WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance intermittent resources

  1. Human stick balancing: an intermittent control explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Halaki, Mark; O'Dwyer, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    There are two issues in balancing a stick pivoting on a finger tip (or mechanically on a moving cart): maintaining the stick angle near to vertical and maintaining the horizontal position within the bounds of reach or cart track. The (linearised) dynamics of the angle are second order (although driven by pivot acceleration), and so, as in human standing, control of the angle is not, by itself very difficult. However, once the angle is under control, the position dynamics are, in general, fourth order. This makes control quite difficult for humans (and even an engineering control system requires careful design). Recently, three of the authors have experimentally demonstrated that humans control the stick angle in a special way: the closed-loop inverted pendulum behaves as a non-inverted pendulum with a virtual pivot somewhere between the stick centre and tip and with increased gravity. Moreover, they suggest that the virtual pivot lies at the radius of gyration (about the mass centre) above the mass centre. This paper gives a continuous-time control-theoretical interpretation of the virtual-pendulum approach. In particular, by using a novel cascade control structure, it is shown that the horizontal control of the virtual pivot becomes a second-order problem which is much easier to solve than the generic fourth-order problem. Hence, the use of the virtual pivot approach allows the control problem to be perceived by the subject as two separate second-order problems rather than a single fourth-order problem, and the control problem is therefore simplified. The theoretical predictions are verified using the data previously presented by three of the authors and analysed using a standard parameter estimation method. The experimental data indicate that although all subjects adopt the virtual pivot approach, the less expert subjects exhibit larger amplitude angular motion and poorly controlled translational motion. It is known that human control systems are delayed and

  2. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.;

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... conventional hydro plant). The aggregate would be integrated with BPA and CAISO automatic generation control systems. An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, prevents...

  3. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Sporborg, Pamela; Sheik, Imran; Huffaker, Erich; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-30

    This scoping study summarizes the challenges with integrating wind and solar generation into the California's electricity grid. These challenges include: Smoothing intra-hour variability; - Absorbing excess renewable energy during over-generation periods; - Addressing morning and evening ramping periods. In addition, there are technical challenges to integrating retail demand response (DR) triggered by the wholesale conditions into the CAISO markets. The study describes the DR programs available to the consumers through the utilities in California and CAISO's ancillary services market because an integration of the wholesale and retail DR requires an understanding of these different offerings and the costs associated with acquiring them. Demand-side active and passive storage systems are proposed as technologies that may be used to mitigate the effects of intermittence due to renewable generation. Commercial building technologies as well as industrial facilities with storage capability are identified as targets for the field tests. Two systems used for ancillary services communications are identified as providing the triggers for DR enablement. Through the field tests, issues related to communication, automation and flexibility of demand-side resources will be explored and the performance of technologies that participate in the field tests will be evaluated. The major outcome of this research is identifying and defining flexibility of DR resources and optimized use of these resources to respond to grid conditions.

  4. Efficient pricing and investment in electricity markets with intermittent resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing growing technological and environmental challenges, the electricity industry needs effective pricing mechanism to promote efficient risk management and investment decisions. In a restructured electricity market with competitive wholesale prices and traditionally regulated retail rates, however, there are technical and institutional barriers that prevent dynamic pricing with price responsive demand. In regions with limited energy storage capacity, intermittent renewable resources present special challenges. This could adversely affect the effectiveness of public policies causing inefficient investments in energy technologies. In this paper, we present an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market and use the model in a simulation study for an initial assessment of renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. A key objective of the study is to shed light on the policy issues so that effective decisions can be made to improve efficiency. - Highlights: → Renewable resources present special challenges in regions with limited energy storage capacity. → This paper presents an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market. → A simulation study assesses renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. → The study results inform policy decisions to improve efficient investments in energy technologies.

  5. Intermittent appearances of saddle-type hyperbolic dynamics during human stick balancing on a manually controlled cart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-08-01

    Stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted pendulum; CIP), analogous to human fingertip stick balancing, is considered to get insights of how the human central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics. We explore a possibility that a type of intermittent control strategy proposed for human postural control might also be applicable to the CIP task, i.e., whether a transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type equilibrium of the non-controlled inverted pendulum is exploited intermittently. To this end, we measured task performances during CIP balancing from several experimental subjects. Intermittent appearances of hyperbolicity as typical characteristics reflecting the intermittent control strategy were examined in the recorded motion data using phase space analysis and wavelet analysis. We show that skilled subjects tend to exhibit those characteristics, suggesting that they stabilize upright posture of the stick by utilizing the intermittent control strategy. PMID:26737047

  6. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained. PMID:12344702

  7. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  8. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  9. Priorities Of Ecological And Balanced Forest Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroslav Koval

    2011-01-01

    Priorities of ecological and balanced development of forest resources are expounded. Basis of this development is made by forest economic, forest purveying and woodworking enterprises. The ponderable problems of development of industry are specified. These problems is the institutional providing of industry, forests in the field of natural and technogenic safety, external and economic activity of sphere of forestry. Directions of development of complex of forest resources are set forth.

  10. Balancing water resources conservation and food security in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targ...

  11. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities in... operator, may not conduct surface mining activities that would disturb the surface of land within 100...

  12. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  13. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun; Østergaard, Jacob; Yan, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    loads can deliver a well-behaved, stable and predictable balancing support. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current balancing markets, as well as the technical properties of traditional and potential balancing resources, this paper proposes a new real-time balancing market setup facilitating....../demand uncertainties. This research is potentially useful for designing future balancing markets and utilizing demand response for system services. Copyright (C) 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved....

  14. The evolution and enlightenment of water resources accounting from accounts to balance sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuHui Jian; XiaoYu Song; LiLi Li; WenQi Gao

    2016-01-01

    The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has proposed an important national strategic decision: to explore and establish the balance sheet of natural resources, to implement leaders' of-office auditing system about natural resources assets. Water is one of the most essential nature resources of human beings; water resources accounting, as an important water resources management tool, is an essential part of compiling the natural re-sources balance sheet. In this paper, we provide a summary of the historic evolution of water resources accounting and analyze its application in some typical countries. Although water resources accounting and water resources balance sheet reflect different implications and focus, both require water resources accounts as the basis in system establishment.

  15. Calculating Individual Resources Variability and Uncertainty Factors Based on Their Contributions to the Overall System Balancing Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Pai, M. A.; McManus, Bart

    2014-01-14

    The variability and uncertainty of wind power production requires increased flexibility in power systems, or more operational reserves to main a satisfactory level of reliability. The incremental increase in reserve requirement caused by wind power is often studied separately from the effects of loads. Accordingly, the cost in procuring reserves is allocated based on this simplification rather than a fair and transparent calculation of the different resources’ contribution to the reserve requirement. This work proposes a new allocation mechanism for intermittency and variability of resources regardless of their type. It is based on a new formula, called grid balancing metric (GBM). The proposed GBM has several distinct features: 1) it is directly linked to the control performance standard (CPS) scores and interconnection frequency performance, 2) it provides scientifically defined allocation factors for individual resources, 3) the sum of allocation factors within any group of resources is equal to the groups’ collective allocation factor (linearity), and 4) it distinguishes helpers and harmers. The paper illustrates and provides results of the new approach based on actual transmission system operator (TSO) data.

  16. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance: Surface... permittee or operator, may not conduct surface activities that would disturb the surface of land within...

  17. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  18. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  19. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands of such....../demand uncertainties. This research is potentially useful for designing future balancing markets and utilizing demand response for system services. Copyright (C) 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved....

  20. Improving Human Resource Training Policy for the Balanced Economic and Demographic Development of the Kaliningrad Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemeshev A.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced economic and demographic development is vital for ensuring the dynamic and proportional development of the regions. However, Russia as a whole and the exclave region of Kaliningrad as its integral part demonstrate significant disproportions between the need for human resources and their availability. This article aims to assess the balance between the components of the regional system of demography, education and economy system. It also explores the possible solutions to the problems...

  1. Environmental Flows: Striking the Balance between Development and Resource Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Brown

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of scarce water resources through the use of environmental flows, particularly in developing countries in data-poor arid areas, raises many scientific challenges. These include transforming hydrological data into an ecologically relevant format, providing quantified predictions of river responses to flow change, describing the impacts of river change on common-property users of the rivers, providing the information in a format that decision makers can use, and guiding monitoring and adaptive management. Each of these challenges emerged in South Africa during the last two decades, when rivers and other aquatic ecosystems were enhanced in stature from having no rights to their own water to being one of only two sectors with a right to water; the other sector is for basic human needs. This paper outlines the challenges, how they are being addressed in South Africa, and perceptions of what remains to be done.

  2. ADJUSTING THE HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF USING THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Varzaru; Anca Antoaneta Varzaru

    2015-01-01

    Engaging the human resources structure in the strategic design and implementation stages is closely connected to the enhancement of its capabilities towards undertaking and handling transformational activities, which have a direct contribution in increasing the added value of an organization. This way, transformational activities enhance the strategic importance and the prominence of the human resources function within organizations. The employment of the Balanced Scorecard stands out as a po...

  3. Storage water value as a signature of the climatological balance between resource and uses

    OpenAIRE

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Water is stored in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the water resource to the various water demands like hydropower production, irrigation or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively identifies optimal reservoir operations that could have been achieved to balance resource and demand during a given time period in the ideal configuration where future inflows and demand are perfectly known. A by-product of dynamic programming is the estimati...

  4. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO2 emission by human breathing

  5. RENEWABLE RESOURCES IN AN ENDOGENOUSLY GROWING ECONOMY: BALANCED GROWTH AND TRANSITIONAL DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lúdvík Elíasson; Turnovsky, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a renewable resource sector into an endogenous growth model of a small economy, deriving the transitional dynamic equilibrium. The model generates a long-run balanced growth path along which a resource sector of limited size can coexist with constant ongoing growth elsewhere. The key feature of the model is the allocation of labor between harvesting the resource and its use in the final output sector. We examine both the dynamic and long-run responses of the economy to various sh...

  6. Regulatory road maps for large-scale integration of electricity from intermittent resources in five national electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The envisaged increase of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES-E) will increase system integration costs considerably. As a result, European targets for 2020 are not likely to be achieved in case no system cost reducing measures are taken. Therefore, based on an earlier analysis of a wide range of technical and institutional cost reducing options, this paper places the options in road map perspective for timely consideration and implementation of the most important options by national and European policymakers and other stakeholders.

  7. Joint Dynamic Radio Resource Allocation and Mobility Load Balancing in 3GPP LTE Multi-Cell Network

    OpenAIRE

    F. Li; Geng, L.; Zhu, S.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA)

    2015-01-01

    Load imbalance, together with inefficient utilization of system resource, constitute major factors responsible for poor overall performance in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. In this paper, a novel scheme of joint dynamic resource allocation and load balancing is proposed to achieve a balanced performance improvement in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE Self-Organizing Networks (SON). The new method which aims at maximizing network resource efficiency subject to inter-cell inte...

  8. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC) model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA)” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets) of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets) are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. ...

  9. Resource constrained flux balance analysis predicts selective pressure on the global structure of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abedpour, Nima; Kollmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background A universal feature of metabolic networks is their hourglass or bow-tie structure on cellular level. This architecture reflects the conversion of multiple input nutrients into multiple biomass components via a small set of precursor metabolites. However, it is yet unclear to what extent this structural feature is the result of natural selection. Results We extend flux balance analysis to account for limited cellular resources. Using this model, optimal structure of metabolic networ...

  10. The renewable energy resources position in the fuel - energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy resources position in the current fuel energy balance of the country is clearly defined. There have been discussed the solar energy usage possibilities mainly for hot water preparation, for industrial uses, in agriculture, as well as the geothermal water, hydro energy etc. The energy development expectations from renewable resources in the period up to 2015 have been forecasted with the aim of local renewable most efficient usage as well as the country's possibilities to meet the EU requirements for renewable resources development in order to decrease the import fuel and energy dependence and to increase the energy independence of Bulgaria. There have been presented the forecast expectations of renewable development structure by economic sectors in the Republic of Bulgaria. (author)

  11. Storage water value as a signature of the climatological balance between resource and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2013-07-01

    Water is stored in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the water resource to the various water demands like hydropower production, irrigation or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively identifies optimal reservoir operations that could have been achieved to balance resource and demand during a given time period in the ideal configuration where future inflows and demand are perfectly known. A by-product of dynamic programming is the estimation of the storage water value (SWV) which is the marginal value of the future benefits potentially obtained from an additional unit of water volume stored in a reservoir and which determines the optimal storage strategy. The SWV depends on the reservoir level and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This paper uses the SWV as an index of the adequacy between water resources and water demands for a simplified water resource system in a mountainous region in France. It characterizes how and why the adequacy and optimal strategy could change for this system if the climate and/or demand change. Changes in mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) are analyzed. The influence of the nature of water demand on the SWV is also described (energy production or minimum lake level maintenance). In the studied case, the adequacy between water resources and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of SWV changes with for example earlier water storage is to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand.

  12. Storage water value as a signature of the climatological balance between resource and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. François

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is stored in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the water resource to the various water demands like hydropower production, irrigation or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively identifies optimal reservoir operations that could have been achieved to balance resource and demand during a given time period in the ideal configuration where future inflows and demand are perfectly known. A by-product of dynamic programming is the estimation of the storage water value (SWV which is the marginal value of the future benefits potentially obtained from an additional unit of water volume stored in a reservoir and which determines the optimal storage strategy. The SWV depends on the reservoir level and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This paper uses the SWV as an index of the adequacy between water resources and water demands for a simplified water resource system in a mountainous region in France. It characterizes how and why the adequacy and optimal strategy could change for this system if the climate and/or demand change. Changes in mean regional temperature (increase and/or precipitation (decrease are analyzed. The influence of the nature of water demand on the SWV is also described (energy production or minimum lake level maintenance. In the studied case, the adequacy between water resources and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of SWV changes with for example earlier water storage is to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand.

  13. IMPROVING RESOURCE UTILIZATION USING QoS BASED LOAD BALANCING ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE WORKFLOWS IN IAAS CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shakkeera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available loud computing is the extension of parallel computing, distributed computing and grid computing. It provides secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing services through the internet. The services are available to user in pay per-use-on-demand model. The main aim of using resources from cloud is to reduce the cost and to increase the performance in terms of request response time. Thus, optimizing the resource usage through efficient load balancing strategy is crucial. The main aim of this paper is to develop and implement an Optimized Load balancing algorithm in IaaS virtual cloud environment that aims to utilize the virtual cloud resources efficiently. It minimizes the cost of the applications by effectively using cloud resources and identifies the virtual cloud resources that must be suitable for all the applications. The web application is created with many modules. These modules are considered as tasks and these tasks are submitted to the load balancing server. The server which consists our load balancing policies redirect the tasks to the corresponding virtual machines created by KVM virtual machine manager as per the load balancing algorithm. If the size of the database inside the machine exceeds then the load balancing algorithm uses the other virtual machines for further incoming request. The load balancing strategy are evaluated for various QoS performance metrics like cost, average execution times, throughput, CPU usage, disk space, memory usage, network transmission and reception rate, resource utilization rate and scheduling success rate for the number of virtual machines and it improves the scalability among resources using load balancing techniques.

  14. Intermittent hyperthyreosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittent hyperthyreosis occurs under various forms of stress, especially heat stress. The clinician may diagnose such cases as masked or apathetic hyperthyroidism or 'forme fruste' hyperthyreosis or thyroid autonomy. As most routine and standard tests may here yield inconsistent results, it is the patients' anamnesis which may provide the clue. Our Bioclimatology Unit has now seen over 100 cases in which thyroid hypersensitivity towards heat was the most prominent syndrome: 10-15% of weather-sensitive patients are affected. The patients complain before or during heat spells of such contradictory symptoms as insomnia, irritability, tension, tachycardia, palpitations, precordial pain, dyspnoe, flushes with sweating or chills, tremor, abdominal pain or diarrhea, polyuria or pollakisuria, weight loss in spite of ravenous appetite, fatigue, exhaustion, depression, adynamia, lack of concentration and confusion. Determination of urinary neurohormones allows a differential diagnosis, intermittent hyperthyreosis being characterized by three cardinal symptoms: tachycardia - every case with more than 80 pulse beats being suspect (not specific); urinary histamine - every case excreting more than 90 μg/day being suspect. Again the drawback of this test is its lack of specificity, as histamine may also be increased in cases of allergy and spondylitis; urinary thyroxine - every case excreting more than 20 μg/day T-4 being suspect. This is the only specific test. Therapy should make use of lithium carbonate and betablockers. Propyl thiouracil is rarely required. (orig.)

  15. Balancing public health and resource limitations: A role for ethical low-level risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the pervasiveness of risk in everyday life in modern industrial society has elicited calls for greater efforts to protect individual and public health. Yet, it is increasingly clear that decisions to do so must often be made in the context of significant limits in the amounts of financial resources available for achieving that protection. Achieving risk-free work, residential, and community environments may be so expensive as to render a private business unit uncompetitive or as to divert resources from or prelude commencing with other governmental projects with equal or greater health benefit potential. Ethical low-level risk communication (LLRC) is something risk-generating entities are morally obligated to do. However, such communication also offers important opportunities for such entities to move toward achieving better balances between health and the costs of protecting it. In this paper, the authors elaborate on several features of an ethically ideal LLRC process, focusing on those with aspects they hope are not obvious or common knowledge. In discussing these features, they provide examples of conflicts between health risks and resource limits at the level of the individual private firm, the local community, or the national government, such that LLRC with the feature in question provides an opportunity for mitigating or at least clarifying the conflict in question

  16. Sustainability of Water Cooled Reactors - Energy Balance for Low Grade Uranium Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opponents of nuclear power claim that as uranium resources get exhausted the energy needed to mine low grade uranium ore will be larger than the energy that can be obtained from fission in a nuclear power plant. This would result in loss of sustainability of nuclear power, with the negative energy balance expected within the next 40-60 years. Since the opponents state clearly that the ore containing less than 0.013% U3O8 cannot yield positive energy balance, the study of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Poland referenced three mines of decreasing ore grade: Ranger 0.234% U3O8, Rossing 0.028% U3O8 and Trekkopje 0.00126% U3O8, that is with ore grade below the postulated cut off value. The study considered total energy needs for uranium mining, including not only electricity needed for mining and milling, for water treatment and delivery, but also fuel for transportation and ore crushing, explosives for rock blasting, chemicals for uranium leaching and the energy needed for mine reclamation after completed exploitation. It has been shown that the energy estimates of nuclear opponents are wrong for Ranger mine and go off much further for the mines with lower uranium ore grades. The reasons for erroneous reasoning of nuclear opponents have been found. Their errors arise from treating the uranium ore deposits as if their layout and properties were the same as those of uranium ore mined in the US in the 70-ies. This results in an oversimplified formula, which yields large errors when the thickness of the overlayer is less than it was in the US. In addition the energy needs claimed for mine reclamation are much too high. The study showed that the energy needed for very low grade uranium ore mining and milling increases but the overall energy balance of the nuclear fuel cycle remains strongly positive. (author)

  17. Yoga lessons for consciousness research: a paralimbic network balancing brain resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to play a key role in shaping flexible learning and as such is thought to confer an evolutionary advantage. Attention and awareness are the perhaps most important underlying processes, yet their precise relationship is presently unclear. Both of these processes must, however, serve the evolutionary imperatives of survival and procreation. They are thus intimately bound by reward and emotion to help to prioritize efficient brain resource allocation in order to predict and optimize behaviour. Here we show how this process is served by a paralimbic network consisting primarily of regions located on the midline of the human brain. Using many different techniques, experiments have demonstrated that this network is effective and specific for self-awareness and contributes to the sense of unity of consciousness by acting as a common neural path for a wide variety of conscious experiences. Interestingly, haemodynamic activity in the network decreases with focusing on external stimuli, which has led to the idea of a default mode network. This network is one of many networks that wax and vane as resources are allocated to accommodate the different cyclical needs of the organism primarily related the fundamental pleasures afforded by evolution: food, sex and conspecifics. Here we hypothesize, however, that the paralimbic network serves a crucial role in balancing and regulating brain resource allocation, and discuss how it can be thought of as a link between current theories of so-called default mode, resting state networks and global workspace. We show how major developmental disorders of self-awareness and self-control can arise from problems in the paralimbic network as demonstrated here by the example of Asperger syndrome. We conclude that attention, awareness and emotion are integrated by a paralimbic network that helps to efficiently allocate brain resources to optimize behaviour and help survival.

  18. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  19. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  20. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  1. Sustainability of water cooled reactors - Energy balance for low grade uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2007 the European Parliament declared, that nuclear power is indispensable for the European Union for limiting CO2 emissions. Many countries revive their nuclear power programs or start building new nuclear power plants. However, the opponents of nuclear power claim that as uranium resources get exhausted the energy needed to mine low grade uranium ore will be larger than the energy that can be obtained from fission in a nuclear power plant. They conduct continuously their studies, publish their results in internet and present them at numerous meetings organized by antinuclear organizations. In particular they claim that the nuclear industry does not consider full energy costs of the nuclear fuel cycle, leaving aside the energy incorporated in materials and products bought from other industries and neglecting the energy needed for plant dismantling, mine area reclamation and waste management. This would result in loss of sustainability of nuclear power, with the negative energy balance expected within the next 40-60 years. In answer to that the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Poland has performed a study of available uranium resources, energy needed for mining and milling and the CO2 emissions in the whole uranium fuel cycle with special attention to back-end energy needs. The total energy needs for uranium mining were considered, including not only electricity needed for mining and milling, for water treatment and delivery to the mine and to the neighboring settlements, but also fuel for transportation and ore crushing, explosives for rock blasting, chemicals for uranium leaching and the energy needed for mine reclamation after completed ore exploitation. In contrast to the estimates of nuclear opponents based on mining experience with rich ores mined some 30 years ago, the study of IAE has used the most up to date data, reflecting the actual state-of-art mining practices. Since the opponents state clearly that the ore containing less than 0,013% U3

  2. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  3. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  4. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  5. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  6. INTERMITTENT DEGRADATION AND SCHIZOTYPY

    OpenAIRE

    Roché, Matthew W.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-repo...

  7. Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    theoretical model that centres on two drivers behind boundary resources design and use –resourcing and securing – and how these drivers interact in third-party development. We apply the model to a detailed case study of Apple’s iPhone platform. Our application of the model not only serves as an illustration...

  8. Study on the Supply and Demand Balance of Enterprise Human Resources Based on Statistical Prediction and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supply and demand of human re- sources in enterprises. We know that the human resources departments in enterprises need to recruit staff from society every year to maintain scientific development of enterprises. But how to find the relationship between enterprise internal supply and actual demand is the real concern for many enterprises. At the beginning of the year, the implementation of recruitment is based on historical data, which requires a scientific and reasonable forecast to lay the foundation for optimization of human resources allocation. This article uses the trend equa- tion fitting to forecast and research the actual demand of human resources, applies Markoff prediction model to forecast and research the internal supply of human resources, meanwhile uses staff flow data of an enterprise from 2006 to 2013 to conduct an empirical analysis of the reliability and science of model algorithm, which provides a theoretical basis for the prediction of the balance of supply and demand for human resources in enterprises.

  9. 75 FR 65964 - Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Resource and Demand Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... clarity by eliminating reference to the term ``load responsibility'' and including renewable energy... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Resource and... (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...

  10. Balanced nutrition for preventive management of disease in banana in limited resource situation

    OpenAIRE

    Muthaia, Edward Raja Dr

    2009-01-01

    Due to unbalanced nutrition, the disease incidence and economic loss due to them is increasing in India. Hence the profitability of some horticultural crops is decreasing. Preventive management by balanced nutrition is least understood and curative management using costly fungicides is becoming a problem. Exclusive fungicide oriented disease control has resulted in residues accumulation harmful to consuming public affecting export trade. This has also resulted in new resistant land races of p...

  11. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    OpenAIRE

    Snelder, T.H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; E. Sauquet; Pella, H.; C. Catalogne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective water resource management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times-series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero-flow) in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1)...

  12. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity. PMID:27114584

  13. Water resource impacts of climate and land cover change in New Zealand: Balancing scientific supply and policy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Rouse, H. L.; Duncan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    associated certainties. These responses are made more complex, though arguably more robust, through New Zealand's increasingly collaborative approach to water resource governance. As for the continued co-evolution of water resource science and policy, a variety of options is available which balance the technical knowledge with policy needs and opportunities. This includes the accommodation of scientific uncertainty and the development of robust yet adaptive management instruments.

  14. Loss of Balance between Tungsten Reserve and Mining, China’s Resource Advantage Is Weakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>China’s tungsten reserve, product output, export trade volume and consumption all rank top in the world. By offering supply for more than 80% global tungsten consumption with less than 50% of global tungsten ore resource, China has made significant contribution to the development of

  15. USING GIS TO GENERATE SPATIALLY-BALANCED RANDOM SURVEY DESIGNS FOR NATURAL RESOURCE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling of a population is frequently required to understand trends and patterns in natural resource management because financial and time constraints preclude a complete census. A rigorous probability-based survey design specifies where to sample so that inferences from the sam...

  16. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  17. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  18. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  19. Forest management policies and resource balance in China: an assessment of the current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Démurger, Sylvie; Yuanzhao, Hou; Weiyong, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Working paper du GATE 2007-12 Using the latest forest inventory, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of China's forest sector by focusing on new forest trends, forest policy changes and challenges to achieve a sustainable forest management. We analyze the dynamics of forest resources and provide an impact assessment of forest policies on China's forestry development over the last decades. Moreover, the analysis of the forest market highlights substantial disequilibria marked by a ...

  20. The renewable energy resources future in the electricity energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of renewable resources for electricity production in Bulgaria could be extended significantly in reality, through the utilization of the existing high technical potential. Options for expected electricity production development in future period have been presented for the country on the base of two expected scenarios for economic development. Forecasted variations of structural mix for renewable energy sources electricity production have been proposed with respect of the existing options for better use of the RES economical potential

  1. Balance the Paradox between Limited Health Resources and Growing Demands for Medical Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Tian; Bruce Gurd; Wang Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    Health institutions in the People's Republic of China are under considerable challenge.Innovations in management systems may support the challenge to increase both efficiency and effectiveness.The balanced scorecard (BSC) is one Such innovation.We have used a model to explore the factors that may impact the diffusion of the BSC in Chinese government hospitals.In particular,we concentrate on three factors-the outer context,the nature of the innovation and the communication and influence.The outer context and the nature of the innovation do provide an inducement to implement a BSC.The strength of the communication and influence may affect the level of take-up.However,we recognise that they may choose the BSC not for any apparent technical excellence but for the legitimation that Western man agement practices may bring to local managers.

  2. The Balanced Development of Yunnan Bazi Agriculture and its Resource Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.

  3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  4. A regional waterway management system for balancing recreational boating and resource protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swett, Robert A; Listowski, Charles; Fry, Douglas; Boutelle, Stephen; Fann, David

    2009-06-01

    Florida's coasts have been transformed over the past three decades as population growth and unprecedented demand for individual shore access to bays and estuaries led to the creation of residential canal developments. Thousands of miles of channels and basins were dredged as a by-product of this urbanization process. The navigable waterways that resulted are now being stressed by increasing boat traffic and canal-side activities. Recognizing their common goal to preserve the recreational and ecological value of southwest Florida waterways, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the four-county West Coast Inland Navigation District, and the University of Florida Sea Grant College Program signed a Memorandum of Agreement. The signatories agreed to develop a science-based Regional Waterway Management System (RWMS), which is a new approach to waterway planning and permitting based on carefully mapped channel depths, a census of actual boat populations, and the spatial extent of natural resources. The RWMS provides a comprehensive, regional overview of channel conditions and the geographic distribution and severity of existing impediments to safe navigation and resource protection. RWMS information and analyses result in regional-scale permitting to accommodate water-dependent uses while minimizing environmental impacts and reducing public expenditures. Compared with traditional approaches to waterway management, the science-based RWMS is relatively unbiased, objective, transparent, ecologically sound, and fiscally prudent. PMID:19020927

  5. Resource-based view of the firm, competitive intelligence and Balanced Scorecard: in search of sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical model that integrates three important themes related to the strategy theory at present – Resource Based View (RBV, Competitive Intelligence (CI and Balanced Scorecard (BSC -, in terms of strategic formulation and implementation. These themes have been presented in publications of researchers in the field of strategy reaching the dimensions of concept and process. On one side the RBV inside out as the emphasis back us to assess what we are and what we have for improving conditions for achieving superior results. The model CI refers to the condition of connection of outside in and inside out for the position at the interface of organizations. The BSC guides the condition to meet a few dimensions and processes. It also discusses how this integration can help companies gain competitive advantage in markets that operate over the time.

  6. Forecasting intermittent demand

    OpenAIRE

    Teunter, R.H.; Duncan, L

    2006-01-01

    Methods for forecasting intermittent demand are compared using a large data-set from the UK Royal Air Force (RAF). Several important results are found. First, we show that the traditional per period forecast error measures are not appropriate for intermittent demand, even though they are consistently used in the literature. Second, by comparing target service levels to achieved service levels when inventory decisions are based on demand forecasts, we show that Croston's method (and a variant)...

  7. Energy Resource Management of Assembly Line Balancing Problem using Modified Current Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Suwannarongsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to apply a modified current search method, adaptive current search (ACS, for assembly line balancing problems. The ACS algorithm possesses the memory list (ML to escape from local entrapment and the adaptive radius (AR mechanism to speed up the search process. The ACS is tested against five benchmark unconstrained and three constrained optimization problems compared with genetic algorithm (GA, tabu search (TS and current search (CS. As results, the ACS outperforms other algorithms and provides superior results. The ACS is used to address the number of tasks assigned for each workstation, while the heuristic sequencing (HS technique is conducted to assign the sequence of tasks for each workstation according to precedence constraints. The workload variance and the idle time are performed as the multiple-objective functions. The proposed approach is tested against four benchmark ALB problems compared with the GA, TS and CS. As results, the ACS associated with the HS technique is capable of producing solutions superior to other techniques. In addition, the ACS is an alternative potential algorithm to solve other optimization problems.

  8. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul L

    2012-12-01

    Old and unlined landfill sites pose a risk to groundwater and surface water resources. While landfill leachate plumes in sandy aquifers have been studied, landfills in clay till settings and their impact on receiving water bodies are not well understood. In addition, methods for quantitatively linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance, the mass discharge of chloride from the landfill was 9.4 ton/year and the mass discharge of chloride to the deep limestone aquifer was 1.4 ton/year. This resulted in elevated concentrations of leachate indicators (chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater. The mass discharge of chloride to the small Risby Stream down gradient of the landfill was approximately 31 kg/year. The contaminant mass balance method worked well for chloride and dissolved organic carbon, but the uncertainties were elevated for ammonium due to substantial spatial variability in the source composition and attenuation processes in the underlying clay till. PMID:22868040

  9. Intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents an analysis of intermittency as it appears in high energy multiparticle production. Momentum space particle distributions are scale invariant and fluctuate from events to events. This phenomenon originates from Hydrodynamics. Some results about hydrodynamics intermittency are by the way deduced using random diffusion processes and the Landau-Ginzburg equation. A phenomenological approach utilizing random cascading models is used to describe the morphology and intermittent features of particle distributions. Along these lines, a thorough study of random cascades is performed. The origin of intermittent fluctuation is to be found within the Framework of Quantum Field Theory. Indeed intermittency is intimately linked to the perturbative cascade of Quantum Chromodynamics. The long distance behaviour of perturbative QCD is intermittent at the leading collinear logarithm approximation. Moreover fluctuations of matter density along the rapidity axis suggest that the gluon cascade undergoes a phase transition towards a valley landscape where gluons are prone to get clumped within small regions. This is compatible with the so-called preconfinement

  10. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  11. Balancing water resources development and environmental sustainability in Africa: a review of recent research findings and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent. PMID:23238866

  12. A New Approach for a Better Load Balancing and a Better Distribution of Resources in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah IDRISSI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new paradigm where data and services of Information Technology are provided via the Internet by using remote servers. It represents a new way of delivering computing resources allowing access to the network on demand. Cloud computing consists of several services, each of which can hold several tasks. As the problem of scheduling tasks is an NP-complete problem, the task management can be an important element in the technology of cloud computing. To optimize the performance of virtual machines hosted in cloud computing, several algorithms of scheduling tasks have been proposed. In this paper, we present an approach allowing to solve the problem optimally and to take into account the QoS constraints based on the different user requests. This technique, based on the Branch and Bound algorithm, allows to assign tasks to different virtual machines while ensuring load balance and a better distribution of resources. The experimental results show that our approach gives very promising results for an effective tasks planning.

  13. Intermittency and solitons in the driven dissipative nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H. T.; Goldman, M. V.

    1984-01-01

    The cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation, in the presence of driving and Landau damping, is studied numerically. As the pump intensity is increased, the system exhibits a transition from intermittency to a two-torus to chaos. The laminar phase of the intermittency is also a two-torus motion which corresponds in physical space to two identical solitons of amplitude determined by a power-balance equation.

  14. Are renewable energies intermittent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines that renewable energies, notably photovoltaic and wind energy, are not that intermittent. Besides the fact that their operation is progressive (they do not pass from nothing to one), the fact they are distributed among the territory means that, when considering them all, the production is smoothed at the territory scale. They are in fact more varying than intermittent and they are smoothed and predictable. On the other side, thermal plants are regularly stopped, for maintenance for example. It states that in absence of wind or sun, fossil energies can be replaced by hydraulic energy and nuclear energy

  15. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  16. Alignment of University Information Technology Resources with the Malcolm Baldrige Results Criteria for Performance Excellence in Education: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Deborah F.; Humphrey, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors suggest using a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate information technology (IT) resources in higher education institutions. The BSC approach illustrated is based on the performance criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in Education. This article suggests areas of potential impact of IT on BSC measures in…

  17. Zooplankton intermittency and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, François G.

    2010-05-01

    Planktonic organisms usually live in a turbulent world. Since marine turbulence is characterized by very high Reynolds numbers, it possesses very intermittent fluctuations which in turn affect marine life. We consider here such influence on zooplankton on 2 aspects. First we consider zooplankton motion in the lab. Many copepods display swimming abilities. More and more species have been recently recorded using normal or high speed cameras, and many trajectories have been extracted from these movies and are now available for analysis. These trajectories can be complex, stochastic, with random switching from low velocity to high velocity events and even jumps. These complex trajectories show that an adequate modeling is necessary to understand and characterize them. Here we review the results published in the literature on copepod trajectories. We discuss the random walk, Levy walk modeling and introduce also multifractal random walks. We discuss the way to discriminate between these different walks using experimental data. Stochastic simulations will be performed to illustrate the different families. Second, we consider zooplankton contact rates in the framework of intermittent turbulence. Intermittency may have influence on plankton contact rates. We consider the Particle Stokes number of copepods, in a intermediate dissipation range affected by intermittent fluctuations. We show that they may display preferential concentration effects, and we consider the influence on contact rates of this effect in the intermediate dissipation range.

  18. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Snelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective water resource management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times-series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero-flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times-series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero-flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used Random Forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also catchment area, shape and slope. However, we suggest that the fair-to-poor performance of the classification models is because intermittence is also controlled by

  19. Effect of intermittent hypercapnia on respiratory control in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggerda, Justin A; Mayer, Catherine A; Martin, Richard J; Wilson, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    Preterm infants are subject to fluctuations in blood gas status associated with immature respiratory control. Intermittent hypoxia during early postnatal life has been shown to increase chemoreceptor sensitivity and destabilize the breathing pattern; however, intermittent hypercapnia remains poorly studied. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia results in altered respiratory control, we examined the effects of daily exposure to intermittent hypercapnia on the ventilatory response to subsequent hypercapnic and hypoxic exposure in neonatal rat pups. Exposure cycles consisted of 5 min of intermittent hypercapnia (5% CO(2), 21% O(2), balance N(2)) followed by 10 min of normoxia. Rat pups were exposed to 18 exposure cycles each day for 1 week, from postnatal day 7 to 14. We analyzed diaphragm electromyograms (EMGs) from pups exposed to subsequent acute hypercapnic (5% CO(2)) and hypoxic (12% O(2)) challenges. In response to a subsequent hypercapnia challenge, there was no significant difference in the ventilatory response between control and intermittent hypercapnia-exposed groups. In contrast, intermittent hypercapnia-exposed rat pups showed an enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxic challenge with an increase in minute EMG to 118 +/- 14% of baseline versus 107 +/- 13% for control pups (p < 0.05). We speculate that prior hypercapnic exposure may increase peripheral chemoreceptor response to subsequent hypoxic exposures and result in perturbed neonatal respiratory control. PMID:19752577

  20. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Elkhatib; Modupe Idowu; Gregory S. Brown; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Cheryl Person

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment r...

  1. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    OpenAIRE

    Snelder, T.H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; E. Sauquet; Pella, H.; C. Catalogne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times...

  2. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A; Reier, Paul J; Mitchell, Gordon S; Fuller, David D

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a "respiratory memory"). AIH elicits similar phrenic "long-term facilitation" (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. PMID:25997947

  3. Forecast combinations for intermittent demand

    OpenAIRE

    Fotios PETROPOULOS; Kourentzes, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent demand is characterised by infrequent demand arrivals, where many periods have zero demand, coupled with varied demand sizes. The dual source of variation renders forecasting for intermittent demand a very challenging task. Many researchers have focused on the development of specialised methods for intermittent demand. However, apart from a case study on hierarchical forecasting, the effects of combining, which is a standard practice for regular demand, have not been investigated...

  4. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K;

    1986-01-01

    The fate of 257 consecutive patients (100 women) aged 36-85 years (mean 65) first seen with intermittent claudication in 1977 was analysed after a mean of 6.5 (SD 0.5) years. When first seen none of the patients complained of rest pain or had ulcers or gangrenous lesions on the feet. At follow up...... 113 of the patients (44%) had died. Causes of death were no different from those in the general population. Mortality was twice that of the general population matched for age and sex. Mortality among the men was twice that among the women. In men under 60 mortality was four times that expected. The...

  5. Interventions for intermittent exotropia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Sarah R; Gnanaraj, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical management of intermittent exotropia has been discussed extensively in the literature, yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding indications for intervention, the most effective form of treatment and whether or not there is an optimal time in the evolution of the disease at which any treatment should be carried out. Objectives The objective of this review was to analyse the effects of various surgical and non-surgical treatments in randomised trials of participants with intermittent exotropia, and to report intervention criteria and determine the significance of factors such as age with respect to outcome. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2012), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 May 2012. We are no longer searching the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG) for this review. We manually searched the British Orthoptic Journal up to 2002, and the proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meeting (AAPOS) up to 2001. We contacted researchers who are active in the field for information about further published or unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of any surgical or non-surgical treatment for intermittent exotropia. Data collection and

  6. Instantons and intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Falkovich, G; Lebedev, V; Migdal, A

    1995-01-01

    We propose the new method for finding the non-Gaussian tails of probability distribution function (PDF) for solutions of a stochastic differential equation, such as convection equation for a passive scalar, random driven Navier-Stokes equation etc. Existence of such tails is generally regarded as a manifestation of intermittency phenomenon. Our formalism is based on the WKB approximation in the functional integral for the conditional probability of large fluctuation. We argue that the main contribution to the functional integral is given by a coupled field-force configuration -- {\\em instanton}. As an example, we examine the correlation functions of the passive scalar u advected by a large-scale velocity field \\delta-correlated in time. We find the instanton determining the tails of the generating functional and show that it is different from the instanton that determines the probability distribution function of high powers of u. We discuss the simplest instantons for the Navier-Stokes equation.

  7. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    of chloride to the small Risby Stream down gradient of the landfill was approximately 31kg/year. The contaminant mass balance method worked well for chloride and dissolved organic carbon, but the uncertainties were elevated for ammonium due to substantial spatial variability in the source composition...

  8. Transition to renewable resources - energy balance comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems and potentials for the mitigation of fossil resource use

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, T.

    2013-01-01

    Today, agriculture and food production has major implications for the use of fossil energy and other resources, and a sustainable development implies transition towards new systems, based on renewable resources. The reduction of external inputs to the farm through efficient management of materials and energy is a central part of the organic principles (IFOAM 2013), and in most countries standards are implemented in the form of nationally adapted, organic farming regulations, with significa...

  9. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  10. Balancing Water Resources Development and Environmental Sustainability in Africa: A Review of Recent Research Findings and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. McClain

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent’s water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased wate...

  11. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  12. Intermittency Growth in Fluid Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    @@ Measurement and phenomenological analyses of intermittency growth in an experimental turbulent pipe flow and numerical turbulence are performed, for which working definitions such as degree, increment, and growth rate of intermittency are introduced with the help of quasiscaling theory. The logarithmic-normal inertial scaling model is extended to quasiscaling as the second-order truncation of the Taylor expansion and is used for studying the intermittency growth problem. The extended self-similarity properties are shown to be not consistent with the monotonicity of the third order local quasiscaling exponent and the nonmonotonic behaviour of the intermittency growth rate as a result of bottleneck. Digestions of the results with scale-dependent multifractals are provided.

  13. Intermittency in spiral Poiseuille flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an experimental study on intermittent spiral vortices observed in a counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system with an additional axial through flow, i.e. Spiral-Poiseuille flow, are presented. Convectively unstable upstream propagating spiral vortices appear in the laminar basic flow from an oscillatory instability and in general become absolutely unstable at higher inner cylinder Reynolds number. It is found that at Reynolds numbers above the absolute stability border the spiral vortices become unstable and a complex flow state showing intermittent bursts appears. The intermittent flow state is characterised by an irregular alternation between clearly distinguishable 'laminar' phases corresponding to up-and downstream propagating spiral vortices as well as propagating Taylor vortices. For a sufficiently high rate of axial through flow it is found that intermittency can occur directly from the convectively unstable regime of the upstream propagating spiral vortices

  14. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  15. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  16. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  17. A Theoretical Essay on Sustainability and Environmentally Balanced Output Growth: Natural Capital, Constrained Depletion of Resources and Pollution Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcos Carvalho de Sena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that today’s activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources and polluted the environment. The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital, connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate pollution. The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a qualitative (seeking definitions-analytical (appraising models apparatus to reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main essay’s contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover, that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the only way to obtain sustainability.

  18. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Snelder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also

  19. Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Homan, Gregory [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, Robert [Olivine, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Hernandez, John [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with direct participation of third-parties and customers including customer acceptance; market transformation challenges (wholesale market, technology); technical and operational feasibility; and value to the rate payers, DR resource owners and the utility on providing an enabling mechanism for DR resources into the wholesale markets. The customer had the option of committing to either three contiguous hour blocks for 24 days or six contiguous hours for 12 days a month with day-ahead notification that aligned with the CAISO integrated forward market. As a result of their being available, the customer was paid $10/ kilowatt (kW)-month for capacity in addition to CAISO energy settlements. The participants were limited to no more than a 2 megawatt (MW) capacity with a six-month commitment. Four participants successfully engaged in the pilot. In this report, we provide the description of the pilot, participant performance results, costs and value to participants as well as outline some of the issues encountered through the pilot. Results show that participants chose to participate with storage and the value of CAISO settlements were significantly lower than the capacity payments provided by the utility as incentive payments. In addition, this pilot revealed issues both on the participant side and system operations side. These issues are summarized in the report.The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with

  20. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Bottom-up resource limitation: the ecosystem energy balance predicts the quality of nutrition in a herbivore prey population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Garcia, Monica; Gil, Esperanza;

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation greenness indices from remote sensing are increasingly used in population ecology studies assuming that land surface reflectance can reflect the availability of nutritional resources for primary consumers. However, the relationship between these indices and the characteristics of the...... herbivore diet has been insufficiently tested. We hypothesized that in drylands, where water availability is a prime control of ecosystem functioning, remote sensing indicators of vegetation drought stress are critical to predict the nutritional quality of herbivore habitats. This hypothesis was analyzed by...... allowed us to characterize the overall quality of each habitat and to relate it with rabbit abundance. Results have far-reaching implications for assessing habitat quality and the effects of functional ecosystem changes on a keystone prey herbivore and associated communities....

  2. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  3. Elastic wave turbulence and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Josserand, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the onset of intermittency for vibrating elastic plate turbulence in the framework of the weak wave turbulence theory using a numerical approach. The spectrum of the displacement field and the structure functions of the fluctuations are computed for different forcing amplitudes. At low forcing, the spectrum predicted by the theory is observed, while the fluctuations are consistent with Gaussian statistics. When the forcing is increased, the spectrum varies at large scales, corresponding to the oscillations of nonlinear structures made of ridges delimited by d cones. In this regime, the fluctuations exhibit small-scale intermittency that can be fitted via a multifractal model. The analysis of the nonlinear frequency shows that the intermittency is linked to the breakdown of the weak turbulence at large scales only.

  4. Bursts in intermittent aeolian saltation

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, M V; Herrmann, H J

    2014-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of intermittent flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the critical Shields number $\\theta_c$. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until saltation becomes non-intermittent and the sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain intermittent flux even below the threshold $\\theta_c$ for natural saltation initiation.

  5. A Resource Utilization Balance Strategy in P2P Trust Model%P2P信任模型中资源利用平衡策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓健; 李彤; 付铁威

    2014-01-01

    P2P节点中存在的日益严重的搭便车行为对网络的健壮性、可用性、服务响应速度和生命周期等造成了很大影响。设计合理而有效的P2P信任模型来抑制搭便车行为已成为研究的重点。因此借鉴社会经济发展策略,提出基于资源利用均衡的信誉评价方法即对资源贡献大,以及贡献与消费平衡的节点赋予高信誉度。促使节点在贡献资源时要考虑其他节点的需求,消费资源时则要衡量自身提供资源的能力;同时为新节点提供基本信誉度来保障其尽早开展资源交易。仿真实验表明搭便车行为受到有效抑制,网络资源的利用率明显提高。%The increasingly serious free riding behavior is prevalent in almost all P2P networks, which reduces the robustness, availability, service response speed, and lifetime of P2P networks. Research of the reasonable and effective P2P trust model to prohibit free-riders to contribute more to the system has become an important direction. Therefore, in reference to the social economic development strategy, the method of reputation equilibrium based on resources utilization is proposed, which a high degree of credibility is given the resource contribution nodes and the contribution and consumption balance nodes. The nodes consider other nodes' demand to contribute resources and measure their ability to consume resource. At the same time,it provides basic credibility to protect its resources for the new node as soon as possible to carry out transactions. Simulation results show that the free riding behavior is effectively restrainer and the resource utilization rate is increased.

  6. Resource load balancing scheme based on simulated annealing algorithm.%基于模拟退火算法的资源负载均衡方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金杉; 麦丰; 任波

    2011-01-01

    The load balancing problem of network resources in large-scale ERP systems is studied. Firstly,the demand of this issue is modeled and analyzed theoretically;secondly,a heuristic objective function which satisfies the host and network constraints is designed,and furthermore the model is transformed into the problem of degree-constrained minimum spanning tree;thirdly, a simulated annealing algorithm is designed to deal with the problem and a load balancing scheme based on the algorithm named LABS is proposed eventually. According to the theoretical analysis,the time complexity of the computation operated by the whole network is the square of the size of node.The simulation results show that, by selecting appropriate factors, the scheme not only can absorb most of the nodes to participate in load balancing operations, but also can reduce the bottlenecks of nodes and the average utilization rate of resources significantly.%针对大型ERP系统的网络资源负载均衡问题展开研究.在理论上对问题的需求进行建模分析,设计了满足主机和网络性能约束的启发式目标函数,将模型转化为度约束最小生成树问题,设计了一种模拟退火算法对此问题进行处理,提出了基于该算法的资源负载均衡方案LABS.理论分析表明,整个网络执行该方案的时间复杂度为节点规模的平方阶,说明方案具有较强的可用性与可伸缩性.仿真实验结果显示,通过选择适当的启发因子,算法不仅可以吸纳大部分节点协同参与负载均衡操作,还能够显著减少系统中的瓶颈节点数,降低平均资源使用率.

  7. Intermittent control of coexisting attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wiercigroch, Marian; Ing, James; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina

    2013-06-28

    This paper proposes a new control method applicable for a class of non-autonomous dynamical systems that naturally exhibit coexisting attractors. The central idea is based on knowledge of a system's basins of attraction, with control actions being applied intermittently in the time domain when the actual trajectory satisfies a proximity constraint with regards to the desired trajectory. This intermittent control uses an impulsive force to perturb one of the system attractors in order to switch the system response onto another attractor. This is carried out by bringing the perturbed state into the desired basin of attraction. The method has been applied to control both smooth and non-smooth systems, with the Duffing and impact oscillators used as examples. The strength of the intermittent control force is also considered, and a constrained intermittent control law is introduced to investigate the effect of limited control force on the efficiency of the controller. It is shown that increasing the duration of the control action and/or the number of control actuations allows one to successfully switch between the stable attractors using a lower control force. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23690639

  8. Intermittency patterns in hadron multiproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-range fluctuations in rapidity are observed in high energy multiproduction of hadrons. Using a factorial moment method, we show how to isolate non-statistical fluctuations and discuss some model predictions. Models including a space-time cascade of cluster decays are expected to lead to fluctuation patterns typical of intermittency whereas the dual parton model gives a very different steady behaviour

  9. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  10. Intermittent exotropia: Surgical treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Aditya Kelkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical management of intermittent exotropias (IXTs is ambiguous, with techniques of management varying widely between institutions. This review aims to examine available literature on the surgical management of IXT. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, and the University of Liverpool Orthoptic Journals and Conference Transactions Database. All English-language papers published between 1958 and the present day were considered.

  11. Power-constrained intermittent control

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Wagg, David J; Neild, Simon A; Wang, Liuping

    2013-01-01

    In this article, input power, as opposed to the usual input amplitude, constraints are introduced in the context of intermittent control. They are shown to result in a combination of quadratic optimisation and quadratic constraints. The main motivation for considering input power constraints is its similarity with semi-active control. Such methods are commonly used to provide damping in mechanical systems and structures. It is shown that semi-active control can be re-expressed and generalised...

  12. Lattice splitting under intermittent flows

    OpenAIRE

    Schläpfer, Markus; Trantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    We study the splitting of regular square lattices subject to stochastic intermittent flows. Various flow patterns are produced by different groupings of the nodes, based on their random alternation between two possible states. The resulting flows on the lattices decrease with the number of groups according to a power law. By Monte Carlo simulations we reveal how the time span until the occurrence of a splitting depends on the flow patterns. Increasing the flow fluctuation frequency shortens t...

  13. Optimal Intermittent Reorientation in Insect Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Orit; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan; Applied Math Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    The process of navigation is often accompanied by several cognitive demanding activities, such as motor control, locomotion planning, and multi-sensory acquisition and integration. Organisms with limited cognitive resources must therefore multitask and develop optimal schemes to dynamically allocate resources to the different tasks. An extreme example of task alternations during navigation is the hallmark of ball rolling dung beetles. The beetles need to roll their dung-ball along a straight path away from the dung pile where intense competition occurs. Before initiating a roll, dung beetles climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This action serves as an orientation mechanism that allows them to set an initial bearing, and to regain this bearing if they experience an unintentional disturbance along the way. We developed a model inspired by the beetle's navigational scheme, where an agent performs a random walk intermittent by reorientation events, in which its heading direction is corrected. We show that the resultant paths are a characteristic of correlated diffusion in short time scale, and biased diffusion in the long time scale. We identify optimal alternation schemes and characterize their robustness upon introducing noisy sensory acquisition and rough environmental conditions.

  14. Bifurcations and intermittent magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence of equilibria of two-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics has been studied as a function of the tearing mode stability parameter Δ'. After a symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurring at Δ' ∼ 0, which originates a state with a small magnetic island, the system undergoes a second bifurcation, of tangent type, at Δ' ∼ 1. Above this value, no stationary solutions with small islands exist. The system rapidly develops an island of macroscopic size. This general property is proposed as a basic ingredient of the intermittent events observed in magnetically confined plasmas. (author)

  15. Bifurcations and intermittent magnetic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebaldi, C.; Ottaviani, M.; Porcelli, F. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1996-04-01

    The sequence of equilibria of two-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics has been studied as a function of the tearing mode stability parameter {Delta}`. After a symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurring at {Delta}` {approx} 0, which originates a state with a small magnetic island, the system undergoes a second bifurcation, of tangent type, at {Delta}` {approx} 1. Above this value, no stationary solutions with small islands exist. The system rapidly develops an island of macroscopic size. This general property is proposed as a basic ingredient of the intermittent events observed in magnetically confined plasmas. (author).

  16. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of intermittent rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Stefan B.; Hoeve, Jasper; Sauquet, Eric; Leigh, Catherine; Bonada, Núria; Fike, Kimberly; Dahm, Clifford; Booij, Martijn J.; Datry, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent rivers (IRs) support high biodiversity due to their dynamic alternations between terrestrial and aquatic phases. They represent a large proportion of the river network. However the current knowledge on these ecosystems is limited. The international research project "Intermittent River Biodiversity Analysis and Synthesis" (IRBAS, www.irbas.fr) aims to collect and analyze data on IR biodiversity from France, Spain, North America and Australia. These activities ultimately should help in identifying relationships between flow regime components and ecological responses. The IRBAS project will provide guidelines for policy-makers and resource managers for effective water and habitat management, restoration and preservation. This work examines one of the aspects in the IRBAS project: studying the large-scale spatial distribution of IRs as well as the year-to-year variability of zero-flow events. IRs were described by two variables: the frequency of periods without flow (FREQ) per time period (months or years) and the total number of zero-flow days (DUR) in a specified time window (month or year). Daily discharge data from more than 1700 gauging stations with no significant human influence on flow were collected from France, Spain, Australia and conterminous United States. A minimum length of 30 years of data starting from 1970 was required with less than 5% of missing data. Climate data for France and Australia were also collected. A classification of perennial versus intermittent rivers was defined, with 455 stations out of the 1684 considered "intermittent", i.e. the gauging station records had, on average, at least 5 zero-flow days per year. The analysis of the subset of IRs showed that: - Greater than 50% of the IRs in the database is located in Australia, where only 35% of the stations are considered perennial. In Spain the proportion of IRs reaches 25%. The proportion of intermittent rivers in France (7%) is certainly underestimated as a consequence of

  17. Improved Intermittency Analysis of Individual Events

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, R. A.; Ziaja, B.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress on the event-by-event analysis of intermittent data by R. A. Janik and myself is reported. The intermittency analysis of single event data (particle moments) in multiparticle production is improved, taking into account corrections due to the reconstruction of history of a particle cascade. This approach is tested within the framework of the $\\alpha$-model.}

  18. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2 ...

  19. Autonomic neuropathy in acute intermittent porphyria.

    OpenAIRE

    Laiwah, A C; Macphee, G. J.; P Boyle; Moore, M R; Goldberg, A

    1985-01-01

    Autonomic function was assessed in subjects with acute intermittent porphyria and age- and sex-matched controls using five different bedside tests of cardiovascular reflexes. During the acute attack both parasympathetic and sympathetic tests were impaired, but subsequently improved during remission. Early parasympathetic dysfunction was also detected during remission and in latent asymptomatic acute intermittent porphyria.

  20. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  1. Noise-driven activation in human intermittent control: a double-well potential model

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    In controlling unstable systems humans switch intermittently between the passive and active behavior instead of controlling the system in a continuous manner. The notion of noise-driven control activation provides a richer alternative to the conventional threshold-based models of intermittent motor control. The present study represents the control activation as a random walk in a continuously changing double-well potential. The match between the proposed model and the previous data on human balancing of virtual stick prompts that the double-well approach can aid in explaining complex dynamics of human behavior in control processes.

  2. Kinetic intermittency in magnetized plasma turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Teaca, Bogdan; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We employ magnetized plasma turbulence, described by a gyrokinetic formalism in an interval ranging from the end of the fluid scales to the electron gyroradius, to introduce the first study of kinetic intermittency, in which nonlinear structures formed directly in the distribution functions are analyzed by accounting for velocity space correlations generated by linear (Landau resonance) and nonlinear phase mixing. Electron structures are found to be strongly intermittent and dominated by linear phase mixing, while nonlinear phase mixing dominates the weakly intermittent ions. This is the first time spatial intermittency and linear phase mixing are shown to be self-consistently linked for the electrons and, as the magnetic field follows the intermittency of the electrons at small scales, explain why magnetic islands are places dominated by Landau damping in steady state turbulence.

  3. Intermittent dystonia in Hartnup disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, B T; Ampola, M G; Dietz, W H; Gilmore, H E

    1989-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl developed intermittent dystonic posture of the legs and eczematous dermatitis without ataxia. Qualitative and quantitative urine amino acid testing confirmed the diagnosis of Hartnup disease. Cranial computed tomography, electroencephalogram, electromyogram/nerve conduction study, posterior tibial somatosensory evoked potentials, 24-hour electroencephalographic telemetry, and metrizamide myelogram were normal. Spinal fluid hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration was less than or equal to 2 S.D. of normal; oral tryptophan loading (70 mg/kg) resulted in a two-fold rise in cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration. Tryptophan administered alone or with nicotinic acid failed to improve the dystonia; however, trihexyphenidyl (1-2 mg/kg/day) dramatically improved it. Hartnup disease should be considered in children with unexplained dystonia. PMID:2712944

  4. Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, K T; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B

    2013-01-01

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Els\\"asser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  5. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach......The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for...

  6. Analytical approach to continuous and intermittent bottleneck flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbing, D.; Johansson, A.; Mathiesen, Joachim Kaj; Jensen, M.H.; Hansen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20......Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20...

  7. 基于水土资源平衡的农产品生产及贸易原则%Balance of water and soil resources based principles of agricultural production and trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 梁美社; 王慧阳; 王正中

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 Based on the virtual water and soil resources theory,the study was proceeded to provide information for planting structure optimization and trade principles of agricultural products by studying regional soil and water resources endowment coefficient and soil and water resources balance coefficient of different agricultural products.【Method】 We defined the virtual water and soil resources endowment coefficient,water and soil resource balance coefficient and their calculation method,then calculated and ordered soil and water resources endowment coefficient of agricultural products in different areas.At last,agricultural data in Gansu Province was used as a demonstration.【Result】 From the perspective of the food safety and sustainable development of agriculture,there were some problems in national water resources.In northern regions,preferential planting and exporting crops and agricultural products should be those with less balance coefficient of agricultural water and soil resources while it was quite different in southern regions.Thus,both southern and northern regions urgently need to strengthen irrigation and construction of water conservancy projects,and south regions should be the major agricultural producing area.High attention should be paid to the existing "North-to-South Food Transmission Project" which is unsustainable.【Conclusion】 The virtual endowment coefficient and balance coefficient of water and soil resources proposed here will make great contributions to ensure the balance of regional soil and water resources and agricultural sustainable development,agricultural product trade principles,agricultural planting structure optimization and food production safety.%【目的】在虚拟水、虚拟土理论基础上,研究区域不同农产品水土资源禀赋系数和水土资源平衡系数,为农产品种植结构优化及贸易原则提供参考。【方法】定义虚拟水土资源禀赋系数以及水土资源平衡系

  8. Evaluation Of Scheduling And Load Balancing Techniques In Mobile Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile communications and computing are strong interest of the scientific community in the Grid have led to research into the Mobile Grid. Based on a realistic Mobile Grid architecture we formulate the problem of job scheduling and load balancing techniques in a mobile environment and performance metrics. We extended the work by introducing a new scheduling policy and load balancing policy based on the notion of installments and intra cluster load balancing algorithm and continue the evaluation of the expanded set of scheduling and load balancing strategies in an effort to overcome the intermittent character of connectivity in a mobile environment. On real wireless traces, we demonstrated the superiority of the proposed policy, and showed the feasibility of a Mobile Grid system and design the efficient scheduling and load balancing policies subject to the underlying mobility were based a small part of the offered resources is wasted and a small part of the workload has to be processed again .The size of the installments increases as the size of the aborted fragments of the workload increases.

  9. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  10. Modeled intermittency risk for small streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Poff, N. LeRoy

    2015-01-01

    Longer, drier summers projected for arid and semi-arid regions of western North America under climate change are likely to have enormous consequences for water resources and river-dependent ecosystems. Many climate change scenarios for this region involve decreases in mean annual streamflow, late summer precipitation and late-summer streamflow in the coming decades. Intermittent streams are already common in this region, and it is likely that minimum flows will decrease and some perennial streams will shift to intermittent flow under climate-driven changes in timing and magnitude of precipitation and runoff, combined with increases in temperature. To understand current intermittency among streams and analyze the potential for streams to shift from perennial to intermittent under a warmer climate, we analyzed historic flow records from streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Approximately two-thirds of 115 gaged stream reaches included in our analysis are currently perennial and the rest have some degree of intermittency. Dry years with combinations of high temperatures and low precipitation were associated with more zero-flow days. Mean annual flow was positively related to minimum flows, suggesting that potential future declines in mean annual flows will correspond with declines in minimum flows. The most important landscape variables for predicting low flow metrics were precipitation, percent snow, potential evapotranspiration, soils, and drainage area. Perennial streams in the UCRB that have high minimum-flow variability and low mean flows are likely to be most susceptible to increasing streamflow intermittency in the future.

  11. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Tasapainotetun tuloskortin eli Balanced Scorecardin avulla organisaatiolla on mahdollisuus saada toiminnasta perinteisiä taloudellisia raportteja parempi kuva. Balanced Scorecard huomioi taloudellisten tunnuslukujen lisäksi myös asiakkaiden, sisäisten prosessien sekä oppimisen ja kasvun näkökulman. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella suoritusmittaristo pk-yritykselle. Tutkimuksella haettiin Balance Scorecardin kautta vahvistusta ja tukea kohdeyrityksen sisäiseen laskentaan ja ...

  12. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  13. Fluctuations and intermittency in fragment size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittency signal on the size frequency of fragments found in various fragmenting systems is reconsidered. This signal extracted from a factorial moment analysis was interpreted as a genuine intermittency. The conclusion is that the signal found in earlier works and interpreted as an intermittency behaviour results from both the power law of the mean size fragment distribution and from the finite width of the multiplicity distribution. Any partition of integers exhibiting these two features will provide a similar signal. (author). 38 refs., 9 figs

  14. Research of the Landscape Structure of the Water Balance of the Trialeti Range Northern Slope according to the Natural Recreation Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with the landscape-differentiated analysis of the water balance elements of the rivers on the Northern slope of the Trialeti Range using the 1961-2000 years observation data. Regularities of their variation are given according to the altitude. (author)

  15. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  16. Intermittency in Human Heart Rate Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittency in time series of the time intervals between heart beats (RR intervals) extracted from 24 hour (portable) ECG is found for some cases of humans with arrhythmia. Laminar phases are found by sweeping a short (5 intervals) time window through the time series and calculating the standard deviation of the series in each window. 8 of the 18 arrhythmia cases studied had a bimodal distribution of the standard deviation values indicating some kind of intermittency. The distribution of lengths of the laminar phases identifies the intermittency obtained in human heart rate variability as Type 1 in the Pomeau and Manneville classification. Although the arrhythmia cases studied were medically very different - in those instances that intermittency did occur the probability distributions of laminar phase lengths were strikingly similar. (author)

  17. Improved Intermittency Analysis of Single Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, R. A.; Ziaja, B.

    1998-01-01

    The intermittency analysis of single event data (particle moments) in multiparticle production is improved, taking into account corrections due to the reconstruction of history of a particle cascade. This approach is tested within the framework of the $\\alpha$-model.

  18. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulat...

  19. Method of intelligent recommendation of Web service resources towards users' balanced requirements%面向用户均衡需求的Web服务资源智能推荐方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平峰; 张慧; 章佩璐

    2012-01-01

    研究了满足用户在服务功能、服务属性和服务质量上的多层次均衡需求的Web服务资源智能推荐方法,解决了服务信息过载问题.现有服务推荐技术存在未考虑用户对服务多层次均衡需求的不足,结合Web服务资源的特点,综合考虑用户服务需求与候选服务群之间的多层次相似度,设计了综合Web服务资源的功能、属性和质量三个层次的适合度匹配算法,以及用户主观兴趣度匹配算法.通过这两个算法建立了面向用户均衡需求的个性化Web服务资源智能推荐方法,能将最大匹配度的Web服务资源推荐给目标用户.%This paper proposed an approach of intelligent recommendation of Web service resources to users. This approach can satisfy users' balanced multi-level requirements in service function, service attribute and service quality, as well as can solve the problem of service information overload. Present service recommendation techniques do not explore users' balanced multi-level requirements in service. Taking into consideration the characteristics of Web service resources and exploring the multi-level similarity between user's requirements in services and service resource candidates, this paper designed the algorithm of integrated fitness matching in function, attributes and quality of Web service resources, as well as algorithm of matching users' subjective interests. Through the above work, this paper proposed a method of personalized intelligent recommendation of Web service resources oriented towards users' balanced requirements. This method can ensure that the service resource with the maximum matching degree be recommended to the targeted user.

  20. Intermittent cyclophosphamide in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Beyer, Jannie M; Helin, Pekka

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with oral cyclophosphamide; in two cases this was supplemented with pulse treatment with methylprednisolone. Long term remission was induced in all three patients and was sustained until follow up at least nine months after the methylprednisolone was stopped. Leucopenia occurred but resolved when cyclophosphamide was reduced from daily to intermittent dosing. Intermittent treatment with cyclophosphamide, possibly in conjunction ...

  1. Insights from Intermittent Binocular Rivalry and EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Michael A.; Juliane eBritz

    2011-01-01

    Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical...

  2. Origin of intermittency in the fragmentation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittency has been much discussed for momentum distribution of produced particles in ultrarelativistic collisions of leptons, hadrons and nuclei. More recently, scale invariant fluctuations has been found in the fragment-charge distribution following the decay of hot nuclear residuum. In this review the origin of intermittent fluctuations is discussed in cluster fragmentation models such as the percolation model and the fragmentation-inactivation binary cascading model. (author) 21 refs., 4 figs

  3. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  4. The Water Balance of the Alps – What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps? Proceedings of the Conference held at Innsbruck University, 28-29 September 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Psenner, Roland; Lackner, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the conference “The Water Balance of the Alps. What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps?” held in Innsbruck in September 2006. The aim of the conference was to present the view of researchers as well as of administrators, and to discuss the best way to protect sensitive waters, including ice and snow, of the Alps. Intensive discussions about the best way to protect sensitive water bodies in the Alps – either by implementing specific and ...

  5. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2016-05-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulations, intermittent structures in the current density, vorticity, and Elsässer vorticities all have nearly identical statistical properties. We propose phenomenological explanations for the scalings based on general considerations of Elsässer vorticity structures. Finally, we examine the broader implications of intermittency for astrophysical systems.

  6. CORRECTION ON "CHRONIC INTERMITTENT ANOXIA...".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, W C

    1945-08-10

    The writer is embarrassed by his discovery that in revising a manuscript entitled "Chronic Intermittent Anoxia and Impairment of Peripheral Vision," an important paragraph was inadvertently omitted from the version which appeared in Science for June 15, 1945. In checking back it becomes evident that the omission arose in the author's final copy, and that the editors of Science are in no way responsible. The paragraph which should have been inserted between the two paragraphs of column 2, page 615, is as follows: Serial determinations of alveolar gas tensions for each visual test day were carried out on sixteen of the twenty subjects by Dr. Wright Adams, but no relationship could be established with the impairment of peripheral vision. Similarly, in a smaller number of subjects no clear relationship could be established between the visual effect and renal vascular changes (Dr. Alf S. Alving), cardio-vascular changes (Dr. Emmet B. Bay), blood chemistry (Dr. Guzmán E. S. Barrón), psychiatric changes (Dr. Hugh T. Carmichael), electroencephalograms (Dr. Theodore Case), peripheral blood flow (Dr. Milton Landowne), certain metabolic effects (Drs. Henry T. Ricketts and A. Hughes Bryan), and certain additional neuropsychological indicators. Through omission of the above paragraph, inadequate representation was given to the scope of the total war research project in which the psychological studies carried out by the writer constituted one aspect. In addition to their particular lines of investigation, each of the above men contributed generously of specialized knowledge and of time and energy to insure adequate clinical supervision of the experimental subjects and a valid interpretation of the impairment of peripheral vision as reported. PMID:17802440

  7. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field an...

  8. Intermittent random walks: transport regimes and implications on search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a transport model for particles that alternate rests of random duration and flights with random velocities. The model provides a balance equation for the mesoscopic particle density obtained from the continuous-time random walk framework. By assuming power laws for the distributions of waiting times and flight durations (for any velocity distribution with finite moments) we have found that the model can yield all the transport regimes ranging from subdiffusion to ballistic depending on the values of the characteristic exponents of the distributions. In addition, if the exponents satisfy a simple relationship it is shown how the competition between the tails of the distributions gives rise to a diffusive transport. Finally, we explore how the details of this intermittent transport process affect the success probability in an optimal search problem where an individual searcher looks for a target distributed (heterogeneously) in space. All the results are conveniently checked with numerical simulations

  9. Intermittent pool beds are permanent cyclic habitats with distinct wet, moist and dry phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I Dell

    Full Text Available Recognition that intermittent pools are a single habitat phase of an intermittent pool bed that cycles between aquatic and terrestrial habitat greatly enhances their usefulness for addressing general questions in ecology. The aquatic phase has served as a model system in many ecological studies, because it has distinct habitat boundaries in space and time and is an excellent experimental system, but the aquatic to terrestrial transition and terrestrial phase remain largely unstudied. We conducted a field experiment within six replicate natural intermittent pool beds to explore macroinvertebrate community dynamics during the transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitat and during the terrestrial phase. We monitored and compared macroinvertebrate communities within leaf packs that i remained wet, ii underwent drying (i.e., started wet and then dried, and iii remained dry. Our results show that i a diverse macroinvertebrate community inhabits all phases of intermittent pool beds, ii pool drying involves colonization by an assemblage of macroinvertebrates not recorded in permanently terrestrial leaf packs, iii the community within dried leaf packs remains distinct from that of permanently terrestrial leaf packs for an extended period following drying (possibly until subsequent refilling, and iv there are likely to be strong spatial and temporal resource linkages between the aquatic and terrestrial communities. The unique environmental characteristics of intermittent pool beds, which repeatedly cycle from aquatic to terrestrial habitat, should continue to make them valuable study systems.

  10. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  11. Dynamics of desynchronized episodes in intermittent synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L Rubchinsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent synchronization is observed in a variety of different experimental settings in physics and beyond and is an established research topic in nonlinear dynamics. When coupled oscillators exhibit relatively weak, intermittent synchrony, the trajectory in the phase space spends a substantial fraction of time away from a vicinity of a synchronized state. Thus to describe and understand the observed dynamics one may consider both synchronized episodes and desynchronized episodes (the episodes when oscillators are not synchronous. This mini-review discusses recent developments in this area. We explain how one can consider variation in synchrony on the very short time-scales, provided that there is some degree of overall synchrony. We show how to implement this approach in the case of intermittent phase locking, review several recent examples of the application of these ideas to experimental data and modeling systems, and discuss when and why these methods may be useful.

  12. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  13. Magnetic field generation by intermittent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Chertovskih, R; Chimanski, E V

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field generation by convective flows in transition to weak turbulence is studied numerically. By fixing the Prandtl number at P=0.3 and varying the Rayleigh number (Ra) as a control parameter in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection of an electrically conducting fluid, a recently reported route to hyperchaos involving quasiperiodic regimes, crises and chaotic intermittent attractors is followed, and the critical magnetic Prandtl number ($P_m^c$) for dynamo action is determined as a function of Ra. A mechanism for the onset of on-off intermittency in the magnetic energy is described, the most beneficial convective regimes for dynamo action are identified, and how intermittency affects the dependence of $P_m^c$ on Ra is discussed.

  14. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Celestia S

    2014-05-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer for decades; however, the choice of continuous or intermittent administration is a matter of debate. Two large phase III trials have reported results comparing these 2 forms of ADT administration. The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) PR-7 trial studied men with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and no evidence of metastatic disease after definitive or salvage radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy. The Southwest Oncology Group 9346 trial studied men with newly diagnosed hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. The primary end point in both trials was overall survival with a noninferiority design. The NCIC trial showed that the overall survival in men treated with intermittent ADT was not inferior to that of men treated with continuous ADT, but the SWOG trial was inconclusive regarding noninferiority. Certain domains of quality of life were better in the intermittent arms of both trials. If using ADT in the setting of biochemical relapse, intermittent ADT should be strongly considered over continuous ADT, except perhaps in patients with Gleason score of 8 or higher. In men with metastatic disease, continuous ADT remains the standard of care, because the SWOG trial did not establish noninferiority of intermittent ADT with respect to survival. However, for those with significant side effects from ADT, establishing the risk group, as determined by PSA value after 7 months of ADT or the presence of pain at diagnosis, may help guide the choice of intermittent versus continuous ADT in men with metastatic disease. PMID:24812139

  15. Balancing firm and network-based resources to gain competitive advantage: A case study of an artisanal musical instruments cluster in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether firms gain competitiveness through local networks and clusters becomes more relevant than ever as globalization proceeds. This is particularly true for traditional and craft-based clusters, districts and business networks. A central question emerging for these types of networks is: (How) can they build competitive advantage using local production systems and network ties as core resources? The present article aims at shedding light on this issue by presenting a case st...

  16. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Christopher C.; Kuhrt, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague‐Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 ...

  17. Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  18. The Feasibility Analysis of Property Tax and Resource Tax Act as the Main Local Tax——Based on the Perspective of Balanced Local Resources%房产税与资源税充当地方主体税种的可行性分析——基于地方财力均衡视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽琴

    2016-01-01

    营改增全面扩围后,营业税作为地方主体税种的作用将逐步消失,确立地方税主体税种,重构地方税系是目前我国财税体制改革面临的重大问题. 本文从均衡地方财力的视角探讨房产税与资源税充当地方税主体税种的可行性,通过SPSS对应分析发现房产税与资源税的税基分布与地区财力呈现互补性,其作为地方税主体税种不仅具有可行性,且能够起到均衡地区财力的作用. 未来应进一步完善房产税与资源税的征收体制,为其均衡地区财力,充当地方税主体税种做好准备.%After the overall expansion of Value added tax replaced business tax, the role of business tax as the main local tax will gradually disappear, establish the subject taxes, establishing the main local tax and refactoring local tax mechanism were major issues on the reform of finance-taxation system. This paper discuss the feasibility analysis of property tax and re-source tax act as the main local tax from the perspective of balanced local resources. Through the correspondence analysis of SPSS, it found that the resource distribution of property tax and resource tax presents complementary with financial capacity. Property tax and resource tax sever as the main local tax not only feasible but also can balance financial capacity. The future establishment of local tax systems should further perfect the tax levy systems of property tax and resource tax, preparing for them to serve as the main local tax and balance regional financial resources.

  19. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS. PMID:26670120

  20. Water Resources in Mid 21. Century in Slovenia - What can we expect according to regional climate predictions integrated into catchment hydrological modeling and modeling of soil water balance - an integration of top-down and bottom-up modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globevnik, Lidija; Vidmar, Andrej

    2015-04-01

    For the purpose of calculating the water balance in the soil, the European Environment Agency (EEA) produced a computational physical model "swbEWA" (Kurnik et al, 2013). It is designed to calculate the spatial distribution of water volume in the soil during the selected time period. Model accounts soil moisture by the addition and subtraction of the input parameters of water resources in the ground, which are expressed by the water column [mm]. Kurnik and Kajfež - Bogataj (2013) then used the model swbEWA to study the soil water balance parameters in Europe for the future. They used an ensemble of eight climate scenarios and analyzed the duration and size of agricultural drought across Europe. Surface runoff and deep percolation are two parameters of the water balance in the soil calculated by swbEWA model. They are expressed as mm of water column to the selected unit of modeled surface. The average values of monthly balance of the sum of the two quantities in the coming period 2021-2050 for selected river basins in Slovenia were compared with measured river flows in the reference periods 1961 - 1990 and 1981 - 2010. For comparison of results we have also calibrated semi-distributed HBV Light conceptual model for selected river basins and modeled catchment water-balance parameters for the period 2021-2050. As input we used the same rainfall and temperatures parameters as predicted by climatic scenarios used in the model swaEWA. Results Kurnik and Kajfež-Bogataj (2013) show that the largest increase by a lack of moisture in the soil occurred in the southwestern and southeastern Europe, where Slovenia does not fall. Changes will be in Slovenia still important. Employing the climatic scenario A1, the increase in soil moisture deficit relative to the reference period would be at least 0.45 during the period 2021-2050 (Kurnik and Kajfež -Bogataj, 2013), but the average annual run-off water in terms of average flow rates in 1961-1990 in Slovenia would decrease by 0

  1. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  2. Intermittent demand : Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.; Babai, M. Zied

    2011-01-01

    The standard method to forecast intermittent demand is that by Croston. This method is available in ERP-type solutions such as SAP and specialised forecasting software packages (e.g. Forecast Pro), and often applied in practice. It uses exponential smoothing to separately update the estimated demand

  3. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  4. UNSTEADY DISPERSION IN RANDOM INTERMITTENT FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The longitudinal dispersion coefficient of a conservative tracer was calculated from flow tests in a dead-end pipe loop system. Flow conditions for these tests ranged from laminar to transitional flow, and from steady to intermittent and random. Two static mixers linked in series...

  5. Movement and resource use by a group of Alouatta pigra in a forest fragment in Balancán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Uncommonly observed behaviors were systematically recorded in a troop (n = 9 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting a small forest fragment (1.7 ha) in Leona Vicario, Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico. Between February 2002 and January 2003 (n = 499 h), we observed behaviors such as ground travel (85 occasions, total = 269 min/10.8% of total locomotion time), ground foraging (eight occasions, total = 50 min/0.84% of total feeding time) and drinking water pooled in tree holes (20 times, total = 93 min/0.31% of total activity time). Total time (412 min) for these non-resting behaviors (feeding and locomotion on the ground) is almost equivalent to time devoted to social activities (420 min). These behaviors indicate that howler monkeys may be responding to pressures imposed by the small size of the fragment by adopting diverse strategies to cover their basic nutritional needs in this environment. They accomplish this while exposing themselves to potential predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), as was observed once during the study. It is likely that these behaviors are occurring at an increasing rate among monkeys in fragmented landscapes. PMID:17136475

  6. Bus Lanes with Intermittent Priority: Screening Formulae and an Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Michael; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates strategies for operating buses on signal-controlled arterials using special lanes that are made intermittently available to general traffic. The advantage of special bus lanes, intermittent or dedicated, is that they free buses from traffic interference; the disadvantage is that they disrupt traffic. We find that intermittent lanes, unlike dedicated ones, do not significantly reduce street capacity. Intermittence, however, increases the average traffic density at which th...

  7. Effect of Intermittent Hypercapnia on Respiratory Control in Rat Pups

    OpenAIRE

    Steggerda, Justin A.; Mayer, Catherine A; Martin, Richard J.; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Preterm infants are subject to fluctuations in blood gas status associated with immature respiratory control. Intermittent hypoxia during early postnatal life has been shown to increase chemoreceptor sensitivity and destabilize the breathing pattern; however, intermittent hypercapnia remains poorly studied. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia results in altered respiratory control, we examined the effects of daily exposure to intermittent hypercapnia on the ventila...

  8. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  9. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christopher C; Kuhrt, David M

    2016-04-01

    Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 days of intermittent heat exposure, reductions in evaporative water loss were observed in all animals and reductions in water intake following heat exposure occurred as the days of heat exposure increased. Rats that were not allowed water during the 7 days of exposure had decreased rehydration levels, however, rats allowed access to water increased water intake during exposure and exhibited higher overall rehydration levels over the same time period. Peripheral administration of angiotensinII, mimicking activation of volemic thirst, or hypertonic saline solution, activating intracellular thirst, did not result in alteration of water intake in rats exposed to heat with access to water compared to control rats. In contrast, rats exposed to heat without access to water had reduced water intake after administration of hypertonic saline and increased water intake after administration of angiotensinIIcompared to control rats. These experiments demonstrate that thirst responses to intermittent heat exposure are altered by providing water during heat exposure and that intermittent heat exposure without access to water alters drinking responses to both intracellular and extracellular thirst challenges. PMID:27095836

  10. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is thus of benefit since it would reduce the energy consumption in the wastewater treatment. In the present study, wastewater from an electro-coating process was treated biologically using a packed column as an aerator where the wastewater was aerated by a countercurrent air flow. The objective was to obtain an optimum aeration cycle. Approach: Intermittent aeration time was varied at different preset cycles. An operational optimum of the aeration time (or air-water contacting time in the column was determined from the BOD5 removal after a certain treatment period. For continuous aeration of the wastewater, the air-liquid contacting time in the column was 52 min for 24 h of treatment. A unit energy consumption for pumping liquid and air, which was defined as the energy consumption per percent BOD5 removed, was used as a criterion to determine the optimum contacting time. Results: Optimum air-liquid contacting times were found to be about 38, 26 and 22 min for the treatment times of 24, 48 and 72 h, consecutively. This indicates that 27-58% saving on the unit energy consumption can be achieved using intermittent aeration of the wastewater. On the basis of the overall BOD5 removal, 17% and 23% savings in energy were observed with the intermittent aeration as compared to the continuous aeration of the wastewater for 48 and 72 h. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that an appropriate intermittent aeration cycle can bring about a substantial energy saving

  11. Implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological...... coverage of the recommended interventions. OBJECTIVE: To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and...... accessing ANC; myths and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy...

  12. Study on intermittent refrigeration phenomenon for solar solid adsorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valveless solar solid adsorption ice maker has been used for carrying out experiments under real solar radiation intensity conditions. Different performance variations of the solar ice maker are obtained under the effect of sky cloudy cover. The experimental results indicated that the performance of the solar ice maker was severely affected by the sky cloudy cover, and no ice would be obtained if cloudy conditions prevailed for intervals exceeding 3 h. A heat and mass transfer model validated by the experiments has been used to analyze intermittent refrigeration phenomenon of solar solid adsorption refrigeration. The performance variation due to the effecting of sky cloudy cover has also been demonstrated by simulated results. The analysis of both experimental and simulated results has provided an objective climate resource choice which could be available now in applications to solar solid refrigeration, it also has made a scientific analysis method for solar solid adsorption ice maker application

  13. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This...... power flow, which clears energy prices every 5 minutes. Group II applies zonal prices, with the time resolution of 5-min. Group III is a general balancing market, which clears zonal prices intro-hourly. The various successful RTM experiences have been summarized and discussed, which provides a technical...

  14. Water Resources Assessment and the Balance Analysis and Demonstration of Water Resources Planning of Haiyuan County%海原县水资源现状评价及水资源规划平衡分析论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生桢

    2012-01-01

    由于海原县干旱、缺水、生态环境脆弱及水土流失严重的自然条件,本文对海原县地表水、地下水和引客水的现状水量进行了详尽分析,并针对水利发展项目的需水量平衡分析是否满足需要.%Because of drought, water scarcity, fragile ecological environment and serious soil erosion of Haiyuan County, this paper analyzed the water status of surface water, groundwater and lead-off water of Haiyuan County, and explored whether the water balance analysis of water development projects meet the needs.

  15. Balancing Subsurface Restrictions and Resource Access under Conditions of Changing Land Use at the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site closure decisions often rely on institutional controls, and one of the requirements of long-term management is monitoring and responding to changes in land use. This challenge is particularly acute for underground nuclear tests, where contaminants occur in mobile fluids (groundwater or natural gas) subject to resource extraction. The Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in Colorado in 1969 to evaluate the effectiveness of a nuclear detonation at stimulating natural gas production from the low-permeability Williams Fork Formation of the Mesaverde Group. After a period of production testing and surface cleanup, the site was deactivated in 1976, with a subsurface restriction on drilling intrusion within the 40-acre parcel surrounding the nuclear test well. Increasing natural gas exploration activities are causing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to assess if the original site institutional controls remain effective at protecting the public. To support the assessment of institutional controls, a numerical model was developed to simulate the movement of nuclear-test-produced tritiated water in both gas and liquid phases through the subsurface. Uncertainty in geometry of geologic units and in flow and transport properties was included in the model in order to identify the likely system behavior, as well as low-probability but potentially high-consequence behavior. Generally, conservative assumptions were used for many parameter distributions, consistent with the uncertainties inherent in the problem and the desire to err on the side of caution. The Monte Carlo modeling approach allows transport predictions to be understood in a probabilistic context, so that the expected behavior is identified, as well as the unlikely outcomes captured by the tail of the distribution. Model results indicate that tritium migration is not currently expected beyond the existing land restriction, but the model's primary purpose is as a platform for hypothesis testing of the

  16. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources

  17. Radial evolution of solar wind intermittency in the inner heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Bavassano, B

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed intermittency in the solar wind, as observed on the ecliptic plane, looking at magnetic field and velocity fluctuations between 0.3 and 1 AU, for both fast and slow wind and for compressive and directional fluctuations. Our analysis focused on the property that probability distribution functions of a fluctuating field affected by intermittency become more and more peaked at smaller and smaller scales. Since the peakedness of a distribution is measured by its flatness factor we studied the behavior of this parameter for different scales to estimate the degree of intermittency of our time series. We confirmed that both magnetic field and velocity fluctuations are rather intermittent and that compressive magnetic fluctuations are generally more intermittent than the corresponding velocity fluctuations. In addition, we observed that compressive fluctuations are always more intermittent than directional fluctuations and that while slow wind intermittency does not depend on the radial distance from the ...

  18. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Shirzeh; Fazel Naghdy; Philip Ciufo; Montserrat Ros

    2015-01-01

    In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluct...

  19. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  20. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  1. Insights from intermittent binocular rivalry and EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical approaches, including EEG microstates, event-related potentials, and statistically-based source estimation, and propose a spatio-temporal model that integrates findings from several studies. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using binocular rivalry as a tool to investigate the neural basis of perceptual awareness.

  2. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-08-01

    Live high-train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10-15% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre- and post-exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, +/-8%; 9%, +/-7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, +/-8%) and tackle sprints (11%, +/-9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  3. Stochastic resonance in on-off intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in chaotic systems exhibiting on-off intermittency (OOI). They include a discrete-time system - the logistic map with the control parameter varying randomly in time and a continuous time system - chaotic oscillators just below the synchronisation threshold. As a weak additive or multiplicative periodic forcing is added to such systems, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exhibits a maximum as a function of the intermittency control parameter. In all cases SNR shows dependence on the forcing frequency. In the case of additive periodic forcing in continuous-time systems a distinct minimum of SNR is observed when the periodic forcing frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of chaotic oscillations of the system. In the case of multiplicative periodic forcing this dependence retains even for very small frequencies; this is a result of a very long characteristic time scale, typical of systems with OOI. (author)

  4. Intermittent enhancement in chronic nodular calcified neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oselkin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of new onset seizures and epilepsy in the developing and tropical world. There has been a marked increase in domestic cases of diseases traditionally associated with developing countries, and now NCC should be high on a radiologist's differential diagnosis list for a patient with seizures. Radiologic findings of NCC correlate with the parasite's life cycle within the host. The calcified granulomas signify the final stage (nodular calcified as nonenhancing punctate calcifications on imaging and are traditionally known to remain without enhancement. Here we describe a unique case of intermittent enhancement of a cortical calcified nodule secondary to NCC that was followed for over 10 years. Radiologists must challenge the traditionally accepted progression of imaging findings and accept that calcified nodules of chronic NCC may intermittently enhance.

  5. Intermittent tracking of flat plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical analysis of different intervals of intermittent two-axis tracking of the sun, on the amount of annual energy received by flat-plate collectors, has been carried out. The analysis was done for Ipoh, a city near the university at a latitude of 40 34 North in Malaysia. For the analysis, a computer program was developed to calculate the solar insulation according to the interval settings, considering ASHRAE Standard Sky assumption. Both direct and diffused components of solar radiation have been considered. The tracking system was targeted for flat plate collectors where the degree of tracking accuracy would be much lower Hence, the tracking mechanism will be much simpler and lower in costs. Results showed that by a 3-hour intermittent tracking, a flat-plate collector could get as much as 35% more annual energy than a fixed one. The 3-hour interval tracking greatly simplifies the gear mechanism from the motor to the solar collector. (Author)

  6. A simple model for turbulence intermittencies

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbert, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Whether turbulence intermittencies shall be described by a log-Poisson, a log-stable pdf or other distributions is still debated nowadays. In this paper, a bridge between polymer physics, self-avoiding walk and random vortex stretching is established which may help in getting a new insight on this topics. Actually a very simple relationship between stability index of the stable law and the well known Flory exponent stemming from polymer physics is established. Moreover the scaling of turbulence intermittencies with Reynolds number is also obtained and the overall picture is very close to Tennekes' simple model for the fine scale structure of turbulence [Phys. Fluids, 11, 3 (1968)] : vortex tubes of Kolmogorov length width are bend by bigger vortices of Taylor length scale. This thus results in both a simple and sound model with no fitting parameter needed.

  7. Intermittency exponent of the turbulent energy cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the turbulent energy dissipation from one-dimensional records in experiments using air and gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures, and obtain the intermittency exponent via the two-point correlation function of the energy dissipation. The air data are obtained in a number of flows in a wind tunnel and the atmospheric boundary layer at a height of about 35 m above the ground. The helium data correspond to the centerline of a jet exhausting into a container. The air data on the intermittency exponent are consistent with each other and with a trend that increases with the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, Rλ, of up to about 1000 and saturates thereafter. On the other hand, the helium data cluster around a constant value at nearly all Rλ, this being about half of the asymptotic value for the air data. Some possible explanation is offered for this anomaly. (author)

  8. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge. PMID:17484315

  9. Scaling and Intermittency in Animal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Harnos, A; Lawrence, A B; Vattay, G

    1999-01-01

    Scale-invariant spatial or temporal patterns and Lévy flight motion have been observed in a large variety of biological systems. It has been argued that animals in general might perform Lévy flight motion with power law distribution of times between two changes of the direction of motion. Here we study the temporal behaviour of nesting gilts. The time spent by a gilt in a given form of activity has power law probability distribution without finite average. Further analysis reveals intermittent eruption of certain periodic behavioural sequences which are responsible for the scaling behaviour and indicates the existence of a critical state. We show that this behaviour is in close analogy with temporal sequences of velocity found in turbulent flows, where random and regular sequences alternate and form an intermittent sequence.

  10. Intermittence and roughening of periodic elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze intermittence and roughening of an elastic interface or domain wall pinned in a periodic potential, in the presence of random-bond disorder in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. Though the ensemble average behavior is smooth, the typical behavior of a large sample is intermittent, and does not self-average to a smooth behavior. Instead, large fluctuations occur in the mean location of the interface and the onset of interface roughening is via an extensive fluctuation which leads to a jump in the roughness of order λ, the period of the potential. Analytical arguments based on extreme statistics are given for the number of the minima of the periodicity visited by the interface and for the roughening crossover, which is confirmed by extensive exact ground state calculations

  11. Intermittent permeation of cylindrical nanopores by water

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Rosalind; Melchionna, Simone; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations of water molecules in nanometre sized cylindrical channels connecting two reservoirs show that the permeation of water is very sensitive to the channel radius and to electric polarization of the embedding material. At threshold, the permeation is {\\emph{intermittent}} on a nanosecond timescale, and strongly enhanced by the presence of an ion inside the channel, providing a possible mechanism for gating. Confined water remains surprisingly fluid and bulk-like. It...

  12. Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmi, Simona; Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi; Torcini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    wo symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia m display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendulums. In particular, we report evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the othe...... jumps erratically between laminar and turbulent phases. These states have finite lifetimes diverging as a power law with N and m. Lyapunov analyses reveal chaotic properties in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for globally coupled dissipative systems....

  13. Intermittency Studies in Directed Bond Percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Henkel, Malte; Peschanski, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The self-similar cluster fluctuations of directed bond percolation at the percolation threshold are studied using techniques borrowed from inter\\-mit\\-ten\\-cy-related analysis in multi-particle production. Numerical simulations based on the factorial moments for large $1+1$-dimensional lattices allow to handle statistical and boundary effects and show the existence of weak but definite intermittency patterns. The extracted fractal dimensions are in agreement with scaling arguments leading to ...

  14. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, H.; Lohi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is ...

  15. Cardiac calcification in acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetiology of pericardial calcifications can be multifactorial. Tuberculosis has been reported as the most common cause. Other known causes include uraemia, asbestosis, post-traumatic or postoperative. We report a rare case of pericardial calcification seen in a patient with established acute intermittent porphyria. A direct causal relationship cannot be established between porphyria and pericardial calcification, but it may be due to deposition of the porphyrin in the pericardium.

  16. Cardiac calcification in acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Tanmoy Ghatak; Afzal Azim; Arvind K Baronia; Banani Poddar

    2011-01-01

    Aetiology of pericardial calcifications can be multifactorial. Tuberculosis has been reported as the most common cause. Other known causes include uraemia, asbestosis, post-traumatic or postoperative. We report a rare case of pericardial calcification seen in a patient with established acute intermittent porphyria. A direct causal relationship cannot be established between porphyria and pericardial calcification, but it may be due to deposition of the porphyrin in the pericardium.

  17. Sampling for Intermittent Shorts in Electron Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurford, Allen F.

    1967-01-01

    The primary purpose of sampling is to provide data from which a decision can be made to accept or reject the lot from which the sample was drawn. However, if the lot contains both permanent and intermittent defects, this decision may be biased in addition to the known sampling risks by these data to the extent that they are themselves no longer certainties but rather, probabilities.

  18. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; Heller, G. Z.; D. M. Stasinopoulos; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of f...

  19. Intermittent relaxation in hierarchical energy landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas; Sibani, Paolo; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2007-01-01

    We numerically simulate a thermalization process in an energy landscape with hierarchically organized metastable states. The initial configuration is chosen to have a large energy excess, relative to the thermal equilibrium value at the running temperature. We show that the initial energy surplus is dissipated in a series of intermittent bursts, or quakes, whose rate decreases as the inverse of the age of the system. In addition, one observes energy fluctuations with a zero centered Gaussian ...

  20. Battery energy storage for intermittent renewable electricity production : A review and demonstration of energy storage applications permitting higher penetration of renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Görtz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Driven by resource politics and climate change, the transition from conventional fossil fuel based and centralized energy generation to distributed renewables is increasing rapidly. Wind and solar power generation offer carbon dioxide neutral electricity but also present some integration difficulties for energy system operators and planners due to intermittent power output. A promising way of dealing with the intermittency from renewables is energy storage. The method of storing energy in the...

  1. Global spectral structures of intermittent chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power spectra of intermittent chaos near its onset point is formulated in order to clarify fluctuations of periodic laminar motions caused by turbulent bursts. It is shown that the power spectra exhibit eminent peaks at selected frequencies mω0 with m = 0,1,2, ... and an eigenfrequency ω0 of the laminar motions. The peak at zero frequency is produced by fluctuations of durations of the laminar motions, whereas the peaks at nonzero frequencies are generated by jumps of phase shifts of the laminar motions by bursts. The shape of each peak turns out to obey an inverse-power law 1/|ω-mω0|ζm with a universal exponent ζm. For the type I intermittency caused by the saddle-node bifurcation, ζ0 = 1, ζ1 = 2 under normal reinjections, whereas ζ0 = ζm = 1 if reinjections are restricted to the upper half of a narrow channel of the tangent map. For the type III intermittency caused by the inverted period-doubling bifurcation, ζm = 3/2 for m ≥ 1. (author)

  2. Intermittent control of unstable multivariate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, I; Gawthrop, P; Gollee, H

    2015-08-01

    A sensorimotor architecture inspired from biological, vertebrate control should (i) explain the interface between high dimensional sensory analysis, low dimensional goals and high dimensional motor mechanisms and (ii) provide both stability and flexibility. Our interest concerns whether single-input-single-output intermittent control (SISO_IC) generalized to multivariable intermittent control (MIC) can meet these requirements.We base MIC on the continuous-time observer-predictorstate-feedback architecture. MIC uses event detection. A system matched hold (SMH), using the underlying continuoustime optimal control design, generates multivariate open-loop control signals between samples of the predicted state. Combined, this serial process provides a single-channel of control with optimised sensor fusion and motor synergies. Quadratic programming provides constrained, optimised equilibrium control design to handle unphysical configurations, redundancy and provides minimum, necessary reduction of open loop instability through optimised joint impedance. In this multivariate form, dimensionality is linked to goals rather than neuromuscular or sensory degrees of freedom. The biological and engineering rationale for intermittent rather than continuous multivariate control, is that the generalised hold sustains open loop predictive control while the open loop interval provides time within the feedback loop for online centralised, state dependent optimisation and selection. PMID:26736539

  3. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela;

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and...... the real time imbalances are minimized with automatic generation controller and the programmed to regulate active power reserves....

  4. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. Aft

  5. Intermittency as a universal characteristic of the complete chromosome DNA sequences of eukaryotes: From protozoa to human genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, S.; Larionov, S.; Poptsova, M.; Loskutov, A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale dynamical properties of complete chromosome DNA sequences of eukaryotes are considered. Using the proposed deterministic models with intermittency and symbolic dynamics we describe a wide spectrum of large-scale patterns inherent in these sequences, such as segmental duplications, tandem repeats, and other complex sequence structures. It is shown that the recently discovered gene number balance on the strands is not of a random nature, and certain subsystems of a complete chromosome DNA sequence exhibit the properties of deterministic chaos.

  6. Flow generation and intermittent transport in the scrape-off-layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr; Gunn, J.P.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Monier-Garbet, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pocheau, A. [IRPHE, 13384 Marseille (France)

    2009-06-15

    Results on transport in the scrape-off-layer from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The particle balance in the SOL is described trough a steady-state model that utilizes profile measurements from reciprocating-probes. Experimental evidence of the non-uniformity in the poloidal distribution of particle outflux is found, with the highest outflux being concentrated in a narrow sector at the outboard midplane. High and intermittent fluctuations originating from the same outboard midplane sector are interpreted as the signature of the transport mechanisms that result in the time-averaged equilibrium. The radial convection of subsonic structures is assumed as the dominant transport process.

  7. Flow generation and intermittent transport in the scrape-off-layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on transport in the scrape-off-layer from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The particle balance in the SOL is described trough a steady-state model that utilizes profile measurements from reciprocating-probes. Experimental evidence of the non-uniformity in the poloidal distribution of particle outflux is found, with the highest outflux being concentrated in a narrow sector at the outboard midplane. High and intermittent fluctuations originating from the same outboard midplane sector are interpreted as the signature of the transport mechanisms that result in the time-averaged equilibrium. The radial convection of subsonic structures is assumed as the dominant transport process.

  8. Phase-dependent fluctuations of intermittent resonance fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Beltrán, Héctor M.; Román-Ancheyta, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Electron shelving gives rise to bright and dark periods in the resonance fluorescence of a three-level atom. The spectral signature of such blinking is a very narrow inelastic peak on top of the two-level atom spectrum. Here, we investigate theoretically phase-dependent fluctuations (e.g., squeezing) of intermittent resonance fluorescence in the frameworks of balanced and conditional homodyne detection (BHD and CHD, respectively). In BHD, the squeezing is reduced significantly in size and Rabi frequency range compared to that for a two-level atom. The sharp peak is found only in the spectrum of the squeezed quadrature, splitting the negative broader squeezing peak for weak fields. CHD correlates the BHD signal with the detection of emitted photons. It is thus sensitive to third-order fluctuations of the field, produced by the atom-laser nonlinearity, that cause noticeable deviations from the second-order BHD results. For weak driving, the third-order spectrum is negative, enlarging the squeezing peak but also reducing the sharp peak. For strong driving, the spectrum is dominated by third-order fluctuations, with a large sharp peak and the sidebands becoming dispersive. Finally, the addition of third-order fluctuations makes the integrated spectra of both quadratures equal in magnitude in CHD, in contrast to those by BHD. A simple mathematical approach allows us to obtain very accurate analytical results in the shelving regime.

  9. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h. Po....... Postoperative pain, assessed repeatedly during the initial 48 h, was prevented during rest, mobilization from the supine to the sitting position and during walking, in all but one patient; slight pain was observed intermittently during coughing in four patients....

  10. UNSTEADY INTERMITTENT FLOW IN A ROTATING CURVED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian-an; SHEN Xin-rong; CHEN Hua-jun; ZHANG Ben-zhao

    2004-01-01

    The effects of rotation and intermittent fre quency on the flow transition of secondary flow and, main flow were examined in detail. Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns were found. A numerical study was performed to study the characteristics of unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe. Due to the rotation, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force could contribute to the unsteady intermittent flow and some complicated phenomena can be found. The results indicate that the unsteady intermittent flow are mainly characterized by five parameters: the Dean number Dn , the curvatureκ, the maximal force ratio F (of the Coriolis force to the centrifugal force in a cycle), the intermittent frequency parameter η(the ratio of a pulslating time to the cycle period), and the Womersley number α. Present works shows the natures of the unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe.

  11. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (∼0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  12. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  13. Acute intermittent porphyria in the puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute intermittent porphyria emerges as a result of partial defect of porphobilinogen deaminase and is manifested by repeated episodes of somatic, psychiatric and neurological disorders. The disease is conducted via the autosomaldominant gene of variable penetration, so most of the carriers never experience seizures. Timely making of diagnosis, screening of blood relatives of the patient and education of patients on avoidance of provoking factors are the key to adequate treatment. Case Outline. A 23-year-old patient having born the third child was hospitalized due to pains in the abdomen and convulsive seizures nine days after the vaginal delivery. At admittance, she suffered a generalized convulsive seizure of clonic-tonic type. The patient immediately underwent a complete clinical, laboratory, bacteriological and ultrasound examination. Bearing in mind the fact that the patient had several convulsive seizures even after the given neurological therapy, haem-arginate was introduced into therapy during four days. The administration of haem-arginate led to the normalization of blood pressure, pulse and bowel function. The administration of haem-arginate led to the normalization of blood pressure, pulse and bowel function. The patient was treated by a team of doctors, in the intensive care ward, with the use of medicaments, which are allowed in the case of acute porphyria. Sixteen days after the admittance, with clean neurological status and gynaecological and ultra-sound findings, she was released for ambulatory treatment. Conclusion. The presented case exhibits the gravity of making a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria in puerperium and the necessity of multi-disciplinary approach in treating this disease. Acute intermittent porphyria should be considered in cases of ambiguous abdominal pain, as well as in patients having abdominal pains followed by neuro-psychiatric disorders.

  14. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  15. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Tao Zhang; Chenglai Wu; Chunqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP) and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s) without significantly decreasing the germination rate was...

  16. Spatio-temporal intermittency on the sandpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-organized critical state exhibited by a sandpile model is shown to correspond to motion on an attractor characterized by an invariant distribution of the height variable. The largest Lyapunov exponent is equal to zero. The model nonetheless displays intermittent chaos, with a multifractal distribution of local expansion coefficients in history space. Laminar spatio-temporal regions are interrupted by chaotic bursts caused by avalanches. We introduce the concept of local histories in configuration space and show that their expansion parameters also exhibit a multifractal distribution in time and space. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  17. Intermittency pattern of fluctuations in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of scaled factorial moments is used to study fluctuations of the fragment size distribution in the percolation model and in nuclear multifragmentation following the breakup of the high energy nuclei in the nuclear emulsion. The percolation model accounts well for the fluctuations in the nuclear fragmentation process. An intermittent pattern of fluctuations is found in the data suggesting a self-similarity in the fragment size distribution and a random character for the scaling law. However, no evidence of the critical behaviour in nuclear multifragmentation is found. (orig.)

  18. Reduction in intermittent transport by shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittent transport due to coherent structures (streamers) is shown to be dramatically reduced by the shearing of mean flow in passive scalar field model, with the scaling ∝Ω-3. Here, Ω is the shearing rate of the mean flow. This reduction is much stronger than that in turbulent transport (∝Ω-1) [Kim and Diamond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 075001 (2003)] in the same model. Implications for the transition from low to high confinement (L-H transition) are discussed

  19. Intermittent lag synchronization in a driven system of coupled oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander N Pisarchik; Rider Jaimes-Reátegui

    2005-04-01

    We study intermittent lag synchronization in a system of two identical mutually coupled Duffing oscillators with parametric modulation in one of them. This phenomenon in a periodically forced system can be seen as intermittent jump from phase to lag synchronization, during which the chaotic trajectory visits a periodic orbit closely. We demonstrate different types of intermittent lag synchronizations, that occur in the vicinity of saddle-node bifurcations where the system changes its dynamical state, and characterize the simplest case of period-one intermittent lag synchronization.

  20. Projective synchronization of a hyperchaotic system via periodically intermittent control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jun-Jian; Li Chuan-Dong; Zhang Wei; Wei Peng-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We further study the projective synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system.Different from the most existing methods,intermittent control is applied to chaotic synchronization in the present paper.We formulate the intermittent control system that governs the dynamics of the projective synchronization error,then derive the sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of intermittent control system by using the Lyapunov stability theory,and finally establish the periodically intermittent controller according to the stability criterion by which the projective synchronization is expected to be achieved.The analytical results are also demonstrated by several numerical simulations.

  1. The resource pooling principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wischik, Damon; Handley, Mark; Bagnulo, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Since the ARPAnet, network designers have built localized mechanisms for statistical multiplexing, load balancing, and failure resilience, often without understanding the broader implications. These mechanisms are all types of resource pooling, whichmeans making a collection of resources behave like a single pooled resource. We believe that the natural evolution of the Internet is that it should achieve resource pooling by harnessing the responsiveness of multipath-capable end systems. We arg...

  2. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A.K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non-randomized comm......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non......-randomized community trial was implemented in 21 community clusters (intervention) and four clusters where health units provided routine IPTp (control). The primary outcome measures were access and adherence to IPTp, number of malaria episodes, prevalence of anaemia, and birth weight. Numbers of live births, abortions......, still births, and maternal and child deaths were secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: 1404 (67.5%) of 2081 with the new delivery system received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus 281 (39.9%) of 704 with health units (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of malaria episodes decreased from 906 (49.5%) of...

  3. A family with accute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porphyrias are inherited defects in heme metabolism that result in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. Porphyrias can be classified into acute, (neuropsychiatric), cutaneous and mixed forms. There are seven main types of porphyrias, acute intermittent porphyria and plumboporphyria are predominantly neuropsychiatric, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda and erythropoietic protoporphyria have predominantly cutaneous manifestations and hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria are classified as mixed as they both have neuropsychiatric and cutaneous features. They cause life-threatening attacks of neurovisceral symptoms that mimic many other acute medical and psychiatric conditions. Lack of clinical recognition often delays effective treatment and inappropriate diagnostic tests may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although the specific enzyme and gene defect have been identified, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders present formidable challenges because their signs and symptoms mimic other common conditions. We present a case report of a 13 years old girl who suffers from acute intermittent porphyria and the family tree showing all members who suffer from it. (author)

  4. Strain intermittency in shape-memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandraud, Xavier; Barrera, Noemi; Biscari, Paolo; Grédiac, Michel; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    We study experimentally the intermittent progress of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be single crystal through a full-field measurement technique: the grid method. We utilize an in-house, specially designed gravity-based device, wherein a system controlled by water pumps applies a perfectly monotonic uniaxial load through very small force increments. The sample exhibits hysteretic superelastic behavior during the forward and reverse cubic-monoclinic transformation, produced by the evolution of the strain field of the phase microstructures. The in-plane linear strain components are measured on the sample surface during the loading cycle, and we characterize the strain intermittency in a number of ways, showing the emergence of power-law behavior for the strain avalanching over almost six decades of magnitude. We also describe the nonstationarity and the asymmetry observed in the forward versus reverse transformation. The present experimental approach, which allows for the monitoring of the reversible martensitic transformation both locally and globally in the crystal, proves useful and enhances our capabilities in the analysis and possible control of transition-related phenomena in shape-memory alloys.

  5. Shearing of Materials with Intermittent Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymatou, Eleni; Triantafyllidis, Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    The strength of fractures is much lower as a rule than that of intact rock. As a result they play a controlling part in the mechanical behaviour in general and the failure in particular of rock mass. Though a large volume of experimental data is available on the shear resistance of joints, as well as on the propagation of single cracks, the same is not true for the mechanical behaviour of intermittent joints. The experimental data available in this case are limited and the strength of rock mass with intermittent joints is usually modelled using averaged values of cohesion or assuming the fractures to be continuous. In the present work, the results of simple shear tests on a series of gypsum specimens with pre-existing cracks are presented. Twelve different crack orientations and two normal stresses were tested. The hypothesis of averaged cohesion and the theory of fracture mechanics are used to reproduce the results. It is found that fracture mechanics provides a more suitable model for the experimental results, especially when crack interaction is taken into account.

  6. Comprehensive Solutions for Integration of Solar Resources into Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, Kenneth [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Makarov, Yuri V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rajagopal, Sankaran [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Loutan, Clyde [California Independent System Operator; Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Laurie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lu, Bo [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Mansingh, Ashmin [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Zack, John [MESO, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sherick, Robert [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Romo, Abraham [Southern California Edison; Habibi-Ashrafi, Farrokh [Southern California Edison; Johnson, Raymond [Southern California Edison

    2016-01-14

    The need for proactive closed-loop integration of uncertainty information into system operations and probability-based controls is widely recognized, but rarely implemented in system operations. Proactive integration for this project means that the information concerning expected uncertainty ranges for net load and balancing requirements, including required balancing capacity, ramping and ramp duration characteristics, will be fed back into the generation commitment and dispatch algorithms to modify their performance so that potential shortages of these characteristics can be prevented. This basic, yet important, premise is the motivating factor for this project. The achieved project goal is to demonstrate the benefit of such a system. The project quantifies future uncertainties, predicts additional system balancing needs including the prediction intervals for capacity and ramping requirements of future dispatch intervals, evaluates the impacts of uncertainties on transmission including the risk of overloads and voltage problems, and explores opportunities for intra-hour generation adjustments helping to provide more flexibility for system operators. The resulting benefits culminate in more reliable grid operation in the face of increased system uncertainty and variability caused by solar power. The project identifies that solar power does not require special separate penetration level restrictions or penalization for its intermittency. Ultimately, the collective consideration of all sources of intermittency distributed over a wide area unified with the comprehensive evaluation of various elements of balancing process, i.e. capacity, ramping, and energy requirements, help system operators more robustly and effectively balance generation against load and interchange. This project showed that doing so can facilitate more solar and other renewable resources on the grid without compromising reliability and control performance. Efforts during the project included

  7. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  8. Using balance program for energy balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belong with development of the economy, the energy consumption will be increased very high in the future. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood, Recently, Vietnam is an exporter of energy. But in next two decades, the energy sources will be enough to meet requirement? The model BALANCE was used to solve energy planning problem. The objective of this model is analyzing energy system and built an energy development strategy in long term. After using model, the results are: total coal consumption will be 17.440 Mtoe in 2020 and 32 Mtoe in 2030. the biggest coal consumer is electricity sector. Total oil production consumption will be more than 30 Mtoe in 2020 and more than 50 Mtoe in 2030. If we have 4 refinery factories from now to 2030, total oil products import will be 11 Mtoe in 2020 and 25 Mtoe in 2030. The amount of gas supply in 2030 will be 20 billions m3 (18 Mtoe). Vietnam needs to import 8.3 Mtoe more, Vietnam will become an energy importer in next 15 years. In previous years, the economy of Vietnam was mainly based on agricultural production. But Vietnam is moving rapidly from an agricultural to an industrial economy. Belong with the development of the economy, energy consumption increases very fast. So which energy sources should be used first and when it will be use...are questions need to be answered. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood. Recently, Vietnam is energy exporter, but in near future Vietnam has enough energy to meet demand or we need to import from outside? It should be studied carefully to answer. (author)

  9. Forecast of water resources supply and demand as well as balance analysis in Malian river basin%马莲河流域水资源供需量预测及平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅玉; 张新民; 金毅

    2014-01-01

    .The total amount of water require-ment and supply is 1033 and 872 million cubic meter ,and water shortage rate is 15 .62%.The allocation scheme of water resources according to supply and demand balance can decrease the integrated water shortage rate year after year and impel the water resource of basin to better service for the socio-economic high-speed development , and improve the level of water supply and water use .The result can provide strong protection and support for production and life safety in the basin .

  10. Intermittent Versus Continuous Phototherapy for Reducing Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoo Niknafs; Bahare Bahman-Bijari; Mohammad Hossein Torabinejad; Abdol-Ali Mortazavi; Pedram Niknafs

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Clinical studies comparing intermittent versus continuous phototherapy for reducing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have produced conflicting results. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of intermittent with continuous phototherapy. Methods: This study was performed on 114 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Inclusion criteria were body weight above 2000 grams, absence of other concomitant diseases, and hyperbilirubinemia neither requiring intensive phototherapy nor...

  11. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  12. Intermittent versus Continuous Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Annette Sandahl; Lange, Christa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the delivery of the same amount of intermittent versus continuous physiotherapy given to children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was organized either in an intermittent regime four times a week for 4 weeks alternating with a 6-week treatment pause, or a continuous once or twice a week regime, both…

  13. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  14. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Anca Daniela HANSEN; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the s...

  15. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  16. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  17. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  18. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. PMID:26384657

  19. Sustainable integration of high levels of intermittent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainable development of electric power systems rely on three main drivers: the security of supply, the competitiveness and the protection of the environment. For this purpose the promotion of endogenous energy sources, mainly the renewable ones, should be underlined. Still, most of renewable energy sources raise very sensitive issues concerning the security of supply, due to its randomness and unpredictability. The wind power, currently in its fast growing development, plays a relevant role on this matter. From the demand-side perspective, there is also a lot to do regarding the promotion of more efficient use of energy as well as mechanisms that contribute to security of supply. This paper aims to present guidelines for the selection of the most adequate solutions regarding: sustainable evolution of renewable generation technologies, based on the most meritorious resources under economic and security of supply assessments; complementary energy storage systems that allow the integration of intermittent generation ensuring adequate security of supply levels; and sustainable evolution of demand, based on DSM measures selected from different available alternatives. (author)

  20. Finite dissipation and intermittency in magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mininni, P D

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of data stemming from numerical simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to grid resolution of 1536^3 points and up to Taylor Reynolds number of 1200. The initial conditions are such that the initial velocity and magnetic fields are helical and in equipartition, while their correlation is negligible. Analyzing the data at the peak of dissipation, we show that the dissipation in MHD seems to asymptote to a constant as the Reynolds number increases, thereby strengthening the possibility of fast reconnection events in the solar environment for very large Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, intermittency of MHD flows, as determined by the spectrum of anomalous exponents of structure functions of the velocity and the magnetic field, is stronger than for fluids, confirming earlier results; however, we also find that there is a measurable difference between the exponents of the velocity and those of the magnetic field, as observed recently in the solar wind. Finally, we discu...

  1. Muscle coordination changes during intermittent cycling sprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Basset, Fabien A; Falgairette, Guy

    2005-06-01

    Maximal muscle power is reported to decrease during explosive cyclical exercises owing to metabolic disturbances, muscle damage, and adjustments in the efferent neural command. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of inter-muscle coordination in fatigue occurrence during 10 intermittent 6-s cycling sprints, with 30-s recovery through electromyographic activity (EMG). Results showed a decrease in peak power output with sprint repetitions (sprint 1 versus sprint 10: -11%, Pversus sprint 10: -90.2 ms, Pcycling sprints of short duration, decreased possibly due to the inability of muscles to maintain maximal force. This reduction in maximal power output occurred in parallel to changes in the muscle coordination pattern after fatigue. PMID:15862899

  2. Scintillation-Induced Intermittency in SETI

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, J M; Sagan, Carl Edward; Cordes, James M.; Sagan, Carl

    1997-01-01

    We consider interstellar scintillations as a cause of intermittency in radio signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). We demonstrate that scintillations are very likely to allow initial detections of narrowband signals from distant sources (> 100 pc), while making redetections improbable. We consider three models in order to assess the non-repeating, narrowband events found in recent SETI and to analyze large surveys in general: (I) Radiometer noise; (II) A population of constant Galactic sources undergoing interstellar scintillation,; and (III) Real, transient signals (or hardware errors) of either terrestrial or ET origin. We apply likelihood and Bayesian tests of the models to The Planetary Society/Harvard META data. We find that Models II and III are both highly preferred to Model I, but that Models II and III are about equally likely. Ruling out Model II in favor of Model III requires many more reobservations than were conducted in META *or* the reobservation threshold must be much lower than wa...

  3. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnosis per chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundravally R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a case of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP diagnosed by chance during routine investigations. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 21-year-old female presented with vague gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon admission, she was disoriented. Later she developed generalized seizures and was treated with phenytoin, but the condition worsened. Upon investigation, her liver function, renal function, blood sugar level and electrolytes were within normal limits. When kept for routine laboratory testing, the color change in urine prompted us to investigate for porphyria. It was positive for phorphobilinogen (PBG and urophorphyrin. Since AIP had been diagnosed, the initial treatment with phenytoin was discontinued with a favorable outcome. A screening test for PBG in urine by Ehrlich′s reagent was performed on the patient′s mother and was positive. Conclusion: A high degree of suspicion at the laboratory can also determine the diagnosis of AIP, which is often missed by the clinician.

  4. Voltage Stability Evaluation Incorporating Wind Power Intermittency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libao SHI; Yang ZHAO; Yixin NI; Liangzhong YAO; Masoud BAZARGAN

    2013-01-01

    A simulation framework is proposed to evaluate the voltage stability of power systems incorporating wind power intermittency.Firstly,the power output modelings of three types of wind turbines are discussed.Secondly,the Jensen model is employed to simulate the wind farm with the wake effect.The Monte Carlo based technique is used to conduct the voltage stability evaluation incorporating the randomness of the wind speed based on the Weibull probability distribution.Thirdly,the relative sensitivity index (RSI) is calculated to identify weak buses during analysis.Finally,case studies with different simulation scenarios are carried out.Some statistical results involving weakness probability,expected value and variance of RSI as well as preliminary conclusions are drawn based on numerical simulation results.

  5. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration......Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators are...... still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump...

  6. Turbulent mixing: the roots of intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixing in fully developed incompressible turbulent flows is known to lead to a cascade of discontinuity fronts of passive scalar fields; these fronts make the tracer fields strongly intermittent and give rise to an anomalous scaling of structure functions. Here, a simple model, essentially a one-dimensional (1D) variant of Baker's map, is developed, which captures the main mechanism responsible for the emergence of the discontinuities. The model is studied both numerically and analytically. In particular, the structure function scaling exponent ζp is derived; for the Kolmogorov turbulence, ζp=2/3 log3(p+1). The analytical findings are consistent with simulations, and explain the results of a series of numerical and experimental studies

  7. Clinical relevance of intermittent tumour blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of translational cancer research is to understand basic 'phenomena' so that tumour response to therapy can be improved. One such phenomenon is intermittent tumour blood flow. The impact of the transient hypoxia that results from decreased tumour blood flow is now beginning to be appreciated in preclinical systems, and also receiving some attention in clinical practise. Thus in this article we review the nature and frequency of microregional blood flow changes in preclinical and clinical tumours and examine the impact of those changes on response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additionally, the implications of non-constant blood flow for both the growth of the unperturbed tumour and the regrowth of surviving tumour clonogens during and after therapy are examined

  8. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  9. Strategies for optimal penetration of intermittent renewables in complex energy systems based on techno-operational objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Alessandro; Salza, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Energetica ' ' L. Poggi' ' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 2, 56126 PISA (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are mainly used in the electrical sector. Electricity is not a storable commodity. Hence it is necessary to produce the requested quantity and distribute it through the system in such a way as to ensure that electricity supply and demand are always evenly balanced. This constraint is actually the main problem related to the penetration of new renewables (wind and photovoltaic power) in the context of complex energy systems. Moreover the design of optimal energy resource mixes in climate change mitigation actions is a challenge faced in many places. The paper analyzes the problem of new renewable energy sources penetration. The case of Italian scenario is considered as a meaningful reference due to the characteristic size and the complexity of the same. The various energy scenarios are evaluated with the aid of a multipurpose software taking into account the interconnections between the different energetic uses. In particular it is shown how the penetration of new renewable energy sources is limited at an upper level by technological considerations and it will be more sustainable if an integration of the various energy uses (thermal, mobility and electrical) will be considered. A series of optimized scenarios are developed. In each case the maximum RES penetration feasible with the constraints was defined. Then analysis is applied to an energy system model of Italy showing how an integrated development of CHP and electric mobility can aid a further integration of wind and photovoltaic energy power. Finally the primary energy consumption saving possible in case of consistent penetration of intermittent renewables and CHP was identified. (author)

  10. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  11. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  12. Analysis of Financial Position Based on the Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial position based on the balance sheet is mainly aimed at assessing the extent to which financial structure chosen by the firm, namely, financial resources, covering the needs reflected in the balance sheet financed. This is done through an analysis known as horizontal analysis balance sheet financial imbalances.

  13. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  14. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  15. Identification of intermittent control in man and machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent from continuous control; here, we present such a method. The identification experiment uses a special paired-step set-point sequence. The corresponding data analysis use a conventional ARMA model to relate a theoretically derived equivalent set-point to control signal; the novelty lies in sequentially and iteratively adjusting the timing of the steps of this equivalent set-point to optimize the linear time-invariant fit. The method was verified using realistic simulation data and was found to robustly distinguish not only between continuous and intermittent control but also between event-driven intermittent and clock-driven intermittent control. When applied to human pursuit tracking, event-driven intermittent control was identified, with an intermittent interval of 260-310 ms (n = 6, p < 0.05). This new identification method is applicable for machine and biological applications. PMID:22491973

  16. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  17. Photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in dielectric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, A.

    2006-08-11

    The experimental studies presented in this thesis deal with the photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in different dielectric environments. Detailed analysis of intermittency statistics from single capped CdSe/ZnS, uncapped CdSe and water dispersed CdSe/ZnS QDs in different matrices provide experimental evidence for the model of photoionization with a charge ejected into the surrounding matrix as the source of PL intermittency phenomenon. We propose a self-trapping model to explain the increase of dark state lifetimes with the dielectric constant of the matrix. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed to...... intermittent therapy shows twice as much granulation tissue formation than that exposed to continuous pressure after 2 weeks of therapy. The present study was designed to elucidate the differences in microvascular blood flow in the left anterior descending artery area between continuous and intermittent...... myocardial topical negative pressure of -50 mmHg....

  19. Two-particle description of turbulence, Markov property, and intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the hypothesis of independent increments for velocity, which is widely used by many authors [e.g., A. M. Obukhov, Adv. Geophys. 6, 113 (1959)] in the Lagrangian description of turbulence, is inconsistent with the Navier--Stokes equations in a fundamental way. A more general Lagrangian description of turbulent velocity such as the Markov process with dependent increments, which recognizes the condition of incompressibility and the important phenomenon of intermittency, is proposed. A model of intermittent relative motion of fluid particles in turbulent flow is presented. The high-order Lagrangian moments and the probability distribution are obtained. The distribution for the intermittent vorticity is also proposed

  20. Hybrid wind power balance control strategy using thermal power, hydro power and flow batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gelazanskas, Linas; Baranauskas, Audrius; Gamage, Kelum; Azubalis, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    The increased number of renewable power plants pose threat to power system balance. Their intermittent nature makes it very difficult to predict power output, thus either additional reserve power plants or new storage and control technologies are required. Traditional spinning reserve cannot fully compensate sudden changes in renewable energy power generation. Using new storage technologies such as flow batteries, it is feasible to balance the variations in power and voltage within very short...

  1. Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes of Intermittent Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in an African Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Kwizera; Janat Tumukunde; Lameck Ssemogerere; Emmanuel Ayebale; Peter Agaba; Jamali Yakubu; Aggrey Lubikire; Mary Nabukenya; Robert Kalyesubula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common occurrence in the intensive care unit (ICU). Studies have looked at outcomes of renal replacement therapy using intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) in ICUs with varying results. Little is known about the outcomes of using IHD in resource-limited settings where continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is limited. We sought to determine outcomes of IHD among critically ill patients admitted to a low-income country ICU. Methods. A retrospective...

  2. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  3. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  4. Finite dissipation and intermittency in magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A

    2009-08-01

    We present an analysis of data stemming from numerical simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to grid resolution of 1536(3) points and up to Taylor Reynolds number of approximately 1200 . The initial conditions are such that the initial velocity and magnetic fields are helical and in equipartition, while their correlation is negligible. Analyzing the data at the peak of dissipation, we show that the dissipation in MHD seems to asymptote to a constant as the Reynolds number increases, thereby strengthening the possibility of fast reconnection events in the solar environment for very large Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, intermittency of MHD flows, as determined by the spectrum of anomalous exponents of structure functions of the velocity and the magnetic field, is stronger than that of fluids, confirming earlier results; however, we also find that there is a measurable difference between the exponents of the velocity and those of the magnetic field, reminiscent of recent solar wind observations. Finally, we discuss the spectral scaling laws that arise in this flow. PMID:19792189

  5. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  6. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line

    OpenAIRE

    Cinquin, A.; Chiang, M.; Paz, A.; Hallman, S; Yuan, O; Vysniauskaite, I; Fowlkes, CC; Cinquin, O.

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproducti...

  7. Intermittency is a consequence of turbulent transport in nonlinear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Benno Rumpf Alan C.

    2003-01-01

    Intermittent high-amplitude structures emerge in a damped and driven discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation whose solutions transport both energy and particles from sources to sinks. These coherent structures are necessary for any solution that has statistically stationary transport properties.

  8. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsrinivas Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA. The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo.

  9. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Derksen, Carol; Saqqur, Maher; Khan, Khurshid

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo. PMID:26933370

  10. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Derksen, Carol; Saqqur, Maher; Khan, Khurshid

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic carotid - basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo. PMID:26933370

  11. Experimental evidence for directed percolation in spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Peter; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    A new experimental system showing a transition to spatiotemporal intermittency is presented. It consists of a ring of hundred oscillating ferrofluidic spikes. The measured critical exponents of the system agree with those obtained from a theoretical model of directed percolation.

  12. Sensing and characterization of EMI during intermittent connector anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new on-line methodology for detecting intermittent disconnection failures. The detection principle operates on the fundamental Lorentz Law...

  13. The effects of stochastic electricity market modelling on estimating additional costs of intermittent RES-E integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a stochastic fundamental electricity market model is developed. The model's principle is cost minimization by determining the marginal system costs mainly as a function of available generation and transmission capacities, primary energy prices, plant characteristics and electricity demand. In order to obtain appropriate estimates of the costs of intermittent renewable energy sources for electricity production (RES-E) notably reduced efficiencies at part load, start-up costs and reserve power requirements are taken into account. Since hydro storage is of high relevance when analysing intermittent resources, time-coupling constraints are considered. The system is considered to adapt on increasing RES-E over time by endogenous modelling of investment decisions in conventional power plants. To explicitly account for intermittent electricity production the fundamental modeling approach is extended by introducing a stochastic recombining tree. Exemplary results are presented for a German case study. It is shown that the costs of wind's intermittency are underestimated in deterministic models. The proposed stochastic model, however, can give far more realistic estimates as e.g. the decreasing capacity credit with increasing installed wind capacities can sufficiently be modelled. (Author)

  14. Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, James C.

    2001-01-05

    INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE IN THE VERY STABLE EKMAN LAYER This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  15. Drift Intermittent Synchronization and Controllability in a Simple Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; YU Ming-Young

    2005-01-01

    A simple model of three coupled oscillators as an approximation of main modes behaviors in a spatial extended system is proposed. Multi-looping generalized synchronization and drift intermittent lag phase synchronization phenomena are found in this simple model. For a certain of parameters in which chaotic-like intermittent behavior exhibit the amplitudes and phases of three modes are controlled to be synchronized states via coupling them with an external periodic mode.

  16. The Prismatic Effect on Stereoacuity in Intermittent Exotropia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyoung Sub; Chung, Seung Ah; Lee, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jong Bok

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia. Materials and Methods Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye. Results Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging ...

  17. Identification of intermittent control in man and machine

    OpenAIRE

    Loram, Ian D.; van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent fr...

  18. Non-locality and Intermittency in 3D Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Laval, J. -P.; B. Dubrulle; Nazarenko, S.(Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russia)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to determine the influence of the non-local and local interactions on the intermittency corrections in the scaling properties of 3D turbulence. We show that neglect of local interactions leads to an enhanced small-scale energy spectrum and to a significantly larger number of very intense vortices (tornadoes) and stronger intermittency. On the other hand, neglect of the non-local interactions results in even stronger small-scale spectrum but significantly weaker ...

  19. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Omid YAGHINI; Shirin BAJOGHLI

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female) were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excl...

  20. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti; Alkmim-Teixeira Gil Cezar; Karin Aparecida Casarini; Kátia Simone Muniz Cordeiro; Anibal Basile-Filho; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroen...

  1. Intermittent Reinforcement and the Persistence of Behavior: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin M. Hogarth; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Whereas economists have made extensive studies of the impact of levels of incentives on behavior, they have paid little attention to the effects of regularity and frequency of incentives. We contrasted three ways of rewarding participants in a real-effort experiment in which individuals had to decide when to exit the situation : a continuous reinforcement schedule (all periods paid) ; a fixed intermittent reinforcement schedule (one out of three periods paid) ; and a random intermittent reinf...

  2. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  3. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKarniel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The minimum transitions hypothesis (MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  4. Intermittency of quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: A wavelet viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittency of quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in an imposed magnetic field is examined, using three-dimensional orthonormal wavelets. The wavelet analysis is applied to two turbulent MHD flows computed by direct numerical simulation with 5123 grid points and with different intensities of the imposed magnetic field. It is found that the imposed magnetic field leads to a substantial amplification of intermittency of the flow, especially in the direction of the imposed magnetic field.

  5. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    OpenAIRE

    Rajsrinivas Parthasarathy; Carol Derksen; Maher Saqqur; Khurshid Khan

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of th...

  6. Liquid fallback and the performance of intermittent gas-lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Odair G.; Alhanati, Francisco J.S.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Petroleo

    1998-07-01

    The study of liquid fallback in intermittent gas-lift methods shows that the impact of the fallback is misinterpreted in the literature. An explanation of the dynamics of this phenomena is presented as a contribution to a better understanding of the process. The economic analysis of gas-lift plants demonstrates the sensitivity of the performance to the correct evaluation of the effect of the fallback, when ranking the best intermittent methods. (author)

  7. TOWARDS AN ISLAMIC APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Muhammad Ramzan

    1996-01-01

    The paper studies the Islamic viewpoint about the environment and presents the notion of environmental balance in an Islamic economy. It asserts that this balance can be maintained with the help of Islamic ethics and institutions. The paper demonstrates the positive role of the private sector in terms of environment-friendly behavior, fellow-feeling, and simple living of the people. Similarly, it discusses the legislature, monitoring and resource development roles of the Islamic state to prot...

  8. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan;

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...... different hierarchical levels: aggregator, large scale consumption and residential consumption. Our focus is on illustrating the connection between coordination and control algorithms at each of these levels....

  9. Analyzing hydrological sustainability through water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to assist in the development of management plans that will lead to the sustainable use of water resources in all EU member states. However, defining the degree of sustainability aimed at is not a straightforward task. It requires detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in question, its environmental needs, the amount of human water demand, and the opportunity to construct a proper water balance that describes the behavior of the hydrological system and estimates available water resources. An analysis of the water balance in the Selva basin (Girona, NE Spain) points to the importance of regional groundwater fluxes in satisfying current exploitation rates, and shows that regional scale approaches are often necessary to evaluate water availability. In addition, we discuss the pressures on water resources, and analyze potential actions, based on the water balance results, directed towards achieving sustainable water management in the basin. PMID:20229067

  10. Exploring the relationship between malaria, rainfall intermittency, and spatial variation in rainfall seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkord, C. L.; Wimberly, M. C.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem throughout tropical regions of the world. Successful prevention and treatment of malaria requires an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the life cycle of both the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites, and its vectors, anopheline mosquitos. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates (TRMM and GPM), evapotranspiration derived from a simplified surface energy balance, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave imagery. Previous studies have found links between malaria cases and total monthly or weekly rainfall in areas where both are highly seasonal. However it is far from clear that monthly or weekly summaries are the best metrics to use to explain malaria outbreaks. It is possible that particular temporal or spatial patterns of rainfall result in better mosquito habitat and thus higher malaria risk. We used malaria case data from the Amhara region of Ethiopia and satellite-derived rainfall estimates to explore the relationship between malaria outbreaks and rainfall with the goal of identifying the most useful rainfall metrics for modeling malaria occurrence. First, we explored spatial variation in the seasonal patterns of both rainfall and malaria cases in Amhara. Second, we assessed the relative importance of different metrics of rainfall intermittency, including alternation of wet and dry spells, the strength of intensity fluctuations, and spatial variability in these measures, in determining the length and severity of malaria outbreaks. We also explored the sensitivity of our results to the choice of method for describing rainfall intermittency and the spatial and temporal scale at which metrics were calculated. Results

  11. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Lanzarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6 and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5, which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG and control group (CG. Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP during the sensory organization test (SOT and the motor control test (MCT. Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027 and speed (p =0.033 of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004. There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects.

  12. Characteristics of spatiotemporal intermittency in two phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of temporal and spatiotemporal intermittent, or slug flow, in two phase flashing flows are analyzed in the context of intermittency transition to chaos. Particularly, the possibility of occurence of generic intermittency routes (Types I, II and III) is investigated in the presence of density wave instability in the system and conclusive evidence for the occurrence of Types I and III is presented. Particularly important is the prediction of the mean slug length and the slug length distribution since the slug flow represents an unfavorable flow regime for gas-liquid transportation in pipes. Identification of two generic intermittency routes automatically gives a quantitative prediction concerning the length distribution of laminar and turbulent (slug) phases. Spatiotemporal analysis, based on the bi-othogonal decoposition and concepts from information theory, provides quantitative characterization and prediction of slug flows and possible mechanism of transition from spatiotemporal intermittency to spatiotemporal chaos (turbulence) is outlined. The analysis of the intermittency in two-phase flows was performed on the experimental data obtained in the study of natural circulation instabilities during small break loss-of-coolant accident. 7 refs., 14 figs

  13. Modeling of Flow Transition Using an Intermittency Transport Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    A new transport equation for intermittency factor is proposed to model transitional flows. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is incorporated into the computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub t), obtainable from a turbulence model, with the intermittency factor, gamma: mu(sub t, sup *) = gamma.mu(sub t). In this paper, Menter's SST model (Menter, 1994) is employed to compute mu(sub t) and other turbulent quantities. The proposed intermittency transport equation can be considered as a blending of two models - Steelant and Dick (1996) and Cho and Chung (1992). The former was proposed for near-wall flows and was designed to reproduce the streamwise variation of the intermittency factor in the transition zone following Dhawan and Narasimha correlation (Dhawan and Narasimha, 1958) and the latter was proposed for free shear flows and was used to provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. The new model was used to predict the T3 series experiments assembled by Savill (1993a, 1993b) including flows with different freestream turbulence intensities and two pressure-gradient cases. For all test cases good agreements between the computed results and the experimental data are observed.

  14. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  15. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  17. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  18. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  19. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  1. Brazilian energy balance 2001: calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  2. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  3. 县域耕地后备资源与规划期内数量质量并重的占补平衡分析%Analysis on county based reserved resource for cultivated land and quality-quantity requisition-compensation balance in planning period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高星; 吴克宁; 郧文聚; 唐程杰; 许实; 麻战洪

    2015-01-01

    Reserved resource for cultivated land is an important supplement to cultivated land, and it plays an important role in requisition-compensation balance, however, it has disadvantages of subjectiveness and emphasizing on quantity in cultivated land supplement. It is necessary to play the role of farmland reserve resources to replenish cultivated land for the realization of the goal of farmland protection in the overall planning period of county land use. Data used for study are from the results of the new round of ‘survey and evaluation of reserved resource for cultivated land’. A balancing method, which focused on both quantity and quality and was based on the ratio of added cultivated land and grade conversion coefficient, were proposed to analyze the capability of requisition-compensation balance in the planning period. And we analyzed the capacity to achieve the balance of arable land in the county planning period. The coefficient of newly increased cultivated land was developed by the weighted average of the newly cultivated land rate. The conversion coefficient of requisition and compensation of arable land is based on the national unified research results of arable land’s requisition compensation balance according to grade conversion coefficient from Land Resources and Land Rehabilitation Center. Taking Yuanjiang City, Hunan Province as an example, we calculated the area of reserved resource for cultivated land needed for realizing both quantitative and qualitative balance. According to the "Yuanjiang City land use overall planning (during 2006-2020)", the new construction area of farmland was expected to not more than 899.2 hm2 until 2020, the quality of new construction occupation of cultivated land focused on the level of 1-5, whose composition ratios were 40.61%, 16.15%, 22.73%, 18.8% and 1.72%, respectively. The reserved resource area of cultivated land in Yuanjiang City was 1 744.14 hm2, of which 1 447.64 hm2 cultivated land can be added after the

  4. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  5. Human Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  6. Random walk and balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, F G

    2004-01-01

    Presents a minireview of topics concerned with balancing in quiet (bipedal) standing, and balancing of a stick. In the focus is the apparent stochastic nature of the swaying of the human inverted pendulum.

  7. Skylab water balance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  8. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  9. Coaching for Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  10. LOAD BALANCING WITH NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Al Sallami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a proposed load balance technique based on artificial neural network. It distributes workload equally across all the nodes by using back propagation learning algorithm to train feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The proposed technique is simple and it can work efficiently when effective training sets are used. ANN predicts the demand and thus allocates resources according to that demand. Thus, it always maintains the active servers according to current demand, which results in low energy consumption than the conservative approach of over-provisioning. Furthermore, high utilization of server results in more power consumption, server running at higher utilization can process more workload with similar power usage. Finally the existing load balancing techniques in cloud computing are discussed and compared with the proposed technique based on various parameters like performance, scalability, associated overhead... etc. In addition energy consumption and carbon emission perspective are also considered to satisfy green computing.

  11. Measures of Three-Dimensional Anisotropy and Intermittency in Strong Alfv\\'enic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A; Chandran, B D G; Chen, C H K; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; Greenan, C C

    2015-01-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are "ribbon-like" --- statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the $n$th-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran et al. 2015, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of ...

  12. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field and of the fluctuating fields and obtain good agreement with numerical simulations. We also derive a scaling of the parallel coherence scale of the fluctuations, $l_\\parallel \\propto \\lambda^{1/2}$, where $\\lambda$ is the perpendicular scale. This is indeed observed for the bulk of the fluctuations in numerical simulations.

  13. Aerodynamic Surface Stress Intermittency and Conditionally Averaged Turbulence Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion of dry, flat, semi-arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by kinetic energy fluxes in the aloft atmospheric surface layer. During saltation -- the mechanism responsible for surface fluxes of dust and sediment -- briefly suspended sediment grains undergo a ballistic trajectory before impacting and `splashing' smaller-diameter (dust) particles vertically. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment flux, q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic (basal) stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1. Since basal stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with the incoming velocity squared, u^2, it follows that q ~ u^2n (where u is some relevant component of the above flow field, u(x,t)). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-averaged value may play an enormously important role in aeolian activity on flat, dry landscapes. The importance of this argument is further augmented given that turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. In order to illustrate the importance of surface stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over a flat landscape with momentum roughness length appropriate for the Llano Estacado in west Texas (a flat agricultural region that is notorious for dust transport). By using data from a field campaign to measure diurnal variability of aeolian activity and prevailing winds on the Llano Estacado, we have retrieved the threshold friction velocity (which can be used to compute threshold surface stress under the geostrophic balance with the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory). This averaging procedure provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of

  14. Computerized dynamic posturography for postural control assessment in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; King, Stephanie A; Gohil, Risha; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography with the EquiTest is an objective technique for measuring postural strategies under challenging static and dynamic conditions. As part of a diagnostic assessment, the early detection of postural deficits is important so that appropriate and targeted interventions can be prescribed. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) on the EquiTest determines an individual's use of the sensory systems (somatosensory, visual, and vestibular) that are responsible for postural control. Somatosensory and visual input are altered by the calibrated sway-referenced support surface and visual surround, which move in the anterior-posterior direction in response to the individual's postural sway. This creates a conflicting sensory experience. The Motor Control Test (MCT) challenges postural control by creating unexpected postural disturbances in the form of backwards and forwards translations. The translations are graded in magnitude and the time to recover from the perturbation is computed. Intermittent claudication, the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, is characterized by a cramping pain in the lower limbs and caused by muscle ischemia secondary to reduced blood flow to working muscles during physical exertion. Claudicants often display poor balance, making them susceptible to falls and activity avoidance. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is a noninvasive method for indicating the presence of peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication, a common symptom in the lower extremities. ABPI is measured as the highest systolic pressure from either the dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial artery divided by the highest brachial artery systolic pressure from either arm. This paper will focus on the use of computerized dynamic posturography in the assessment of balance in claudicants. PMID:24378378

  15. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  16. Intermittent single point machining of brittle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E

    1999-12-07

    A series of tests were undertaken to explore diamond tool wear in the intermittent cutting of brittle materials, specifically silicon. The tests were carried out on a plain way No. 3 Moore machine base equipped as a flycutter with a motorized Professional Instruments 4R air bearing spindle. The diamond tools were made by Edge Technologies with known crystal orientation and composition and sharpened with either an abrasive or chemical process, depending on the individual test. The flycutting machine configuration allowed precise control over the angle at which the tool engages the anisotropic silicon workpiece. In contrast, the crystallographic orientation of the silicon workpiece changes continuously during on-axis turning. As a result, it is possible to flycut a workpiece in cutting directions that are known to be easy or hard. All cuts were run in the 100 plane of the silicon, with a slight angle deliberately introduced to ensure that the 100 plane is engaged in ''up-cutting'' which lengthens the tool life. A Kistler 9256 dynamometer was used to measure the cutting forces in order to gain insight into the material removal process and tool wear during testing. The dynamometer provides high bandwidth force measurement with milli-Newton resolution and good thermal stability. After many successive passes over the workpiece, it was observed that the cutting forces grow at a rate that is roughly proportional to the degradation of the workpiece surface finish. The exact relationship between cutting force growth and surface finish degradation was not quantified because of the problems associated with measuring surface finish in situ. However, a series of witness marks were made during testing in an aluminum sample that clearly show the development of wear flats on the tool nose profile as the forces grow and the surface finish worsens. The test results show that workpieces requiring on the order of two miles of track length can be made with low tool

  17. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  18. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    sagittal plane during upstroke of flapping flight, we hypothesize that body lift is produced during flapping phases. Future efforts to model the mechanics of intermittent flight should take into account that flap-bounding birds may support up to 20% of their weight even with their wings fully flexed.

  19. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  20. Cardioprotective adaptation of rats to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia is accompanied by the increased association of hexokinase with mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskova-Arnostova, Petra; Elsnicova, Barbara; Kasparova, Dita; Hornikova, Daniela; Kolar, Frantisek; Novotny, Jiri; Zurmanova, Jitka

    2015-12-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases the myocardial resistance to acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by affecting the mitochondrial redox balance. Hexokinase (HK) bears a high potential to suppress the excessive formation of reactive oxygen species because of its increased association with mitochondria, thereby inhibiting the membrane permeability transition pore opening and preventing cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (7,000 m, 8 h/day, 5 wk) on the function and colocalization of HK isoforms with mitochondria in the left (LV) and right ventricles of rat myocardium. The real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, enzyme coupled assay, and quantitative immunofluorescence techniques were used. Our results showed significantly elevated expression of HK isoforms (HK1 and HK2) in the hypoxic LV. In addition, intermittent hypoxia increased the total HK activity and the association of HK isoforms with mitochondria in both ventricles. These findings suggest that HK may contribute to the cardioprotective phenotype induced by adaptation to severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. PMID:26494452

  1. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involved in both the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into...... changes in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether...... in consumers' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes...

  2. Mathematically modelling and controlling prostate cancer under intermittent hormone therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Hirata; Gouhei Tanaka; Nicholas Bruchovsky; Kazuyuki Aihara

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we summarize our recently developed mathematical models that predict the effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy on prostate cancer (PCa).Although hormone therapy for PCa shows remarkable results at the beginning of treatment,cancer cells frequently acquire the ability to grow without androgens during long-term therapy,resulting in an eventual relapse.To circumvent hormone resistance,intermittent androgen suppression was investigated as an alternative treatment option.However,at the present time,it is not possible to select an optimal schedule of on- and off-treatment cycles for any given patient.In addition,clinical trials have revealed that intermittent androgen suppression is effective for some patients but not for others.To resolve these two problems,we have developed mathematical models for PCa under intermittent androgen suppression.The mathematical models not only explain the mechanisms of intermittent androgen suppression but also provide an optimal treatment schedule for the on- and off-treatment periods.

  3. Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Queiros-Conde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments  and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension  and crest dimension  are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency  (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.

  4. Intermittency on simultaneous observations of riometer at several Antarctic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Foppiano, A. J.; Stepanova, M. V.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that auroral radio wave absorption, as measured by riometers, consists of periods of relative quiescence which are interrupted by short bursts of activity. Such patterns in activity are observed in systems ranging from the stock market to turbulence, i.e. they exhibit intermittency. In the case of the auroral absorption it has also been found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the night-time sector. This can be interpreted as indicating that the precipitating particles responsible of the absorption exhibit intermittency, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Here, we analyse simultaneous observations of riometer absorption at seven Antarctic locations, to determine whether they exhibit intermittency. We determine the Probability Distribution Functions of the fluctuations of riometer absorption for absorption events larger than 0.1 dB, as well as those for the time-intervals between absorption events. Observations are for locations within the austral auroral absorption zone and on the polar cap. It is found that the parameters of a power law used to describe the calculated PDFs are consistent with the formation of coherent structures being more frequent within the auroral zone, as a manifestation of intermittency.

  5. Study on Intermittent Irrigation for Paddy Rice: II. Crop Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effect of intermittent irrigation on the production of paddy rice was studied in a well-puddled paddy field with four treatments and 2 replicates: continuous flooding irrigation (CFI), and intermittent irrigation II-0, II-1 and II-2, in which plants were re-irrigated when the soil water potential fell below 0, -10, and -20 kPa, respectively, at soil depth of about 5 cm. Results showed that the reduction in soil water potential to about -10 or -20 kPa did not significantly affect the number of grains and the percentage of ripened grains. While, a lower crop growth rate (CGR) resulted from a decrease in the net assimilation rate (NAR) during intermittent irrigation II-1 and II-2, and there was also a reduction in the leaf area index (LAI) during intermittent irrigation II-2. Senescence of lower leaves on stems was promoted in treatments II-1 and II-2 at the ripening stage. Early senescence at ripening stage and water stress around midday decreased the rate of photosynthesis in leaves, causing the lower NAR. These physiological responses of the plants were responsible for the reduction in the dry matter production and grain yield in the intermittent irrigation treatments.

  6. Success of Surgical Correction in Constant and Intermittent Exotropias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the success rate of surgical corrections of constant and intermittent exotropias. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital, Karachi, from July 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Patients having primary exotropia (deviation 15 - 45 prism diopters [PD]) were included. Patients with either constant exotropia or basic intermittent exotropia underwent unilateral surgery of lateral rectus recession (maximum up to 10 mm) and medial rectus resection (up to 6 mm). Similarly, when patients had intermittent distance exotropia, underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (maximum up to 10 mm). Final outcome was considered at the end of 2 months at which achievement of A /sup 2/ 10 PD of exotropia was considered as a success. Results: Out of 248 patients, 170 (68.5%) had either constant exotropia or basic intermittent exotropia, while 78 (31.5%) had intermittent distance exotropia. Mean angle of deviation before surgery was 49.23 prism diopters while after surgery, mean angle of deviation was 8.54 prism diopters. Overall success rate was 81.45% (n=202). In case of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection surgery, the success rate was 85.14% while success rate in case of bilateral lateral rectus recession was 65.21% (p=0.001). Conclusion: Unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection for surgical correction of exotropia had better surgical success rate as compared to bilateral lateral rectus recession. (author)

  7. Swirl effects on external intermittency in turbulent jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Modelling and Simulation of Intermittent Turbulent Flows. ► Swirl Effects on External Intermittency. ► Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Probability Density Distribution. - Abstract: In this paper we present the modelled results of velocity and mixture fraction intermittency for selected isothermal swirling jet flows using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The modelled problems considered three different swirl numbers S = 0.3, 0.54 and 0.8 respectively. The probability density functions (pdfs) and intermittency of velocity and mixture fraction are presented. The simulations capture well complex flow features such as centre jet precession, a bluff body stabilised recirculation zone, and swirl induced vortex breakdown and also describe the effects of far field flow as well as scalar distributions. The calculated probability density distributions exhibit changes from a Gaussian to a delta function with increased radial distance from the jet centreline, and also a non-Gaussian shape on the jet centreline near the precession region. The radial variation of the intermittency shows differences between results with increased swirl number, especially inside the downstream swirl-induced recirculation region.

  8. Intermittent synchronization in a network of bursting neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choongseok; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-09-01

    Synchronized oscillations in networks of inhibitory and excitatory coupled bursting neurons are common in a variety of neural systems from central pattern generators to human brain circuits. One example of the latter is the subcortical network of the basal ganglia, formed by excitatory and inhibitory bursters of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, involved in motor control and affected in Parkinson's disease. Recent experiments have demonstrated the intermittent nature of the phase-locking of neural activity in this network. Here, we explore one potential mechanism to explain the intermittent phase-locking in a network. We simplify the network to obtain a model of two inhibitory coupled elements and explore its dynamics. We used geometric analysis and singular perturbation methods for dynamical systems to reduce the full model to a simpler set of equations. Mathematical analysis was completed using three slow variables with two different time scales. Intermittently, synchronous oscillations are generated by overlapped spiking which crucially depends on the geometry of the slow phase plane and the interplay between slow variables as well as the strength of synapses. Two slow variables are responsible for the generation of activity patterns with overlapped spiking, and the other slower variable enhances the robustness of an irregular and intermittent activity pattern. While the analyzed network and the explored mechanism of intermittent synchrony appear to be quite generic, the results of this analysis can be used to trace particular values of biophysical parameters (synaptic strength and parameters of calcium dynamics), which are known to be impacted in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Scaling the Thrust Production and Energetics of Inviscid Intermittent Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Many fish have adopted an intermittent swimming gait sometimes referred as a burst-and-coast behavior. By using this gait, fish have been estimated at reducing their energetic cost of swimming by about 50%. Lighthill proposed that the skin friction drag of an undulating body can be around 400% greater than a rigidly-held coasting body, which may explain the energetic savings of intermittent swimming. Recent studies have confirmed the increase in skin friction drag over an undulating body, however, the increase is on the order of 20-70%. This more modest gain in skin friction drag is not sufficient to lead to the observed energy savings. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the inviscid mechanisms behind intermittent swimming for parameters typical of biology. We see that there is an energy savings at a fixed swimming speed for intermittent swimming as compared to continuous swimming. Then we consider three questions: What is the nature of the inviscid mechanism that leads to the observed energy savings, how do the forces and energetics of intermittent swimming scale with the swimming parameters, and what are the limitations to the benefit? Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzola, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  10. Complex economic dynamics: Chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within a periodic window of the bifurcation diagram, at the onset of a saddle-node bifurcation and of an attractor merging crisis, and in the chaotic regions associated with type-I intermittency and crisis-induced intermittency, in non-linear economic cycles. Inside a periodic window, chaotic saddles are responsible for the transient motion preceding convergence to a periodic or a chaotic attractor. The links between chaotic saddles, crisis and intermittency in complex economic dynamics are discussed. We show that a chaotic attractor is composed of chaotic saddles and unstable periodic orbits located in the gap regions of chaotic saddles. Non-linear modeling of economic chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency can improve our understanding of the dynamics of financial intermittency observed in stock market and foreign exchange market. Characterization of the complex dynamics of economic systems is a powerful tool for pattern recognition and forecasting of business and financial cycles, as well as for optimization of management strategy and decision technology

  11. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  12. Intermittency in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittency data in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions are reviewed. The power-law behavior of the moments has been established by various e+e- experiments and a μp experiment. The intermittency in the two-dimensional space of rapidity and azimuthal angle is much stronger than in the rapidity space only. The neutrino-nucleus data indicate significant effects from nuclear reinteractions. The LUND parton shower model fits the data better than the matrix element model without special retuning. The relations among the moments of different orders are in good agreement with the predictions by the negative binomial and pure birth distributions. The origin of the intermittency in e+e- and μp collisions is consistent with the self-similar cascade mechanism of jet formation. 11 refs., 7 figs

  13. Horizontal Visibility graphs generated by type-II intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution we study the onset of chaos via type-II intermittency within the framework of Horizontal Visibility graph theory. We construct graphs associated to time series generated by an iterated map close to a Neimark–Sacker bifurcation and study, both numerically and analytically, their main topological properties. We find well defined equivalences between the main statistical properties of intermittent series (scaling of laminar trends and Lyapunov exponent) and those of the resulting graphs, and accordingly construct a graph-theoretical description of type-II intermittency. We finally recast this theory into a graph-theoretical renormalization group (RG) framework, and show that the fixed point structure of RG flow diagram separates regular, critical and chaotic dynamics. (paper)

  14. Temporal Intermittency of Energy Dissipation in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheet-like coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space/astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events", responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power law index close to -1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signatu...

  15. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experiments is presented using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e+e- annihilation data. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the intermittency strength on the target and projectile nuclei. A 1-dimensional (1D) cellular-automaton and a 1D forest-fire model is studied. On the example of the noncritical 1D Ising model the difficulties of the scaled factorial moment (SFM) method in extracting genuine scaling behaviour is illustrated. All these studies could serve as tools to test the sensibility of the SFM method as used in the analysis of the high energy production. (K.A.) 122 refs.; 38 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Intermittency in Fractal Fourier Hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension $D$. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing $D$. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction ($D \\lesssim 1$) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original non-decimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for $D <1$ and a quasi-singular transition from the fully intermittent ($D=1$) to the non-intermittent case for $D \\lesssim 1$. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes.

  17. Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm: Photoefficiency and biomass production under intermittent lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toninelli, Andrea Efrem; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Mingshen; Wu, Hong; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of intermittent lighting on the growth performances of a Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm. Flashing light effect (FLE) is common in traditional suspended cultures of microalgae; yet, publications about this phenomenon, in the context of biofilm cultivation, are scarce. In this work we demonstrate that, thanks to intermittent illumination, it is possible for attached cultivations to fulfill FLE, improve photoefficiency and productivity as well as providing protection from photoinhibition using much lower flashing light frequencies than those usually required with suspended cultures. Medium frequency intermittent lighting (0.1 Hz) guaranteed excellent light integration resulting in 9.13 g m(-2) d(-1) biomass productivity, which was 8.9% higher than with continuous lighting. Results showed that a light fraction value of 0.5 always improved photoefficiency values as related to continuous light with a 118.8% maximum increase. PMID:27561323

  18. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  19. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s without significantly decreasing the germination rate was obtained at initial moisture content≤ 20.3% along with 20% MOTP. While, if initial moisture content of seeds was ≤ 16.7%, the seeds can be dried more rapidly using MOTP 30% without affecting germination capacity. The results obtained from this study would provide technical basis to select optimal wheat seed processing and design seed drying equipments.

  20. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry;

    2006-01-01

    glycogen, CP, ATP and IMP levels were similar across trials. In conclusion, altered levels of "classical peripheral fatiguing agents" does apparently not explain the reduced capacity for performing repeated sprints following intermittent exercise in the heat, whereas the augmented systemic NH3 response may......Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling......) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following...

  1. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism. PMID:26902078

  2. Intermittent spray cooling: A new technology for controlling surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, intermittent spray cooling is proposed as a new technological concept to remove heat fluxes with good performance and introduce the potential use of advanced control techniques in the development of thermal management systems. The objective of this research work is to provide further insight into the physics involved in the heat transfer process triggered by the impact of an intermittent spray, and further investigate the effects of injection system parameters, such as the frequency of injection, pulse duration, initial wall temperature, pressure of injection and impingement distance, on the intermittent cooling system's performance. The results include a brief description of the spray intermittent behavior, an analysis on its thermal response and an evaluation of its performance. The 'duty cycle', defined as the percentage of the cyclic time during which the cooling liquid is injected, is found to be the main parameter enabling a more accurate control of the cooling process. The experiments reported evidence that small duty cycles promote heat removal by phase-change. With larger duty cycles, the effect of reducing the time lag between consecutive injections is a greater interaction between cycles, eventually leading to the formation of a thin liquid film. As the duty cycle evolves toward the continuous spray condition, the cooling system's thermal response improves, but phase-change is mitigated, affecting the system's performance. Intermittent spray cooling is also compared with continuous spray cooling experiments and liquid savings has been estimated by 10-90% for the same energetic efficiencies reported in the literature. Finally, general guidelines are outlined for the design of thermal management systems based on intermittent spray cooling

  3. Risk Quantification Associated with Wind Energy Intermittency in California

    CERN Document Server

    George, Sam O; Nguyen, Scott V

    2010-01-01

    As compared to load demand, frequent wind energy intermittencies produce large short-term (sub 1-hr to 3-hr) deficits (and surpluses) in the energy supply. These intermittent deficits pose systemic and structural risks that will likely lead to energy deficits that have significant reliability implications for energy system operators and consumers. This work provides a toolset to help policy makers quantify these first-order risks. The thinking methodology / framework shows that increasing wind energy penetration significantly increases the risk of loss in California. In addition, the work presents holistic risk tables as a general innovation to help decision makers quickly grasp the full impact of risk.

  4. Challenges to Cabin Humidity Removal Presented by Intermittent Condensing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonJouanne, Roger G.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    On-orbit temperature and humidity control (THC) is more easily accomplished when the THC hardware is either consistently dry (i.e., no humidity control is occurring), or consistently wet. The system is especially challenged when intermittent wet/dry conditions occur. The first six years of on-orbit ISS operations have revealed specific concerns within the THC system, specifically in the condensing heat exchanger and the downstream air/water separator. Failed or degraded hardware has been returned to ground and investigated. This paper presents the investigation findings, and the recommended hardware and procedural revisions to prevent and recover from the effects of intermittent condensing conditions.

  5. Influence of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Lee J.; Bailey, Stephen J.; Kelly, James; Blackwell, James R.; Vanhatalo, Anni; Andrew M. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the hypothesis that nitrate (NO3 −) supplementation would improve performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise featuring different work and recovery intervals. Method Ten male team-sport players completed high-intensity intermittent cycling tests during separate 5-day supplementation periods with NO3 −-rich beetroot juice (BR; 8.2 mmol NO3 − day−1) and NO3 −-depleted beetroot juice (PL; 0.08 mmol NO3 − day−1). Subjects completed: twenty-four 6-s all-out sp...

  6. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential.

  7. Acute intermittent porphyria associated with respiratory failure: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Gil Cezar, Alkmim-Teixeira; Casarini, Karin Aparecida; Muniz Cordeiro, Kátia Simone; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential. PMID:21687623

  8. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Gil Cezar, Alkmim-Teixeira; Casarini, Karin Aparecida; Muniz Cordeiro, Kátia Simone; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential. PMID:21687623

  9. Intermittent characteristics in coupling between turbulence and zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended application of Gabour's wavelet to bicoherence analysis succeeds in resolving the instantaneous structure of three wave couplings between disparate scale electric field fluctuations in the high temperature core in a toroidal plasma device named the compact helical system. The obtained results quantify an intermittent linkage between turbulence and zonal flows-a highlighted issue in the present plasma research. This is the first demonstration that the intermittent nature of the three wave coupling should underlie the turbulence power modulation due to zonal flows

  10. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  11. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Man S.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central playe...

  12. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile. PMID:25629262

  13. Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, James; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the potential role of electric vehicles in an electricity network with a high contribution from variable generation such as wind power. Electric vehicles are modelled to provide demand management through flexible charging requirements and energy balancing for the network. Balancing applications include both demand balancing and vehicle-to-grid discharging. This study is configured to represent the UK grid with balancing requirements derived from wind generation calculated from weather station wind speeds on the supply side and National Grid data from on the demand side. The simulation models 1000 individual vehicle entities to represent the behaviour of larger numbers of vehicles. A stochastic trip generation profile is used to generate realistic journey characteristics, whilst a market pricing model allows charging and balancing decisions to be based on realistic market price conditions. The simulation has been tested with wind generation capacities representing up to 30% of UK consumption. Results show significant improvements to load following conditions with the introduction of electric vehicles, suggesting that they could substantially facilitate the uptake of intermittent renewable generation. Electric vehicle owners would benefit from flexible charging and selling tariffs, with the majority of revenue derived from vehicle-to-grid participation in balancing markets.

  14. Introduction To Application Server Load Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Pamukumar Swamy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s, everything is going online. And most of the work is done on internet. So, web applications plays vital role on internet to provide 24*7 services to customers. When application becomes popular, traffic to that is also in a state of growing. For availability, scalability, performances boosting more and more servers are required. Load balancing is a key issue in these types of large scale situation. Load balancing is to achieve optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload. In many scenarios, however, it’s not simply a matter of distributing traffic equally across many servers once deploys; other factors can come into play. Here we studied different load balancing strategies, algorithms, methods and investigate the comparative behavior of load balancing with different parameters. The growing autonomy of servers’ significantly deteriorates the performance of traditional load-balancing so; idea is to implement application load balancer by using Dynamic load balancing method.

  15. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  16. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  17. User Demand Aware Grid Scheduling Model with Hierarchical Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a collection of computational and data resources, providing the means to support both computational intensive applications and data intensive applications. In order to improve the overall performance and efficient utilization of the resources, an efficient load balanced scheduling algorithm has to be implemented. The scheduling approach also needs to consider user demand to improve user satisfaction. This paper proposes a dynamic hierarchical load balancing approach which considers load of each resource and performs load balancing. It minimizes the response time of the jobs and improves the utilization of the resources in grid environment. By considering the user demand of the jobs, the scheduling algorithm also improves the user satisfaction. The experimental results show the improvement of the proposed load balancing method.

  18. Possible use of electric cars as balancing instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirez, Andreas; Luickx, Patrick; Woitrin, Dominique

    2010-09-15

    A massive introduction of electric cars is foreseeable in the mid to long term. Implementing a 'vehicle-to-grid' setting makes it possible to use these cars to deliver ancillary services to the electricity system. In this paper, the possibility of delivering active reserves in the Belgian control area is analyzed. We assume one million electric cars that can be connected to the Belgian grid. Based on our simulation, electric cars could be used for delivering all primary, all secondary and part of the tertiary reserves. Using electric cars as a balancing instrument would facilitate absorbing intermittent energy into the electricity system.

  19. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  20. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  1. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to streamflow or...

  2. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to stream flow or...

  3. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  4. Study of drying of small diameter Larch lumbers with intermittent heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming-hui; ZHAO Xi-ping

    2006-01-01

    Intermittent heating for drying of small diameter Larch lumbers is investigated experimentally. The lumbers were dried using an experimental drying schedule. Moisture content (MC) of the lumber was continuously recorded and final drying defects were examined. The drying curves showed that the drying rate was a constant in the early stage of intermittent heating drying and decreased evidently when the MC was about 18% ( intermittent 2h) and 20% (intermittent 6h). The drying quality reached the second (intermittent 2h) and first grade (intermittent 6h) of the Chinese National Standard. The visual drying defects, especially the check extent along grains were reduced with intermittent heating. When the intermittent time increased, the effect was more obvious.

  5. Radial evolution of intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, R; Primavera, L; Pietropaolo, E; D'Amicis, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Carbone, V; Malara, F; Veltri, P

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial evolution of intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between $0.3$ and $0.9$ AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different time scales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with distance from the Sun, at odds with intermittency of both magnetic field and all the other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process....

  6. Impacts of Urbanization and Intermittent Flow on Macroinvertebrates in Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent Supreme Court cases have brought increased attention to the contribution of intermittent waters to the health of downstream ecosystems. However, there is still limited knowledge on what factors are shaping these frequently disturbed intermittent stream communities. The obj...

  7. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  8. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  9. Serum bilirubin kinetics in intermittent phototherapy of physiological jaundice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, S. P.; Fung, K P

    1984-01-01

    Thirty four term babies with physiological jaundice were subjected to continuous phototherapy and to two regimens of intermittent phototherapy. The difference in serum bilirubin kinetics between the three groups of treated babies was insignificant; a schedule of one in four hours of irradiation achieved the same treatment effect as continuous phototherapy.

  10. Intermittent Versus Continuous Phototherapy for Reducing Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoo Niknafs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical studies comparing intermittent versus continuous phototherapy for reducing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have produced conflicting results. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of intermittent with continuous phototherapy. Methods: This study was performed on 114 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Inclusion criteria were body weight above 2000 grams, absence of other concomitant diseases, and hyperbilirubinemia neither requiring intensive phototherapy nor exceeding the range of exchange transfusion. The neonates were randomly divided into two groups. Continuous phototherapy group received phototherapy on and off for 2 hours and half an hour respectively and the intermittent phototherapy group on and off for one hour. The phototherapy units were identical and serum total bilirubin levels were measured every 12 hours after starting phototherapy. Findings: Two groups were matched regarding weight and risk factors such as ABO and Rh incompatibility. The difference of total serum bilirubin levels between two groups was insignificant at the start of phototherapy and also after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours (P>0.2.Conclusion: Intermittent phototherapy defined as one hour on and one hour off is as effective as continuous phototherapy defined as 2 hours on and half an hour off, in reducing total serum bilirubin level in full term babies.

  11. Critical exponents of directed percolation measured in spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Peter; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    A new experimental system showing a transition to spatiotemporal intermittency is presented. It consists of a ring of hundred oscillating ferrofluidic spikes. Four of five of the measured critical exponents of the system agree with those obtained from a theoretical model of directed percolation.

  12. Why and how to normalize the factorial moments of intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normalization of factorial moments of intermittency, which is often the subject of controverses, is justified and (re-)derived from the general assumption of multi-Poissonian statistical noise in the production of particles at high-energy. Correction factors for the horizontal vs. Vertical analyses are derived in general cases, including the factorial multi-bin correlation moments

  13. Intermittency in multihadron production: An analysis using stochastic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiplicity data of the NA22, KLM, and UA1 collaborations are analysed by means of probability distributions derived in the framework of pure birth stochastic equations. The intermittent behaviour of the KLM and UA1 data is well reproduced by the theory. A comparison with the negative binomial distribution is also made. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Authors)

  14. Intermittent breeding as a cost of site fidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent breeding (skipping a breeding season) can be the result of an adaptive decision by a focal individual, trading current reproductive success in favour of future reproductive success (residual reproductive value hypothesis). In contrast, an individual can also be forced by conspecifics to

  15. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B;

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in improving walking capacity and health-related quality of life for people with intermittent claudication. DATASOURCES: We searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and relevant websites for studies published from the start of the...

  16. Two-scale analysis of intermittency in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A self-affinity test for turbulent time series is applied to experimental data for the estimation of intermittency exponents. The method employs exact relations satisfied by joint expectations of observables computed across two different length scales. One of these constitutes a verification tool for the existence and the extent of the inertial range. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs.

  17. Post- Partum Acute Intermittent Porphyria - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Tomar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrias are inherited disorders, each involving a specific enzyme in heme biosynthetic pathways. Acute intermittent porphyria, one of the hepatic porphyria is the most severe form of the disease, with gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Proper management will dramatically improve the outcome in this otherwise debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease.

  18. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Deep Kaur; Nita Hazarika; Namita Saraswat; Rajesh Sood

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed.

  19. Post- Partum Acute Intermittent Porphyria - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Tomar; Ashish Sethi; TC Kriplani; Neeraj Narang

    2010-01-01

    Porphyrias are inherited disorders, each involving a specific enzyme in heme biosynthetic pathways. Acute intermittent porphyria, one of the hepatic porphyria is the most severe form of the disease, with gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Proper management will dramatically improve the outcome in this otherwise debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease.

  20. Optimizing supervised exercise therapy for patients with intermittent claudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaï, Saskia P A; Hendriks, Erik J M; Prins, Martin H; Teijink, Joep A W; van Asselt, Thea

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first-line intervention for intermittent claudication is usually supervised exercise therapy (SET). The literature describes a range of exercise programs varying in setting, duration, and content. The purpose of the present study was to examine the exercise protocols offered and to i

  1. Chronic Salmonella eimsbuettel septicaemia presenting with intermittent sweats and haematuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowes, J A; Clark, A J; Britten, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    An unusual presentation is reported of salmonellosis, frank haematuria and chronic septicaemia arising during an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella eimsbuettel. The patient whose gut was colonized gave a history of chronic pyrexia and weight loss and suffered an intermittent urinary infection but had no gastroenteritis.

  2. Giant urethral stone in a patient using clean intermittant catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Gedik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stone is a rare entity in clinical practice. Primary urethral stone happening directly in urethra is even rare, and it usually occurs as a result frequent urinary infection, urethral stricture and trauma.While the application of clear intermittant catheterization reliably protects bladder function, in long term use, it may cause various complications.In this case, we discussed giant urethral stone in a patient who has been acting clean intermittent catheterization regularly and without problem fort he last five years and who has had total loss of sensation in this lower extremity as a result of falling from height. Considering that the urethral calibration, in the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization is interesting, the giant urethra stone as much as examined such a case has not been presented in literature.In the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization and having loss of urethral sensation and with neurogenic bladder, we call attention to urethral pathologies the symptoms of which were seeing late

  3. Teaching Intermittent Self-Catheterization Skills to Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowski, Kenneth J.; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    In an A-B design with replication, the efficacy of a behavioral training program for teaching two mildly retarded six-year-old children intermittent self-catheterization skills was demonstrated. Component skills were task-analyzed and trained via a graduated prompting procedure. (Author/DB)

  4. Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability of Intermittently-usedRepairable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rajpal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A composite measure comprising linear combination of reliability, availability, andmaintainability (CMRAM is proposed for an intermittently-used complex repairable system,namely a transport helicopter. The failure data are fitted in Weibull distribution for overlappingintervals of operating time to capture the effect of recent maintenance and other actions. Evaluationof CMRAM is helpful in formulating future operational and maintenance strategies.

  5. Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability of Intermittently-usedRepairable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Rajpal; K.S. Shishodia; G.S. Sekhon

    2007-01-01

    A composite measure comprising linear combination of reliability, availability, andmaintainability (CMRAM) is proposed for an intermittently-used complex repairable system,namely a transport helicopter. The failure data are fitted in Weibull distribution for overlappingintervals of operating time to capture the effect of recent maintenance and other actions. Evaluationof CMRAM is helpful in formulating future operational and maintenance strategies.

  6. Transition to turbulence, intermittence, and fluctuation in vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that the mechanism of coalescence of the vortices is decisive in turbulent flows with moderately large Reynolds numbers irrespective of the number of dimensions. A comparison of the calculations of this study with experimental data shows that the flows remain transitional (intermittent) up to very large values of the Reynolds number

  7. Intermittent activity of radio sources. Accretion instabilities and jet precession

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Janiuk, A.; Siemiginowska, A.; Gawronski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radiation pressure instability operating on short timescales 10^3 - 10^6 years in the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole as the origin of the intermittent activity of radio sources. We test whether this instability can be responsible for short ages (

  8. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  9. From quantum fields to fractal structures: intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some features and theoretical interpretations of the intermittency phenomenon observed in high-energy multi-particle production are recalled. One develops on the various connections found with fractal structuration of fluctuations in turbulence, spin-glass physics and aggregation phenomena described by the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. This may lead to a new approach to quantum field properties

  10. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  11. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on arcuate nucleus in the leptin-deficient rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, John; Moreau, Jason M; McCoy, Aaron; Jones, Douglas L

    2016-07-28

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major pathophysiological consequence of obstructive sleep apnea. Recently, it has been shown that IH results in changes in body energy balance, leptin secretion and concomitant alterations in arcuate nucleus (ARC). In this study, the role of leptin on these changes was investigated in leptin-deficient rats exposed to IH or normoxic control conditions. Body weights, consumatory and locomotor behaviours, and protein signaling in ARC were assessed immediately after IH exposure. Compared to normoxia, IH altered body weight, food intake, locomotor pattern, and the plasma concentration of leptin and angiotensin II in the wild-type rat. However, these changes were not observed in the leptin-deficient rat. Within ARC of wild-type animals, IH increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and pro-opiomelanocortin protein expression, but not in the leptin-deficient rat. The long-form leptin receptor protein expression was not altered following IH in either rat strain. These data suggest that leptin is involved in mediating the alterations to body energy balance and ARC activity following IH. PMID:27222924

  12. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  13. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  14. DEMAND CATEGORISATION, FORECASTING, AND INVENTORY CONTROL FOR INTERMITTENT DEMAND ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Babiloni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is commonly assumed that intermittent demand appears randomly, with many periods without demand; but that when it does appear, it tends to be higher than unit size. Basic and well-known forecasting techniques and stock policies perform very poorly with intermittent demand, making new approaches necessary. To select the appropriate inventory management policy, it is important to understand the demand pattern for the items, especially when demand is intermittent. The use of a forecasting method designed for an intermittent demand pattern, such as Croston’s method, is required instead of a simpler and more common approach such as exponential smoothing. The starting point is to establish taxonomic rules to select efficiently the most appropriate forecasting and stock control policy to cope with thousands of items found in real environments. This paper contributes to the state of the art in: (i categorisation of the demand pattern; (ii methods to forecast intermittent demand; and (iii stock control methods for items with intermittent demand patterns. The paper first presents a structured literature review to introduce managers to the theoretical research about how to deal with intermittent demand items in both forecasting and stock control methods, and then it points out some research gaps for future development for the three topics.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat intermitterende vraag op toevalswyse voorkom, met verskeie periodes waar daar geen vraag is nie. Wanneer die vraag dan wel materialiseer, oorskry dit dikwels die eenheidsgrootte. Die bekende vooruitskattingstegnieke en voorraadbeleidstellings het min sukses waar intermitterende vraag voorkom, sodat nuwe benaderings nodig is om die problem aan te spreek. Om ‘n geskikte voorraadbestuur-beleid te selekteer, is dit noodsaaklik om die vraagpatroon van die items te verstaan, juis in gevalle van intermitterende patrone. Die gebruik van

  15. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B;

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication.......Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication....

  16. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust and...... control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves an...... ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control. The...

  17. Mass balance myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an oil spill at sea, remediation technologies rely on oil spill monitoring and mass balance calculations. The types of oil spills that require knowledge of mass-balance include weathering studies, dispersant-effectiveness testing, measurement of response effectiveness and damage assessment. Non-destructive and non-interfering measuring methods are needed to find components of the mass balance equation such as temporal and spatial distribution of the oil thickness, and the temporal and spatial distribution of oil concentration in the sub-surface plume. The main challenge is the variation in the size scale of laboratory and open ocean measurements. Most large scale oil-spill experiments do not have scientific credibility because there are few situations in which all the oil in the system is accounted for. While some components are accurately accounted for, others ignore mass balance, or the range of measurements is not sufficient to allow for computation of mass balance. 48 refs

  18. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 336 consecutive patients (189 men and 147 women) who were imaged between June 1 and June 17, 2010 and who had prior comparison scans. Readers recorded the presence or absence of an intermittently upturned omentum, defined as a thick rind of fat interposed between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall seen on one but not the other scan. At chart review, we recorded patient demographics and other clinical characteristics (prior surgical history, presence of cirrhosis). Results: An intermittently upturned omentum was found in 10 of 336 (3.0%) patients. An intermittently upturned omentum was seen more commonly in men than in women (9 of 189 men, or 4.8% versus 1 of 147 women, or 0.7%, p = 0.047) and in cirrhotics (4 of 37 cirrhotics, or 10.8% versus 6 of 299 non-cirrhotics, or 2.0%, p = 0.023). In a sub-analysis of patients without prior abdominal surgery, this finding was again seen more commonly in men than women (7 of 163 men, or 4.3% versus 0 of 134 women, or 0%, p = 0.018) and in cirrhotics (3 of 33 cirrhotics, or 9.1% versus 4 of 264 non-cirrhotics, or 1.5%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: An intermittently upturned omentum is not uncommon and is more frequently seen in men and in patients with cirrhosis who may have a larger anterior hepatic space

  19. The influence of continuous and intermittent traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of road traffic noise on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to noise with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic noise of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent noise of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic noise. For one noise condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the noise peaks from the background, rather than the absolute noise peak level. Continuous traffic noise of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the noise dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum noise level, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.

  20. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  1. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  2. Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabali, Amirsaman

    The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation

  3. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  4. The Role of Meteorological Forecasting in Quantifying the Carbon Emissions Associated with Highly Intermittent Renewable Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    A new model is proposed for carbon emissions assessments of systems with very high penetrations of intermittent renewables. Our approach combines a deterministic portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the conventional dispatchable generating capacity required to meet a reliability constraint. Least-cost scheduling optimizations utilize day-ahead wind speed, irradiance, and load forecasts, while real-time dispatch relies on simple statistical models of forecast errors that maintain historical geographical and temporal correlations. The model includes treatments of intermittent generators including wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as conventional generators including natural gas, hydroelectric, and geothermal plants. Results are presented from a model run of the years 2005 and 2006 with wind speed data from the Western Wind Resources Database (WWRD), irradiance data from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), hydroelectric discharge data from California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and load data from the California ISO. The resulting portfolio is capable of meeting the California ISO load over the simulation period with an 80% reduction in electric power sector carbon emissions, while also meeting a loss of load expectation of 1 day in 10 years. With this portfolio, over 99% of the annual load can be met with non-carbon-based generation and all of the instantaneous demand can be met with non-carbon-based sources in 97% of the hours in the Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggest that further reductions in carbon emissions may be achieved with emerging technologies that can reliably provide large capacities without necessarily providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage.

  5. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  6. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  7. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W;

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance are in their...... of energy balance....

  8. Noise-induced phase transition in the model of human virtual stick balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    Humans face the task of balancing dynamic systems near an unstable equilibrium repeatedly throughout their lives. Much research has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms of intermittent control in the context of human balance control. The present paper deals with one of the recent developments in the theory of human intermittent control, namely, the double-well model of noise-driven control activation. We demonstrate that the double-well model can reproduce the whole range of experimentally observed distributions under different conditions. Moreover, we show that a slight change in the noise intensity parameter leads to a sudden shift of the action point distribution shape, that is, a phase transition is observed.

  9. Refined critical balance in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2015-04-01

    We present numerical evidence that in strong Alfvénic turbulence, the critical balance principle - equality of the non-linear decorrelation and linear propagation times - is scale invariant, in the sense that the probability distribution of the ratio of these times is independent of scale. This result only holds if the local alignment of the Elsasser fields is taken into account in calculating the non-linear time. At any given scale, the degree of alignment is found to increase with fluctuation amplitude, supporting the idea that the cause of alignment is mutual dynamical shearing of Elsasser fields. The scale-invariance of critical balance (while all other quantities of interest are strongly intermittent, i.e. have scale-dependent distributions) suggests that it is the most robust of the scaling principles used to describe Alfvénic turbulence. The quality afforded by situ fluctuation measurements in the solar wind allows for direct verification of this fundamental principle.

  10. A LOAD BALANCING MODEL USING FIREFLY ALGORITHM IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paulin Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a model that points at streamlining the on-demand provisioning of software, hardware and data as services and providing end-users with flexible and scalable services accessible through the Internet. The main objective of the proposed approach is to maximize the resource utilization and provide a good balanced load among all the resources in cloud servers. Initially, a load model of every resource will be derived based on several factors such as, memory usage, processing time and access rate. Based on the newly derived load index, the current load will be computed for all the resources shared in virtual machine of cloud servers. Once the load index is computed for all the resources, load balancing operation will be initiated to effectively use the resources dynamically with the process of assigning resources to the corresponding node to reduce the load value. So, assigning of resources to proper nodes is an optimal distribution problem so that many optimization algorithms such as genetic algorithm and modified genetic algorithm are utilized for load balancing. These algorithms are not much effective in providing the neighbour solutions since it does not overcome exploration and exploration problem. So, utilizing the effective optimization procedure instead of genetic algorithm can lead to better load balancing since it is a traditional and old algorithm. Accordingly, I have planned to utilize a recent optimization algorithm, called firefly algorithm to do the load balancing operation in our proposed work. At first, the index table will be maintained by considering the availability of virtual servers and sequence of request. Then, load index will be computed based on the newly derived formulae. Based on load index, load balancing operation will be carried out using firefly algorithm. The performance analysis produced expected results and thus proved the proposed approach is efficient in optimizing schedules by balancing the

  11. Synthesis of Intermittent-Motion Linkages with Slight Difference in Length Between Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bo; YU Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The design of intermittent-motion linkages using traditional methods iS usually complicated.In this paper,(1)a new method for realizing intermittent motion,using linkages with a slight difference in length between links,is studied;(2)some new types of intermittent-motion linkages and their software for visual analysis and design are developed;and(3)influences of some design parameters on intermittent.motion characteristics are clarifled.Results confirmed that the theory and the software are useful,making the synthesis of intermittent-motion linkages clear and easy.

  12. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  13. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  14. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  15. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.)

  16. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  17. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  18. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  19. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  20. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  1. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  2. On the intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; 10.1063/1.2711429

    2009-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behaviour has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field.

  3. Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.;

    2005-01-01

    Numerical fluid simulations of interchange turbulence for geometry and parameters relevant to the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas are shown to result in intermittent transport qualitatively similar to recent experimental measurements. The two-dimensional simulation domain features...... a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge...... formation of blob structures is thus related to profile variations, which are here triggered in a quasiperiodic manner by a global dynamical regulation due to the self-sustained sheared flows. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Methodological foundations for physical rehabilitation of patients on intermittent asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigus I.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to improve the physical rehabilitation of patients with intermittent bronchial asthma exacerbation by applying the pathogenetic modes of physical activity and a range of physical therapeutic factors. A total of 70 patients with intermittent asthma in the acute stage. In the hospital carried out a specific program of physical rehabilitation, including the modified methods of therapeutic physical culture and physiotherapy facilities. The use of physical rehabilitation resulted in a reduction of assault period of the disease, significantly improved the physical performance of patients. In all cases of physical rehabilitation program achieved full control of the disease, significantly improves the quality of life of patients, did not occur in the treatment of patients with only medicines.

  5. Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten; Dotzauer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops, implements, and applies a mathematical model for economic unit dispatch for a novel cogeneration concept (CHP-HP-FG-CS (CHP with compression heat pump and cold storage using flue gas heat)) that increases the plant’s operational flexibility. The CHP-HP-FG-CS concept is a high-efficiency...... and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as...... cogeneration plant. It is found that CHP-HP-FG-CS offers significant reductions in fuel consumption (−8.9%) and operational production costs (−11.4%). The plant’s fuel-to-energy efficiency increases from 88.9 to 95.5%, which is state-of-the-art. The plant’s intermittency-friendliness coefficient Rc improves...

  6. Intermittency in fractal Fourier hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-03-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension D. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing D. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction (D ≲ 1) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original nondecimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for D < 1 and a quasisingular transition from the fully intermittent (D=1) to the nonintermittent case for D ≲ 1. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes. PMID:27078449

  7. Tissue-specific splicing mutation in acute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inherited deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase in humans is responsible for the autosomal dominant disease acute intermittent porphyria. Different classes of mutations have been described at the protein level suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disease. It was previously demonstrated that porphobilinogen deaminase is encoded by two distinct mRNA species expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Analysis of the genomic sequences indicated that these two mRNAs are transcribed from two promoters and only differ in their first exon. The first mutation identified in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene is a single-base substitution (G → A) in the canonical 5' splice donor site of intron 1. This mutation leads to a particular subtype of acute intermittent porphyria characterized by the restriction of the enzymatic defect to nonerythropoietic tissues. Hybridization analysis using olignonucleotide probes after in vitro amplification of genomic DNA offers another possibility of detecting asymptomatic carriers of the mutation in affected families

  8. Tissue-specific splicing mutation in acute intermittent porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandchamp, B.; Picat, C. (Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Paris (France)); Mignotte, V.; Romeo, P.H.; Goossens, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Creteil (France)); Wilson, J.H.P.; Sandkuyl, L. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Te Velde, K. (Saint Geertruiden Hospital, Deventer (Netherlands)); Nordmann, Y. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France))

    1989-01-01

    An inherited deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase in humans is responsible for the autosomal dominant disease acute intermittent porphyria. Different classes of mutations have been described at the protein level suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disease. It was previously demonstrated that porphobilinogen deaminase is encoded by two distinct mRNA species expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Analysis of the genomic sequences indicated that these two mRNAs are transcribed from two promoters and only differ in their first exon. The first mutation identified in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene is a single-base substitution (G {yields} A) in the canonical 5{prime} splice donor site of intron 1. This mutation leads to a particular subtype of acute intermittent porphyria characterized by the restriction of the enzymatic defect to nonerythropoietic tissues. Hybridization analysis using olignonucleotide probes after in vitro amplification of genomic DNA offers another possibility of detecting asymptomatic carriers of the mutation in affected families.

  9. Ensuring patient adherence to clean intermittent self-catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth JH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jai H Seth, Collette Haslam, Jalesh N Panicker Department of Uro-Neurology, University College London Institute of Neurology and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK Abstract: Patient performance of clean intermittent self-catheterization is a crucial component of the management of incomplete bladder emptying, which can arise from a variety of conditions. This allows patients to have more control over their bladder emptying, and avoids the inconveniences that come with an indwelling urethral catheter. There are, however, barriers that patients face when performing this task which may ultimately limit adherence. In this article, these barriers are discussed in more detail with potential solutions to counter them. Keywords: clean intermittent self-catheterization, catheters, barriers, compliance, adherence

  10. Continuous use of intermittent bladder catheterization - can social support contribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoyre Anne Lindozo Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors affecting the adequate continuous use of intermittent catheterization and its relation with social support.METHOD: sectional, descriptive and correlational study involving 49 patients with neuropathic bladder caused by spinal cord injury.RESULTS: almost all (92% participants continued the intermittent catheterization, but 46.9% made some changes in the technique. The complications (28.6% of the sample were mainly infection and vesicolithiasis. There were high scores for social support in relation to people that were part of the patient's social support.CONCLUSION: All of them noticed great support from the family, but not from the society in general. The difficulties were related to the lack of equipment and inadequate infrastructure, leading to changes that increased urologic complications.

  11. Intermittent-flow coefficients of a poppet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, C D

    1939-01-01

    Flow coefficients were determined for the inlet valve of a modern air-cooled cylinder during operation of the valve. The cylinder head with valves was mounted on a large tank that could be evacuated. Operating the valve with a rotating cam allowed air to flow through the valve into the evacuated tank. The change of pressure in the tank was a measure of the amount of air flowing though the valve in a given number of cycles. The flow coefficients were determined from the pressure across the valve, the quantity of air flowing, and the valve-lift curve. Coefficients were measured with lifts of 0.1 to 0.6 inch and speeds of 130 to 1,200 r.p.m. The results obtained with intermittent flow were compared with the results of tests made with steady flow through this cylinder head. This comparison indicated that steady-flow coefficients can be used for intermittent flow.

  12. Intermittency and correlations in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Hoch, M; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    A multidimensional study of local multiplicity fluctuations and multiparticle correlations of hadrons produced in Z decays is performed. The study is based on the data sample of more than 4 million events recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The fluctuations and correlations are analysed in terms of the normalized scaled factorial moments and cumulants up to the fifth order. The moments are observed to have intermittency-like behaviour, which is found to be more pronounced with increasing dimension. The large data sample allows for the first time a study of the factorial cumulants in e+e- annihilation. The analysis of the cumulants shows the existence of genuine multiparticle correlations with a strong intermittency rise up to higher orders. These correlations are found to be stronger in higher dimensions. The decomposition of the factorial moments into lower-order correlations that the dynamical fluctuations have important contributions from genuine many-particle correlations. The Monte Carlo models JETSE...

  13. Intermittency in an optomechanical cavity near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchoi, Oren; Ella, Lior; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally study an optomechanical cavity consisting of an oscillating mechanical resonator embedded in a superconducting microwave transmission line cavity. Tunable optomechanical coupling between the mechanical resonator and the microwave cavity is introduced by positioning a niobium-coated single-mode optical fiber above the mechanical resonator. The capacitance between the mechanical resonator and the coated fiber gives rise to optomechanical coupling, which can be controlled by varying the fiber-resonator distance. We study radiation-pressure-induced self-excited oscillation as a function of microwave driving parameters (frequency and power). Intermittency between limit-cycle and steady-state behaviors is observed with blue-detuned driving frequency. The experimental results are accounted for by a model that takes into account the Duffing-like nonlinearity of the microwave cavity. A stability analysis reveals a subcritical Hopf bifurcation near the region where intermittency is observed.

  14. A search of the 'Wow' locale for intermittent radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1977 a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at Ohio State University (OSU) recorded a strong signal near the 21-cm hydrogen line, which displayed several characteristics that might be expected of a candidate interstellar radio signal. This event was not repeatable with the OSC meridian transit radio telescope but could have been due to an intermittent source, which would be difficult to reobserve with a transit instrument. This article reports a search for the OSU signal using the fully steerable Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m radio telescope, tracking for up to 4 hr at a time to improve the chances of detecting an intermittent source. Despite higher sensitivity and longer cumulative observations, no signals resembling the OSU event were found.

  15. The constraints imposed to European grids by intermittent electricity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittent renewables, such as solar or wind energy, induce additional difficulties for the transmission and distribution network management. The renewable electricity injected into the grid results in lower prices on the spot electricity market. Such a situation has both advantages and drawbacks for the end-user. The industrial consumer will partly benefit from a lower market price, whereas at the same time subsidies paid by the domestic consumer will be higher. The additional cost associated with intermittent electricity amounts to the difference between the purchase price paid to the producers of the renewable electricity (feed-in-tariffs) and the selling price on the day-ahead market With lower spot prices the difference increases. Consequently the generous subsidies to renewables due to the FIT System should be cut and a new energy policy to promote renewables must be implemented within the European Union. A common management of the European networks may largely contribute to improve the system. (author)

  16. S-SPRAY ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramesh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks (ICMN is a disconnected mobile network where a complete connectivity never exists. The intermittent connectivity is due to the dense nature of the network. The dense nature is mainly due to the high mobility of the nodes in the network. Routing in such a sparse network is arduous. Due to the disconnected attribute of the network, the encounter of the suspicious nodes in the network also remains a tedious task. In this paper, we put forward a secure routing that aids in detecting and preventing intrusion of malicious nodes. The routing process is made adorable through Spray and Wait (SNW. Since ICMN is prompt to higher delays certain authentication series are used to enable secure communication within the network. The amalgamation of SNW with authentication series leads a novel routing protocol named S-Spray (Secured-Spray which is highly secure.

  17. Prolapsed bilateral ureteroceles leading to intermittent outflow obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2012-02-01

    A ureterocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with a duplex system in some cases. We present an unusual case where a young patient was found to have large bilateral ureteroceles which prolapsed into the urethra, causing intermittent incontinence and obstruction. We discuss the case and review the literature concerning this rare anomaly.

  18. Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain – acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Mislav Klobučić; Duška Šklebar; Renata Ivanac; Dragica Vrabec Matković; Anita Jug-Klobučić; Ivan Šklebar

    2011-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominatedby a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-fi- ve-year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days be...

  19. Low Dose Intermittent Isotretinoin Therapy in Moderate Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Belçın İzol; Emel Bülbül Başkan; Zübeyde Başar; Şükran Tunalı; Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficiency and side effects of intermittent low dose isotretinoin therapy in moderate acne. Materials and Methods: Patients followed up at our acne outpatient clinic between September 2007 and April 2009 were evaluated. Those treated with 20 mg/day isotretinoin three times a week were included in the study. Relevant data were recorded from patient files. We recorded the age and weight of the cases, duration of acne, previous treatments, ac...

  20. Intermittent ion trajectories and focusing in spherical inertial electromagnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of spherical magnetic electrostatic confinement fusion is analyzed. Magnetic field lines in spherical cusps provide a chaotic scattering system that improves the ion focusing due to synergetic effect of intermittent ion trajectories. Confined ions are bounced within electrostatic well reflecting from magnetic barriers shaped by convex field lines. The concept offers a means of enhancing ion reactivity provided by caustic formation that are resulted from an intersection of ion orbits within confinement volume. Parameters of the experimental device are estimated. (author)

  1. Intermittent recombinant TSH injections prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Li; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Yang, Guozhe; Sendak, Rebecca; McPherson, John; Zhu, Ling-ling; Iqbal, Jameel; Latif, Rauf; Natrajan, Arjun; Arabi, Ario; Yamoah, Kosj; Moonga, Baljit S.; Gabet, Yankel; Davies, Terry F.

    2008-01-01

    We recently described the direct effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on bone and suggested that the bone loss in hyperthyroidism, hitherto attributed solely to elevated thyroid hormone levels, could at least in part arise from accompanying decrements in serum TSH. Recent studies on both mice and human subjects provide compelling evidence that thyroid hormones and TSH have the opposite effects on the skeleton. Here, we show that TSH, when injected intermittently into rodents, even at ...

  2. The experience of aggressive outbursts in intermittent explosive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kulper, Daniel A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Berman, Mitchell E.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualizations of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) have suffered from a scarcity of research investigating the subjective experience and phenomenology of the aggressive outbursts among those with IED relative to those who partake in more normative forms of aggression. Furthermore, though some studies have shown that individuals with IED are more impaired and have a poorer quality of life, few studies looked at negative outcomes specific to an individual with IED’s aggressive behavior...

  3. Intermittent control models of human standing: similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Two architectures of intermittent control are compared and contrasted in the context of the single inverted pendulum model often used for describing standing in humans. The architectures are similar insofar as they use periods of open-loop control punctuated by switching events when crossing a switching surface to keep the system state trajectories close to trajectories leading to equilibrium. The architectures differ in two significant ways. Firstly, in one case, the open-loop control trajec...

  4. Functional independence measure in patients with intermittent claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Shihara de Assis; Letícia de Carvalho Batista; Nelson Wolosker; Antonio Eduardo Zerati; Rita de Cassia Gengo e Silva

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOBJECTIVEOf this study were to evaluate the functional independence of patients with intermittent claudication and to verify its association with sociodemographic and clinical variables, walking ability and physical activity level.METHODThis was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Fifty participants (66.4 years; 68% male) were recruited from Claudication Unit of a tertiary hospital. Functional Independence Measure were used to evaluate funct...

  5. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  6. Intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in a liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Brian J [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Habelitz, Stefan [Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States)], E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: sergei2@ornl.gov

    2009-05-13

    Probing electromechanical coupling in biological systems and electroactive molecules requires high resolution functional imaging. Here, we investigate the feasibility of intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy based on simultaneous mechanical and electrical probe modulation. It is shown that imaging at frequencies corresponding to the first contact resonance in liquid allows contrast consistent with the electromechanical signal to be obtained for model ferroelectric systems and piezoelectric tooth dentin.

  7. Intermittent-contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Brian J [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Habelitz, S. [University of California, San Francisco; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Probing electromechanical coupling in biological systems and electroactive molecules requires high-resolution imaging. Here, we investigate the feasibility of intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy based on simultaneous mechanical and electrical probe modulation. It is shown that the combination of (a) imaging at frequencies corresponding to the first contact resonance in (b) liquid allows contrast consistent with electromechanical signal to be obtained on model ferroelectric perovskites and tooth dentin.

  8. Intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy in a liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Habelitz, S. [University of California, San Francisco; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Probing electromechanical coupling in biological systems and electroactive molecules requires high resolution functional imaging. Here, we investigate the feasibility of intermittent contact mode piezoresponse force microscopy based on simultaneous mechanical and electrical probe modulation. It is shown that imaging at frequencies corresponding to the first contact resonance in liquid allows contrast consistent with the electromechanical signal to be obtained for model ferroelectric systems and piezoelectric tooth dentin

  9. Intermittent Jolts of Galactic UV Radiation: Mutagenetic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Scalo, John M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Williams, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of intermittent hypermutation events and disruptions of planetary/satellite photochemistry due to ultraviolet radiation from core collapse supernova explosions. Calculations are presented for planetary systems in the local Milky Way, including the important moderating effects of vertical Galactic structure and UV absorption by interstellar dust. The events are particularly frequent for satellites of giant gas planets at \\gtrsim 5-10 AU distance from solar-type parent...

  10. Consensus of Multiagent Networks with Intermittent Interaction and Directed Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent interaction control is introduced to solve the consensus problem for second-order multiagent networks due to the limited sensing abilities and environmental changes periodically. And, we get some sufficient conditions for the agents to reach consensus with linear protocol from the theoretical findings by using the Lyapunov control approach. Finally, the validity of the theoretical results is validated through the numerical example.

  11. Spinal Plasticity following Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Spinal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dale-Nagle, Erica A.; Hoffman, Michael S.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity is a fundamental property of the neural system controlling breathing. One frequently studied model of respiratory plasticity is long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). pLTF arises from spinal plasticity, increasing respiratory motor output through a mechanism that requires new synthesis of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and extracellular...

  12. Merit order effect and strategic investments in intermittent generation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Concettini

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the strategic interactions between two electricity generators, the first producing with a \\traditional" technology and the second employing a \\renewable" technology characterized by the random availability of capacity due to the intermittency of its power source. The competition between the \\traditional" and the \\renewable" power producers is examined through a modified version of the two stage Dixit model for entry deterrence (Dixit, 1980) with Cournot competition in the p...

  13. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mark P Mattson; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on ...

  14. Forecasting the Intermittent Demand for Slow-Moving Items

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Ord; Ralph Snyder; Adrian Beaumont

    2010-01-01

    Organizations with large-scale inventory systems typically have a large proportion of items for which demand is intermittent and low volume. We examine different approaches to forecasting for such products, paying particular attention to the need for inventory planning over a multi-period lead-time when the underlying process may be nonstationary. This emphasis leads to consideration of prediction distributions for processes with time-dependent parameters. A wide range of possible distributio...

  15. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan: does it affect sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Almushailhi, Khalid; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Sharif, Munir M

    2014-02-01

    Islamic intermittent fasting is distinct from regular voluntary or experimental fasting. We hypothesised that if a regimen of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake is followed during intermittent fasting, the effects of fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness will be minimal. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of Islamic intermittent fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness. Eight healthy volunteers reported to the Sleep Disorders Centre on five occasions for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests: (1) during adaptation; (2) 3 weeks before Ramadan, after having performed Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting); (3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline); (4) 2 weeks into Ramadan (Ramadan); and (5) 2 weeks after Ramadan (non-fasting; Recovery). Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the multiple sleep latency test. The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years, a body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg m(-2) and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 7.3 ± 2.7. There was no change in weight or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the four study periods. The rapid eye movement sleep percentage was significantly lower during fasting. There was no difference in sleep latency, non-rapid eye movement sleep percentage, arousal index and sleep efficiency. The multiple sleep latency test analysis revealed no difference in the sleep latency between the 'non-fasting baseline', 'baseline fasting', 'Ramadan' and 'Recovery' time points. Under conditions of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake, Islamic intermittent fasting results in decreased rapid eye movement sleep with no impact on other sleep stages, the arousal index or daytime sleepiness. PMID:23937329

  16. Intermittent fluctuations in the TCV scrape-off layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, O.E.; Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2015), 062002-062002. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : scrape-off layer * fluctuations * turbulence * plasma-wall interactions * tcv * intermittency * transport Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/55/6/062002/pdf/0029-5515_55_6_062002.pdf

  17. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  18. Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment for Children with Anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Athuman, Mwaka; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Rohwer, Anke C

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a global public health problem. Children under five years of age living in developing countries (mostly Africa and South-East Asia) are highly affected. Although the causes for anaemia are multifactorial, malaria has been linked to anaemia in children living in malaria-endemic areas. Administering intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (IPT) to children might reduce anaemia, since it could protect children from new Plasmodium parasite infection (the parasites tha...

  19. Intermittent claudication due to ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgemuth, W.; Rottach, K.; Stoehr, M.

    1999-01-01

    The distinct clinical syndrome of exercise induced ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus is not a widely known cause for intermittent claudication. Eight patients with the mentioned syndrome were investigated clinically, neurophysiologically, and with imaging techniques. The clinical examination showed a typical exercise induced sequence of symptoms: pain, paraesthesia, and sensory and motor deficits. The underlying vascular conditions were high grade stenoses or occlusions of the a...

  20. Functions of intermittent locomotion in mustached tamarins ( Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Stojan-Dolar, Mojca; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many animals interrupt their moving with brief pauses, which appear to serve several different functions. We examined the function of such intermittent locomotion in wild living mustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax), small arboreal New World primates that form mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). We investigated how different environmental and social factors affect pausing during locomotion and used these data to infer the function of this behavior. As measures...

  1. CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimension...

  2. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  3. Intermittent Granular Flow and Clogging with Internal Avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Manna; Herrmann, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of intermittent granular flow through an orifice in a granular bin and the associated clogging due to formation of arches blocking the outlet, is studied numerically in two-dimensions. Our numerical results indicate that for small hole sizes, the system self-organizes to a steady state and the distribution of the grain displacements decays as power laws. On the other hand, for large holes, the outflow distributions are also observed to follow power law distributions.

  4. Platelet inhibition with Ticlopidine in atherosclerotic intermittent claudication.

    OpenAIRE

    Aukland, A; Hurlow, R. A.; George, A J; Stuart, J

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one men with atherosclerotic intermittent claudication and haemorheological abnormalities completed a double-blind, one-year randomised trial of Ticlopidine (500 mg/day), a new antiplatelet agent. Ticlopidine caused significant inhibition of platelet aggregation but did not fully correct abnormalities of coagulation, viscosity, and fibrinolysis. There was no significant improvement in walking ability, Doppler ankle-pressure indices, or calf blood flow. Sustained platelet inhibition for ...

  5. Grid superfluid turbulence and intermittency at very low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature grid generated turbulence is studied by using numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The statistics of regularized velocity increments are studied. Increments of the incompressible velocity are found to be skewed in the inertial range. Results are later confronted with the (quasi) homogeneous and isotropic Taylor-Green flow, revealing the universality of the statistics. For this flow, the statistics are found to be intermittent and a Kolmogorov constant close ...

  6. Maximisation of intermittent distributed generation in active networks

    OpenAIRE

    L.F. Ochoa, C.J. Dent, G.P. Harrison, A. Padilha-Feltrin

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide interest in renewable energy combined with technology advances has increased the connection of intermittent distributed generation to distribution networks. To allow maximum penetration of such developments without compromising the normal operation of the network requires several technical issues to be assessed. In this context, active management of the network, i.e., the integration of assets and network participants through the real-time use of control and communication systems, w...

  7. Astigmatic Changes after Horizontal Rectus Muscle Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seung Woo; Kang, Nam Yeo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the changes of refractive astigmatism after horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children. Methods Sixty-nine exotropic patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 35 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR group, 35 eyes) and 34 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R group, 34 eyes). Non-cycloplegic refractions were measured until 6 months postoperatively. Spherical equivalent (...

  8. Epidemiological, clinical anf pathogenetic studies of acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Bylesjö, Ingemar

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders characterised by an impairment of heme biosynthesis. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common of the acute porphyrias in Sweden. Acute attacks of AIP are characterised by neuro-psychiatric symptoms, including epileptic seizures. Environmental and acquired factors are related to the induction of symptoms. Acute attacks of AIP are treated with high doses of glucose and/or hematin infusions. The pathogenesis of the neuro-psychiatric sympt...

  9. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  10. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  11. Non-locality and Intermittency in 3D Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Laval, J P; Nazarenko, S

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to determine the influence of the non-local and local interactions on the intermittency corrections in the scaling properties of 3D turbulence. We show that neglect of local interactions leads to an enhanced small-scale energy spectrum and to a significantly larger number of very intense vortices (tornadoes) and stronger intermittency. On the other hand, neglect of the non-local interactions results in even stronger small-scale spectrum but significantly weaker intermittency. Based on these observations, a new model of turbulence is proposed, in which non-local (RDT-like) interactions couple large and small scale via a multiplicative process with additive noise and the local interactions are modeled by a turbulent viscosity. This model is used to derive a simple toy version of the Langevin equations for small-scale velocity increments. A Gaussian approximation for the large scale fields yields the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function of the velocity i...

  12. Intermittency in dust deposition rates around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, N.; Schumer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Deposition rates for intermittent processes tend to depend on temporal measurement interval. This age interval bias can be used as a tool in evaluating the intermittency of dust deposition. Dust deposition is an intermittent process controlled by dust creation (erosion) and transport (dry winds). During glacial periods it is more likely that cold, dry winds will transport dust regionally and sometimes globally than during the warmer, wetter interglacial periods As deposition rates are estimated in loess cores over longer and longer time spans, it is more likely that large non-depositional or erosional periods may be incorporated into the average rate. Since loess cores are sampled by depth and material profile, the reported analysis rarely have equally space time intervals which causes age interval bias. 57 loess core profiles from Central Asia, New Zealand, North and South America, and Europe show the presence of power-law distributed hiatuses within the dust deposition record. Regional and global analysis of these 57 loess cores showed that dust deposition rates are equally affected by age interval bias no matter the scale. It is difficult to infer changes in dust deposition rates over time without equally spaced age intervals.

  13. Intermittency of rheological regimes in uniform liquid-granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele; Fraccarollo, Luigi

    2009-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a free surface-saturated liquid-granular mixture flowing over a static loose bed of grains, where the coexistence of layers dominated by collisional and frictional interactions among particles was observed. Kinetic theory was applied to the flow described above and it proved suitable for describing a realistic behavior of the collisional layers, although it failed to interpret the regions of the flow domain dominated by the frictional contacts. The paper provides a conceptual scheme with which to overcome this problem by focusing on the mechanisms governing the transition from the frictional to the collisional regime. In particular we observed that in highly concentrated flows the transition layer exhibits a typical intermittency of the dominating rheological regime, switching alternately from the frictional to the collisional one. By filtering the velocity signal, we introduced an intermittency function that made it possible to extend the validity of the equations derived from dense gas analogy, typical of the collisional regimes, also in the intermittent phase of the flow. Owing to the small values of the Stokes number, in the application of the kinetic theory we accounted for the possible variation of the elastic restitution coefficient along the flow depth. PMID:19518448

  14. Acute intermittent porphyria and pregnancy: an obstetric challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Meena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in the gene coding for the porphobillinogen deaminase enzymes in heam biosynthesis. The disease manifests as acute attacks of neuropsychiatric dysfunction and neurovisceral manifestations presenting as acute abdomen. In pregnancy, 54% patient has exacerbation of attacks in the form of seizures and acute abdomen occurs due to hormonal changes. Prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria is 1-2/200000 in general. Here we report a case of 36 year old women, G4P1L2A2 presenting at 10+4 weeks of gestation requesting pregnancy termination. Patient was diagnosed as case of acute intermittent porphyria with porphyic polyneuropathy 6 months back. At that time her main symptoms were acute pain abdomen with numbness and weakness in all four limbs. Her urinary porphobillinogen and 5 ALA raised. Her CECT of brain and nerve conduction studies were normal. Since then she is on Tablet Gabapentin 300 mg H.S. She underwent successful pregnancy termination by suction and evacuation under spinal anesthesia and she refused for copper-T insertion. Only safe drugs were used for procedure and she was discharged with advice of barrier contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 542-544

  15. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchen Liu; Chen Wu; Xiaohong Zhou; David Z.Zhu; Hanchang Shi

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards,and requires expensive programs for its prevention.The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments.The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated.The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment.The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide)ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions ofefficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss.The opth-nal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  16. Glycogen repletion following continuous and intermittent exercise to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, G A; Brooks, G A

    1980-10-01

    Patterns of postexercise glycogen repletion in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver in the absence of exogenously supplied substrates during the first 4 h of recovery were assessed. Female Wistar rats were run to exhaustion using continuous (1.0 mph, 15% grade) and intermittent (alternate 1-min intervals at 0.5 and 1.5 mph, 15% grade) exercise protocols. Rats at exhaustion were characterized by marked depletion of glycogen in heart (55%), skeletal muscle (94%), and liver (97%). Blood glucose levels at exhaustion (1.33 mumol/g) were only 37% of preexercise levels. There were no significant differences between continuous and intermittent exercise groups for any of the tissue glycogen or blood glucose values. Cardiac muscle was the only tissue capable of complete restoration of glycogen levels while relying exclusively upon endogenous substrates. Concentrations of endogenous substrates present at the end of exercise were insufficient to support restoration of blood glucose levels to preexercise values nor support glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle and liver during the initial 4-h food-restricted postexercise period. With subsequent feeding, skeletal muscle demonstrated a glycogen supercompensation effect at 24 h (181.1 and 191.8% of preexercise levels for continuous and intermittent exercise, respectively). Lactate concentration in all tissues at the point exhaustion (1.5--2.5 times resting levels) were only moderately elevated and returned to preexercise levels within 15 min. It was concluded that lactate removal after exercise contributed only minimally to the repletion of muscle glycogen. PMID:7440286

  17. Intermittency of solar system plasma turbulence near Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom

    2016-04-01

    We analyze magnetic field data from Venus Express (VEX) and CLUSTER to investigate the turbulent properties of the solar wind and the Earth's and Venus' magnetosheaths. A systematic study of the PDFs (Probability Distribution Functions) of the measured magnetic fluctuations and their fourth order moments (kurtosis) reveals numerous intermittent time series. The presence of intermittency is marked by non-Gaussian PDFs with heavy wings and a scale dependent kurtosis. Higher order analyses on the scale dependence of several moment orders of the PDFs, the structure functions, along with the scaling of the kurtosis allow for a selection of scales that pertain to different scaling regimes, governed by different physics. On such sub-ranges of scales we investigate the fractal structure of fluctuations through the Rank Ordered Multifractal Analysis - ROMA (Chang and Wu, 2008). ROMA is applied to a selection of intermittent magnetic field time series in the solar wind and planetary magnetosheaths and helps to quantify the turbulence properties through the estimation of a spectrum of local Hurst exponents. Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.

  18. Structure functions and intermittency in ionospheric plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dyrud

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the ionospheric E-region is studied by means of numerical and experimental methods. We use the structure functions of the electrostatic potential as a diagnostics of the fluctuations. We demonstrate the inherently intermittent nature of the low level turbulence in the collisional ionospheric plasma by using results for the space-time varying electrostatic potential from two dimensional numerical simulations. An instrumented rocket can not directly detect the one-point potential variation, and most measurements rely on records of potential differences between two probes. With reference to the space observations we demonstrate that the results obtained by potential difference measurements can differ significantly from the one-point results. It was found, in particular, that the intermittency signatures become much weaker, when the proper rocket-probe configuration is implemented. We analyze also signals from an actual ionospheric rocket experiment, and find a reasonably good agreement with the appropriate simulation results, demonstrating again that rocket data, obtained as those analyzed here, are unlikely to give an adequate representation of intermittent features of the low frequency ionospheric plasma turbulence for the given conditions.

  19. Communication with acute intermittent porphyria patients who have tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Introducing acute intermittent porphyria disease and investigating the communication techniques for acute intermittent porphyria patients who have tracheostomyCase Report: 26 years old woman patient consulted to the hospital when she was 13 years old with nausea and vomiting complaints. In 2008, because of respiratory arrest, tracheostomy was implemented to the patient who had acute intermittent porphyria diagnose. The patient had two bullous lesions on the left hand and hyperpigmentation’s on the face and legs. As a result of metabolic acidosis (because of urine disease, the patient was taken to dialysis. After six months of dialysis, hypernatremia was found in the laboratory tests (Na: 85.Period of acute crisis developed In the patient with hypertension, atrophy in the muscles, fainting, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Because of serious diarrhea, TPN was started for the patient who was fed with gavage before. Laboratory test results are Na:126, K:8.1, BUN:23.83, Urine:51, Creatinine:0.94, Leukocyte:20.4, erytrocyte:2.22, Hb:6.87g/dl, Hct: %20.9, Plt:106. Result: It is really difficult to communicate with these patients with lifespan limited because of an extremely severe clinical condition and tracheostomy.

  20. Improving Forecasting Accuracy in the Case of Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Takeyasu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In making forecasting, there are many kinds of data. Stationary time series data are relatively easy to make forecasting but random data are very difficult in its execution for forecasting. Intermittent data are often seen in industries. But it is rather difficult to make forecasting in general. In recent years, the needs for intermittent demand forecasting are increasing because of the constraints of strict Supply Chain Management. How to improve the forecasting accuracy is an important issue. There are many researches made on this. But there are rooms for improvement. In this paper, a new method for cumulative forecasting method is proposed. The data is cumulated and to this cumulated time series, the following method is applied to improve the forecasting accuracy. Trend removing by the combination of linear and 2nd order non-linear function and 3rd order non-linear function is executed to the production data of X-ray image intensifier tube device and Diagnostic X-ray image processing apparatus. The forecasting result is compared with those of the non-cumulative forecasting method. The new method shows that it is useful for the forecasting of intermittent demand data. The effectiveness of this method should be examined in various cases.

  1. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  2. Automatic force balance calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  3. Intermittent turbulence in solar wind from the south polar hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Feynman, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, E. J.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields measured by the Ulysses spacecraft are used to study solar wind turbulence in the fast solar wind from the south polar hole. The spacecraft was at about 46 deg south latitude and 3.9 AU. For a magnetic field with a Gaussian distribution the power spectrum (second-order structure function) is sufficient to completely characterize the turbulence. However, the actual distribution is non-Gaussian so that the effects of intermittency must be taken into account. The observed spectral exponents include effects of intermittency and cannot be directly compared with the standard second-order spectral theories such as the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan theories. To permit a better comparison of the observations with the theoretical models, we study the structure characteristics of the data. We find the exponents of the second-order structure functions (power spectra) and the higher-order normalized structure functions for the components of the magnetic fields. We show that these sets of exponents can be approximately described by two basic numbers: the spectral exponent and the intermittency exponent. The intermittency exponent characterizes correlation properties of the energy cascade from large to small scales. Before comparing the observations to the theoretically expected values, a reduction must be made to the observed spectral exponent. The amount of the reduction depends on both the intermittency exponent and the model of the energy cascade assumed in the turbulence theory. We reduce the measured spectral indices according to a simple model for Alfven turbulence that is described here. We then compare our reduced spectral indices with second-order spectral theory. The reduced spectral indices for the period range of 1 min to about a half hour are remarkably constant and in good agreement with the value of 3/2. Thus our treatment is self-consistent. Our tentative conclusion is that the high-frequency turbulence appears to agree with the model of random

  4. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  5. A Hierarchical Load Balancing Policy for Grid Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Fathy El Zoghdy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of high-speed wide-area networks and powerful yet low-cost computational resources, grid computing has emerged as an attractive computing paradigm. It provides resources for solving large scientific applications. It is typically composed of heterogeneous resources such as clusters or sites at different administrative domains connected by networks with widely varying performance characteristics. The service level of the grid software infrastructure provides two essential functions for workload and resource management. To efficiently utilize the resources at these environments, effective load balancing and resource management policies are fundamentally important. This paper addresses the problem of load balancing and task migration in grid computing environments. We propose a fully decentralized two-level load balancing policy for computationally intensive tasks on a heterogeneous multi-cluster grid environment. It resolves the single point of failure problem which many of the current policies suffer from. In this policy, any site manager receives two kinds of tasks namely, remote tasks arriving from its associated local grid manager, and local tasks submitted directly to the site manager by local users in its domain, which makes this policy closer to reality and distinguishes it from any other similar policy. It distributes the grid workload based on the resources occupation ratio and the communication cost. The grid overall mean task response time is considered as the main performance metric that need to be minimized. The simulation results show that the proposed load balancing policy improves the grid overall mean task response time.

  6. Incorporating seepage losses into the unsteady streamflow equations for simulating intermittent flow along mountain front streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswonger, R.G.; Prudic, D.E.; Pohll, G.; Constantz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Seepage losses along numerous mountain front streams that discharge intermittently onto alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains are an important source of groundwater in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States. Determining the distribution of seepage loss along mountain front streams is important when assessing groundwater resources of the region. Seepage loss along a mountain front stream in northern Nevada was evaluated using a one-dimensional unsteady streamflow model. Seepage loss was incorporated into the spatial derivatives of the streamflow equations. Because seepage loss from streams is dependent on stream depth, wetted perimeter, and streambed properties, a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model was used to develop a series of relations between seepage loss and stream depth for each reach. This method works when streams are separated from groundwater by variably saturated sediment. Two periods of intermittent flow were simulated to evaluate the modeling approach. The model reproduced measured flow and seepage losses along the channel. Seepage loss in the spring of 2000 was limited to the upper reaches on the alluvial plain and totaled 196,000 m3, whereas 64% of the seepage loss in the spring of 2004 occurred at the base of the alluvial plain and totaled 273,000 m3. A greater seepage loss at the base of the piedmont alluvial plain is attributed to increased streambed hydraulic conductivity caused by less armoring of the channel. The modeling approach provides a method for quantifying and distributing seepage loss along mountain front streams that cross alluvial fans or piedmont alluvial plains. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  8. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  9. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  10. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  11. 新医改背景下卫生资源配置制度伦理研究——以效率与公平的平衡为视角%Ethlcal Study on Medical Resources Allocation under the Background of New Health Care Reform —from the Perspective of Balancing the Efficiency and Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 贺加

    2012-01-01

    Facing the growth of health needs of Chinese people, the scarcity of health resources increased the contradiction level of health supply and demand. In medical reform process, efficiency and fairness have become a debated issue in the field of health care resource allocation. In order to solve this problem, the authors proposed thai providing a system level guidance, fully respecting the social consensus and cultural values, with the guarantee of fair procedures and multiple constraints of all interests parties and then make the balance between efficiency and fairness in medical system come true.%面对中国民众日益增长的卫生需求,卫生资源的稀缺性更加重了日益突出的供需矛盾,在医疗改革进程中,效率和公平成为医疗资源分配领域争论的热点问题,就如何更好地开展卫生资源的配置工作,可以从制度层面加以引导,充分尊重社会共识文化价值观念,以公正的程序为保障,借以利益各方有效的制衡机制,来实现医疗系统效率和公平的平衡生态.

  12. Cost analysis of school-based intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukes Matthew CH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of malaria in schools is receiving increasing attention, but there remains currently no consensus as to the optimal intervention strategy. This paper analyses the costs of intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria in schools, implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast. Methods Financial and economic costs were estimated using an ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of IST are quantified and valued. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate how programme variation affects costs and to identify potential cost savings in the future implementation of IST. Results The estimated financial cost of IST per child screened is US$ 6.61 (economic cost US$ 6.24. Key contributors to cost were salary costs (36% and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT (22%. Almost half (47% of the intervention cost comprises redeployment of existing resources including health worker time and use of hospital vehicles. Sensitivity analysis identified changes to intervention delivery that can reduce programme costs by 40%, including use of alternative RDTs and removal of supervised treatment. Cost-effectiveness is also likely to be highly sensitive to the proportion of children found to be RDT-positive. Conclusion In the current context, school-based IST is a relatively expensive malaria intervention, but reducing the complexity of delivery can result in considerable savings in the cost of intervention. (Costs are reported in US$ 2010.

  13. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering intensive wind penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marco; Morais, H.; Vale, Zita

    2012-01-01

    The use of distributed energy resources, based on natural intermittent power sources, like wind generation, in power systems imposes the development of new adequate operation management and control methodologies. A short-term Energy Resource Management (ERM) methodology performed in two phases is proposed in this paper. The first one addresses the day-ahead ERM scheduling and the second one deals with the five-minute ahead ERM scheduling. The ERM scheduling is a complex optimization problem ...

  14. Improving Resource Discovery in the Arigatoni Overlay Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Raphaël; Liquori, Luigi; Cosnard, Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience Arigatoni is a structured multi-layer overlay network providing various services with variable guarantees, and promoting an intermittent participation to the virtual organization where peers can appear, disappear and organize themselves dynamically. Arigatoni mainly concerns with how resources are declared and discovered in the overlay, allowing global computers to make a secure, PKI-based, use of global aggregated computational power, storage, information resources,...

  15. Measures of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chen, C. H. K.; Horbury, T. S.; Wicks, R. T.; Greenan, C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfvénic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are `ribbon-like' - statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the nth-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran, Schekochihin & Mallet, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of the perpendicular anisotropy (i.e. of the aspect ratio of the Alfvénic structures in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field) depends on the amplitude of the fluctuations. This is shown to be equivalent to the anticorrelation of fluctuation amplitude and alignment at each scale. The dependence of the anisotropy on amplitude is shown to be more significant for the anisotropy between the perpendicular and fluctuation-direction scales than it is between the perpendicular and parallel scales.

  16. Effects of stomatal delays on the economics of leaf gas exchange under intermittent light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    • Understory plants are subjected to highly intermittent light availability and their leaf gas exchanges are mediated by delayed responses of stomata and leaf biochemistry to light fluctuations. In this article, the patterns in stomatal delays across biomes and plant functional types were studied and their effects on leaf carbon gains and water losses were quantified. • A database of more than 60 published datasets on stomatal responses to light fluctuations was assembled. To interpret these experimental observations, a leaf gas exchange model was developed and coupled to a novel formulation of stomatal movement energetics. The model was used to test whether stomatal delays optimize light capture for photosynthesis, whilst limiting transpiration and carbon costs for stomatal movement. • The data analysis showed that stomatal opening and closing delays occurred over a limited range of values and were strongly correlated. Plant functional type and climate were the most important drivers of stomatal delays, with faster responses in graminoids and species from dry climates. • Although perfectly tracking stomata would maximize photosynthesis and minimize transpiration at the expense of large opening costs, the observed combinations of opening and closure times appeared to be consistent with a near-optimal balance of carbon gain, water loss and movement costs. PMID:21851359

  17. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  18. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.)

  19. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  20. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)