance, and payment instrument habits and perceptions. Of the 6,868 questionnaire respondents, about half also completed a 3-day shopping diary, recordi...

  18. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. PMID:23581674

  19. Architecture of a Mediation System for Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutahar Jaouad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of our daily. Exceeding the role of a communication apparatus, and benefitting from the evolution of technology, it could be used for several uses other than telephony, energy of photography, the geolocation, until the control of the health condition and the quality of the air, by measuring the cardiac pulsations, the temperature and the ambient content water. In this context, financial institutions wishing to take advantage of this wave of technological change and taking advantage of the telecom infrastructure robust and secure existing began to innovate to offer a new range of payment services based on mobile phone. Thus, in this article we present a proposal for an implementation of a mediation system of payment per mobile based on the technology of the Webservices.

  20. The development of outpatient prospective payment systems and the use of ambulatory patient groups by private insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H

    1993-04-01

    Private insurers will likely move to APGs rapidly because of the key advantages that APGs provide. Not only is it necessary to have an outpatient classification system to make utilization review, quality assurance, and customer reporting more meaningful, outpatient prospective payment provides a foundation for the controls on outpatient payments that insurers have been seeking. Because of outpatient volume increases and constraints on inpatient payments that have led hospitals to increase outpatient charges more rapidly, most insurers believe that outpatient payment levels are currently beyond their control. Introduction of an outpatient prospective payment system will shift control over outpatient payment increases from providers to insurers, as has been the case for many insurers who have adopted DRG payment for inpatient services. Once APGs are in place, annual increases in payment amounts will be determined through insurer-provider negotiation or through contractual approaches that limit payment increases to changes in a price index. PMID:10125064

  1. The Use of Payment Methods for the Settlement of International Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Petre Crăciun

    2011-01-01

    In the case of payments through a letter of credit or collection, there will be a commercial contract between the parties, in which the payment method that will be used will be clearly stipulated, and the exporter will proceed to preparing the set of documents and their transmission. If the factoring is used as a payment method, the factor will proceed to an analysis of the accounts receivable, after which the seller’s accounts receivable will be taken over or not.

  2. Application Neutrality and a Paradox of Side Payments

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Kesidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate over "net neutrality" covers a broad set of issues related to the regulation of public networks. This paper contains two separate contributions: (a) an extension of the quadratic-utility framework we proposed in a previous paper to study the impact of side payments in a system involving pluralities of access and content providers; and (b) a variation of this model to deal with the question of application neutrality. Our analysis of the generalized framework (a) reveals an interesting "paradox" that did not occur with monopolistic players: side payments handicap the providers who perceive them. Application neutrality (b) refers to price discrimination: ISPs charging consumers different fees depending on their use of the network (web surfing, VoIP, file sharing, etc.). We analyze the consequences of such discrimination for a simple two-application setting.

  3. Role of Crypto-currency in payment process

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Franc

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the diploma thesis is to describe the alternative way of payment by using virtual and digital currencies. We try to find out, whether these systems are appropriate for general integration in existing solutions. Firstly, we explain the importance of introducing cryptography in online communication and the operating of hash functions. Next, there are definitions of all significant roles of external systems connected to digital currencies, followed by the description of crypto cur...

  4. Defining a Payment Services Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilvinas Bareisis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Payment services hub concept is gaining ground as an accepted way forward to modernizing banks’ payments architectures. Howe ver, the confusion over definitions and terminology remains. This paper proposes a visionary definition of a payment services hub and clarifies the key terms. It also describes the four types of payment services hubs banks are currently implementing in practice.

  5. Issues of Coordinated Cooperation for Forming Leasing Payments Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ajupov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are adduced main components of the one of possible schemes for the solution of Russianaircraft complex problems managing on the base of leasing mechanism. There is formulated the model ofpayments’ flows, which characterize interaction of aviation leasing project participants, and developed the modelfor forming leasing payments schedule, which guarantees co-ordination of participants’ economic interests in the“lessor-lessee” system.

  6. Issues of Coordinated Cooperation for Forming Leasing Payments Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Ajupov; A. A. Kurilova; R. S. Ozernov

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are adduced main components of the one of possible schemes for the solution of Russianaircraft complex problems managing on the base of leasing mechanism. There is formulated the model ofpayments’ flows, which characterize interaction of aviation leasing project participants, and developed the modelfor forming leasing payments schedule, which guarantees co-ordination of participants’ economic interests in the“lessor-lessee” system.

  7. How different types of participant payments alter task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers typically use incentives (such as money or course credit in order to obtain participants who engage in the specific behaviors of interest to the researcher. There is, however, little understanding or agreement on the effects of different types and levels of incentives used. Some results in the domain of statistical reasoning suggest that performance differences --- previously deemed theoretically important --- may actually be due to differences in incentive types across studies. 704 participants completed one of five variants of a statistical reasoning task, for which they received either course credit, flat fee payment, or performance-based payment incentives. Successful task completion was more frequent with performance-based incentives than with either of the other incentive types. Performance on moderately difficult tasks (compared to very easy and very hard tasks was most sensitive to incentives. These results can help resolve existing debates about inconsistent findings, guide more accurate comparisons across studies, and be applied beyond research settings.

  8. Application of Benford's Law in Payment Systems Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Žgela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems auditing activities are mandatory in today business environments. There are numerous useful methods that can be conducted in such audits. One of contemporary methods is application of so-called Benford's Law. In this paper we examine ways of application of this law in investigation of certain number set with aim to make a conclusion if number set conforms to Benford's Law. As an examination target we used foreign payment system messages which are issued between foreign and domestic business entities i.e. commercial and central banks. We chose sample of 1.745.311 transactions and conducted examination for first, second and first two digits. We examine certain data subsets, created according to certain payment types, and investigate how Benford’s Law tests can be used in auditing. We also compare practical usefulness and note differences between various conformity tests in auditing environment. Results we achieved prove adequate potential of this law in audit practice.

  9. Risk-Reducing Effectiveness of Revenue versus Yield Insurance in the Presence of Government Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Power, Gabriel J.

    2008-01-01

    Government farm support programs such as Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP) and Counter-Cyclical Payments (CCP) have payoff structures that effectively make them costless price insurance instruments. A combination of these payments with yield insurance may provide a viable alternative to revenue insurance. This paper finds that, contrary to expectations, the revenue product analyzed is uniformly superior to yield insurance under both current (2002) and proposed (2008) Farm Bill structures of gove...

  10. Nothing is free: A survey of the social cost of the main payment instruments in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Turján, Anikó; Divéki, Éva; Keszy-Harmath, Éva; Kóczán, Gergely; Takács, Kristóf

    2011-01-01

    The study applies two approaches for the estimation of the social costs of main payment instruments (cash, debit card and credit card transactions, credit transfers, direct debits, business-to-business direct debits, postal inpayment money orders, postal outpayment money orders for pensions) used in Hungary in 2009. The first approach is based on the current payment structure, while the second approach is based on a more modern, hypothetical payment structure involving less cash, with no use ...

  11. Loyalty program of payment cards, solution based on DWH

    OpenAIRE

    Jersák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis is covering topics of customer's loyalty, loyalty programs in banking and mainly topic is loyalty programs of payment cards in banking industry. First theoretical parts is guiding us though concept of customer's loyalty in banking industry and is describing specifics of this loyalty compared to loyalty to sales businesses. Further, this thesis is trying to show opportunities to be used to support customer's loyalty in bank with participation of credit and debit cards. In t...

  12. The U.S. adoption of computer-chip payment cards: implications for payment fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The fraudsters, phishers, hackers, and pickpockets who thrive off payment card fraud may soon have their work cut out for them. U.S. financial institutions have announced plans to add computer chips to their debit and credit cards in the next few years, a move likely to make payment card fraud more difficult. ; However, the fraud will not disappear. As other countries around the world have adopted computer-chip cards, they have seen fraud patterns migrating to channels with relatively weak se...

  13. 9 CFR 130.50 - Payment of user fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., testing, certification or quarantine of animals, animal products or other commodities. 3 Monday-Saturday... commuted travel time.) 3 See § 97.1(a) of this chapter or 7 CFR 354.3 for details. 4 See § 97.1(a)(3) of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of user fees. 130.50...

  14. Role of Data Mining in E-Payment systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanaik, Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Data Mining deals extracting hidden knowledge, unexpected pattern and new rules from large database. Various customized data mining tools have been developed for domain specific applications such as Biomedicine, DNA analysis and telecommunication. Trends in data mining include further efforts towards the exploration of new application areas and methods for handling complex data types, algorithm scalability, constraint based data mining and visualization methods. In this paper we will present domain specific Secure Multiparty computation technique and applications. Data mining has matured as a field of basic and applied research in computer science in general. In this paper, we survey some of the recent approaches and architectures where data mining has been applied in the fields of e-payment systems. In this paper we limit our discussion to data mining in the context of e-payment systems. We also mention a few directions for further work in this domain, based on the survey.

  15. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  16. The Effect of Payment Schemes on Inventory Decisions: The Role of Mental Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; A. Gürhan Kök; Jordan D. Tong

    2013-01-01

    Does the payment scheme have an effect on inventory decisions in the newsvendor problem? Keeping the net profit structure constant, we examine three payment schemes that can be interpreted as the newsvendor's order being financed by the newsvendor herself (scheme O), by the supplier through delayed order payment (scheme S), and by the customer through advanced revenue (scheme C). In a laboratory study, we find that inventory quantities exhibit a consistent decreasing pattern in the order of s...

  17. Analysis of roles and position of mobile network operators in mobile payment infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Markendahl, Jan; Smith, Mark; Andersson, Per

    2010-01-01

    A number of different mobile payment solutions have been presented the last decade. The phone subscription with its security mechanisms are used for user identification and payments. This is the case for SMS based payment and ticketing systems that are getting more and more popular. However, there are other ways to implement a Trusted Element (TE) , where a SIM card architecture is only one. It can be in the mobile phone, as a separate integrated circuit, as an optional customer deployed plug...

  18. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. PMID:26808168

  19. Impact of interchange fees rates on the Polish payment cards market

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Maciejewski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to indicate the importance of the interchange fee on the payment card market in Poland and its impact on the development of the acceptance network. The paper uses a descriptive and comparative analysis, as well as results of analyses and research, including a survey conducted by the author among seven acquirers. Of key importance for the development of payment card acceptance network are costs of payment card acceptance. One of the main components of Merchant Service ...

  20. Effectiveness of Cross-Bord er Corporate Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Goldmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At the age of cutthroat global competition and razor thin Internet-transparent margins, corporate cash management is one of just a few remaining sources of increased profitability. Efficient cash management allows for substantial cost reduction and improved corporate Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC. The companies that neglect to pay sufficient attention to their security, privacy and payment fraud issues might find themselves disappearing literarily overnight

  1. Effectiveness of Cross-Bord er Corporate Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Nahum Goldmann

    2011-01-01

    At the age of cutthroat global competition and razor thin Internet-transparent margins, corporate cash management is one of just a few remaining sources of increased profitability. Efficient cash management allows for substantial cost reduction and improved corporate Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC). The companies that neglect to pay sufficient attention to their security, privacy and payment fraud issues might find themselves disappearing literarily overnight

  2. Multilateral interchange fees in Serbia and their impact on card payment systems development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Slobodan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of policies and incentives for the issuance and card acceptance worldwide is the necessary basis for the development of card based payment instruments. Multilateral interchange fees (MIF played a major role in creating the appropriate sets of incentives for acceptance and issuance while balancing the interests of market participants. The goal of this paper is to present the developments in the area of MIF regulation across the European Member States, as well as in Serbian payment cards market, and to suggest the way forward towards possible Serbian payment systems participation in the Single European Payment Area (SEPA in the future.

  3. Pricing and welfare implications of payment card network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how competition among payment card networks three-party scheme networks and four-party scheme networks affects pricing as well as the welfare of various parties. A competing network has an incentive to provide rewards to its card users. By providing more generous rewards than its rival networks, the network can increase its own card transactions because multihoming cardholders who hold multiple networks cards choose to use its card instead of using its rivals. Although a m...

  4. THE IMPACT OF COMPENSATION PAYMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT, IN REGIONAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta JULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensation payments are considered active labour market policies designed to increase efficiency, to mitigate unemployment and to sustaining employment. We tested this hypothesis for the period 1993-2013, in territorial structures (42 counties through a dynamic panel model (confirmed by Granger causality tests – Toda-Yamamoto version, and by means of error correction model. We found that the dynamics of regional employment are positively related to expenditure incurred for active policies and there are negatively correlated with the ratio between the unemployment average indemnity (and support allowance and the average net nominal monthly salary earnings. But, the connexion between employment and compensation payments converges extremely slowly for a long-term stable relationship.

  5. The evolution of EFT networks from ATMs to new on-line debit payment products

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz

    2002-01-01

    On June 15, 2001, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia sponsored a workshop on the evolution of the electronic funds transfer (EFT) industry. Paul Tomasofsky and Bruce Sussman of NYCE, the New Jersey-based electronic payments company, led the workshop. Beginning with a brief history of EFT and the automated teller machine (ATM) industry, Tomasofsky and Sussman discussed the growth of debit card applications and various Internet payment mechanisms. They then des...

  6. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Optimal Financing Order Decisions of a Supply Chain under the Retailer's Delayed Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real supply chain, a capital-constrained retailer has two typical payment choices: the up-front payment to receive a high discount price or the delayed payment to reduce capital pressure. We compare with the efficiency of optimal decisions of different participants, that is, supplier, retailer, and bank, under both types of payments based on a game equilibrium analysis. It shows that under the equilibrium, the delayed payment leads to a greater optimal order quantity from the retailer compared to the up-front payment and, thus, improves the whole benefit of the supply chain. The numerical simulation for the random demand following a uniform distribution further verifies our findings. This study provides novel evidence that a dominant supplier who actively offers trade credit helps enhance the whole efficiency of a supply chain.

  8. Electronic Retail Payment Systems : User Acceptability & Payment Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah, Alexander; Agyemang, Fred

    2004-01-01

    ELECTRONIC RETAIL PAYMENT SYSTEMS: USER ACCEPTABILITY AND PAYMENT PROBLEMS IN GHANA The payment system in Ghana has undergone considerable change as electronic payment has gained increasingly popularity, especially in the cities. In Ghana, most bills are paid by walk-in customers. Because of limited transportation, many customers prefer paying by other means that may not include traveling. Customers are now looking for a way that they can easily make payments without going to each biller’s lo...

  9. Effects of credit scores on consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Fumiko; Stavins, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of credit scores on consumer payment behavior, especially on debit and credit card use. Anecdotally, a negative relationship between debit card use and credit score has been reported; however, it is not clear whether that relationship is related to other factors, such as education or income, or whether it is a mere correlation. We use a new consumer survey dataset to examine whether this negative relationship holds after controlling for various consumer cha...

  10. Evolving patterns of payment methods in Turkish foreign trade

    OpenAIRE

    Turkcan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Serving the global marketplace brings many risks to the firm that they may not have on the domestic side. Apart from financing, trade finance mechanisms assist exporters and importers to mitigate or reduce their risks associated with doing business internationally. The present paper sheds lights on the structure and evaluation of payment methods in international trade as well as their changing composition due to 2008-2009 global financial crisis using a unique bilateral trade finance data fro...

  11. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  12. Mobilising resiliency in times of economic hardship: Emerging themes in migrant worker remittance payments

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Garlan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the global financial crisis and the remittance markets of Mexico and India, along with introducing new and emerging payment technologies that will help facilitate the growth of remittances worldwide. Overall resiliency is found in most markets but some are impacted differently by economic hardship. With that we also explore the area of emerging payment methods and how they can help nations weather this economic strife. Mobile payments are highlighted as one of...

  13. The key drivers and barriers to the use of Mobile Payments from consumer's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sunna, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence and the continually expanding capabilities of the mobile devices as well as the evolution of the smartphones provide an additional channel for payments, improve the shopping experience and present cutting-edge opportunities for merchants to involve consumers, and drive sales. Despite the positive prediction in past years in relation to the growth, mobile payment services have failed to seduce consumers. The problem of the mass adoption of mobile payments in gene...

  14. A Study on the Finance Transfer Payment of Government-Subsidized Student's Loan (GSSL)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Huang; Hong Shen

    2009-01-01

    Since the new system of Government-Subsidized Student’s Loan (GSSL) was in function, each provincial government need to pay interest in finance and risk compensation fund. So it is inevitably for them to ask for the finance transfer payment from the central government. In this article, the author analyzes theoretically the finance transfer payment of GSSL, on the basis of this work, he takes foreign experiences as reference, designs the proposal on the finance transfer payment of GSSL combini...

  15. Comparison of Dynamic Balance in Collegiate Field Hockey and Football Players Using Star Excursion Balance Test

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. Methods A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instruct...

  16. The Influence of Market Returns and Government Payments on Canadian Farmland Values

    OpenAIRE

    Vyn, Richard J.; Haq, Zahoor Ul; Weerahewa, Jeevika; Meilke, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of changes in market returns and government payments on farmland values across Canada using data from 1959 to 2009. A recursive simultaneous equation model is estimated to account for the counter-cyclical relationship between market returns and government payments. The results indicate that farmland values are more responsive to changes in market returns than in government payments, but both are important drivers of land values. The elasticity of land values wi...

  17. The Impacts of Payments for Watershed Services in Ecuador: Emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca

    OpenAIRE

    Echavarria, M.; Vogel, J.; Albán, M.; Meneses, F.

    2004-01-01

    Payments for environmental services (PES) is a topic of increasing interest in Ecuador, particularly as a way to leverage funding for environmental protection. Payments systems are emerging, but as Ecuador's experience of PES is only recent, the implications for national and local welfare are not yet clear. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide guidance in order to ensure that policies support payments systems that are beneficial to the poor, as well as to the environment. This rep...

  18. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A VOLUNTARY GREEN PAYMENT PROGRAM UNDER ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junjie; Babcock, Bruce A.

    1995-01-01

    Green payment programs, where the government pays farmers directly for environmental benefits, are an alternative to the current method of achieving environmental benefits which restricts farming practices in exchange for deficiency payments. This article presents a voluntary green payment program using the principles of mechanism design under asymmetric information. Information asymmetry arises because the government knows only the distribution of farmersÂ’' production situations, rather tha...

  19. A survey and risk analysis of selected non-bank retail payments systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chande, Nikil

    2008-01-01

    Payment services offered by non-banks have flourished in recent years. The author provides an overview of the different kinds of non-bank retail payments schemes currently available in Canada, illustrating each by focusing on a specific example. Current players in the Canadian marketplace include electronic bill consolidators, such as epost; online payment providers, like PayPal; and pre-funded schemes, such as retailers' gift cards. The author also discusses the main risks associated with ea...

  20. Comparison of energy balances in public buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Avguštin, Nejc

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with a comparative analysis of energy balance of public buildings before and after energy renovation. Most of the energy renovations of public buildings in Slovenia between 2010 and 2015 was co-financed by the Cohesion Fund of the European Union. The analysis is based on the calculations of energy balances of the buildings before and after renovation. The calculations were carried out by designers prior to submitting the project application for subsidy. We had ...

  1. Energy balance of algal biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Milledge, J.J.; Heaven, S.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic energy balance model was successfully developed for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of micro-algal biomass from raceways. The energy balance model was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of production scenarios, and to identify the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output of the model demonstrated that no single method of harvesting studied (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation), produced a sufficiently gr...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6164-4 - Payment of remainder of tax where extension relates to only part of the tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relates to only part of the tax. 1.6164-4 Section 1.6164-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....6164-4 Payment of remainder of tax where extension relates to only part of the tax. (a) Time for payment. If an extension of time relates to only part of the tax, the time for payment of the remainder...

  3. Government use of the payment card system: issuance, acceptance, and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Herbst-Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration’s SmartPay program is the world’s largest commercial card portfolio. Nearly every state uses payment cards to electronically distribute unemployment insurance, child support, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, or other funds. Federal, state, and local governments, as well as universities and other public-sector organizations, accept payments made with debit, credit, and prepaid cards. Recognizing the significant use of the payment card system by s...

  4. Design and Implementation of a Secure In-app Credit Card Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bjurling, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Smartphones are often used in order to make purchases today and mobile payments are estimated to continue growing in numbers the following years. This makes mobile payment systems attractive to companies as a new business platform. It also increases the number of malicious users trying to exploit the systems for financial gain. This thesis is conducted for the company TaxiCaller which desires to integrate mobile payments into their existing service. It discusses the current security standards...

  5. Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.

  6. Envelopes and Geometrical Covers of Side-Payment Games and their Market Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Artzner, Philippe; d'Aspremont, Claude; Gérard-Varet, Louis-André

    1986-01-01

    International audience This paper deals with issues concerning the core as a solution concept for games in coalitional form as well as the use of these games in representing economies of a certain formal type. Side-payment games are imbedded in the more general class of no-side-payment games. It is shown that to a given side-payment game having an empty core one may associate two different no-side payment games with the same (nonempty) core: the "envelope" and the "geometrical cover". The ...

  7. Analysis of payment cards in terms of user

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to assess people’s knowledge of payment cards for those that already have one or are considering getting one, and to establish a profile of a normal cardholder. Another goal of this thesis is to perform a comparative analysis of three banks on the Czech banking market from the perspective of selected types of fees billed for card services, and from these three, to select the bank with the most favourable fees from the perspective of the customer. Bibliograph...

  8. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  9. A theory of the availability and level of consumer protection in online and mobile payments for public economic services

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Ionescu; George Lăzăroiu; Silviu Şerban

    2013-01-01

    The mainstay of the paper is formed by an analysis of the factors that influence the community use of mobile payment for e-Government services, the use of mobile payment for the exchange of government goods and services, the types of e-Government services for which mobile payment is suitable, and real and perceived risks associated with mobile financial services. This paper presents a theory of the level of consumer protection and especially the availability of online payment systems and mobi...

  10. Connectivity Analysis of Cyclically Balanced Fuzzy Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jicy; Sunil Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of connectivity and cycle connectivity play an important role in fuzzy graph theory. In this article, cyclic cutvertices, cyclic bridges and cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs are discussed. It is proved that a vertex in a fuzzy graph is a cyclic cutvertex if and only if it is a common vertex of all strong cycles with maximum strength. Also a cyclic cutvertex cannot be a fuzzy endvertex in a fuzzy graph. A characterization of cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs is obtained. Cyclic ver...

  11. Climate change and balance of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a global climate agreement, countries employ local policies to curb pollution and introduce clean energy. These policies limit domestic consumption of a traded energy source but increase exports thus improving a country’s energy balance and its balance of trade. While focusing on US energy policy, we show this phenomenon for both petroleum products and for coal.

  12. Mass-balance parameters derived from a synthetic network of mass-balance glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Paul, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Glacier mass-balance parameters such as the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) play an important role when working with large glacier samples. While the number of observational mass-balance series to derive such parameters is limited, more and more modeled data are becoming available. Here we explore the possibilities of analyzing such ‘synthetic’ mass-balance data with respect to mass-balance parameters. A simplified energy-balance model is driven by bias-corrected regional climate model output...

  13. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  14. 77 FR 36568 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Payments in Lieu of Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... published as a final rule in the Federal Register on December 7, 2004 (69 FR 70557). The Office of Budget... Office of the Secretary Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Payments in Lieu of Taxes AGENCY... required by the Payments in Lieu of Taxes Act (PILT) and seeks public comments on the provisions...

  15. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  16. A Micro- Payment Based Isolation of Misbehavior Secure Routing for Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; WEI Wei; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Micro-payment based Isolation of Misbehavior(MIM) secure routing protocol. The protocol contains three parts: micro-payment scheme, routing discovery and malicious nodes detection. The micro-payment scheme proposed in MIM is the first virtual currency system that can be suit for sensor network environment. Based on the micro-payment scheme, we device an en ergy aware routing protocol, which forwards packets by auction. Furthermore, the base station can detect and isolate misbehave or non-cooperate nodes according to the routing information.

  17. Issues in the use of payments in lieu of taxes to provide nuclear waste facility siting incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level, nuclear waste isolation facilities will be federally owned and therefore exempt from local taxation. Because local residents view tax payments as a major benefit of industrial development, the absence of these payments, coupled with the inherent undesirability of hazardous-materials-handling activities, may discourage communities from accepting a facility. One method to overcome this disincentive is for the facility to make payments in lieu of taxes to localities. This paper examines the concept of payments in lieu of taxes and presents statistics describing local fiscal characteristics. The range these payments might take under alternative-payment arrangements is calculated, and the impact of such payments on the facility's user-free schedule is estimated. It is concluded that a payment plan based on hypothetical property-tax liabilities for an identical, but taxable, facility would have a significant revenue impact on most localities but would not increase user fees significantly. (Auth.)

  18. 32 CFR 32.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods... issuance or redemption of checks, warrants, or payment by other means by the recipients. Payment methods of... CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an...

  19. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods... issuance or redemption of checks, warrants, or payment by other means by the recipients. Payment methods of... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic...

  20. 48 CFR 832.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 832.006 Section 832.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  1. 48 CFR 32.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 32.006 Section 32.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  2. 48 CFR 432.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 432.006 Section 432.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  3. 48 CFR 1532.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 1532.006 Section 1532.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  4. 48 CFR 232.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 232.006 Section 232.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... FINANCING 232.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  5. 48 CFR 1332.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments under finding of fraud. 1332.006 Section 1332.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... of contract payments under finding of fraud....

  6. 42 CFR 455.23 - Withholding of payments in cases of fraud or willful misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of payments in cases of fraud or... Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.23 Withholding of payments in cases of fraud or willful misrepresentation. (a) Basis for withholding. The State Medicaid agency may...

  7. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment...

  8. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  9. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the time... checks, warrants, or payment by other means by the recipients. Payment methods of State agencies or... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall...

  10. 48 CFR 932.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 932.006 Section 932.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  11. 48 CFR 632.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 632.006 Section 632.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contract payments upon finding of fraud....

  12. 17 CFR 230.456 - Date of filing; timing of fee payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... seasoned issuer that registers securities offerings on an automatic shelf registration statement, or..., but is not required to, defer payment of all or any part of the registration fee to the Commission... payment of the registration fee, it shall pay the registration fees (pay-as-you-go registration...

  13. 77 FR 4839 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... the collection of information under its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212... 1 (800) 877-8339 and ask to be connected to (202) 326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the premium instructions (including illustrative forms) for 2012 are available at www.pbgc.gov . FOR...

  14. Analysis of Applicability of ISO 9564 PIN based Authentication to Closed-Loop Mobile Payment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Payment transactions initiated through a mobile device are growing and security concerns must be addressed. People coming from payment card industry often talk passionately about porting ISO 9564 PIN standard based authentication in open-loop card payment to closed-loop mobile financial transactions and certification of closed-loop payment product or solution against this standard. In reality, so far this standard has not been adopted in closed-loop mobile payment authentication and applicability of this ISO standard must be studied carefully before adoption. The authors do a critical analysis of the applicability of this ISO specification and make categorical statement about relevance of compliance to closed-loop mobile payment. Security requirements for authentication in closed-loop mobile payment systems are not standardised through ISO 9564 standard, Common Criteria [3], etc. Since closed-loop mobile payment is a relatively new field, the authors make a case for Common Criteria Recognition Agreement (CCRA or other standards organization to push for publication of a mobile device-agnostic Protection Profile or standard for it, incorporating the suggested authentication approaches.

  15. 42 CFR 413.81 - Direct GME payments: Application of community support and redistribution of costs in determining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct GME payments: Application of community... PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.81 Direct GME payments: Application of community support and redistribution of costs in determining...

  16. 27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.36c Section 26.36c Alcohol, Tobacco... Puerto Rico § 26.36c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from Puerto Rico without payment of...

  17. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  18. 77 FR 55879 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... instructions for ] the 2013 plan year. On May 8, 2012 (at 77 FR 27099), PBGC gave public notice that it was... information under its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212-0007; expires December 31...-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the...

  19. 77 FR 27099 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... valid OMB control number. PBGC estimates that it will receive 29,900 premium filings per year from 24... information under its regulation on Payment of Premiums (OMB control number 1212-0007; expires December 31...-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4040.) The premium payment regulation and the...

  20. 77 FR 40302 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...The Department of the Treasury is amending the Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation (DTAR) to implement use of the Internet Payment Platform, a centralized electronic invoicing and payment information system, and to change the definition of bureau to reflect the consolidation on July 21, 2011 of the Office of Thrift Supervision with the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.......

  1. 34 CFR 303.203 - Payments to the Secretary of the Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to the Secretary of the Interior. 303.203 Section 303.203 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Secretary of the Interior. The amount of the payment to the Secretary of the Interior under § 303.180...

  2. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  3. 27 CFR 26.201c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.201c Section 26.201c Alcohol, Tobacco... Virgin Islands § 26.201c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from the Virgin Islands without payment...

  4. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  5. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital inpatient prospective payment system cost of living adjustment factors; (iii) Includes, where applicable, adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs of serving a disproportionate... inpatient prospective payment system adjustments for indirect medical education costs and the costs...

  6. 31 CFR 341.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS § 341.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of precedence... the above, to the child or children of the owner and the descendants of deceased children...

  7. Means of Payment in E-Commerce (Credit Cards and E-Money)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Loredana LAPADUSI

    2008-01-01

    Once the web has spread and due to the great mass of users, firms with trade activity intesified their commercial tranzactions on-line. Thus the e-commerce implies e-payments which lead to creating e-money and implicitly some specific means of payment, all of these used with the aim of deployment and development of commercial tranzactions on-line.

  8. 31 CFR 346.9 - Payment or redemption after death of owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment or redemption after death of... STATES INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.9 Payment or redemption after death of owner. (a) Order of... such owner at the time of his death. In any case coming under the provisions of this paragraph, a...

  9. 7 CFR 215.4 - Payments of funds to States and FNSROs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments of funds to States and FNSROs. 215.4 Section 215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.4 Payments of funds to States and FNSROs. (a) For...

  10. 38 CFR 17.1008 - Balance billing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Balance billing prohibited. 17.1008 Section 17.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Facilities § 17.1008 Balance billing prohibited. Payment by VA under 38 U.S.C. 1725 on behalf of a veteran...

  11. Motivational Aspects Of New Payment System In Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Cherkasov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the change of tariffication net of payment for medical personnel, i.e. paramedical and junior medical staff, the minimum income has been increased. Data received from questionnaires of paramedical and junior medical staff have revealed the fact that with time working enthusiasm decreases and tendency to material welfare increases. While young specialists are intended to find out more prestigious and well-paid place of work. The main task of managers is to provide optimal labour conditions and motivational background for high-quality and effective work of medical staff

  12. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  13. 22 CFR 19.9-3 - Computation and payment of pension to former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation and payment of pension to former... Computation and payment of pension to former spouse. (a) A pension to a former spouse is paid monthly on the... for a pension or any combination of pensions to former spouses of any one principal which exceeds...

  14. 21 CFR 1309.12 - Time and method of payment; refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and method of payment; refund. 1309.12 Section 1309.12 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF... Reregistration § 1309.12 Time and method of payment; refund. (a) For each application for registration...

  15. 31 CFR 206.10 - Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from...

  16. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Liquidator that disagrees with a decision by SBA to decline to reimburse all, or a portion, of the legal fees... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment by SBA of legal fees and... of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.542 Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses. (a) Legal fees...

  17. 42 CFR 489.42 - Payment of offset amounts to beneficiary or other person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of offset amounts to beneficiary or other person. 489.42 Section 489.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... APPROVAL Handling of Incorrect Collections § 489.42 Payment of offset amounts to beneficiary or...

  18. 37 CFR 1.481 - Payment of international preliminary examination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions International Preliminary Examination § 1.481 Payment of international preliminary examination... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of...

  19. 7 CFR 1785.68 - Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account... FOR ELECTRIC AND TELEPHONE BORROWERS RUS Cushion of Credit Account Computations and Procedures § 1785.68 Establishing an RUS cushion of credit payment account. A cushion of credit account shall...

  20. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-2 Section 35.928-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial...

  1. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  2. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Uroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obtained from the information system used in the Clinical Hospital Center “Dr. Dragiša Mišović” - Dedinje in Belgrade, Serbia. The implemented hospital information system was the main criterion for selection of healthcare institutions. The study included 994 randomly selected patients treated surgically and conservatively in 2012. Results. Average costs under the current payment method were slightly higher than those projected by DRG, however, the variability was twice as high (54,111 ± 69,789 compared to 53,434 ± 32,509, p < 0,001 respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the highest correlation with the current payment method as well as with the projected one by DRG was observed in relation to the number of days of hospitalization (ρ = 0.842, p < 0.001, and ρ = 0.637, p < 0.001, respectively. Multivariate regression models confirmed the influence of the number of hospitalization days to costs under the current payment system (β = 0.843, p < 0.001 as well as under the projected DRG payment system (β = 0.737, p < 0.001. The same predictor was crucial for the difference in the current payment method and the projected DRG payment methods (β = 0.501, p <0.001. Conclusion. Payment under the DRG system is administratively more complex because it requires detailed and standardized coding of diagnoses and procedures, as well as the information on the average consumption of resources (costs per DRG. Given that aggregate costs of treatment under two hospital payment methods compared

  3. METHOD OF FORECASTING THE BALANCE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ю. КОВАЛЕНКО

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  On the basis of the analysis of works of the Ukrainian and foreign scientists in the field of financial forecasting the drawing up technique the forecast balance of the enterprise which, unlike others, assumes an estimation of the future financial condition of the enterprise and revealing of structural changes of the forecast balance is devel-oped. It is shown advantages of use of the most universal methods of forecasting, such, as a method of a share of incomes of sales, a method of financial factors. Technique application is considered on an example of the commercial enterprise.

  4. The impact of the directive on payment services in the internal market on Danish and Belgian legislation on fraudulent payment transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before 1...... implementations are in accordance with the directive and, finally, whether the directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promote the creation of a common internal market for payment services....

  5. 20 CFR 725.603 - Payments by the fund on behalf of an operator; liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other employer. (b) If an operator or other employer liable to the fund refuses to pay, after demand... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments by the fund on behalf of an operator....603 Payments by the fund on behalf of an operator; liens. (a) If an amount is paid out of the fund...

  6. 77 FR 59420 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Pell Grants and the Payment of Unemployment Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Payment of Unemployment Benefits to Individuals in Approved Training; Extension Without Change AGENCY... to individuals about the opportunity for Pell Grants and the payment of unemployment benefits to... Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department...

  7. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  8. 29 CFR 825.210 - Employee payment of group health benefit premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the new premium rates. Maintenance of health insurance policies which are not a part of the employer's... FMLA leave is unpaid, the employer has a number of options for obtaining payment from the employee. The... charge may be added to the employee's premium payment for administrative expenses. The employer...

  9. 21 CFR 1314.42 - Self-certification fee; time and method of fee payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-certification fee; time and method of fee... fee; time and method of fee payment. (a) A regulated seller must pay a fee for each self-certification... substances. (c) A regulated seller shall pay the fee at the time of self-certification. (d) Payment shall...

  10. 5 CFR 179.217 - Non-waiver of rights by payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-waiver of rights by payments. 179.217 Section 179.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.217 Non-waiver of rights by payments. An employee's...

  11. 48 CFR 232.610 - Demand for payment of contract debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract debt. 232.610 Section 232.610 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.610 Demand for payment of contract debt. When issuing a demand for payment of a contract...

  12. 5 CFR 575.405 - Calculation and payment of supervisory differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Supervisory Differentials § 575.405 Calculation and payment of supervisory differential... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation and payment of supervisory differential. 575.405 Section 575.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  13. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  14. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums....

  15. Does prospective payment reduce inpatient length of stay?

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Edward C.; Courtney Harold Van Houtven; Richard C. Lindrooth; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Barbara Dickey

    2002-01-01

    A change in payment mechanism for inpatient care from per diem to per episode creates two incentives - a marginal and an average price effect - to change length of stay. The decrease in marginal price per day to zero should reduce the length of stay, while an increase in average price per inpatient stay should increase the length of stay. This study uses data from a natural experiment to estimate both marginal and average price elasticities, and to test whether the length of stay falls after ...

  16. Hacking point of sale payment application secrets, threats, and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gomzin, Slava

    2014-01-01

    Must-have guide for professionals responsible for securing credit and debit card transactions As recent breaches like Target and Neiman Marcus show, payment card information is involved in more security breaches than any other data type. In too many places, sensitive card data is simply not protected adequately. Hacking Point of Sale is a compelling book that tackles this enormous problem head-on. Exploring all aspects of the problem in detail - from how attacks are structured to the structure of magnetic strips to point-to-point encryption, and more - it's packed with practical recommendati

  17. 42 CFR 414.46 - Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.46 Additional rules for payment of anesthesia services. (a... each anesthesia code that reflects all activities other than anesthesia time. These activities...

  18. 29 CFR 778.200 - Provisions governing inclusion, exclusion, and crediting of particular payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collective bargaining agreement, for work outside of the hours established in good faith by the contract or...) Payments made for occasional periods when no work is performed due to vacation, holiday, illness, failure of the employer to provide sufficient work, or other similar cause; reasonable payments for...

  19. USE OF PAYMENT OPTIONS BY WOMEN: WITH REFERENCE TO JALGAON CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Lohar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In old days, for every purchase, payment was done in cash. Hence there was no need to take decisions while paying at point of sale. Cash was the king in the market. Now those days are gone long back. In today’s world, though cash is still king in the market, now a day consumer has lots of choices for making a payment at point of sale. This is due to growth in technology in the market. This leads to simplification in payment instruments & option for cash. He can decide to pay whether by cash, by cards or through mobile payments at point of sale. There are number of factors involved to take payment decisions. A researcher mainly focuses on women from the age group ranges from 20 years & above. The respondents are considered on the basis of those having options other than cash with them to take payment decisions. The options like ATM cards, Debit cards, credit cards & Mobile payments. This paper is based on an overview of factors involved in payment decisions by women at retail point of sale. The study is based on a primary data collected from 100 women from working & non working group from Jalgaon city. The data is analyzed using various statistical tools & methods.

  20. 26 CFR 1.162(k)-1 - Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. 1.162(k)-1 Section 1.162(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.162(k)-1 Disallowance of deduction for reacquisition payments. (a) In general... corporation to reacquire its stock from an ESOP that are used in a manner described in section...

  1. 42 CFR 414.416 - Determination of competitive bidding payment amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of competitive bidding payment amounts. 414.416 Section 414.416 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER...

  2. 42 CFR 414.39 - Special rules for payment of care plan oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules for payment of care plan oversight. 414.39 Section 414.39 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH...

  3. 42 CFR 414.58 - Payment of charges for physician services to patients in providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of charges for physician services to patients in providers. 414.58 Section 414.58 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND...

  4. 42 CFR 414.60 - Payment for the services of CRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for the services of CRNAs. 414.60 Section 414.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and...

  5. 7 CFR 1951.11 - Application of payments on real estate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., “Acknowledgment of Cash Payment,” in accordance with the FMI when cash or money orders are received as a payment... 451-2, “Schedule of Remittances,” in accordance with the FMI. (d) Finance Office handling. (1)...

  6. 77 FR 13069 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment Platform; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... published in the Federal Register on Thursday, February 23, 2012 (77 FR 10714), relating to the Internet... 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC41 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation; Internet Payment... Acquisition Regulations to implement the Internet Payment Platform. As published, the notice of...

  7. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment No. 2) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-02

    These Regulations amend the Pneumoconiosis, etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1988 to provide that certain payments under the Pneumoconiosis, etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Northern Ireland) Order 1979 are reduced by the amount of any lump sum payment in respect of diffuse mesothelioma made under section 1 of the Mesothelioma, etc., Act (Northern Ireland) 2008.

  8. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  9. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional method for payment of estimated import... THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.4 Optional method for payment of... been given to me to use such procedure. (d) Use of deferred payment method. (1) The port director...

  10. 45 CFR 264.70 - What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provisional payment of contingency funds? 264.70 Section 264.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Contingency Fund? § 264.70 What makes a State eligible to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds? (a) In order to receive a provisional payment of contingency funds, a State must: (1) Be a...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty....

  12. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS...

  13. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response

    OpenAIRE

    Sipp, Amy R.; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clust...

  14. 42 CFR 411.30 - Effect of primary payment on benefit utilization and deductibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of primary payment on benefit utilization and deductibles. 411.30 Section 411.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... payment on benefit utilization and deductibles. (a) Benefit utilization. Inpatient psychiatric...

  15. 42 CFR 419.32 - Calculation of prospective payment rates for hospital outpatient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital outpatient services. 419.32 Section 419.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Basic Methodology for Determining Prospective Payment Rates for...

  16. 47 CFR 69.606 - Computation of average schedule company payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of average schedule company... schedule company payments. (a) Payments shall be made in accordance with a formula approved or modified by the Commission. Such formula shall be designed to produce disbursements to an average schedule...

  17. 76 FR 71934 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... addresses the rulemaking matter covered in a Federal Register document published March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15859... Farm Service Agency Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods... and importer assessments that fund the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP). It is in response...

  18. 48 CFR 32.503-6 - Suspension or reduction of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension or reduction of payments. 32.503-6 Section 32.503-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... reduce or suspend progress payments, or to increase the liquidation rate, under specified...

  19. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  20. 42 CFR 447.205 - Public notice of changes in Statewide methods and standards for setting payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Payment Methods: General Provisions § 447.205 Public notice of changes in Statewide methods and standards for setting payment rates. (a) When notice is required. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of... standards for setting payment rates. 447.205 Section 447.205 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  1. Water balance of Slovenia 1971 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water is becoming more and more valuable natural resource. The increasing water demand and climate changes are making water a precious and not always available valuable. The water balance is the most appropriate way to make a full overview of water cycle in Slovenia, to find general information about hydrological characteristics of drainage basins, precipitation, evaporation and runoff. The article presents the methodology and the results of the Water balance project of Slovenia. Slovenia has the geographical position at the juncture of 4 main European georegions: The Alps, the Panonian Basin, the Mediterranean and the Dinaric Mountains. This makes the territory very diverse also from a hydrological point of view. Our major watershed divides the precipitation runoff into two watershed areas - the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea. Due to this watershed almost all the Slovenia's rivers have headwaters in our territory. Water balance is calculation of water inputs and outputs over the defined area. The basic elements of the water balance include all the inflows and outflows for a given basin and serve for the computation of the water regime of a catchment area. It is defined by the parameters precipitation (P), evaporation (E), discharge (Q) and the change of the water reserves (dS). Main results of the water balance elements for the 1971 - 2000 period for Slovenia are: Average annual precipitation in Slovenia is 1579 mm, average annual evapotranspiration is 717 mm and calculated runoff is 862 mm. Compared to water amounts in the World, where the average precipitation is 750 mm, evapotranspiration is 480 mm and runoff is 270 mm, Slovenia shows an abundance of water quantities. Also the runoff coefficient with 55 % is much higher as 36 % of the world. The major questions remain if we are capable to live with this water amounts within the limits of sustainable development and what will be the effects of climate change to water balance.

  2. The Impact of Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payment on Provision of Hospital Uncompensated Care

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Hui-Min; Bazzoli, Gloria J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between hospital uncompensated care (UC) and reductions in Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments resulting from the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Data on California hospitals from 1996 to 2003 were examined using two-stage least squares with a first-differencing model to control for potential feedback effects. Our findings suggest that not-for-profit hospitals did reduce UC provision in response to reductions in Medicaid DSH, but the response ...

  3. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

  4. Card, Internet and mobile payments in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna; Paunonen, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Retail payment methods are in a stage of rapid development. New service providers and technological developments enable new payment services through a variety of channels. Payment solutions are being developed based eg on the Internet and on mobile phones. Presumably, the use of paper-based payment instruments will decrease further in the future thanks to electronification in the retail payment area. In this paper we focus on card payments in Finland and certain other countries. We also look ...

  5. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  6. Connectivity Analysis of Cyclically Balanced Fuzzy Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jicy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of connectivity and cycle connectivity play an important role in fuzzy graph theory. In this article, cyclic cutvertices, cyclic bridges and cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs are discussed. It is proved that a vertex in a fuzzy graph is a cyclic cutvertex if and only if it is a common vertex of all strong cycles with maximum strength. Also a cyclic cutvertex cannot be a fuzzy endvertex in a fuzzy graph. A characterization of cyclically balanced fuzzy graphs is obtained. Cyclic vertex connectivity and cyclic edge connectivity of fuzzy graphs are also discussed.

  7. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  8. Challenges of introducing and implementing mobile payments : A Qualitative study of the Swedish mobile payment application WyWallet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    Citizens of Sweden are now facing a large shift in their habits of managing money transferring using mobile phones. They are now forced to use an application called WyWallet when making purchases with cell-phones. WyWallet is an application based on a new EU-directive that has led to a law concerning the new payment service act that wants to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. This has led to a lot of consequences for the citizens and also other agencies relying on donations via...

  9. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100 and they randomly divided into control (n-25 & training group (n-25.The training group were given eight weeks of training ( for first two weeks on floor & next six weeks on wobble board & training was given five times a week for first four weeks & three times a week for next four weeks while the control group performed their regular training under the supervision of a physiotherapist . Pre (0 week & post ( 8 weeks measurements of static & dynamic balance & triple hop distance were noted for both groups. Results: The pre and post test readings of BESS score shows significant improvement. Similarly, there is a significant improvement in m-SEBT score in all three positions. Pre and post test readings for the triple hop distance shows equal improvement for both control & training group. Discussion & Conclusion: This study concluded that wobble board balance training program is an effective mean for improvement of static & dynamic balance in male collegiate basketball athletes.

  10. Review of Potential Wind Tunnel Balance Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Williams, Quincy L.; Phillips, Ben D.; Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathon D.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews design, manufacture, materials, sensors, and data acquisition technologies that may benefit wind tunnel balances for the aerospace research community. Current state-of-the-art practices are used as the benchmark to consider advancements driven by researcher and facility needs. Additive manufacturing is highlighted as a promising alternative technology to conventional fabrication and has the potential to reduce both the cost and time required to manufacture force balances. Material alternatives to maraging steels are reviewed. Sensor technologies including piezoresistive, piezoelectric, surface acoustic wave, and fiber optic are compared to traditional foil based gages to highlight unique opportunities and shared challenges for implementation in wind tunnel environments. Finally, data acquisition systems that could be integrated into force balances are highlighted as a way to simplify the user experience and improve data quality. In summary, a rank ordering is provided to support strategic investment in exploring the technologies reviewed in this manuscript.

  11. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  12. Angra-1: Balance of an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of experience got during the construction of Angra-1 nuclear power plant which had built by FURNAS CENTRAIS ELETRICAS S.A. is done. It is analyzed the problems in level of management, including technology transfer. A balance of the real costs and benefits from the definition of the specifications to energy generation is done. (M.C.K.)

  13. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  14. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  15. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  16. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  17. Securitization of tobacco settlement payments to reduce states' conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Jody; Falba, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Securitization of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) payments from tobacco companies is hotly debated in states and policy circles. Securitization is issuing a bond backed by future payments in return for up-front money. Many public health advocates are strongly against securitization. However, securitization itself does not rob states of tobacco control. Rather, the issue is lack of commitment to tobacco control by states. Further, securitization can mitigate states' conflict of interest between keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy to ensure their MSA payments and reducing tobacco sales for health reasons. States should not align with tobacco companies with the common interest of keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy. PMID:15371384

  18. Survey of Customers’ Conceptions of Security and Trust in E-Payment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraddin Maroofi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine issues related to e-payment security from the viewpoint of customers. This study proposes a conceptual model that delineates the determinants of consumers’ observed security and observed trust, as well as the effects of observed security and observed trust on the use of e-payment systems. To test the model, structural equation modeling is employed to analyze data collected from 219 respondents in Iran. This research provides a theoretical foundation for academics and also practical guidelines for service providers in dealing with the security characteristic of e-payment systems.

  19. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  20. Effectiveness of taping and bracing in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Sykaras, Evaggelos; Costa, Frosoula; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2002-04-01

    Taping and bracing are thought to be effective methods in restricting the ankle's joint motion and assisting prevention of injuries. Research evidence suggests that taping and bracing enhance both the mechanical support and the proprioception of the ankle. However, there is little research concerning the influence of taping and bracing on sport performance. Research has mainly examined tasks with demands on the frontal plane. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of taping and bracing on the performance of a task with demands on the frontal plane. A sample of 30 physical education students (Mage=21.9 yr.) performed a balance task requiring estimation of balance and both right and left deviations. The subjects performed the balance task on four different conditions, with tape, with Swede-O (a lace-up, boot style stabilizer), with Aircast (an inflatable cast), and without any stabilizer. There were no significant differences among the conditions. These findings indicate that taping and bracing do not have negative effects on balance in the frontal plane. This study created concerns regarding the appropriate stabilizer for different tasks, bilateral coordination after the application of a stabilizer, and the influence of psychological factors on prevention of injury. PMID:12027354