WorldWideScience

Sample records for balance intermittent resources

  1. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.;

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that are expected to occur at high penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator (C...

  2. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  3. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 817.57 Section 817.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance:...

  4. Characterization of wind power resource and its intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunturu, U. B.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been calculated and characterized using metrics that describe - apart from abundance - its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind power density profiles at 50, 80, 100 and 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. We also show that for long tailed distributions like those of the wind power density, the mean is an overestimation and median is a more robust metric for summary representation of wind power resource.Generally speaking, the largest and most available wind power density resources are found in off-shore regions of the Atlantic and Pacific coastline, and the largest on-shore resource potential lies in the central United States. However, the intermittency and widespread synchronicity of on-shore wind power density are substantial, and highlights areas where considerable back-up generation technologies will be required. Generation-duration curves are also presented for the independent systems operator (ISO) zones of the U.S. to highlight the regions with the largest capacity factor (MISO, ERCOT, and SWPP) as well as the periods and extent to which all ISOs contain no wind power and the potential benefits of aggregation on wind power intermittency in each region. The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is also an increase in intermittency with respect to a 'usable wind power' crossing level in low resource regions. A similar perspective of wind resource for

  5. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Sporborg, Pamela; Sheik, Imran; Huffaker, Erich; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-30

    This scoping study summarizes the challenges with integrating wind and solar generation into the California's electricity grid. These challenges include: Smoothing intra-hour variability; - Absorbing excess renewable energy during over-generation periods; - Addressing morning and evening ramping periods. In addition, there are technical challenges to integrating retail demand response (DR) triggered by the wholesale conditions into the CAISO markets. The study describes the DR programs available to the consumers through the utilities in California and CAISO's ancillary services market because an integration of the wholesale and retail DR requires an understanding of these different offerings and the costs associated with acquiring them. Demand-side active and passive storage systems are proposed as technologies that may be used to mitigate the effects of intermittence due to renewable generation. Commercial building technologies as well as industrial facilities with storage capability are identified as targets for the field tests. Two systems used for ancillary services communications are identified as providing the triggers for DR enablement. Through the field tests, issues related to communication, automation and flexibility of demand-side resources will be explored and the performance of technologies that participate in the field tests will be evaluated. The major outcome of this research is identifying and defining flexibility of DR resources and optimized use of these resources to respond to grid conditions.

  6. Efficient pricing and investment in electricity markets with intermittent resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing growing technological and environmental challenges, the electricity industry needs effective pricing mechanism to promote efficient risk management and investment decisions. In a restructured electricity market with competitive wholesale prices and traditionally regulated retail rates, however, there are technical and institutional barriers that prevent dynamic pricing with price responsive demand. In regions with limited energy storage capacity, intermittent renewable resources present special challenges. This could adversely affect the effectiveness of public policies causing inefficient investments in energy technologies. In this paper, we present an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market and use the model in a simulation study for an initial assessment of renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. A key objective of the study is to shed light on the policy issues so that effective decisions can be made to improve efficiency. - Highlights: → Renewable resources present special challenges in regions with limited energy storage capacity. → This paper presents an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market. → A simulation study assesses renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. → The study results inform policy decisions to improve efficient investments in energy technologies.

  7. Effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on energy balance and hypothalamic feeding pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J M; Ciriello, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) on metabolic factors associated with energy balance and body weight, and on hypothalamic satiety-inducing pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 8h IH or normoxic control conditions. Food intake, locomotion and body weights were examined after IH. Additionally, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose were measured following exposure to IH. Furthermore, adipose tissue was removed and analyzed for leptin and adiponectin content. Finally, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) was assessed for alterations in protein signaling associated with satiety. IH reduced body weight, food intake and active cycle locomotion without altering adipose tissue mass. Leptin protein content was reduced while adiponectin content was elevated in adipose tissue after IH. Plasma concentration of leptin was significantly increased while adiponectin decreased after IH. No changes were found in plasma corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose. In ARC, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression were elevated. In addition, POMC-expressing neurons were activated as determined by immediate early gene FRA-1/2 expression. Finally, ERK1/2 and its phosphorylation were reduced in response to IH. These data suggest that IH induces significant alterations to body energy balance through changes in the secretion of leptin which exert effects on satiety-inducing pathways within the hypothalamus.

  8. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained. PMID:12344702

  9. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  10. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cinquin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproductive capacity," i.e. in the number of progeny that can be produced until cessation of reproduction. We show that stem cell cycling diminishes remaining reproductive capacity, at least in part through the DNA damage response. Paradoxically, gonads kept under conditions that preclude reproduction keep cycling and producing cells that undergo apoptosis or are laid as unfertilized gametes, thus squandering reproductive capacity. We show that continued activity is in fact beneficial inasmuch as gonads that are active when reproduction is initiated have more sustained early progeny production. Intriguingly, continued cycling is intermittent-gonads switch between active and dormant states-and in all likelihood stochastic. Other organs face tradeoffs whereby stem cell cycling has the beneficial effect of providing freshly-differentiated cells and the detrimental effect of increasing the likelihood of cancer or senescence; stochastic stem cell cycling may allow for a subset of cells to preserve proliferative potential in old age, which may implement a strategy to deal with uncertainty as to the total amount of proliferation to be undergone over an organism's lifespan.

  11. Balancing water resources conservation and food security in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targ...

  12. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  13. The evolution and enlightenment of water resources accounting from accounts to balance sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuHui Jian; XiaoYu Song; LiLi Li; WenQi Gao

    2016-01-01

    The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has proposed an important national strategic decision: to explore and establish the balance sheet of natural resources, to implement leaders' of-office auditing system about natural resources assets. Water is one of the most essential nature resources of human beings; water resources accounting, as an important water resources management tool, is an essential part of compiling the natural re-sources balance sheet. In this paper, we provide a summary of the historic evolution of water resources accounting and analyze its application in some typical countries. Although water resources accounting and water resources balance sheet reflect different implications and focus, both require water resources accounts as the basis in system establishment.

  14. Flexible C : N ratio enhances metabolism of large phytoplankton when resource supply is intermittent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmy, D.; Blackford, J.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Polimene, L.; Follows, M. J.; Geider, R. J.

    2014-09-01

    Phytoplankton cell size influences particle sinking rate, food web interactions and biogeographical distributions. We present a model in which the uptake, storage and assimilation of nitrogen and carbon are explicitly resolved in different-sized phytoplankton cells. In the model, metabolism and cellular C : N ratio are influenced by the accumulation of carbon polymers such as carbohydrate and lipid, which is greatest when cells are nutrient starved, or exposed to high light. Allometric relations and empirical data sets are used to constrain the range of possible C : N, and indicate that larger cells can accumulate significantly more carbon storage compounds than smaller cells. When forced with extended periods of darkness combined with brief exposure to saturating irradiance, the model predicts organisms large enough to accumulate significant carbon reserves may on average synthesize protein and other functional apparatus up to five times faster than smaller organisms. The advantage of storage in terms of average daily protein synthesis rate is greatest when modeled organisms were previously nutrient starved, and carbon storage reservoirs saturated. Small organisms may therefore be at a disadvantage in terms of average daily growth rate in environments that involve prolonged periods of darkness and intermittent nutrient limitation. We suggest this mechanism is a significant constraint on phytoplankton C : N variability and cell size distribution in different oceanic regimes.

  15. Study on the Balance of Agricultural Water and Land Resources on Ningxia Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Feng Zhiming; Yang Yanzhao

    2006-01-01

    The article puts forward the process and means of regional water and land balance research, and then from two scenarios which are the balances under natural regulation and human intervention, calculated and analysed the balance between water and land on Ningxia Plain. For the balance under natural regulation named farmland water balance, using farmland water resource balance equation, the research estimated the monthly farmland water balance of 8 major crops for all of the 12 counties on Ningxia Plain in the period of 1960-2001; for the balance under human intervention,the research estimated land-use water balance equation of the counties in 2000, and calculated the balance between land use and water resources including irrigating water of all the 12 counties on Ningxia Plain. Results showed that ①precipitation can not meet the water demand of the crops for growth and development on Ningxia Plain, and water shortage is the primary character of farmland water balance under natural regulation. ②the diversity of water and land balance of different counties is distinctly influenced by the crop structure, water quantity for irrigation and irrigation level. ③Irrigation water could meet the crop water demand on Ningxia Plain in 2000,but there was not much space to expand irrigating cultivated land.

  16. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    of such loads can deliver a well-behaved, stable and predictable balancing support. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current balancing markets, as well as the technical properties of traditional and potential balancing resources, this paper proposes a new real-time balancing market setup facilitating......Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands....... This research is potentially useful for designing future balancing markets and utilizing demand response for system services. Copyright (C) 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved....

  17. Justification of Filter Selection for Robot Balancing in Conditions of Limited Computational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momot, M. V.; Politsinskaia, E. V.; Sushko, A. V.; Semerenko, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper considers the problem of mathematical filter selection, used for balancing of wheeled robot in conditions of limited computational resources. The solution based on complementary filter is proposed.

  18. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  19. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  20. The Association of Large-Scale Climate Variability and Teleconnections on Wind Energy Resource over Europe and its Intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesche, Pascal; Schlosser, C. Adam

    2014-05-01

    In times of increasing importance of wind power in the world's energy mix, this study focuses on a better understanding of the influences of large-scale climate variability on wind power resource over Europe from 34°N to 71,5°N latitudes and from 11°E to 41°W longitudes. The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Arctic Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation are investigated in terms of their correlation with wind power density at 80 m hub height. These wind power densities are calculated based on the MERRA Reanalysis data set covering 31 years of measurements with a time resolution of an hour and a spatial resolution of 1/2° latitudes 2/3° longitudes. Not surprisingly, the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation are highly correlated with the time series of wind power density, especially for northern Europe. This correlation can also be found in the first principal component of a Principal Component Analysis of wind power density over Europe explaining 14% of the overall variance. Coefficient of determination studies for linear regression between wind power density time series and the teleconnections reveal that for northern Europe up to 30% of the variation of wind power density can be explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation, for example. Further, cross-correlation analyses indicate the strongest associated variations are achieved with the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation leading wind power density by at most one day. Furthermore, the impact of high and low phases of the respective oscillations has been assessed to provide a more comprehensive illustration. In the case of high Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillation, wind power density can vary by a factor of three in northern Europe between negative and positive phases, and a similar effect (but opposite in sign) is seen for southern Europe, with wind power density varying by a factor of two. Similar results are

  1. A LIMITED RESOURCE VECTOR LOAD-BALANCING ALGORITHM FOR SOFTSWITCH-BASED HETEROGENEOUS CLUSTERED MEDIA SERVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Naixing; Liao Jianxin; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the system feature of softswitch-based heterogeneous clustered media server, this paper proposed a limited resource vector load-balancing algorithm. The purpose of the algorithm was to balance the load of clusters by utilizing all system resources effectively and to avoid violent shaking of the system performance. A lot of simulations on the Petri net model of load balance system are conducted and the algorithm is compared with some traditional algorithms on balancing ability for heterogeneity, system throughput, request response time and performance stability. The results of simulations show that the algorithm achieves system higher performance and it has excellent ability to deal with the heterogeneity of clustered media server.

  2. Effect of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV on Acid-Base Balance and Plasma Electrolytes during Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Chemonges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV on acid-base balance and plasma electrolytes during isoflurane anaesthesia in sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita Anaesthesia was induced in six birds by mask using a T-piece with 3.0% isoflurane. Blood gases, plasma electrolytes, PCV and Total Protein (TP were monitored for one hour during Spontaneous Ventilation (SV and IPPV. IPPV was instituted by engaging the pop-off valve (IPPVa of the circle absorber or by squeezing the breathing bag (IPPVb. Results showed that during SV, pCO2, pO2, [HCO3-], BE, C+CO2 and PO4- increased significantly, while [Na+], [K+] and [Ca2+] did not change significantlyDuring IPPV, pCO2 and pO2 decreased, while C+CO2 CO2 increased during the initial 30 min. [HCO3-increased during IPPVa only in the first 30 min. BE increased only in the first 30 min of IPPV. There was a marginal increase and decrease in PO4- during SV and IPPV, respectively. [Na+], [K+] and [Ca2+] remained stable during both SV and IPPV. Subtle decreases were noted for [Cl-] TP and PCV during SV. It was concluded that mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis occurs during SV in isoflurane-anaesthetised cockatoos. Metabolic acidosis that develops during isoflurane anaesthesia in spontaneously ventilating birds is reversible to some extent by IPPV, possibly through a mixed acidosis-alkalosis, respiratory alkalosis and a non-respiratory contribution to alkalosis mechanism. Reversal of Bohr Effect occurs during IPPV in isoflurane-anaesthetised cockatoos. Studies are indicated to understand the causes of decreased oxygen saturation in apparently alkalotic birds.

  3. Improving Human Resource Training Policy for the Balanced Economic and Demographic Development of the Kaliningrad Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemeshev A.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced economic and demographic development is vital for ensuring the dynamic and proportional development of the regions. However, Russia as a whole and the exclave region of Kaliningrad as its integral part demonstrate significant disproportions between the need for human resources and their availability. This article aims to assess the balance between the components of the regional system of demography, education and economy system. It also explores the possible solutions to the problems...

  4. ADJUSTING THE HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF USING THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Varzaru; Anca Antoaneta Varzaru

    2015-01-01

    Engaging the human resources structure in the strategic design and implementation stages is closely connected to the enhancement of its capabilities towards undertaking and handling transformational activities, which have a direct contribution in increasing the added value of an organization. This way, transformational activities enhance the strategic importance and the prominence of the human resources function within organizations. The employment of the Balanced Scorecard stands out as a po...

  5. Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Roo, de N.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC. P

  6. Balancing the resources of the High Level Trigger farm of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is organized in two trigger levels running different selection algorithms on heterogeneous farms composed of off-the-shelf processing units. The processing units have varying computing power and network connectivities. The ATLAS working conditions are changing due to the continuous optimization of the LHC operations and the consequent trigger adjustment. In addition, the rolling expansion and replacement of the HLT hardware changes the HLT farm composition. Therefore, balancing the available resources is essential for optimizing the HLT farm exploitation. In this paper, a tool for managing the HLT resources will be presented. The tool allows for showing, modifying and generating the HLT farm configuration, keeping the resource balance, in terms of computing power and bandwidth, across the farms under control.

  7. Resource constrained flux balance analysis predicts selective pressure on the global structure of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abedpour, Nima; Kollmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background A universal feature of metabolic networks is their hourglass or bow-tie structure on cellular level. This architecture reflects the conversion of multiple input nutrients into multiple biomass components via a small set of precursor metabolites. However, it is yet unclear to what extent this structural feature is the result of natural selection. Results We extend flux balance analysis to account for limited cellular resources. Using this model, optimal structure of metabolic networ...

  8. Resource-Aware Load Balancing Scheme using Multi-objective Optimization in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a service based, on-demand, pay per use model consisting of an interconnected and virtualizes resources delivered over internet. In cloud computing, usually there are number of jobs that need to be executed with the available resources to achieve optimal performance, least possible total time for completion, shortest response time, and efficient utilization of resources etc. Hence, job scheduling is the most important concern that aims to ensure that use’s requirement are properly and correctly satisfied by cloud infrastructure. Most of the task scheduling algorithm developed in cloud computing target single criteria which fails to provide efficient resource utilization. So, to enhance the system performance and increase resource utilization it is must to consider multiple criteria. This paper proposes a multi- objective scheduling algorithm that considers wide variety of attributes in cloud environment. The paper aims to improve the performance by reducing the load of a virtual machine (VM by using Load Balancing Method. Finally, it optimizes the resource utilization by using Resource Aware Scheduling Algorithm involving combination of Min- max and Max-Min strategy.

  9. IMPROVING RESOURCE UTILIZATION USING QoS BASED LOAD BALANCING ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE WORKFLOWS IN IAAS CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shakkeera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available loud computing is the extension of parallel computing, distributed computing and grid computing. It provides secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing services through the internet. The services are available to user in pay per-use-on-demand model. The main aim of using resources from cloud is to reduce the cost and to increase the performance in terms of request response time. Thus, optimizing the resource usage through efficient load balancing strategy is crucial. The main aim of this paper is to develop and implement an Optimized Load balancing algorithm in IaaS virtual cloud environment that aims to utilize the virtual cloud resources efficiently. It minimizes the cost of the applications by effectively using cloud resources and identifies the virtual cloud resources that must be suitable for all the applications. The web application is created with many modules. These modules are considered as tasks and these tasks are submitted to the load balancing server. The server which consists our load balancing policies redirect the tasks to the corresponding virtual machines created by KVM virtual machine manager as per the load balancing algorithm. If the size of the database inside the machine exceeds then the load balancing algorithm uses the other virtual machines for further incoming request. The load balancing strategy are evaluated for various QoS performance metrics like cost, average execution times, throughput, CPU usage, disk space, memory usage, network transmission and reception rate, resource utilization rate and scheduling success rate for the number of virtual machines and it improves the scalability among resources using load balancing techniques.

  10. Balancing public health and resource limitations: A role for ethical low-level risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the pervasiveness of risk in everyday life in modern industrial society has elicited calls for greater efforts to protect individual and public health. Yet, it is increasingly clear that decisions to do so must often be made in the context of significant limits in the amounts of financial resources available for achieving that protection. Achieving risk-free work, residential, and community environments may be so expensive as to render a private business unit uncompetitive or as to divert resources from or prelude commencing with other governmental projects with equal or greater health benefit potential. Ethical low-level risk communication (LLRC) is something risk-generating entities are morally obligated to do. However, such communication also offers important opportunities for such entities to move toward achieving better balances between health and the costs of protecting it. In this paper, the authors elaborate on several features of an ethically ideal LLRC process, focusing on those with aspects they hope are not obvious or common knowledge. In discussing these features, they provide examples of conflicts between health risks and resource limits at the level of the individual private firm, the local community, or the national government, such that LLRC with the feature in question provides an opportunity for mitigating or at least clarifying the conflict in question

  11. Work-based resources as moderators of the relationship between work hours and satisfaction with work-family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique

    2007-11-01

    This study reports an investigation of the relationships of work hours, job complexity, and control over work time to satisfaction with work-family balance. Based on data from a sample of 570 telephone call center representatives, a moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed that work hours were negatively related to satisfaction with work-family balance, consistent with the resource drain perspective. Job complexity and control over work time were positively associated with satisfaction with work-family balance. Control over work time moderated the relationship such that as work hours rose, workers with low control experienced a decline in work-family balance satisfaction, while workers with high control did not. Results encourage greater research attention to work characteristics, such as job complexity and control over work time, and skills that represent resources useful to the successful integration of work and family demands.

  12. Yoga lessons for consciousness research: a paralimbic network balancing brain resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to play a key role in shaping flexible learning and as such is thought to confer an evolutionary advantage. Attention and awareness are the perhaps most important underlying processes, yet their precise relationship is presently unclear. Both of these processes must, however, serve the evolutionary imperatives of survival and procreation. They are thus intimately bound by reward and emotion to help to prioritize efficient brain resource allocation in order to predict and optimize behaviour. Here we show how this process is served by a paralimbic network consisting primarily of regions located on the midline of the human brain. Using many different techniques, experiments have demonstrated that this network is effective and specific for self-awareness and contributes to the sense of unity of consciousness by acting as a common neural path for a wide variety of conscious experiences. Interestingly, haemodynamic activity in the network decreases with focusing on external stimuli, which has led to the idea of a default mode network. This network is one of many networks that wax and vane as resources are allocated to accommodate the different cyclical needs of the organism primarily related the fundamental pleasures afforded by evolution: food, sex and conspecifics. Here we hypothesize, however, that the paralimbic network serves a crucial role in balancing and regulating brain resource allocation, and discuss how it can be thought of as a link between current theories of so-called default mode, resting state networks and global workspace. We show how major developmental disorders of self-awareness and self-control can arise from problems in the paralimbic network as demonstrated here by the example of Asperger syndrome. We conclude that attention, awareness and emotion are integrated by a paralimbic network that helps to efficiently allocate brain resources to optimize behaviour and help survival.

  13. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  14. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  15. INTERMITTENT DEGRADATION AND SCHIZOTYPY

    OpenAIRE

    Roché, Matthew W.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-repo...

  16. Toward a Conceptualization of Perceived Work-Family Fit and Balance: A Demands and Resources Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Using person-environment fit theory, this article formulates a conceptual model that links work, family, and boundary-spanning demands and resources to work and family role performance and quality. Linking mechanisms include 2 dimensions of perceived work-family fit (work demands--family resources fit and family demands--work resources fit) and a…

  17. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  18. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    OpenAIRE

    Snelder, T.H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; E. Sauquet; Pella, H.; C. Catalogne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective water resource management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times-series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero-flow) in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1)...

  19. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  20. Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    a theoretical model that centres on two drivers behind boundary resources design and use –resourcing and securing – and how these drivers interact in third-party development. We apply the model to a detailed case study of Apple’s iPhone platform. Our application of the model not only serves as an illustration...

  1. Study on the Supply and Demand Balance of Enterprise Human Resources Based on Statistical Prediction and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supply and demand of human re- sources in enterprises. We know that the human resources departments in enterprises need to recruit staff from society every year to maintain scientific development of enterprises. But how to find the relationship between enterprise internal supply and actual demand is the real concern for many enterprises. At the beginning of the year, the implementation of recruitment is based on historical data, which requires a scientific and reasonable forecast to lay the foundation for optimization of human resources allocation. This article uses the trend equa- tion fitting to forecast and research the actual demand of human resources, applies Markoff prediction model to forecast and research the internal supply of human resources, meanwhile uses staff flow data of an enterprise from 2006 to 2013 to conduct an empirical analysis of the reliability and science of model algorithm, which provides a theoretical basis for the prediction of the balance of supply and demand for human resources in enterprises.

  2. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    Old and unlined landfill sites pose a risk to groundwater and surface water resources. While landfill leachate plumes in sandy aquifers have been studied, landfills in clay till settings and their impact on receiving water bodies are not well understood. In addition, methods for quantitatively...... linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level...

  3. 75 FR 65964 - Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Resource and Demand Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... clarity by eliminating reference to the term ``load responsibility'' and including renewable energy... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Resource and... (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...

  4. Using the balanced scorecard to mobilize human resources in organizational transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Harber, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Traditionally, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has been an effective tool in linking measurement to strategy. However, what is least understood is how the BSC can be used to redefine organizational relationships, re-engineer fundamental processes and transform organizational culture, for superior performance in an organization with the same people, services and technology that previously delivered dismal performance. This paper highlights the process and uses York Central Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as an illustrative example. PMID:18482931

  5. Using the balanced scorecard to mobilize human resources in organizational transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Harber, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Traditionally, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has been an effective tool in linking measurement to strategy. However, what is least understood is how the BSC can be used to redefine organizational relationships, re-engineer fundamental processes and transform organizational culture, for superior performance in an organization with the same people, services and technology that previously delivered dismal performance. This paper highlights the process and uses York Central Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as an illustrative example.

  6. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  7. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity. PMID:27114584

  8. Intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents an analysis of intermittency as it appears in high energy multiparticle production. Momentum space particle distributions are scale invariant and fluctuate from events to events. This phenomenon originates from Hydrodynamics. Some results about hydrodynamics intermittency are by the way deduced using random diffusion processes and the Landau-Ginzburg equation. A phenomenological approach utilizing random cascading models is used to describe the morphology and intermittent features of particle distributions. Along these lines, a thorough study of random cascades is performed. The origin of intermittent fluctuation is to be found within the Framework of Quantum Field Theory. Indeed intermittency is intimately linked to the perturbative cascade of Quantum Chromodynamics. The long distance behaviour of perturbative QCD is intermittent at the leading collinear logarithm approximation. Moreover fluctuations of matter density along the rapidity axis suggest that the gluon cascade undergoes a phase transition towards a valley landscape where gluons are prone to get clumped within small regions. This is compatible with the so-called preconfinement

  9. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  10. Water resource impacts of climate and land cover change in New Zealand: Balancing scientific supply and policy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Rouse, H. L.; Duncan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    associated certainties. These responses are made more complex, though arguably more robust, through New Zealand's increasingly collaborative approach to water resource governance. As for the continued co-evolution of water resource science and policy, a variety of options is available which balance the technical knowledge with policy needs and opportunities. This includes the accommodation of scientific uncertainty and the development of robust yet adaptive management instruments.

  11. Loss of Balance between Tungsten Reserve and Mining, China’s Resource Advantage Is Weakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>China’s tungsten reserve, product output, export trade volume and consumption all rank top in the world. By offering supply for more than 80% global tungsten consumption with less than 50% of global tungsten ore resource, China has made significant contribution to the development of

  12. USING GIS TO GENERATE SPATIALLY-BALANCED RANDOM SURVEY DESIGNS FOR NATURAL RESOURCE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling of a population is frequently required to understand trends and patterns in natural resource management because financial and time constraints preclude a complete census. A rigorous probability-based survey design specifies where to sample so that inferences from the sam...

  13. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  14. The Balanced Development of Yunnan Bazi Agriculture and its Resource Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.

  15. Balance the Paradox between Limited Health Resources and Growing Demands for Medical Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Tian; Bruce Gurd; Wang Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    Health institutions in the People's Republic of China are under considerable challenge.Innovations in management systems may support the challenge to increase both efficiency and effectiveness.The balanced scorecard (BSC) is one Such innovation.We have used a model to explore the factors that may impact the diffusion of the BSC in Chinese government hospitals.In particular,we concentrate on three factors-the outer context,the nature of the innovation and the communication and influence.The outer context and the nature of the innovation do provide an inducement to implement a BSC.The strength of the communication and influence may affect the level of take-up.However,we recognise that they may choose the BSC not for any apparent technical excellence but for the legitimation that Western man agement practices may bring to local managers.

  16. OPTIMAL DYNAMICAL BALANCE HARVESTING FOR A CLASS OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泽荣; 王绵森; 王峰

    2004-01-01

    An optimal utilization problem for a class of renewable resources system is investigated. Firstly, a control problem was proposed by introducing a new utility function which depends on the harvesting effort and the stock of resources.Secondly, the existence of optimal solution for the problem was discussed. Then, using a maximum principle for infinite horizon problem, a nonlinear four-dimensional differential equations system was attained. After a detailed analysis of the unique positive equilibrium solution, the existence of limit cycles for the system is demonstrated. Next a reduced system on the central manifold is carefully derived, which assures the stability of limit cycles. Finally significance of the results in bioeconomics is explained.

  17. Forest management policies and resource balance in China: an assessment of the current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Démurger, Sylvie; Yuanzhao, Hou; Weiyong, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Working paper du GATE 2007-12 Using the latest forest inventory, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of China's forest sector by focusing on new forest trends, forest policy changes and challenges to achieve a sustainable forest management. We analyze the dynamics of forest resources and provide an impact assessment of forest policies on China's forestry development over the last decades. Moreover, the analysis of the forest market highlights substantial disequilibria marked by a ...

  18. A regional waterway management system for balancing recreational boating and resource protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swett, Robert A; Listowski, Charles; Fry, Douglas; Boutelle, Stephen; Fann, David

    2009-06-01

    Florida's coasts have been transformed over the past three decades as population growth and unprecedented demand for individual shore access to bays and estuaries led to the creation of residential canal developments. Thousands of miles of channels and basins were dredged as a by-product of this urbanization process. The navigable waterways that resulted are now being stressed by increasing boat traffic and canal-side activities. Recognizing their common goal to preserve the recreational and ecological value of southwest Florida waterways, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the four-county West Coast Inland Navigation District, and the University of Florida Sea Grant College Program signed a Memorandum of Agreement. The signatories agreed to develop a science-based Regional Waterway Management System (RWMS), which is a new approach to waterway planning and permitting based on carefully mapped channel depths, a census of actual boat populations, and the spatial extent of natural resources. The RWMS provides a comprehensive, regional overview of channel conditions and the geographic distribution and severity of existing impediments to safe navigation and resource protection. RWMS information and analyses result in regional-scale permitting to accommodate water-dependent uses while minimizing environmental impacts and reducing public expenditures. Compared with traditional approaches to waterway management, the science-based RWMS is relatively unbiased, objective, transparent, ecologically sound, and fiscally prudent. PMID:19020927

  19. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  20. Balancing water resources development and environmental sustainability in Africa: a review of recent research findings and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent. PMID:23238866

  1. A New Approach for a Better Load Balancing and a Better Distribution of Resources in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah IDRISSI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new paradigm where data and services of Information Technology are provided via the Internet by using remote servers. It represents a new way of delivering computing resources allowing access to the network on demand. Cloud computing consists of several services, each of which can hold several tasks. As the problem of scheduling tasks is an NP-complete problem, the task management can be an important element in the technology of cloud computing. To optimize the performance of virtual machines hosted in cloud computing, several algorithms of scheduling tasks have been proposed. In this paper, we present an approach allowing to solve the problem optimally and to take into account the QoS constraints based on the different user requests. This technique, based on the Branch and Bound algorithm, allows to assign tasks to different virtual machines while ensuring load balance and a better distribution of resources. The experimental results show that our approach gives very promising results for an effective tasks planning.

  2. 基于收益共享机制的资源杠杆平衡研究%Research on Resource Leverage Balance Based on Revenue Sharing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永军; 王海兰; 石红霞

    2014-01-01

    Resource leverage can help an enterprise quickly integrate resource that competitive advantage requires, but whether integrated resource revenue is shared is a key factor to influence the balance of resource leverage. The added rev-enue value of the supplier's own resource under resource leverage is obtained through the model, and the impact of different distribution ratio of the supplier's own resource added revenue value on the balance of resource leverage is analyzed. The research shows that resource revenue portfolio under Nash equilibrium may increase the participants' revenue in resource leverge, which is conducive to keeping the balance of re-source leverge.%资源杠杆能帮助企业快速集成竞争优势所需的资源,但集成资源的收益能否共享是影响资源杠杆平衡的关键。通过模型求解出供应商在资源杠杆条件下自有资源的收益增加值,并分析了自有资源收益增加值的不同分配比例对资源杠杆平衡的影响。研究表明,Nash均衡下的资源收益组合能提高资源杠杆参与者的收益,有利于保持资源杠杆的平衡。

  3. Alignment of University Information Technology Resources with the Malcolm Baldrige Results Criteria for Performance Excellence in Education: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Deborah F.; Humphrey, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors suggest using a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate information technology (IT) resources in higher education institutions. The BSC approach illustrated is based on the performance criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in Education. This article suggests areas of potential impact of IT on BSC measures in…

  4. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelder, T. H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; Sauquet, E.; Pella, H.; Catalogne, C.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow) in each year of record (FREQ; yr-1), and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days). These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr-1), and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days). Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR) and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF) models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35). Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also catchment area, shape

  5. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Snelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective water resource management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times-series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero-flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times-series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero-flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used Random Forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also catchment area, shape and slope. However, we suggest that the fair-to-poor performance of the classification models is because intermittence is also controlled by

  6. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    OpenAIRE

    Snelder, T.H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; E. Sauquet; Pella, H.; C. Catalogne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times...

  7. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A; Reier, Paul J; Mitchell, Gordon S; Fuller, David D

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a "respiratory memory"). AIH elicits similar phrenic "long-term facilitation" (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. PMID:25997947

  8. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K;

    1986-01-01

    113 of the patients (44%) had died. Causes of death were no different from those in the general population. Mortality was twice that of the general population matched for age and sex. Mortality among the men was twice that among the women. In men under 60 mortality was four times that expected......, or an ankle/arm pressure index below 50% were individually significantly associated with progression of the arteriosclerotic disease. These findings show the importance of peripheral blood pressure measurements in the management of patients with intermittent claudication due to arteriosclerotic disease....

  9. Interventions for intermittent exotropia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Sarah R; Gnanaraj, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical management of intermittent exotropia has been discussed extensively in the literature, yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding indications for intervention, the most effective form of treatment and whether or not there is an optimal time in the evolution of the disease at which any treatment should be carried out. Objectives The objective of this review was to analyse the effects of various surgical and non-surgical treatments in randomised trials of participants with intermittent exotropia, and to report intervention criteria and determine the significance of factors such as age with respect to outcome. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2012), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 May 2012. We are no longer searching the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG) for this review. We manually searched the British Orthoptic Journal up to 2002, and the proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meeting (AAPOS) up to 2001. We contacted researchers who are active in the field for information about further published or unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of any surgical or non-surgical treatment for intermittent exotropia. Data collection and

  10. 自然资源资产及其负债表编制与审计%Natural Resources Assets and Balance Sheet of Natural Resources Asset Compilation and Auditing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷树忠

    2016-01-01

    自然资源资产仍然是一个新概念,还需要在理论和方法层面进行系统的研究。就当今及今后一个时期看,自然资源资产负债表的编制和自然资源资产审计,是亟需研究的理论和现实问题。在此,重点对自然资源资产的概念、属性、分类进行探讨,并就自然资源资产负债表及编制的重点与基础,自然资源资产审计及其重点与方式等,进行系统讨论。%Natural resources asset is one of the new concepts in China and abroad, and a lot of researches should be done both in theories and methods. At present and in the near future, preparing the balance sheets for natural resource assets and auditing of natural resource assets will be the key topics both from theoretical and practical aspects. In this paper, the concept, features and classifi cation of natural resource assets are being discussed, the natural resource assets balance sheet and auditing system of natural resource assets are being discussed, too.

  11. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  12. Remote Sensing Survey of Grassland Resources and Study of Grass-livestock Balance in Hangjin Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terigele; Yanhong; XU; Ying; LI; Quan; WU

    2015-01-01

    The data of this paper mainly include statistics,field survey data and MODIS remote sensing image data. This paper estimates the aboveground biomass of grassland and theoretical livestock carrying capacity of natural grassland in Hangjin Banner and draws a grass- livestock balance table in accordance with the actual and theoretical livestock carrying capacity of natural grassland. Studies have shown that the grass and livestock balance is good in Hangjin Banner,and the overloading rate is 1. 5%; there was no overloading in 2010 and 2011.

  13. Experimental performance evaluation of human balance control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huryn, Thomas P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Croft, Elizabeth A; Koehle, Michael S; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-11-01

    Two factors commonly differentiate proposed balance control models for quiet human standing: 1) intermittent muscle activation and 2) prediction that overcomes sensorimotor time delays. In this experiment we assessed the viability and performance of intermittent activation and prediction in a balance control loop that included the neuromuscular dynamics of human calf muscles. Muscles were driven by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The performance of the different controllers was compared based on sway patterns and mechanical effort required to balance a human body load on a robotic balance simulator. All evaluated controllers balanced subjects with and without a neural block applied to their common peroneal and tibial nerves, showing that the models can produce stable balance in the absence of natural activation. Intermittent activation required less stimulation energy than continuous control but predisposed the system to increased sway. Relative to intermittent control, continuous control reproduced the sway size of natural standing better. Prediction was not necessary for stable balance control but did improve stability when control was intermittent, suggesting a possible benefit of a predictor for intermittent activation. Further application of intermittent activation and predictive control models may drive prolonged, stable FES-controlled standing that improves quality of life for people with balance impairments. PMID:24771586

  14. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  15. Intermittency Growth in Fluid Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    @@ Measurement and phenomenological analyses of intermittency growth in an experimental turbulent pipe flow and numerical turbulence are performed, for which working definitions such as degree, increment, and growth rate of intermittency are introduced with the help of quasiscaling theory. The logarithmic-normal inertial scaling model is extended to quasiscaling as the second-order truncation of the Taylor expansion and is used for studying the intermittency growth problem. The extended self-similarity properties are shown to be not consistent with the monotonicity of the third order local quasiscaling exponent and the nonmonotonic behaviour of the intermittency growth rate as a result of bottleneck. Digestions of the results with scale-dependent multifractals are provided.

  16. Transition to renewable resources - energy balance comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems and potentials for the mitigation of fossil resource use

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, T.

    2013-01-01

    Today, agriculture and food production has major implications for the use of fossil energy and other resources, and a sustainable development implies transition towards new systems, based on renewable resources. The reduction of external inputs to the farm through efficient management of materials and energy is a central part of the organic principles (IFOAM 2013), and in most countries standards are implemented in the form of nationally adapted, organic farming regulations, with significa...

  17. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  18. Balancing Water Resources Development and Environmental Sustainability in Africa: A Review of Recent Research Findings and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. McClain

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent’s water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased wate...

  19. The Characteristics and Skills of Filipino Caregivers : FOW as human resources for work life balance in Japan (2)

    OpenAIRE

    IMAMURA, Taiko; Saito, Isamu; MIYAGI, Mariko

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of a social psychology research to compare work/life balance on an international basis, and to consider international mutual dependence of social support. Filipinos work all over the world as caregivers and behind the success of the Filipinos in the field of care service are the unique aspects of some skills and traits they bring along with them to foreign lands. Data was gathered to define the traits and cultural values most associated with Filipinos. The following are d...

  20. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Snelder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also

  1. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...

  2. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  3. Using uncertainty analysis and groundwater measurements to improve the confidence of river water balance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R.; Costelloe, J. F.; Western, A. W.; George, B.

    2013-10-01

    An improved understanding of water balances of rivers is fundamental in water resource management. Effective use of a water balance approach requires thorough identification of sources of uncertainty around all terms in the analysis and can benefit from additional, independent information that can be used to interpret the accuracy of the residual term of a water balance. We use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate a longitudinal river channel water balance and to identify its sources of uncertainty for a regulated river in south-eastern Australia, assuming that the residual term of this water balance represents fluxes between groundwater and the river. Additional information from short term monitoring of ungauged tributaries and groundwater heads is used to further test our confidence in the estimates of error and variance for the major components of this water balance. We identify the following conclusions from the water balance analysis. First, improved identification of the major sources of error in consecutive reaches of a catchment can be used to support monitoring infrastructure design to best reduce the largest sources of error in a water balance. Second, estimation of ungauged inflow using rainfall-runoff modelling is sensitive to the representativeness of available gauged data in characterising the flow regime of sub-catchments along a perennial to intermittent continuum. Lastly, comparison of temporal variability of stream-groundwater head difference data and a residual water balance term provides an independent means of assessing the assumption that the residual term represents net stream-groundwater fluxes.

  4. Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Homan, Gregory [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, Robert [Olivine, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Hernandez, John [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with direct participation of third-parties and customers including customer acceptance; market transformation challenges (wholesale market, technology); technical and operational feasibility; and value to the rate payers, DR resource owners and the utility on providing an enabling mechanism for DR resources into the wholesale markets. The customer had the option of committing to either three contiguous hour blocks for 24 days or six contiguous hours for 12 days a month with day-ahead notification that aligned with the CAISO integrated forward market. As a result of their being available, the customer was paid $10/ kilowatt (kW)-month for capacity in addition to CAISO energy settlements. The participants were limited to no more than a 2 megawatt (MW) capacity with a six-month commitment. Four participants successfully engaged in the pilot. In this report, we provide the description of the pilot, participant performance results, costs and value to participants as well as outline some of the issues encountered through the pilot. Results show that participants chose to participate with storage and the value of CAISO settlements were significantly lower than the capacity payments provided by the utility as incentive payments. In addition, this pilot revealed issues both on the participant side and system operations side. These issues are summarized in the report.The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with

  5. Bursts in intermittent aeolian saltation

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, M V; Herrmann, H J

    2014-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of intermittent flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the critical Shields number $\\theta_c$. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until saltation becomes non-intermittent and the sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain intermittent flux even below the threshold $\\theta_c$ for natural saltation initiation.

  6. Elastic wave turbulence and intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Josserand, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the onset of intermittency for vibrating elastic plate turbulence in the framework of the weak wave turbulence theory using a numerical approach. The spectrum of the displacement field and the structure functions of the fluctuations are computed for different forcing amplitudes. At low forcing, the spectrum predicted by the theory is observed, while the fluctuations are consistent with Gaussian statistics. When the forcing is increased, the spectrum varies at large scales, corresponding to the oscillations of nonlinear structures made of ridges delimited by d cones. In this regime, the fluctuations exhibit small-scale intermittency that can be fitted via a multifractal model. The analysis of the nonlinear frequency shows that the intermittency is linked to the breakdown of the weak turbulence at large scales only.

  7. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  8. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  9. Intermittency in spherical Couette dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Raynaud, Raphaël; 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.033011

    2013-01-01

    We investigate dynamo action in three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent spherical Couette flows. Close to the onset of dynamo action, the magnetic field exhibits an intermittent behavior, characterized by a series of short bursts of the magnetic energy separated by low-energy phases. We show that this behavior corresponds to the so-called on-off intermittency. This behavior is here reported for dynamo action with realistic boundary conditions. We investigate the role of magnetic boundary conditions in this phenomenon.

  10. Intermittent control of coexisting attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wiercigroch, Marian; Ing, James; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina

    2013-06-28

    This paper proposes a new control method applicable for a class of non-autonomous dynamical systems that naturally exhibit coexisting attractors. The central idea is based on knowledge of a system's basins of attraction, with control actions being applied intermittently in the time domain when the actual trajectory satisfies a proximity constraint with regards to the desired trajectory. This intermittent control uses an impulsive force to perturb one of the system attractors in order to switch the system response onto another attractor. This is carried out by bringing the perturbed state into the desired basin of attraction. The method has been applied to control both smooth and non-smooth systems, with the Duffing and impact oscillators used as examples. The strength of the intermittent control force is also considered, and a constrained intermittent control law is introduced to investigate the effect of limited control force on the efficiency of the controller. It is shown that increasing the duration of the control action and/or the number of control actuations allows one to successfully switch between the stable attractors using a lower control force. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23690639

  11. Bottom-up resource limitation: the ecosystem energy balance predicts the quality of nutrition in a herbivore prey population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Garcia, Monica; Gil, Esperanza;

    2014-01-01

    of the herbivore diet has been insufficiently tested. We hypothesized that in drylands, where water availability is a prime control of ecosystem functioning, remote sensing indicators of vegetation drought stress are critical to predict the nutritional quality of herbivore habitats. This hypothesis was analyzed...... of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and two remote sensing vegetation stress indicators: the Temperature Difference Vegetation Index (TVDI) and a latent heat flux index (Hr) calculated from the dynamics of surface temperature at each site. Generalized mixed models showed that temperature indices significantly......Vegetation greenness indices from remote sensing are increasingly used in population ecology studies assuming that land surface reflectance can reflect the availability of nutritional resources for primary consumers. However, the relationship between these indices and the characteristics...

  12. Resource load balancing scheme based on simulated annealing algorithm.%基于模拟退火算法的资源负载均衡方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金杉; 麦丰; 任波

    2011-01-01

    The load balancing problem of network resources in large-scale ERP systems is studied. Firstly,the demand of this issue is modeled and analyzed theoretically;secondly,a heuristic objective function which satisfies the host and network constraints is designed,and furthermore the model is transformed into the problem of degree-constrained minimum spanning tree;thirdly, a simulated annealing algorithm is designed to deal with the problem and a load balancing scheme based on the algorithm named LABS is proposed eventually. According to the theoretical analysis,the time complexity of the computation operated by the whole network is the square of the size of node.The simulation results show that, by selecting appropriate factors, the scheme not only can absorb most of the nodes to participate in load balancing operations, but also can reduce the bottlenecks of nodes and the average utilization rate of resources significantly.%针对大型ERP系统的网络资源负载均衡问题展开研究.在理论上对问题的需求进行建模分析,设计了满足主机和网络性能约束的启发式目标函数,将模型转化为度约束最小生成树问题,设计了一种模拟退火算法对此问题进行处理,提出了基于该算法的资源负载均衡方案LABS.理论分析表明,整个网络执行该方案的时间复杂度为节点规模的平方阶,说明方案具有较强的可用性与可伸缩性.仿真实验结果显示,通过选择适当的启发因子,算法不仅可以吸纳大部分节点协同参与负载均衡操作,还能够显著减少系统中的瓶颈节点数,降低平均资源使用率.

  13. A Resource Utilization Balance Strategy in P2P Trust Model%P2P信任模型中资源利用平衡策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓健; 李彤; 付铁威

    2014-01-01

    P2P节点中存在的日益严重的搭便车行为对网络的健壮性、可用性、服务响应速度和生命周期等造成了很大影响。设计合理而有效的P2P信任模型来抑制搭便车行为已成为研究的重点。因此借鉴社会经济发展策略,提出基于资源利用均衡的信誉评价方法即对资源贡献大,以及贡献与消费平衡的节点赋予高信誉度。促使节点在贡献资源时要考虑其他节点的需求,消费资源时则要衡量自身提供资源的能力;同时为新节点提供基本信誉度来保障其尽早开展资源交易。仿真实验表明搭便车行为受到有效抑制,网络资源的利用率明显提高。%The increasingly serious free riding behavior is prevalent in almost all P2P networks, which reduces the robustness, availability, service response speed, and lifetime of P2P networks. Research of the reasonable and effective P2P trust model to prohibit free-riders to contribute more to the system has become an important direction. Therefore, in reference to the social economic development strategy, the method of reputation equilibrium based on resources utilization is proposed, which a high degree of credibility is given the resource contribution nodes and the contribution and consumption balance nodes. The nodes consider other nodes' demand to contribute resources and measure their ability to consume resource. At the same time,it provides basic credibility to protect its resources for the new node as soon as possible to carry out transactions. Simulation results show that the free riding behavior is effectively restrainer and the resource utilization rate is increased.

  14. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  15. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  16. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach......The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...

  17. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  18. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals......' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes involved in both...

  19. 自然资源核算从账户到资产负债表:演进与启示%Natural Resource Accounting From Accounts to Balance Sheet:Evolution and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄溶冰; 赵谦

    2015-01-01

    通过梳理和分析自然资源核算的历史演进以及典型国家开展自然资源核算的实践经验,对自然资源核算账户、环境经济综合核算以及自然资源资产负债表的关系进行了辨析,指出作为生态文明建设中的一项重要制度创新,自然资源资产负债表与环境经济综合核算两种核算体系揭示和反映的重点不同,但两者都需要以自然资源核算账户为基础进行编制。自然资源资产负债表的构建有助于健全政府宏观会计体系,完善国家资产负债表的数据基础。%The evolution of natural resources accounting and typical countries'experience are arranged and analyzed in this paper.The relationship of natural resource accounts,integrated en-vironmental & economic accounting and natural resources balance sheet are explored.It is point-ed out that,as an important institutional innovation in the ecological civilization,natural re-sources balance sheet and integrated environmental & economic accounting have different implica-tions and different focuses,but both need natural resources account as their basis for preparation. The construction of the natural resource balance sheet is helpful to perfect the government macro accounting system,and can improve the data base of the national balance sheet.

  20. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of intermittent rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Stefan B.; Hoeve, Jasper; Sauquet, Eric; Leigh, Catherine; Bonada, Núria; Fike, Kimberly; Dahm, Clifford; Booij, Martijn J.; Datry, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent rivers (IRs) support high biodiversity due to their dynamic alternations between terrestrial and aquatic phases. They represent a large proportion of the river network. However the current knowledge on these ecosystems is limited. The international research project "Intermittent River Biodiversity Analysis and Synthesis" (IRBAS, www.irbas.fr) aims to collect and analyze data on IR biodiversity from France, Spain, North America and Australia. These activities ultimately should help in identifying relationships between flow regime components and ecological responses. The IRBAS project will provide guidelines for policy-makers and resource managers for effective water and habitat management, restoration and preservation. This work examines one of the aspects in the IRBAS project: studying the large-scale spatial distribution of IRs as well as the year-to-year variability of zero-flow events. IRs were described by two variables: the frequency of periods without flow (FREQ) per time period (months or years) and the total number of zero-flow days (DUR) in a specified time window (month or year). Daily discharge data from more than 1700 gauging stations with no significant human influence on flow were collected from France, Spain, Australia and conterminous United States. A minimum length of 30 years of data starting from 1970 was required with less than 5% of missing data. Climate data for France and Australia were also collected. A classification of perennial versus intermittent rivers was defined, with 455 stations out of the 1684 considered "intermittent", i.e. the gauging station records had, on average, at least 5 zero-flow days per year. The analysis of the subset of IRs showed that: - Greater than 50% of the IRs in the database is located in Australia, where only 35% of the stations are considered perennial. In Spain the proportion of IRs reaches 25%. The proportion of intermittent rivers in France (7%) is certainly underestimated as a consequence of

  1. Improved Intermittency Analysis of Individual Events

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, R. A.; Ziaja, B.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress on the event-by-event analysis of intermittent data by R. A. Janik and myself is reported. The intermittency analysis of single event data (particle moments) in multiparticle production is improved, taking into account corrections due to the reconstruction of history of a particle cascade. This approach is tested within the framework of the $\\alpha$-model.}

  2. Radiation characteristics of intermittence exhaust noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengdun; SHANG Chunyang; ZHAO Zhigang; SHI Weixiang

    2000-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics, the noise characteristics in the course of intermittence exhaust are investigated and the expressions for sound pressure level of the noise generated by single-pole source and quadrupole source in the intermittence exhaust noise are established. The effects of all parameters in pneumatic system on the noise are also comprehensively studied.

  3. COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

  4. Kinetic intermittency in magnetized plasma turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Teaca, Bogdan; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We employ magnetized plasma turbulence, described by a gyrokinetic formalism in an interval ranging from the end of the fluid scales to the electron gyroradius, to introduce the first study of kinetic intermittency, in which nonlinear structures formed directly in the distribution functions are analyzed by accounting for velocity space correlations generated by linear (Landau resonance) and nonlinear phase mixing. Electron structures are found to be strongly intermittent and dominated by linear phase mixing, while nonlinear phase mixing dominates the weakly intermittent ions. This is the first time spatial intermittency and linear phase mixing are shown to be self-consistently linked for the electrons and, as the magnetic field follows the intermittency of the electrons at small scales, explain why magnetic islands are places dominated by Landau damping in steady state turbulence.

  5. Intermittent dystonia in Hartnup disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, B T; Ampola, M G; Dietz, W H; Gilmore, H E

    1989-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl developed intermittent dystonic posture of the legs and eczematous dermatitis without ataxia. Qualitative and quantitative urine amino acid testing confirmed the diagnosis of Hartnup disease. Cranial computed tomography, electroencephalogram, electromyogram/nerve conduction study, posterior tibial somatosensory evoked potentials, 24-hour electroencephalographic telemetry, and metrizamide myelogram were normal. Spinal fluid hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration was less than or equal to 2 S.D. of normal; oral tryptophan loading (70 mg/kg) resulted in a two-fold rise in cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration. Tryptophan administered alone or with nicotinic acid failed to improve the dystonia; however, trihexyphenidyl (1-2 mg/kg/day) dramatically improved it. Hartnup disease should be considered in children with unexplained dystonia. PMID:2712944

  6. Intermittent transport in edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J. [Association EURATOM-Riso National Laboratory, Optics and Plasma Research, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The properties of low-frequency convective fluctuations and transport are investigated for the boundary region of magnetized plasmas. We employ a two-dimensional fluid model for the evolution of the global plasma quantities in a geometry and with parameters relevant to the scrape-off layer of confined toroidal plasmas. Strongly intermittent plasma transport is regulated by self-consistently generated sheared poloidal flows and is mediated by burst ejection of particles and heat from the bulk plasma in the form of blobs. Coarse grained probe signals reveal a highly skewed and flat distribution on short time scales, but tends towards a normal distribution at large time scales. Conditionally averaged signals are in perfect agreement with experimental measurements. (authors)

  7. Anisotropic Intermittency of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, K T; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B

    2013-01-01

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Els\\"asser field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multi-exponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  8. Metabolic consequences of intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is being recognized increasingly as the basis for the constellation of metabolic abnormalities that make up the metabolic syndrome, or Syndrome X. Insulin resistance is also the primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is currently reaching epidemic proportions by affecting more than 170 million people worldwide. A combination of environmental and genetic factors have led to a dramatic rise in visceral adiposity, the predominant factor causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Visceral adiposity is also the major risk factor for the development of Sleep Apnea (SA)--an association that has fueled interest in the co-morbidity of SA and the metabolic syndrome, but hampered attempts to ascribe an independent causative role for Sleep Apnea in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Numerous population and clinic-based epidemiologic studies have shown associations, often independent of obesity, between SA (or surrogates such as snoring) and measures of glucose dysregulation or type 2 diabetes. However, treatment of SA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has not been conclusive in demonstrating improvements in insulin resistance, perhaps due to the overwhelming effects of obesity. Here we show that in lean, otherwise healthy mice that exposure to intermittent hypoxia produced whole-body insulin resistance as determined by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and reduced glucose utilization in oxidative muscle fibers, but did not cause a change in hepatic glucose output. Furthermore, the increase in insulin resistance was not affected by blockade of the autonomic nervous system. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia can cause acute insulin resistance in otherwise lean healthy animals, and the response occurs independent of activation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:18269187

  9. Noise-driven activation in human intermittent control: a double-well potential model

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    In controlling unstable systems humans switch intermittently between the passive and active behavior instead of controlling the system in a continuous manner. The notion of noise-driven control activation provides a richer alternative to the conventional threshold-based models of intermittent motor control. The present study represents the control activation as a random walk in a continuously changing double-well potential. The match between the proposed model and the previous data on human balancing of virtual stick prompts that the double-well approach can aid in explaining complex dynamics of human behavior in control processes.

  10. Analytical approach to continuous and intermittent bottleneck flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbing, D.; Johansson, A.; Mathiesen, Joachim Kaj;

    2006-01-01

    Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20......Many-particle-inspired theory, Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows Udgivelsesdato: Oct. 20...

  11. Experiences of living with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberg, Louise; Andreassen, Sissel; Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine

    2012-03-01

    Intermittent claudication is a symptom caused by peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is associated with pain, impaired mobility and loss of control. Walking ability is reduced due to the pain, and both physical and social functions are often negatively affected, which may lead to patients feeling they are a burden to others. An interview study using a qualitative descriptive design to describe experiences of living with intermittent claudication caused by PAD was carried out during Winter and Spring 2009/2010. Fifteen people suffering from intermittent claudication were interviewed, and the interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Intermittent claudication greatly affects daily living. Six themes were identified: "Experiencing discomfort in the legs," "Moving around in a new way," "Feeling inconvenient when forced to stop," "Missing previous life," "Incorporating intermittent claudication in daily life," and "To lead a strenuous life." The main theme was "Adjusting to a restricted life." The findings show that intermittent claudication has a major impact on daily life. Apart from the severity of symptoms, how the illness is experienced differs among patients, depending on how active the ill person is or wants to be. These findings suggest that increased knowledge about living with intermittent claudication is important to understand the effects on the ill person's life, as a complement to physical examinations when planning individual treatment. PMID:22321401

  12. Intermittency and rough-pipe turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrafarin, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Recently, by analyzing the measurement data of Nikuradze, it has been proposed (N. Goldenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf{96}}, 044503, 2006) that the friction factor, $f$, of rough pipe flow obeys a scaling law in the turbulent regime. Here, we provide a phenomenological scaling argument to explain this law and demonstrate how intermittency modifies the scaling form, thereby relating $f$ to the intermittency exponent, $\\eta$. By statistically analyzing the measurement data of $f$, we infer a satisfactory estimate for $\\eta$ ($\\approx 0.02$), the inclusion of which is shown to improve the data-collapse curve. This provides empirical evidence for intermittency other than the direct measurement of velocity fluctuations.

  13. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  14. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  15. Evaluation Of Scheduling And Load Balancing Techniques In Mobile Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile communications and computing are strong interest of the scientific community in the Grid have led to research into the Mobile Grid. Based on a realistic Mobile Grid architecture we formulate the problem of job scheduling and load balancing techniques in a mobile environment and performance metrics. We extended the work by introducing a new scheduling policy and load balancing policy based on the notion of installments and intra cluster load balancing algorithm and continue the evaluation of the expanded set of scheduling and load balancing strategies in an effort to overcome the intermittent character of connectivity in a mobile environment. On real wireless traces, we demonstrated the superiority of the proposed policy, and showed the feasibility of a Mobile Grid system and design the efficient scheduling and load balancing policies subject to the underlying mobility were based a small part of the offered resources is wasted and a small part of the workload has to be processed again .The size of the installments increases as the size of the aborted fragments of the workload increases.

  16. Improved Intermittency Analysis of Single Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, R. A.; Ziaja, B.

    1998-01-01

    The intermittency analysis of single event data (particle moments) in multiparticle production is improved, taking into account corrections due to the reconstruction of history of a particle cascade. This approach is tested within the framework of the $\\alpha$-model.

  17. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulat...

  18. On-line intermittent connector anomaly detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper investigates a non-traditional use of differential current sensor and current sensor to detect intermittent disconnection problems in connectors. An...

  19. 基于水土资源平衡的农产品生产及贸易原则%Balance of water and soil resources based principles of agricultural production and trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 梁美社; 王慧阳; 王正中

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 Based on the virtual water and soil resources theory,the study was proceeded to provide information for planting structure optimization and trade principles of agricultural products by studying regional soil and water resources endowment coefficient and soil and water resources balance coefficient of different agricultural products.【Method】 We defined the virtual water and soil resources endowment coefficient,water and soil resource balance coefficient and their calculation method,then calculated and ordered soil and water resources endowment coefficient of agricultural products in different areas.At last,agricultural data in Gansu Province was used as a demonstration.【Result】 From the perspective of the food safety and sustainable development of agriculture,there were some problems in national water resources.In northern regions,preferential planting and exporting crops and agricultural products should be those with less balance coefficient of agricultural water and soil resources while it was quite different in southern regions.Thus,both southern and northern regions urgently need to strengthen irrigation and construction of water conservancy projects,and south regions should be the major agricultural producing area.High attention should be paid to the existing "North-to-South Food Transmission Project" which is unsustainable.【Conclusion】 The virtual endowment coefficient and balance coefficient of water and soil resources proposed here will make great contributions to ensure the balance of regional soil and water resources and agricultural sustainable development,agricultural product trade principles,agricultural planting structure optimization and food production safety.%【目的】在虚拟水、虚拟土理论基础上,研究区域不同农产品水土资源禀赋系数和水土资源平衡系数,为农产品种植结构优化及贸易原则提供参考。【方法】定义虚拟水土资源禀赋系数以及水土资源平衡系

  20. Insights from Intermittent Binocular Rivalry and EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Michael A.; Juliane eBritz

    2011-01-01

    Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical...

  1. Intermittent cyclophosphamide in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Beyer, Jannie M; Helin, Pekka

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with oral cyclophosphamide; in two cases this was supplemented with pulse treatment with methylprednisolone. Long term remission was induced in all three patients and was sustained until follow up at least nine months after the methylprednisolone was stopped. Leucopenia occurred but resolved when cyclophosphamide was reduced from daily to intermittent dosing. Intermittent treatment with cyclophosphamide, possibly in conjunction ...

  2. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  3. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2016-05-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulations, intermittent structures in the current density, vorticity, and Elsässer vorticities all have nearly identical statistical properties. We propose phenomenological explanations for the scalings based on general considerations of Elsässer vorticity structures. Finally, we examine the broader implications of intermittency for astrophysical systems.

  4. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  5. Study on Urban and Rural Medical and Health Resources Allocation Balance in China%我国城乡医疗卫生资源配置均衡性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张映芹; 王青

    2016-01-01

    China continuously stresses on its urban and rural medical and health resources ( URMHR) particularly the balancing issues. China's urban and rural medical and health resources allocation uneven performance in urban and rural residents'consumption of health care invest-ment proportion is not equal, the government budget for urban and rural health expenditure is unequal, distribution of human resources between urban and rural areas is unequal, urban and rural resources allocation of resources is not equal.The causes of medical resource allocation imbal-ance are the low level of rural economy in our country, the health service's ability to pay is low, China's urban and rural medical and health care' s spending way of resource allocation is not reasonable, the influence of urban and rural duality system on our country, and the Chinese govern-ment for differences in urban and rural medical and health resources.This paper argues that we should develop the Midwest rural economy, im-prove the quality of medical and health service, perfect rural medical security system, expand the scope of the disease protection, strengthen the construction of community health service, change the ideas, perfect the financial system, set up the mechanism of the government -led health care subsidies, increase social support four aspects to alleviate our country' s status of the urban and rural medical and health resources allocation which is not balanced.%我国城乡医疗卫生资源配置不均衡,其原因是我国部分地区农村医疗卫生服务支付能力低,城乡医疗卫生资源配置方式不合理,政府对城乡医疗卫生资源投入不均. 应大力发展中西部农村经济,提高医疗卫生服务质量;健全农村医疗保障制度,扩大疾病保障范围;加强基层社区医疗服务建设,改变现有就医观念;完善政府财政体制,建全医疗卫生补助机制.

  6. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  7. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field an...

  8. Method of intelligent recommendation of Web service resources towards users' balanced requirements%面向用户均衡需求的Web服务资源智能推荐方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平峰; 张慧; 章佩璐

    2012-01-01

    研究了满足用户在服务功能、服务属性和服务质量上的多层次均衡需求的Web服务资源智能推荐方法,解决了服务信息过载问题.现有服务推荐技术存在未考虑用户对服务多层次均衡需求的不足,结合Web服务资源的特点,综合考虑用户服务需求与候选服务群之间的多层次相似度,设计了综合Web服务资源的功能、属性和质量三个层次的适合度匹配算法,以及用户主观兴趣度匹配算法.通过这两个算法建立了面向用户均衡需求的个性化Web服务资源智能推荐方法,能将最大匹配度的Web服务资源推荐给目标用户.%This paper proposed an approach of intelligent recommendation of Web service resources to users. This approach can satisfy users' balanced multi-level requirements in service function, service attribute and service quality, as well as can solve the problem of service information overload. Present service recommendation techniques do not explore users' balanced multi-level requirements in service. Taking into consideration the characteristics of Web service resources and exploring the multi-level similarity between user's requirements in services and service resource candidates, this paper designed the algorithm of integrated fitness matching in function, attributes and quality of Web service resources, as well as algorithm of matching users' subjective interests. Through the above work, this paper proposed a method of personalized intelligent recommendation of Web service resources oriented towards users' balanced requirements. This method can ensure that the service resource with the maximum matching degree be recommended to the targeted user.

  9. Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Cerbus, R T

    2013-01-01

    The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R_{\\lambda}, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(\\delta u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(\\partial_x u), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent \\mu, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R_{\\lambda} but show signs of becoming gaussian as R_{\\lambda} increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(\\delta u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichn...

  10. 一种成本和时间均衡的网格资源分类优化调度策略%Grid Resource Classified Optimization Scheduling Strategy for Cost and Time Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚念民; 李昂; 陈金忠; 况奇伟

    2012-01-01

    针对时间和成本约束的网格资源调度问题,提出一种基于MinCTT算法的时间和成本均衡的网格资源分类优化调度算法.该算法综合考虑任务完成时间和执行成本两个Qos因素,由一个成本比值和时间比值的联合均衡值来综合衡量任务在资源上的完成时间和执行成本开销,根据任务估计平均价格,对资源进行分类调度.实验结果表明,该调度算法具有较好的调度性能,能有效的减少任务总的完成时间和执行成本,均衡因子的改变对该算法的调度性能影响较小,选择合适的均衡因子能实现优的调度.%Concerning the time and cost constraint for grid resource scheduling problem, a grid resource classified optimization scheduling algorithm for cost and time balancing which is based on MinCTT scheduling algorithm is proposed. The algorithm synthetically considers two kinds QoS factors; the makespan and execution cost of tasks. To comprehensively measure the makespan and execution cost of the task on the resource by a joint balancing value that form of a cost ratio and a time ratio, according to the estimated average price of tasks, to assort resources for scheduling, tasks. Experimental results show that our scheduling algorithm has better scheduling performance and can effectively reduce the overall makespan and execution cost of tasks. The change of balancing factors has a small impact on the performance of our scheduling algorithm, it can achieve good scheduling when proper balancing factors are choosed.

  11. The Water Balance of the Alps – What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps? Proceedings of the Conference held at Innsbruck University, 28-29 September 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Psenner, Roland; Lackner, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the conference “The Water Balance of the Alps. What do we need to protect the water resources of the Alps?” held in Innsbruck in September 2006. The aim of the conference was to present the view of researchers as well as of administrators, and to discuss the best way to protect sensitive waters, including ice and snow, of the Alps. Intensive discussions about the best way to protect sensitive water bodies in the Alps – either by implementing specific and ...

  12. The Mechanism of Balanced Development between Resource-Based Industry and Non-Resource-Based Industry:Based on the Analysis of Evolutionary Game Model of Cooperative Innovation%资源型产业与非资源型产业均衡发展机理--基于合作创新的演化博弈模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佑元; 程燕萍; 梅文文; 陈红斌

    2016-01-01

    The balanced development of resource-based industry and non-resource-based industry is the on-ly way to realize the transformation spanning development in resource-based regions.This article build the evolu-tionary game model to study the internal mechanism of balanced development between resources-based industry and non-resource-based industry from the perspective of cooperative innovation.The results show that the proba-bility of cooperative innovation is positive correlated with profit coefficient and further deepen cooperation intention coefficient , and is negatively correlated to cooperation cost coefficient.On this basis, we put forward some policy recommendations about the way to promote the balanced development of resource-based industry and non-re-source-based industry.%实现资源型产业与非资源型产业均衡发展是资源型区域转型跨越发展的必由之路。从资源型产业与非资源型产业合作创新视角,构建演化博弈模型,探求二者之间均衡发展的内部机理。研究表明,资源型产业和非资源型产业合作创新的概率与双方收益系数,及进一步深化合作意愿系数正相关,与双方合作成本系数负相关。在此基础上,提出促进资源型产业与非资源型产业均衡发展的政策建议。

  13. A fast algorithm for a three-dimensional synthetic model of intermittent turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Malara, Francesco; Nigro, Giuseppina; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic turbulence models are a useful tool that provide realistic representations of turbulence, necessary to test theoretical results, to serve as background fields in some numerical simulations, and to test analysis tools. Models of 1D and 3D synthetic turbulence previously developed still required large computational resources. A new wavelet-based model of synthetic turbulence, able to produce a field with tunable spectral law, intermittency and anisotropy, is presented here. The rapid algorithm introduced, based on the classic $p$-model of intermittent turbulence, allows to reach a broad spectral range using a modest computational effort. The model has been tested against the standard diagnostics for intermittent turbulence, i.e. the spectral analysis, the scale-dependent statistics of the field increments, and the multifractal analysis, all showing an excellent response.

  14. Magnetic field generation by intermittent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Chertovskih, R; Chimanski, E V

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field generation by convective flows in transition to weak turbulence is studied numerically. By fixing the Prandtl number at P=0.3 and varying the Rayleigh number (Ra) as a control parameter in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection of an electrically conducting fluid, a recently reported route to hyperchaos involving quasiperiodic regimes, crises and chaotic intermittent attractors is followed, and the critical magnetic Prandtl number ($P_m^c$) for dynamo action is determined as a function of Ra. A mechanism for the onset of on-off intermittency in the magnetic energy is described, the most beneficial convective regimes for dynamo action are identified, and how intermittency affects the dependence of $P_m^c$ on Ra is discussed.

  15. Intermittency and rough-pipe turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrafarin, Mohammad; Pourtolami, Nima

    2008-05-01

    Recently, by analyzing the measurement data of Nikuradze [NACA Tech. Memo No. 1292 (1950)], it has been proposed [N. Goldenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044503 (2006)] that the friction factor, f , of rough-pipe flow obeys a scaling law in the turbulent regime. Here, we provide a phenomenological scaling argument to explain this law and demonstrate how intermittency modifies the scaling form, thereby relating f to the intermittency exponent, eta . By statistically analyzing the measurement data of f , we infer a satisfactory estimate for eta ( approximately 0.02) , the inclusion of which is shown to improve the data-collapse curve. This provides empirical evidence for intermittency other than the direct measurement of velocity fluctuations.

  16. Chaos synchronization based on intermittent state observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guo-Hui; Zhou Shi-Ping; Xu De-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the method of synchronizing slave to the master trajectory using an intermittent state observer by constructing a synchronizer which drives the response system globally tracing the driving system asymptotically. It has been shown from the theory of synchronization error-analysis that a satisfactory result of chaos synchronization is expected under an appropriate intermittent period and state observer. Compared with continuous control method,the proposed intermittent method can target the desired orbit more efficiently. The application of the method is demonstrated on the hyperchaotic Rossler systems. Numerical simulations show that the length of the synchronization interval rs is of crucial importance for our scheme, and the method is robust with respect to parameter mismatch.

  17. Dynamics of desynchronized episodes in intermittent synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L Rubchinsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent synchronization is observed in a variety of different experimental settings in physics and beyond and is an established research topic in nonlinear dynamics. When coupled oscillators exhibit relatively weak, intermittent synchrony, the trajectory in the phase space spends a substantial fraction of time away from a vicinity of a synchronized state. Thus to describe and understand the observed dynamics one may consider both synchronized episodes and desynchronized episodes (the episodes when oscillators are not synchronous. This mini-review discusses recent developments in this area. We explain how one can consider variation in synchrony on the very short time-scales, provided that there is some degree of overall synchrony. We show how to implement this approach in the case of intermittent phase locking, review several recent examples of the application of these ideas to experimental data and modeling systems, and discuss when and why these methods may be useful.

  18. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  19. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell T Irwin

    Full Text Available Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements and proportions (nutrient balancing. Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1 lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2 abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3 primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons.

  20. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Celestia S

    2014-05-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer for decades; however, the choice of continuous or intermittent administration is a matter of debate. Two large phase III trials have reported results comparing these 2 forms of ADT administration. The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) PR-7 trial studied men with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and no evidence of metastatic disease after definitive or salvage radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy. The Southwest Oncology Group 9346 trial studied men with newly diagnosed hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. The primary end point in both trials was overall survival with a noninferiority design. The NCIC trial showed that the overall survival in men treated with intermittent ADT was not inferior to that of men treated with continuous ADT, but the SWOG trial was inconclusive regarding noninferiority. Certain domains of quality of life were better in the intermittent arms of both trials. If using ADT in the setting of biochemical relapse, intermittent ADT should be strongly considered over continuous ADT, except perhaps in patients with Gleason score of 8 or higher. In men with metastatic disease, continuous ADT remains the standard of care, because the SWOG trial did not establish noninferiority of intermittent ADT with respect to survival. However, for those with significant side effects from ADT, establishing the risk group, as determined by PSA value after 7 months of ADT or the presence of pain at diagnosis, may help guide the choice of intermittent versus continuous ADT in men with metastatic disease. PMID:24812139

  1. Informational Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Henrik Høeg

    2011-01-01

    The title of my talk is “Informational balance. Understanding Romance and Germanic Compounding in a lexico-typological perspective”. What I basically mean by informational balance is that semantic content is distributed systematically differently between nouns and verbs in the Romance and Germanic languages, and that this distribution is complementary. I shall explain that in detail in a minute, but first I shall introduce you to the problem, which I believe can be explained on the basis of t...

  2. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Christopher C.; Kuhrt, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague‐Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 ...

  3. Intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jamalipour, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe

  4. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  5. Intermittent demand : Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.; Babai, M. Zied

    2011-01-01

    The standard method to forecast intermittent demand is that by Croston. This method is available in ERP-type solutions such as SAP and specialised forecasting software packages (e.g. Forecast Pro), and often applied in practice. It uses exponential smoothing to separately update the estimated demand

  6. Current drive induced by intermittent trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakach, R. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gell, Y. [CET, Israel (Israel)

    1999-02-01

    We propose a mechanism for driving a current in a dispersive plasma based on intermittent trapping of electrons in a ponderomotive well generated by two- counterpropagating electron cyclotron waves. By choosing properly the parameters of the system, this mechanism is expected to induce a high efficiency current drive. (authors)

  7. Temporal and spatial intermittencies within Newtonian turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Anubhav; Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a pressure driven turbulent flow are performed in a large rectangular channel. Intermittent high- and low-drag regimes within turbulence that have earlier been found to exist temporally in minimal channels have been observed both spatially and temporally in full-size turbulent flows. These intermittent regimes, namely, ''active'' and ''hibernating'' turbulence, display very different structural and statistical features. We adopt a very simple sampling technique to identify these intermittent intervals, both temporally and spatially, and present differences between them in terms of simple quantities like mean-velocity, wall-shear stress and flow structures. By conditionally sampling of the low wall-shear stress events in particular, we show that the Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR) velocity profile, that occurs in viscoelastic flows, can also be approached in a Newtonian-fluid flow in the absence of any additives. This suggests that the properties of polymer drag reduction are inherent to all flows and their occurrence is just enhanced by the addition of polymers. We also show how the intermittencies within turbulence vary with Reynolds number. The work was supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-15-1-0062.

  8. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  9. An Elderly Woman With Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Wazir, Nayyer Naveed

    2006-01-01

    This case report illustrates the misdiagnosis of intermittent claudication in an elderly with multiple cardiac risk factors. Careful clinical evaluation and imaging shifts the diagnosis from peripheral vascular disease to spinal stenosis. The decision whether to offer conservative therapy or proceed to spinal surgery requires an accurate assessment of the severity of the symptoms without ignoring the important role of patient preferences.

  10. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  11. Mass balance calculation of the pyrolysates generated from marine crude oil: A prediction model of oil cracking gas resources based on solid bitumen in reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongShan; GENG AnSong; XIONG YongQiang; GENG XinHua

    2007-01-01

    Oil cracking gas plays an important role in the resources of natural gas in the basins with high and over mature marine source rocks in China. The prediction of the oil cracking gas resources becomes necessary and urgent in the gas exploration in these basins. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracking gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this prediction model were discussed. This model would enlighten and provide some new ideas for the resource assessment of natural gas in the high and over mature marine carbonate source rock areas in China. It is expected to be valuable in gas exploration.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENCY ON THE SPECTRAL ANISOTROPY OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Marsch, Eckart, E-mail: chuanyitu@pku.edu.cn [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian Albrechts University at Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    The relation between the intermittency and the anisotropy of the power spectrum in the solar wind turbulence is studied by applying the wavelet technique to the magnetic field and flow velocity data measured by the WIND spacecraft. It is found that when the intermittency is removed from the turbulence, the spectral indices of the power spectra of the field and velocity turn out to be independent of the angle θ{sub RB} between the direction of the local scale-dependent background magnetic field and the heliocentric direction. The spectral index becomes –1.63 ± 0.02 for magnetic field fluctuations and –1.56 ± 0.02 for velocity fluctuations. These results may suggest that the recently found spectral anisotropy of solar wind power spectra in the inertial range could result from turbulence intermittency. As a consequence, a new concept is here proposed of an intermittency-associated sub-range of the inertial domain adjacent to the dissipation range. Since spectral anisotropy was previously explained as evidence for the presence of a ''critical balance'' type turbulent cascade, and also for the existence of kinetic Alfvén waves, this new finding may stimulate fresh thoughts on how to analyze and interpret solar wind turbulence and the associated heating.

  13. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  14. Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a protective coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishing industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cleaning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aerobic biological treatment, water aeration accounts for a significant portion of the total operating cost of the treatment process. Intermittent aeration is thus of benefit since it would reduce the energy consumption in the wastewater treatment. In the present study, wastewater from an electro-coating process was treated biologically using a packed column as an aerator where the wastewater was aerated by a countercurrent air flow. The objective was to obtain an optimum aeration cycle. Approach: Intermittent aeration time was varied at different preset cycles. An operational optimum of the aeration time (or air-water contacting time in the column was determined from the BOD5 removal after a certain treatment period. For continuous aeration of the wastewater, the air-liquid contacting time in the column was 52 min for 24 h of treatment. A unit energy consumption for pumping liquid and air, which was defined as the energy consumption per percent BOD5 removed, was used as a criterion to determine the optimum contacting time. Results: Optimum air-liquid contacting times were found to be about 38, 26 and 22 min for the treatment times of 24, 48 and 72 h, consecutively. This indicates that 27-58% saving on the unit energy consumption can be achieved using intermittent aeration of the wastewater. On the basis of the overall BOD5 removal, 17% and 23% savings in energy were observed with the intermittent aeration as compared to the continuous aeration of the wastewater for 48 and 72 h. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that an appropriate intermittent aeration cycle can bring about a substantial energy saving

  15. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christopher C; Kuhrt, David M

    2016-04-01

    Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 days of intermittent heat exposure, reductions in evaporative water loss were observed in all animals and reductions in water intake following heat exposure occurred as the days of heat exposure increased. Rats that were not allowed water during the 7 days of exposure had decreased rehydration levels, however, rats allowed access to water increased water intake during exposure and exhibited higher overall rehydration levels over the same time period. Peripheral administration of angiotensinII, mimicking activation of volemic thirst, or hypertonic saline solution, activating intracellular thirst, did not result in alteration of water intake in rats exposed to heat with access to water compared to control rats. In contrast, rats exposed to heat without access to water had reduced water intake after administration of hypertonic saline and increased water intake after administration of angiotensinIIcompared to control rats. These experiments demonstrate that thirst responses to intermittent heat exposure are altered by providing water during heat exposure and that intermittent heat exposure without access to water alters drinking responses to both intracellular and extracellular thirst challenges. PMID:27095836

  16. Balancing firm and network-based resources to gain competitive advantage: A case study of an artisanal musical instruments cluster in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether firms gain competitiveness through local networks and clusters becomes more relevant than ever as globalization proceeds. This is particularly true for traditional and craft-based clusters, districts and business networks. A central question emerging for these types of networks is: (How) can they build competitive advantage using local production systems and network ties as core resources? The present article aims at shedding light on this issue by presenting a case st...

  17. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  18. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  19. The Feasibility Analysis of Property Tax and Resource Tax Act as the Main Local Tax——Based on the Perspective of Balanced Local Resources%房产税与资源税充当地方主体税种的可行性分析——基于地方财力均衡视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽琴

    2016-01-01

    营改增全面扩围后,营业税作为地方主体税种的作用将逐步消失,确立地方税主体税种,重构地方税系是目前我国财税体制改革面临的重大问题. 本文从均衡地方财力的视角探讨房产税与资源税充当地方税主体税种的可行性,通过SPSS对应分析发现房产税与资源税的税基分布与地区财力呈现互补性,其作为地方税主体税种不仅具有可行性,且能够起到均衡地区财力的作用. 未来应进一步完善房产税与资源税的征收体制,为其均衡地区财力,充当地方税主体税种做好准备.%After the overall expansion of Value added tax replaced business tax, the role of business tax as the main local tax will gradually disappear, establish the subject taxes, establishing the main local tax and refactoring local tax mechanism were major issues on the reform of finance-taxation system. This paper discuss the feasibility analysis of property tax and re-source tax act as the main local tax from the perspective of balanced local resources. Through the correspondence analysis of SPSS, it found that the resource distribution of property tax and resource tax presents complementary with financial capacity. Property tax and resource tax sever as the main local tax not only feasible but also can balance financial capacity. The future establishment of local tax systems should further perfect the tax levy systems of property tax and resource tax, preparing for them to serve as the main local tax and balance regional financial resources.

  20. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  1. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources

  2. Movement and resource use by a group of Alouatta pigra in a forest fragment in Balancán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Uncommonly observed behaviors were systematically recorded in a troop (n = 9 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting a small forest fragment (1.7 ha) in Leona Vicario, Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico. Between February 2002 and January 2003 (n = 499 h), we observed behaviors such as ground travel (85 occasions, total = 269 min/10.8% of total locomotion time), ground foraging (eight occasions, total = 50 min/0.84% of total feeding time) and drinking water pooled in tree holes (20 times, total = 93 min/0.31% of total activity time). Total time (412 min) for these non-resting behaviors (feeding and locomotion on the ground) is almost equivalent to time devoted to social activities (420 min). These behaviors indicate that howler monkeys may be responding to pressures imposed by the small size of the fragment by adopting diverse strategies to cover their basic nutritional needs in this environment. They accomplish this while exposing themselves to potential predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), as was observed once during the study. It is likely that these behaviors are occurring at an increasing rate among monkeys in fragmented landscapes. PMID:17136475

  3. Movement and resource use by a group of Alouatta pigra in a forest fragment in Balancán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Uncommonly observed behaviors were systematically recorded in a troop (n = 9 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting a small forest fragment (1.7 ha) in Leona Vicario, Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico. Between February 2002 and January 2003 (n = 499 h), we observed behaviors such as ground travel (85 occasions, total = 269 min/10.8% of total locomotion time), ground foraging (eight occasions, total = 50 min/0.84% of total feeding time) and drinking water pooled in tree holes (20 times, total = 93 min/0.31% of total activity time). Total time (412 min) for these non-resting behaviors (feeding and locomotion on the ground) is almost equivalent to time devoted to social activities (420 min). These behaviors indicate that howler monkeys may be responding to pressures imposed by the small size of the fragment by adopting diverse strategies to cover their basic nutritional needs in this environment. They accomplish this while exposing themselves to potential predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), as was observed once during the study. It is likely that these behaviors are occurring at an increasing rate among monkeys in fragmented landscapes.

  4. INTERMITTENCY AND SCALING IN TURBULENT CONVECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily S. C. CHING

    2003-01-01

    Both the velocity and temperature measurements taken in turbulent Rayleigh-B'enard convection experiments have been analyzed. It is found that both the velocity and temperature fluctuations are intermittent and can be well-described by the She-Leveque hierarchical structure. A positive correlation between the vertical velocity and the temperature differences is found both at the center,near the sidewall and near the bottom of the convection cell, supporting that buoyancy is significant in the Bolgiano regime. Moreover, the intermittent nature of the temperature fluctuations in the Bolgiano regime can be attributed to the variations in the temperature dissipation rate. However, the relations between the velocity and temperature structure functions and their correlations implied by the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling are not supported by experimental measurements.

  5. Insights from intermittent binocular rivalry and EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical approaches, including EEG microstates, event-related potentials, and statistically-based source estimation, and propose a spatio-temporal model that integrates findings from several studies. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using binocular rivalry as a tool to investigate the neural basis of perceptual awareness.

  6. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge. PMID:17484315

  7. Scaling and Intermittency in Animal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Harnos, A; Lawrence, A B; Vattay, G

    1999-01-01

    Scale-invariant spatial or temporal patterns and Lévy flight motion have been observed in a large variety of biological systems. It has been argued that animals in general might perform Lévy flight motion with power law distribution of times between two changes of the direction of motion. Here we study the temporal behaviour of nesting gilts. The time spent by a gilt in a given form of activity has power law probability distribution without finite average. Further analysis reveals intermittent eruption of certain periodic behavioural sequences which are responsible for the scaling behaviour and indicates the existence of a critical state. We show that this behaviour is in close analogy with temporal sequences of velocity found in turbulent flows, where random and regular sequences alternate and form an intermittent sequence.

  8. Intermittence and roughening of periodic elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze intermittence and roughening of an elastic interface or domain wall pinned in a periodic potential, in the presence of random-bond disorder in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. Though the ensemble average behavior is smooth, the typical behavior of a large sample is intermittent, and does not self-average to a smooth behavior. Instead, large fluctuations occur in the mean location of the interface and the onset of interface roughening is via an extensive fluctuation which leads to a jump in the roughness of order λ, the period of the potential. Analytical arguments based on extreme statistics are given for the number of the minima of the periodicity visited by the interface and for the roughening crossover, which is confirmed by extensive exact ground state calculations

  9. Intermittent enhancement in chronic nodular calcified neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oselkin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of new onset seizures and epilepsy in the developing and tropical world. There has been a marked increase in domestic cases of diseases traditionally associated with developing countries, and now NCC should be high on a radiologist's differential diagnosis list for a patient with seizures. Radiologic findings of NCC correlate with the parasite's life cycle within the host. The calcified granulomas signify the final stage (nodular calcified as nonenhancing punctate calcifications on imaging and are traditionally known to remain without enhancement. Here we describe a unique case of intermittent enhancement of a cortical calcified nodule secondary to NCC that was followed for over 10 years. Radiologists must challenge the traditionally accepted progression of imaging findings and accept that calcified nodules of chronic NCC may intermittently enhance.

  10. Radial evolution of solar wind intermittency in the inner heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Bavassano, B

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed intermittency in the solar wind, as observed on the ecliptic plane, looking at magnetic field and velocity fluctuations between 0.3 and 1 AU, for both fast and slow wind and for compressive and directional fluctuations. Our analysis focused on the property that probability distribution functions of a fluctuating field affected by intermittency become more and more peaked at smaller and smaller scales. Since the peakedness of a distribution is measured by its flatness factor we studied the behavior of this parameter for different scales to estimate the degree of intermittency of our time series. We confirmed that both magnetic field and velocity fluctuations are rather intermittent and that compressive magnetic fluctuations are generally more intermittent than the corresponding velocity fluctuations. In addition, we observed that compressive fluctuations are always more intermittent than directional fluctuations and that while slow wind intermittency does not depend on the radial distance from the ...

  11. Intermittent permeation of cylindrical nanopores by water

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Rosalind; Melchionna, Simone; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations of water molecules in nanometre sized cylindrical channels connecting two reservoirs show that the permeation of water is very sensitive to the channel radius and to electric polarization of the embedding material. At threshold, the permeation is {\\emph{intermittent}} on a nanosecond timescale, and strongly enhanced by the presence of an ion inside the channel, providing a possible mechanism for gating. Confined water remains surprisingly fluid and bulk-like. It...

  12. Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, Simona; Martens, Erik A; Thutupalli, Shashi; Torcini, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Two symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia m display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendulums. In particular, we report evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the other jumps erratically between laminar and turbulent phases. These states have finite lifetimes diverging as a power law with N and m. Lyapunov analyses reveal chaotic properties in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for globally coupled dissipative systems.

  13. Intermittently Flowing Rivers of Quantized Magnetic Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Nori, Franco

    1997-01-01

    Recent experiments and realistic flux-gradient-driven computer simulations provide evidence of plastic flow of flux lines in a superconductor. The striking videos of the onset of vortex motion vividly illustrate the existence of flowing "rivers" of quantized magnetic flux that intermittently form, freeze, and reappear at different locations in the sample. These rivers flow around "islands" (or domains) of flux lines which are temporarily trapped by the pinning sites. The shape and size of the...

  14. Challenging Oneself Intermittently to Improve Health

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and their predecessors evolved in environments where they were challenged intermittently with: 1) food scarcity; 2) the need for aerobic fitness to catch/kill prey and avoid or repel attackers; and 3) exposure to biological toxins present in foodstuffs. Accordingly, cells and organ systems acquired and retained molecular signaling and metabolic pathways through which the environmental challenges enhanced the functionality and resilience of the cells and organisms. Within the past 60 ye...

  15. 论学校布局对体育课程资源快速均衡发展的作用%Discussion on the Layout of the School Sports Curriculum Resources Fast and Balanced Development Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋东旭; 崔健

    2012-01-01

    the compulsory education school layout adjustment of the implementation of physical education curriculum and the development of a significant role, according to the layout of rural schools is not balanced development problems, combined with the characteristics of physical education curriculum resources, in the analysis of the layout adjustment of compulsory education policy background, origin, development and implementation on the basis of the layout of the school, to physical education curriculum resources, how to promote the sports curriculum in the implementation process of the balanced development and layout of rural schools in the future, how to actively promote the school layout adjustment work to provide the corresponding policy suggestions.%义务教育学校布局的调整对体育课程的实施与发展有很大的作用,根据农村学校布局不均衡发展的问题,结合体育课程资源的特点,在分析布局调整的义务教育学校的政策背景、起源、发展和实现的基础上,探讨学校布局对体育课程资源的作用,以怎样来促进体育课程在实施过程中的均衡发展以及在未来农村学校布局上,如何积极推进学校布局调整工作提供相应的政策建议.

  16. Intermittent control of unstable multivariate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, I; Gawthrop, P; Gollee, H

    2015-08-01

    A sensorimotor architecture inspired from biological, vertebrate control should (i) explain the interface between high dimensional sensory analysis, low dimensional goals and high dimensional motor mechanisms and (ii) provide both stability and flexibility. Our interest concerns whether single-input-single-output intermittent control (SISO_IC) generalized to multivariable intermittent control (MIC) can meet these requirements.We base MIC on the continuous-time observer-predictorstate-feedback architecture. MIC uses event detection. A system matched hold (SMH), using the underlying continuoustime optimal control design, generates multivariate open-loop control signals between samples of the predicted state. Combined, this serial process provides a single-channel of control with optimised sensor fusion and motor synergies. Quadratic programming provides constrained, optimised equilibrium control design to handle unphysical configurations, redundancy and provides minimum, necessary reduction of open loop instability through optimised joint impedance. In this multivariate form, dimensionality is linked to goals rather than neuromuscular or sensory degrees of freedom. The biological and engineering rationale for intermittent rather than continuous multivariate control, is that the generalised hold sustains open loop predictive control while the open loop interval provides time within the feedback loop for online centralised, state dependent optimisation and selection. PMID:26736539

  17. Water Resources Assessment and the Balance Analysis and Demonstration of Water Resources Planning of Haiyuan County%海原县水资源现状评价及水资源规划平衡分析论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生桢

    2012-01-01

    由于海原县干旱、缺水、生态环境脆弱及水土流失严重的自然条件,本文对海原县地表水、地下水和引客水的现状水量进行了详尽分析,并针对水利发展项目的需水量平衡分析是否满足需要.%Because of drought, water scarcity, fragile ecological environment and serious soil erosion of Haiyuan County, this paper analyzed the water status of surface water, groundwater and lead-off water of Haiyuan County, and explored whether the water balance analysis of water development projects meet the needs.

  18. Battery energy storage for intermittent renewable electricity production : A review and demonstration of energy storage applications permitting higher penetration of renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Görtz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Driven by resource politics and climate change, the transition from conventional fossil fuel based and centralized energy generation to distributed renewables is increasing rapidly. Wind and solar power generation offer carbon dioxide neutral electricity but also present some integration difficulties for energy system operators and planners due to intermittent power output. A promising way of dealing with the intermittency from renewables is energy storage. The method of storing energy in the...

  19. Balancing Subsurface Restrictions and Resource Access under Conditions of Changing Land Use at the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site closure decisions often rely on institutional controls, and one of the requirements of long-term management is monitoring and responding to changes in land use. This challenge is particularly acute for underground nuclear tests, where contaminants occur in mobile fluids (groundwater or natural gas) subject to resource extraction. The Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in Colorado in 1969 to evaluate the effectiveness of a nuclear detonation at stimulating natural gas production from the low-permeability Williams Fork Formation of the Mesaverde Group. After a period of production testing and surface cleanup, the site was deactivated in 1976, with a subsurface restriction on drilling intrusion within the 40-acre parcel surrounding the nuclear test well. Increasing natural gas exploration activities are causing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to assess if the original site institutional controls remain effective at protecting the public. To support the assessment of institutional controls, a numerical model was developed to simulate the movement of nuclear-test-produced tritiated water in both gas and liquid phases through the subsurface. Uncertainty in geometry of geologic units and in flow and transport properties was included in the model in order to identify the likely system behavior, as well as low-probability but potentially high-consequence behavior. Generally, conservative assumptions were used for many parameter distributions, consistent with the uncertainties inherent in the problem and the desire to err on the side of caution. The Monte Carlo modeling approach allows transport predictions to be understood in a probabilistic context, so that the expected behavior is identified, as well as the unlikely outcomes captured by the tail of the distribution. Model results indicate that tritium migration is not currently expected beyond the existing land restriction, but the model's primary purpose is as a platform for hypothesis testing of the

  20. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  1. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Shirzeh; Fazel Naghdy; Philip Ciufo; Montserrat Ros

    2015-01-01

    In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluct...

  2. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  3. Flow generation and intermittent transport in the scrape-off-layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on transport in the scrape-off-layer from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The particle balance in the SOL is described trough a steady-state model that utilizes profile measurements from reciprocating-probes. Experimental evidence of the non-uniformity in the poloidal distribution of particle outflux is found, with the highest outflux being concentrated in a narrow sector at the outboard midplane. High and intermittent fluctuations originating from the same outboard midplane sector are interpreted as the signature of the transport mechanisms that result in the time-averaged equilibrium. The radial convection of subsonic structures is assumed as the dominant transport process.

  4. Flow generation and intermittent transport in the scrape-off-layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr; Gunn, J.P.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Monier-Garbet, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pocheau, A. [IRPHE, 13384 Marseille (France)

    2009-06-15

    Results on transport in the scrape-off-layer from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The particle balance in the SOL is described trough a steady-state model that utilizes profile measurements from reciprocating-probes. Experimental evidence of the non-uniformity in the poloidal distribution of particle outflux is found, with the highest outflux being concentrated in a narrow sector at the outboard midplane. High and intermittent fluctuations originating from the same outboard midplane sector are interpreted as the signature of the transport mechanisms that result in the time-averaged equilibrium. The radial convection of subsonic structures is assumed as the dominant transport process.

  5. Intermittency as a universal characteristic of the complete chromosome DNA sequences of eukaryotes: From protozoa to human genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, S.; Larionov, S.; Poptsova, M.; Loskutov, A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale dynamical properties of complete chromosome DNA sequences of eukaryotes are considered. Using the proposed deterministic models with intermittency and symbolic dynamics we describe a wide spectrum of large-scale patterns inherent in these sequences, such as segmental duplications, tandem repeats, and other complex sequence structures. It is shown that the recently discovered gene number balance on the strands is not of a random nature, and certain subsystems of a complete chromosome DNA sequence exhibit the properties of deterministic chaos.

  6. UNSTEADY INTERMITTENT FLOW IN A ROTATING CURVED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian-an; SHEN Xin-rong; CHEN Hua-jun; ZHANG Ben-zhao

    2004-01-01

    The effects of rotation and intermittent fre quency on the flow transition of secondary flow and, main flow were examined in detail. Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns were found. A numerical study was performed to study the characteristics of unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe. Due to the rotation, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force could contribute to the unsteady intermittent flow and some complicated phenomena can be found. The results indicate that the unsteady intermittent flow are mainly characterized by five parameters: the Dean number Dn , the curvatureκ, the maximal force ratio F (of the Coriolis force to the centrifugal force in a cycle), the intermittent frequency parameter η(the ratio of a pulslating time to the cycle period), and the Womersley number α. Present works shows the natures of the unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe.

  7. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. Aft

  8. Acute intermittent porphyria in the puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute intermittent porphyria emerges as a result of partial defect of porphobilinogen deaminase and is manifested by repeated episodes of somatic, psychiatric and neurological disorders. The disease is conducted via the autosomaldominant gene of variable penetration, so most of the carriers never experience seizures. Timely making of diagnosis, screening of blood relatives of the patient and education of patients on avoidance of provoking factors are the key to adequate treatment. Case Outline. A 23-year-old patient having born the third child was hospitalized due to pains in the abdomen and convulsive seizures nine days after the vaginal delivery. At admittance, she suffered a generalized convulsive seizure of clonic-tonic type. The patient immediately underwent a complete clinical, laboratory, bacteriological and ultrasound examination. Bearing in mind the fact that the patient had several convulsive seizures even after the given neurological therapy, haem-arginate was introduced into therapy during four days. The administration of haem-arginate led to the normalization of blood pressure, pulse and bowel function. The administration of haem-arginate led to the normalization of blood pressure, pulse and bowel function. The patient was treated by a team of doctors, in the intensive care ward, with the use of medicaments, which are allowed in the case of acute porphyria. Sixteen days after the admittance, with clean neurological status and gynaecological and ultra-sound findings, she was released for ambulatory treatment. Conclusion. The presented case exhibits the gravity of making a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria in puerperium and the necessity of multi-disciplinary approach in treating this disease. Acute intermittent porphyria should be considered in cases of ambiguous abdominal pain, as well as in patients having abdominal pains followed by neuro-psychiatric disorders.

  9. [Acute intermittent porphyria and inappropriate ADH syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tébar, M T; Aguilera, L

    2010-05-01

    A 44-year-old woman complained of abdominal pain of 4 days' duration accompanied by vomiting and painful urination. The admitting physician noted neurologic signs consistent with axonal polyneuropathy and hyponatremia. In the absence of other explanations for the syndrome, SIADH was diagnosed. Because of the nonspecific nature of the observations, the patient was assessed by various specialists and admitted to the anesthetic recovery unit due to worsening of neurologic signs and suspicion of acute intermittent porphyria. The diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory findings of elevated d-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen levels and normal stool porphyrins. The patient improved with intravenous hematin infused over 4 days.

  10. Intermittency pattern of fluctuations in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of scaled factorial moments is used to study fluctuations of the fragment size distribution in the percolation model and in nuclear multifragmentation following the breakup of the high energy nuclei in the nuclear emulsion. The percolation model accounts well for the fluctuations in the nuclear fragmentation process. An intermittent pattern of fluctuations is found in the data suggesting a self-similarity in the fragment size distribution and a random character for the scaling law. However, no evidence of the critical behaviour in nuclear multifragmentation is found. (orig.)

  11. Transition to turbulence, intermittence, and vortex fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bershadskii, A.G.

    1985-09-01

    A model is developed which describes the fluctuation coalescence of vortices at moderately high Reynolds numbers. The model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data on (1) flow intermittence in a boundary layer, a round jet, and a plane wake; (2) the effect of a magnetic field on the formation of a turbulent energy spectrum behind a grid and on turbulent fluctuations and friction in ducts; (3) formation of a turbulent energy spectrum in a boundary layer and in ducts. 12 references.

  12. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    (Yo-Yo IR2) determines an individual's ability to recover from repeated exercise with a high contribution from the anaerobic system. Evaluations of elite athletes in various sports involving intermittent exercise showed that the higher the level of competition the better an athlete performs in the Yo......-Yo IR tests. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR tests for young athletes increases with rising age. The Yo-Yo IR tests have shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in performance than maximum oxygen uptake. The Yo-Yo IR tests provide a simple and valid way to obtain important information...

  13. Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release following intermittent sprint training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Lunde, Per; Levin, Kasper;

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intermittent sprint training on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function, nine young men performed a 5 wk high-intensity intermittent bicycle training, and six served as controls. SR function was evaluated from resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, before and after...... the training period. Intermittent sprint performance (ten 8-s all-out periods alternating with 32-s recovery) was enhanced 12% (P sprint training induced a significantly higher (P

  14. 统筹城乡发展中的农村资源与环境问题及其对策研究%Rural Resources, Environmental Problems and Their Countermeasures in Balancing Urban-rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超英; 刘荣志; 段晓红; 郭占芹

    2011-01-01

    The period of twelfth five-year was the key time of overall construction of comparatively well-off society and the critical period of deepening reform and further changing the pattern of economic growth. Balancing urban-rural development was the guiding principle and the core of policy system as an important way of changing the pattern of economic growth. Starting with the connotation of balancing urban-rural development, the author analyzed the situation, problems and the sources which the rural resources must face. Finally, the author put forward some related countermeasures in response to reform the traditional enterprises, executed a rural clean-up project, adjusted agriculture industrial structure, advance clean production methods in agriculture and scientifically raise peasants and cultural quality.%“十二五”时期是全面建设小康社会的关键时期,是深化改革开放、加快转变经济发展方式的攻坚时期.作为转变经济发展方式的重要途径,统筹城乡发展也是现阶段“三农”工作的指导思想与政策支持体系的核心内容.从统筹城乡发展的内涵入手,分析了统筹城乡发展中的农村资源与环境面临的形势、问题及其根源,并从改造传统产业、实施农村清洁工程、调整农业产业结构、推进农业清洁生产和提高农民科学素质等多个方面提出了应对之策.

  15. Intermittent lag synchronization in a driven system of coupled oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander N Pisarchik; Rider Jaimes-Reátegui

    2005-04-01

    We study intermittent lag synchronization in a system of two identical mutually coupled Duffing oscillators with parametric modulation in one of them. This phenomenon in a periodically forced system can be seen as intermittent jump from phase to lag synchronization, during which the chaotic trajectory visits a periodic orbit closely. We demonstrate different types of intermittent lag synchronizations, that occur in the vicinity of saddle-node bifurcations where the system changes its dynamical state, and characterize the simplest case of period-one intermittent lag synchronization.

  16. Projective synchronization of a hyperchaotic system via periodically intermittent control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jun-Jian; Li Chuan-Dong; Zhang Wei; Wei Peng-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We further study the projective synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system.Different from the most existing methods,intermittent control is applied to chaotic synchronization in the present paper.We formulate the intermittent control system that governs the dynamics of the projective synchronization error,then derive the sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of intermittent control system by using the Lyapunov stability theory,and finally establish the periodically intermittent controller according to the stability criterion by which the projective synchronization is expected to be achieved.The analytical results are also demonstrated by several numerical simulations.

  17. Strain intermittency in shape-memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandraud, Xavier; Barrera, Noemi; Biscari, Paolo; Grédiac, Michel; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    We study experimentally the intermittent progress of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be single crystal through a full-field measurement technique: the grid method. We utilize an in-house, specially designed gravity-based device, wherein a system controlled by water pumps applies a perfectly monotonic uniaxial load through very small force increments. The sample exhibits hysteretic superelastic behavior during the forward and reverse cubic-monoclinic transformation, produced by the evolution of the strain field of the phase microstructures. The in-plane linear strain components are measured on the sample surface during the loading cycle, and we characterize the strain intermittency in a number of ways, showing the emergence of power-law behavior for the strain avalanching over almost six decades of magnitude. We also describe the nonstationarity and the asymmetry observed in the forward versus reverse transformation. The present experimental approach, which allows for the monitoring of the reversible martensitic transformation both locally and globally in the crystal, proves useful and enhances our capabilities in the analysis and possible control of transition-related phenomena in shape-memory alloys.

  18. Intermittent heat instabilities in an air plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Perrier, Frederic; Morat, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    We report the results of heating experiments carried out in an abandoned limestone quarry close to Paris, in an isolated room of a volume of about 400 m3. A heat source made of a metallic resistor of power 100 W was installed on the floor of the room, at distance from the walls. High-quality temperature sensors, with a response time of 20 s, were fixed on a 2 m long bar. In a series of 24 h heating experiments the bar had been set up horizontally at different heights or vertically along the axis of the plume to record changes in temperature distribution with a sampling time varying from 20 to 120 s. When taken in averages over 24 h, the temperatures present the classical shape of steady-state plumes, as described by classical models. On the contrary, the temperature time series show a rich dynamic plume flow with intermittent trains of oscillations, spatially coherent, of large amplitude and a period around 400 s, separated by intervals of relative quiescence whose duration can reach several hours. To our knowledge, no specific theory is available to explain this behavior, which appears to be a chaotic interaction between a turbulent plume and a stratified environment. The observed behavior, with first-order factorization of a smooth spatial function with a global temporal intermittent function, could be a universal feature of some turbulent plumes in geophysical environments.

  19. Influence of Dehydration on Intermittent Sprint Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon-Kyle; Laurent, C Matt; Allen, Kimberly E; Green, J Matt; Stolworthy, Nicola I; Welch, Taylor R; Nevett, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of dehydration on intermittent sprint performance and perceptual responses. Eight male collegiate baseball players completed intermittent sprints either dehydrated (DEHY) by 3% body mass or euhydrated (EU). Body mass was reduced through exercise in the heat with controlled fluid restriction occurring 1 day before the trial. Participants completed twenty-four 30-m sprints divided into 3 bouts of 8 sprints with 45 seconds of rest between each sprint and 3 minutes between each bout. Perceived recovery status (PRS) scale was recorded before the start of each trial. Heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (0-10 OMNI scale), and perceived readiness (PR) scale were recorded after every sprint, and session RPE (SRPE) was recorded 20 minutes after completing the entire session. A 2 (condition) × 3 (bout of sprints) repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of condition on mean sprint time (p = 0.03), HR (p Dehydration impaired sprint performance, negatively altered perception of recovery status before exercise, and increased RPE and HR response.

  20. Shearing of Materials with Intermittent Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymatou, Eleni; Triantafyllidis, Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    The strength of fractures is much lower as a rule than that of intact rock. As a result they play a controlling part in the mechanical behaviour in general and the failure in particular of rock mass. Though a large volume of experimental data is available on the shear resistance of joints, as well as on the propagation of single cracks, the same is not true for the mechanical behaviour of intermittent joints. The experimental data available in this case are limited and the strength of rock mass with intermittent joints is usually modelled using averaged values of cohesion or assuming the fractures to be continuous. In the present work, the results of simple shear tests on a series of gypsum specimens with pre-existing cracks are presented. Twelve different crack orientations and two normal stresses were tested. The hypothesis of averaged cohesion and the theory of fracture mechanics are used to reproduce the results. It is found that fracture mechanics provides a more suitable model for the experimental results, especially when crack interaction is taken into account.

  1. Challenging oneself intermittently to improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2014-12-01

    Humans and their predecessors evolved in environments where they were challenged intermittently with: 1) food scarcity; 2) the need for aerobic fitness to catch/kill prey and avoid or repel attackers; and 3) exposure to biological toxins present in foodstuffs. Accordingly, cells and organ systems acquired and retained molecular signaling and metabolic pathways through which the environmental challenges enhanced the functionality and resilience of the cells and organisms. Within the past 60 years there has been a precipitous diminution of such challenges in modern societies because of the development of technologies that provide a continuous supply of energy-dense processed foods and that largely eliminate the need for physical exertion. As a consequence of the modern 'couch potato' lifestyle, signaling pathways that mediate beneficial effects of environmental challenges on health and disease resistance are disengaged, thereby rendering people vulnerable to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Reversal of the epidemic of diseases caused by unchallenging lifestyles will require a society-wide effort to re-introduce intermittent fasting, exercise and consumption of plants containing hormetic phytochemicals into daily and weekly routines. PMID:25552960

  2. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h. Po....... Postoperative pain, assessed repeatedly during the initial 48 h, was prevented during rest, mobilization from the supine to the sitting position and during walking, in all but one patient; slight pain was observed intermittently during coughing in four patients....

  3. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  4. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  5. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan;

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868.5955 Section 868.5955 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  7. Intermittent Versus Continuous Phototherapy for Reducing Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoo Niknafs; Bahare Bahman-Bijari; Mohammad Hossein Torabinejad; Abdol-Ali Mortazavi; Pedram Niknafs

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Clinical studies comparing intermittent versus continuous phototherapy for reducing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have produced conflicting results. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of intermittent with continuous phototherapy. Methods: This study was performed on 114 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Inclusion criteria were body weight above 2000 grams, absence of other concomitant diseases, and hyperbilirubinemia neither requiring intensive phototherapy nor...

  8. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  9. Intermittent versus Continuous Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Annette Sandahl; Lange, Christa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the delivery of the same amount of intermittent versus continuous physiotherapy given to children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was organized either in an intermittent regime four times a week for 4 weeks alternating with a 6-week treatment pause, or a continuous once or twice a week regime, both…

  10. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  11. Voltage Stability Evaluation Incorporating Wind Power Intermittency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libao SHI; Yang ZHAO; Yixin NI; Liangzhong YAO; Masoud BAZARGAN

    2013-01-01

    A simulation framework is proposed to evaluate the voltage stability of power systems incorporating wind power intermittency.Firstly,the power output modelings of three types of wind turbines are discussed.Secondly,the Jensen model is employed to simulate the wind farm with the wake effect.The Monte Carlo based technique is used to conduct the voltage stability evaluation incorporating the randomness of the wind speed based on the Weibull probability distribution.Thirdly,the relative sensitivity index (RSI) is calculated to identify weak buses during analysis.Finally,case studies with different simulation scenarios are carried out.Some statistical results involving weakness probability,expected value and variance of RSI as well as preliminary conclusions are drawn based on numerical simulation results.

  12. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump...... are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration...... using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration...

  13. Intermittency of Energy Dissipation in Alfvenic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Chen, Christopher H K

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the intermittency of energy dissipation in Alfvenic turbulence by considering the statistics of the coarse-grained energy dissipation rate, using direct measurements from numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and surrogate measurements from the solar wind. We compare the results to the predictions of the log-normal and log-Poisson random cascade models. We find that, to a very good approximation, the log-normal model describes the probability density function for the energy dissipation over a broad range of scales, but does not accurately describe the scaling exponents of the moments. The log-Poisson model better describes the scaling exponents of the moments, while the comparison with the probability density function is not straightforward.

  14. Muscle coordination changes during intermittent cycling sprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Basset, Fabien A; Falgairette, Guy

    2005-06-01

    Maximal muscle power is reported to decrease during explosive cyclical exercises owing to metabolic disturbances, muscle damage, and adjustments in the efferent neural command. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of inter-muscle coordination in fatigue occurrence during 10 intermittent 6-s cycling sprints, with 30-s recovery through electromyographic activity (EMG). Results showed a decrease in peak power output with sprint repetitions (sprint 1 versus sprint 10: -11%, Pversus sprint 10: -90.2 ms, Pcycling sprints of short duration, decreased possibly due to the inability of muscles to maintain maximal force. This reduction in maximal power output occurred in parallel to changes in the muscle coordination pattern after fatigue. PMID:15862899

  15. Scintillation-Induced Intermittency in SETI

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, J M; Sagan, Carl Edward; Cordes, James M.; Sagan, Carl

    1997-01-01

    We consider interstellar scintillations as a cause of intermittency in radio signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). We demonstrate that scintillations are very likely to allow initial detections of narrowband signals from distant sources (> 100 pc), while making redetections improbable. We consider three models in order to assess the non-repeating, narrowband events found in recent SETI and to analyze large surveys in general: (I) Radiometer noise; (II) A population of constant Galactic sources undergoing interstellar scintillation,; and (III) Real, transient signals (or hardware errors) of either terrestrial or ET origin. We apply likelihood and Bayesian tests of the models to The Planetary Society/Harvard META data. We find that Models II and III are both highly preferred to Model I, but that Models II and III are about equally likely. Ruling out Model II in favor of Model III requires many more reobservations than were conducted in META *or* the reobservation threshold must be much lower than wa...

  16. Finite dissipation and intermittency in magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mininni, P D

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of data stemming from numerical simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to grid resolution of 1536^3 points and up to Taylor Reynolds number of 1200. The initial conditions are such that the initial velocity and magnetic fields are helical and in equipartition, while their correlation is negligible. Analyzing the data at the peak of dissipation, we show that the dissipation in MHD seems to asymptote to a constant as the Reynolds number increases, thereby strengthening the possibility of fast reconnection events in the solar environment for very large Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, intermittency of MHD flows, as determined by the spectrum of anomalous exponents of structure functions of the velocity and the magnetic field, is stronger than for fluids, confirming earlier results; however, we also find that there is a measurable difference between the exponents of the velocity and those of the magnetic field, as observed recently in the solar wind. Finally, we discu...

  17. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  18. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. PMID:26384657

  19. Aerodynamic surface stress intermittency and conditionally averaged turbulence statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Lanigan, David

    2015-11-01

    Aeolian erosion is induced by aerodynamic stress imposed by atmospheric winds. Erosion models prescribe that sediment flux, Q, scales with aerodynamic stress raised to exponent, n, where n > 1 . Since stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with incoming velocity squared, u2, it follows that q ~u2n (where u is some relevant component of the flow). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-mean may be important for aeolian activity. This rationale is augmented given that surface layer turbulence exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. To illustrate the importance of stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over an arid, bare landscape. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. We characterize geometric attributes of such structures and explore streamwise and vertical vorticity distribution within the conditionally averaged flow field. This work was supported by the National Sci. Foundation, Phys. and Dynamic Meteorology Program (PM: Drs. N. Anderson, C. Lu, and E. Bensman) under Grant # 1500224. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.

  20. The resource pooling principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wischik, Damon; Handley, Mark; Bagnulo, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Since the ARPAnet, network designers have built localized mechanisms for statistical multiplexing, load balancing, and failure resilience, often without understanding the broader implications. These mechanisms are all types of resource pooling, whichmeans making a collection of resources behave like a single pooled resource. We believe that the natural evolution of the Internet is that it should achieve resource pooling by harnessing the responsiveness of multipath-capable end systems. We arg...

  1. Comprehensive Solutions for Integration of Solar Resources into Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, Kenneth [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Makarov, Yuri V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rajagopal, Sankaran [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Loutan, Clyde [California Independent System Operator; Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Laurie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lu, Bo [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Mansingh, Ashmin [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Zack, John [MESO, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sherick, Robert [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Romo, Abraham [Southern California Edison; Habibi-Ashrafi, Farrokh [Southern California Edison; Johnson, Raymond [Southern California Edison

    2016-01-14

    The need for proactive closed-loop integration of uncertainty information into system operations and probability-based controls is widely recognized, but rarely implemented in system operations. Proactive integration for this project means that the information concerning expected uncertainty ranges for net load and balancing requirements, including required balancing capacity, ramping and ramp duration characteristics, will be fed back into the generation commitment and dispatch algorithms to modify their performance so that potential shortages of these characteristics can be prevented. This basic, yet important, premise is the motivating factor for this project. The achieved project goal is to demonstrate the benefit of such a system. The project quantifies future uncertainties, predicts additional system balancing needs including the prediction intervals for capacity and ramping requirements of future dispatch intervals, evaluates the impacts of uncertainties on transmission including the risk of overloads and voltage problems, and explores opportunities for intra-hour generation adjustments helping to provide more flexibility for system operators. The resulting benefits culminate in more reliable grid operation in the face of increased system uncertainty and variability caused by solar power. The project identifies that solar power does not require special separate penetration level restrictions or penalization for its intermittency. Ultimately, the collective consideration of all sources of intermittency distributed over a wide area unified with the comprehensive evaluation of various elements of balancing process, i.e. capacity, ramping, and energy requirements, help system operators more robustly and effectively balance generation against load and interchange. This project showed that doing so can facilitate more solar and other renewable resources on the grid without compromising reliability and control performance. Efforts during the project included

  2. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  3. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Anca Daniela HANSEN; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the s...

  4. A Conservation Voltage Reduction Scheme for a Distribution Systems with Intermittent Distributed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyeong-Ik Hwang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a conservation voltage reduction (CVR scheme is proposed for a distribution system with intermittent distributed generators (DGs, such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. The CVR is a scheme designed to reduce energy consumption by lowering the voltages supplied to customers. Therefore, an unexpected under-voltage violation can occur due to the variation of active power output from the intermittent DGs. In order to prevent the under-voltage violation and improve the CVR effect, a new reactive power controller which complies with the IEEE Std. 1547TM, and a parameter determination method for the controller are proposed. In addition, an optimal power flow (OPF problem to determine references for the resources of CVR is formulated with consideration of the intermittent DGs. The proposed method is validated using a modified IEEE 123-node test feeder. With the proposed method, the voltages of the test system are maintained to be greater than the lower bound, even though the active power outputs of the DGs are varied. Moreover, the CVR effect is improved compared to that used with the conventional reactive power control methods.

  5. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  6. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  7. Identification of intermittent control in man and machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent from continuous control; here, we present such a method. The identification experiment uses a special paired-step set-point sequence. The corresponding data analysis use a conventional ARMA model to relate a theoretically derived equivalent set-point to control signal; the novelty lies in sequentially and iteratively adjusting the timing of the steps of this equivalent set-point to optimize the linear time-invariant fit. The method was verified using realistic simulation data and was found to robustly distinguish not only between continuous and intermittent control but also between event-driven intermittent and clock-driven intermittent control. When applied to human pursuit tracking, event-driven intermittent control was identified, with an intermittent interval of 260-310 ms (n = 6, p < 0.05). This new identification method is applicable for machine and biological applications. PMID:22491973

  8. Forecast of water resources supply and demand as well as balance analysis in Malian river basin%马莲河流域水资源供需量预测及平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅玉; 张新民; 金毅

    2014-01-01

    .The total amount of water require-ment and supply is 1033 and 872 million cubic meter ,and water shortage rate is 15 .62%.The allocation scheme of water resources according to supply and demand balance can decrease the integrated water shortage rate year after year and impel the water resource of basin to better service for the socio-economic high-speed development , and improve the level of water supply and water use .The result can provide strong protection and support for production and life safety in the basin .

  9. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed...... to intermittent therapy shows twice as much granulation tissue formation than that exposed to continuous pressure after 2 weeks of therapy. The present study was designed to elucidate the differences in microvascular blood flow in the left anterior descending artery area between continuous and intermittent...

  10. Photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in dielectric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, A.

    2006-08-11

    The experimental studies presented in this thesis deal with the photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in different dielectric environments. Detailed analysis of intermittency statistics from single capped CdSe/ZnS, uncapped CdSe and water dispersed CdSe/ZnS QDs in different matrices provide experimental evidence for the model of photoionization with a charge ejected into the surrounding matrix as the source of PL intermittency phenomenon. We propose a self-trapping model to explain the increase of dark state lifetimes with the dielectric constant of the matrix. (orig.)

  11. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  12. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  13. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  14. 30 CFR 816.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 816.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All surface mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit and...

  15. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§...

  16. Sex differences associated with intermittent swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Libman, Matthew K; Wooten, Katherine L; Drugan, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Various animal models of depression have been used to seek a greater understanding of stress-related disorders. However, there is still a great need for novel research in this area, as many individuals suffering from depression are resistant to current treatment methods. Women have a higher rate of depression, highlighting the need to investigate mechanisms of sex differences. Therefore, we employed a new animal model to assess symptoms of depression, known as intermittent swim stress (ISS). In this model, the animal experiences 100 trials of cold water swim stress. ISS has already been shown to cause signs of behavioral depression in males, but has yet to be assessed in females. Following ISS exposure, we looked at sex differences in the Morris water maze and forced swim test. The results indicated a spatial learning effect only in the hidden platform task between male and female controls, and stressed and control males. A consistent spatial memory effect was only seen for males exposed to ISS. In the forced swim test, both sexes exposed to ISS exhibited greater immobility, and the same males and females also showed attenuated climbing and swimming, respectively. The sex differences could be due to different neural substrates for males and females. The goal of this study was to provide the first behavioral examination of sex differences following ISS exposure, so the stage of estrous cycle was not assessed for the females. This is a necessary future direction for subsequent experiments. The current article highlights the importance of sex differences in response to stress.

  17. Cutaneous sporotrichosis. Intermittent treatment (pulses) with itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Fierro, Leonel; Saúl, Amado; Ponce, Rosa María

    2008-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous and exceptionally deep mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Itraconazole is a triazole derivative leading to good results in the treatment of sporotrichosis. Patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis proven with mycological tests (direct examination and culture) were enrolled. All patients underwent laboratory tests (at baseline and on a monthly basis) and received oral itraconazole 400 mg/day for one week with a 3-week break (pulses); thereafter the drug was administered as pulses until clinical and mycological cure was achieved. Five patients with sporotrichosis were enrolled, 4 with cutaneous lymphangitic form and one with fixed cutaneous form. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 4/5 cases (80%), with a mean number of pulses of 3.5. No patient had side effects and no laboratory test abnormalities occurred. Intermittent or pulsed itraconazole was effective in treating cutaneous sporotrichosis. It may be considered as a new treatment choice that entails an important reduction in total medication use.

  18. Finite dissipation and intermittency in magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A

    2009-08-01

    We present an analysis of data stemming from numerical simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence up to grid resolution of 1536(3) points and up to Taylor Reynolds number of approximately 1200 . The initial conditions are such that the initial velocity and magnetic fields are helical and in equipartition, while their correlation is negligible. Analyzing the data at the peak of dissipation, we show that the dissipation in MHD seems to asymptote to a constant as the Reynolds number increases, thereby strengthening the possibility of fast reconnection events in the solar environment for very large Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, intermittency of MHD flows, as determined by the spectrum of anomalous exponents of structure functions of the velocity and the magnetic field, is stronger than that of fluids, confirming earlier results; however, we also find that there is a measurable difference between the exponents of the velocity and those of the magnetic field, reminiscent of recent solar wind observations. Finally, we discuss the spectral scaling laws that arise in this flow. PMID:19792189

  19. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  20. Intermittency is a consequence of turbulent transport in nonlinear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Benno Rumpf Alan C.

    2003-01-01

    Intermittent high-amplitude structures emerge in a damped and driven discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation whose solutions transport both energy and particles from sources to sinks. These coherent structures are necessary for any solution that has statistically stationary transport properties.

  1. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  2. Sensing and characterization of EMI during intermittent connector anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new on-line methodology for detecting intermittent disconnection failures. The detection principle operates on the fundamental Lorentz Law...

  3. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsrinivas Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA. The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo.

  4. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Derksen, Carol; Saqqur, Maher; Khan, Khurshid

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo. PMID:26933370

  5. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Derksen, Carol; Saqqur, Maher; Khan, Khurshid

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic carotid - basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo. PMID:26933370

  6. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  7. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line

    OpenAIRE

    Cinquin, A.; Chiang, M.; Paz, A.; Hallman, S; Yuan, O; Vysniauskaite, I; Fowlkes, CC; Cinquin, O.

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproducti...

  8. Drift Intermittent Synchronization and Controllability in a Simple Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; YU Ming-Young

    2005-01-01

    A simple model of three coupled oscillators as an approximation of main modes behaviors in a spatial extended system is proposed. Multi-looping generalized synchronization and drift intermittent lag phase synchronization phenomena are found in this simple model. For a certain of parameters in which chaotic-like intermittent behavior exhibit the amplitudes and phases of three modes are controlled to be synchronized states via coupling them with an external periodic mode.

  9. Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, James C.

    2001-01-05

    INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE IN THE VERY STABLE EKMAN LAYER This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  10. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKarniel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The minimum transitions hypothesis (MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  11. Identification of intermittent control in man and machine

    OpenAIRE

    Loram, Ian D.; van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent fr...

  12. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  13. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Omid YAGHINI; Shirin BAJOGHLI

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female) were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excl...

  14. Non-locality and Intermittency in 3D Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Laval, J. -P.; B. Dubrulle; Nazarenko, S.(Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russia)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to determine the influence of the non-local and local interactions on the intermittency corrections in the scaling properties of 3D turbulence. We show that neglect of local interactions leads to an enhanced small-scale energy spectrum and to a significantly larger number of very intense vortices (tornadoes) and stronger intermittency. On the other hand, neglect of the non-local interactions results in even stronger small-scale spectrum but significantly weaker ...

  15. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti; Alkmim-Teixeira Gil Cezar; Karin Aparecida Casarini; Kátia Simone Muniz Cordeiro; Anibal Basile-Filho; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroen...

  16. Critical velocity during continuous and intermittent exercises in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoin, Serge; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Gregory; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the "critical velocity" concept to short intermittent high-intensity running exercises in prepubescent girls and boys and to compare the running performances obtained either by intermittent or continuous exercise runs. Eleven 8 to 11-year-old children underwent a maximal graded field test to determine peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and maximal aerobic velocity (MAV). During the six following sessions, they randomly performed three continuous runs (90, 100, and 110% of MAV) and three intermittent runs (120, 130, and 140% of MAV) until exhaustion. Intermittent exercises consisted of repeated 15 s runs each one separated by a 15 s passive recovery interval. For continuous as well as intermittent exercises, distance versus time to exhaustion (TTE) relationships were calculated to determine continuous (CVc) and intermittent (CVi) critical velocities. Values for peakVO2 and MAV were 45.8 +/- 5.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 10.5 +/- 1.0 km h(-1), respectively. For the whole population, a significant relationship was found between the distance to exhaustion (DTE) and TTE for continuous (r2= 0.99, P < 0.05) and intermittent exercises (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.05). Significant relationships were found between peakVO2 and both CVc (r2= 0.60, P < 0.01) and CVi (r2= 0.47, P < 0.05). In conclusion, as for continuous exercises, a linear relationship was found between DTE and TTE for short high-intensity intermittent exercises. CVc was significantly related to peakVO2, while a significant lower relationship was found between peakVO2 and CVi.

  17. The Prismatic Effect on Stereoacuity in Intermittent Exotropia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyoung Sub; Chung, Seung Ah; Lee, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jong Bok

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia. Materials and Methods Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye. Results Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging ...

  18. The effects of stochastic electricity market modelling on estimating additional costs of intermittent RES-E integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a stochastic fundamental electricity market model is developed. The model's principle is cost minimization by determining the marginal system costs mainly as a function of available generation and transmission capacities, primary energy prices, plant characteristics and electricity demand. In order to obtain appropriate estimates of the costs of intermittent renewable energy sources for electricity production (RES-E) notably reduced efficiencies at part load, start-up costs and reserve power requirements are taken into account. Since hydro storage is of high relevance when analysing intermittent resources, time-coupling constraints are considered. The system is considered to adapt on increasing RES-E over time by endogenous modelling of investment decisions in conventional power plants. To explicitly account for intermittent electricity production the fundamental modeling approach is extended by introducing a stochastic recombining tree. Exemplary results are presented for a German case study. It is shown that the costs of wind's intermittency are underestimated in deterministic models. The proposed stochastic model, however, can give far more realistic estimates as e.g. the decreasing capacity credit with increasing installed wind capacities can sufficiently be modelled. (Author)

  19. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Lanzarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6 and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5, which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG and control group (CG. Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP during the sensory organization test (SOT and the motor control test (MCT. Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027 and speed (p =0.033 of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004. There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects.

  20. Exploring the relationship between malaria, rainfall intermittency, and spatial variation in rainfall seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkord, C. L.; Wimberly, M. C.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem throughout tropical regions of the world. Successful prevention and treatment of malaria requires an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the life cycle of both the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites, and its vectors, anopheline mosquitos. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates (TRMM and GPM), evapotranspiration derived from a simplified surface energy balance, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave imagery. Previous studies have found links between malaria cases and total monthly or weekly rainfall in areas where both are highly seasonal. However it is far from clear that monthly or weekly summaries are the best metrics to use to explain malaria outbreaks. It is possible that particular temporal or spatial patterns of rainfall result in better mosquito habitat and thus higher malaria risk. We used malaria case data from the Amhara region of Ethiopia and satellite-derived rainfall estimates to explore the relationship between malaria outbreaks and rainfall with the goal of identifying the most useful rainfall metrics for modeling malaria occurrence. First, we explored spatial variation in the seasonal patterns of both rainfall and malaria cases in Amhara. Second, we assessed the relative importance of different metrics of rainfall intermittency, including alternation of wet and dry spells, the strength of intensity fluctuations, and spatial variability in these measures, in determining the length and severity of malaria outbreaks. We also explored the sensitivity of our results to the choice of method for describing rainfall intermittency and the spatial and temporal scale at which metrics were calculated. Results

  1. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  2. Aerodynamic Surface Stress Intermittency and Conditionally Averaged Turbulence Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion of dry, flat, semi-arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by kinetic energy fluxes in the aloft atmospheric surface layer. During saltation -- the mechanism responsible for surface fluxes of dust and sediment -- briefly suspended sediment grains undergo a ballistic trajectory before impacting and `splashing' smaller-diameter (dust) particles vertically. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment flux, q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic (basal) stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1. Since basal stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with the incoming velocity squared, u^2, it follows that q ~ u^2n (where u is some relevant component of the above flow field, u(x,t)). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-averaged value may play an enormously important role in aeolian activity on flat, dry landscapes. The importance of this argument is further augmented given that turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. In order to illustrate the importance of surface stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over a flat landscape with momentum roughness length appropriate for the Llano Estacado in west Texas (a flat agricultural region that is notorious for dust transport). By using data from a field campaign to measure diurnal variability of aeolian activity and prevailing winds on the Llano Estacado, we have retrieved the threshold friction velocity (which can be used to compute threshold surface stress under the geostrophic balance with the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory). This averaging procedure provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of

  3. TOWARDS AN ISLAMIC APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Muhammad Ramzan

    1996-01-01

    The paper studies the Islamic viewpoint about the environment and presents the notion of environmental balance in an Islamic economy. It asserts that this balance can be maintained with the help of Islamic ethics and institutions. The paper demonstrates the positive role of the private sector in terms of environment-friendly behavior, fellow-feeling, and simple living of the people. Similarly, it discusses the legislature, monitoring and resource development roles of the Islamic state to prot...

  4. Measures of Three-Dimensional Anisotropy and Intermittency in Strong Alfv\\'enic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A; Chandran, B D G; Chen, C H K; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; Greenan, C C

    2015-01-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are "ribbon-like" --- statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the $n$th-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran et al. 2015, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of ...

  5. A statistical model of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical model of three-dimensionally anisotropic, intermittent, strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, incorporating both critical balance and dynamic alignment. Our model is based on log-Poisson statistics for Elsasser-field increments {\\em along} the magnetic field. We predict the scalings of Elsasser-field conditional two-point structure functions with point separations in all three directions in a coordinate system locally aligned with the direction of the magnetic field and of the fluctuating fields and obtain good agreement with numerical simulations. We also derive a scaling of the parallel coherence scale of the fluctuations, $l_\\parallel \\propto \\lambda^{1/2}$, where $\\lambda$ is the perpendicular scale. This is indeed observed for the bulk of the fluctuations in numerical simulations.

  6. Decentralised coordination of a multi-agent system based on intermittent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Mancini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel decentralised and non-cooperative algorithm for estimation and control of a multi-agent system. The control goal is to achieve a balanced formation on a generic closed curve. Different from previous work, each agent only gathers a measurement of its Euclidean distance from the other agents when they are in its proximity. This distance is usually different from the controlled distance along the curve, thus producing an uncertain and intermittent information on the actual spacing among agents. This fleeting data flow is processed by an estimation algorithm to produce an interval estimate of the relative position, which is then used by an 'interval feedback control law' to steer the system dynamics. The effectiveness of the approach and its performance are demonstrated through an extensive numerical analysis on two representative examples.

  7. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  9. Computerized dynamic posturography for postural control assessment in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; King, Stephanie A; Gohil, Risha; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    Computerized dynamic posturography with the EquiTest is an objective technique for measuring postural strategies under challenging static and dynamic conditions. As part of a diagnostic assessment, the early detection of postural deficits is important so that appropriate and targeted interventions can be prescribed. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) on the EquiTest determines an individual's use of the sensory systems (somatosensory, visual, and vestibular) that are responsible for postural control. Somatosensory and visual input are altered by the calibrated sway-referenced support surface and visual surround, which move in the anterior-posterior direction in response to the individual's postural sway. This creates a conflicting sensory experience. The Motor Control Test (MCT) challenges postural control by creating unexpected postural disturbances in the form of backwards and forwards translations. The translations are graded in magnitude and the time to recover from the perturbation is computed. Intermittent claudication, the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, is characterized by a cramping pain in the lower limbs and caused by muscle ischemia secondary to reduced blood flow to working muscles during physical exertion. Claudicants often display poor balance, making them susceptible to falls and activity avoidance. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is a noninvasive method for indicating the presence of peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication, a common symptom in the lower extremities. ABPI is measured as the highest systolic pressure from either the dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial artery divided by the highest brachial artery systolic pressure from either arm. This paper will focus on the use of computerized dynamic posturography in the assessment of balance in claudicants. PMID:24378378

  10. Intermittency on simultaneous observations of riometer at several Antarctic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Foppiano, A. J.; Stepanova, M. V.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that auroral radio wave absorption, as measured by riometers, consists of periods of relative quiescence which are interrupted by short bursts of activity. Such patterns in activity are observed in systems ranging from the stock market to turbulence, i.e. they exhibit intermittency. In the case of the auroral absorption it has also been found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the night-time sector. This can be interpreted as indicating that the precipitating particles responsible of the absorption exhibit intermittency, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Here, we analyse simultaneous observations of riometer absorption at seven Antarctic locations, to determine whether they exhibit intermittency. We determine the Probability Distribution Functions of the fluctuations of riometer absorption for absorption events larger than 0.1 dB, as well as those for the time-intervals between absorption events. Observations are for locations within the austral auroral absorption zone and on the polar cap. It is found that the parameters of a power law used to describe the calculated PDFs are consistent with the formation of coherent structures being more frequent within the auroral zone, as a manifestation of intermittency.

  11. Mathematically modelling and controlling prostate cancer under intermittent hormone therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Hirata; Gouhei Tanaka; Nicholas Bruchovsky; Kazuyuki Aihara

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we summarize our recently developed mathematical models that predict the effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy on prostate cancer (PCa).Although hormone therapy for PCa shows remarkable results at the beginning of treatment,cancer cells frequently acquire the ability to grow without androgens during long-term therapy,resulting in an eventual relapse.To circumvent hormone resistance,intermittent androgen suppression was investigated as an alternative treatment option.However,at the present time,it is not possible to select an optimal schedule of on- and off-treatment cycles for any given patient.In addition,clinical trials have revealed that intermittent androgen suppression is effective for some patients but not for others.To resolve these two problems,we have developed mathematical models for PCa under intermittent androgen suppression.The mathematical models not only explain the mechanisms of intermittent androgen suppression but also provide an optimal treatment schedule for the on- and off-treatment periods.

  12. Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Queiros-Conde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments  and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension  and crest dimension  are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency  (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.

  13. Study on Intermittent Irrigation for Paddy Rice: II. Crop Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effect of intermittent irrigation on the production of paddy rice was studied in a well-puddled paddy field with four treatments and 2 replicates: continuous flooding irrigation (CFI), and intermittent irrigation II-0, II-1 and II-2, in which plants were re-irrigated when the soil water potential fell below 0, -10, and -20 kPa, respectively, at soil depth of about 5 cm. Results showed that the reduction in soil water potential to about -10 or -20 kPa did not significantly affect the number of grains and the percentage of ripened grains. While, a lower crop growth rate (CGR) resulted from a decrease in the net assimilation rate (NAR) during intermittent irrigation II-1 and II-2, and there was also a reduction in the leaf area index (LAI) during intermittent irrigation II-2. Senescence of lower leaves on stems was promoted in treatments II-1 and II-2 at the ripening stage. Early senescence at ripening stage and water stress around midday decreased the rate of photosynthesis in leaves, causing the lower NAR. These physiological responses of the plants were responsible for the reduction in the dry matter production and grain yield in the intermittent irrigation treatments.

  14. Scaling the Thrust Production and Energetics of Inviscid Intermittent Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Many fish have adopted an intermittent swimming gait sometimes referred as a burst-and-coast behavior. By using this gait, fish have been estimated at reducing their energetic cost of swimming by about 50%. Lighthill proposed that the skin friction drag of an undulating body can be around 400% greater than a rigidly-held coasting body, which may explain the energetic savings of intermittent swimming. Recent studies have confirmed the increase in skin friction drag over an undulating body, however, the increase is on the order of 20-70%. This more modest gain in skin friction drag is not sufficient to lead to the observed energy savings. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the inviscid mechanisms behind intermittent swimming for parameters typical of biology. We see that there is an energy savings at a fixed swimming speed for intermittent swimming as compared to continuous swimming. Then we consider three questions: What is the nature of the inviscid mechanism that leads to the observed energy savings, how do the forces and energetics of intermittent swimming scale with the swimming parameters, and what are the limitations to the benefit? Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzola, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  15. Human Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  16. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  17. Cardioprotective adaptation of rats to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia is accompanied by the increased association of hexokinase with mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskova-Arnostova, Petra; Elsnicova, Barbara; Kasparova, Dita; Hornikova, Daniela; Kolar, Frantisek; Novotny, Jiri; Zurmanova, Jitka

    2015-12-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases the myocardial resistance to acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by affecting the mitochondrial redox balance. Hexokinase (HK) bears a high potential to suppress the excessive formation of reactive oxygen species because of its increased association with mitochondria, thereby inhibiting the membrane permeability transition pore opening and preventing cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (7,000 m, 8 h/day, 5 wk) on the function and colocalization of HK isoforms with mitochondria in the left (LV) and right ventricles of rat myocardium. The real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, enzyme coupled assay, and quantitative immunofluorescence techniques were used. Our results showed significantly elevated expression of HK isoforms (HK1 and HK2) in the hypoxic LV. In addition, intermittent hypoxia increased the total HK activity and the association of HK isoforms with mitochondria in both ventricles. These findings suggest that HK may contribute to the cardioprotective phenotype induced by adaptation to severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. PMID:26494452

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  19. 县域耕地后备资源与规划期内数量质量并重的占补平衡分析%Analysis on county based reserved resource for cultivated land and quality-quantity requisition-compensation balance in planning period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高星; 吴克宁; 郧文聚; 唐程杰; 许实; 麻战洪

    2015-01-01

    Reserved resource for cultivated land is an important supplement to cultivated land, and it plays an important role in requisition-compensation balance, however, it has disadvantages of subjectiveness and emphasizing on quantity in cultivated land supplement. It is necessary to play the role of farmland reserve resources to replenish cultivated land for the realization of the goal of farmland protection in the overall planning period of county land use. Data used for study are from the results of the new round of ‘survey and evaluation of reserved resource for cultivated land’. A balancing method, which focused on both quantity and quality and was based on the ratio of added cultivated land and grade conversion coefficient, were proposed to analyze the capability of requisition-compensation balance in the planning period. And we analyzed the capacity to achieve the balance of arable land in the county planning period. The coefficient of newly increased cultivated land was developed by the weighted average of the newly cultivated land rate. The conversion coefficient of requisition and compensation of arable land is based on the national unified research results of arable land’s requisition compensation balance according to grade conversion coefficient from Land Resources and Land Rehabilitation Center. Taking Yuanjiang City, Hunan Province as an example, we calculated the area of reserved resource for cultivated land needed for realizing both quantitative and qualitative balance. According to the "Yuanjiang City land use overall planning (during 2006-2020)", the new construction area of farmland was expected to not more than 899.2 hm2 until 2020, the quality of new construction occupation of cultivated land focused on the level of 1-5, whose composition ratios were 40.61%, 16.15%, 22.73%, 18.8% and 1.72%, respectively. The reserved resource area of cultivated land in Yuanjiang City was 1 744.14 hm2, of which 1 447.64 hm2 cultivated land can be added after the

  20. Intermittency in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermittency data in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions are reviewed. The power-law behavior of the moments has been established by various e+e- experiments and a μp experiment. The intermittency in the two-dimensional space of rapidity and azimuthal angle is much stronger than in the rapidity space only. The neutrino-nucleus data indicate significant effects from nuclear reinteractions. The LUND parton shower model fits the data better than the matrix element model without special retuning. The relations among the moments of different orders are in good agreement with the predictions by the negative binomial and pure birth distributions. The origin of the intermittency in e+e- and μp collisions is consistent with the self-similar cascade mechanism of jet formation. 11 refs., 7 figs

  1. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bozek, P

    1992-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experi- ments is done using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e + e~ annihilation data. The language of the self-similar distribution func- tions, which is used in this work, is shown to be largely equivalent to the well known a-model. In the case of the ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions, where the Monte-Carlo simulations fail to reproduce the data, we argue that the observed intermittency pattern is a signal of some nonlinear effect beyond the simple superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of t...

  2. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experiments is presented using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e+e- annihilation data. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the intermittency strength on the target and projectile nuclei. A 1-dimensional (1D) cellular-automaton and a 1D forest-fire model is studied. On the example of the noncritical 1D Ising model the difficulties of the scaled factorial moment (SFM) method in extracting genuine scaling behaviour is illustrated. All these studies could serve as tools to test the sensibility of the SFM method as used in the analysis of the high energy production. (K.A.) 122 refs.; 38 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-02-13

    Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheetlike coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space or astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events," responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power-law index close to α≈1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signature of the turbulent cascade.

  4. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  5. Intermittency in Fractal Fourier Hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension $D$. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing $D$. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction ($D \\lesssim 1$) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original non-decimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for $D <1$ and a quasi-singular transition from the fully intermittent ($D=1$) to the non-intermittent case for $D \\lesssim 1$. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes.

  6. Generalized description of intermittency in turbulence via stochastic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized picture of intermittency in turbulence that is based on the theory of stochastic processes. To this end, we rely on the experimentally and numerically verified finding by R.~Friedrich and J.~Peinke [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 863 (1997)] that allows for an interpretation of the turbulent energy cascade as a Markov process of the velocity increments in scale. It is explicitly shown that all known phenomenological models of turbulence can be reproduced by the Kramers-Moyal expansion of the velocity increment probability density function that is associated to a Markov process. We compare the different sets of Kramers-Moyal coefficients of each phenomenology and deduce that an accurate description of intermittency should take into account an infinite number of coefficients. This is demonstrated in more detail for the case of Burgers turbulence that exhibits the strongest intermittency effects. Moreover, the influence of nonlocality on the Kramers-Moyal coefficients is investigated by direct num...

  7. Temporal Intermittency of Energy Dissipation in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheet-like coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space/astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events", responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power law index close to -1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signatu...

  8. Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm: Photoefficiency and biomass production under intermittent lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toninelli, Andrea Efrem; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Mingshen; Wu, Hong; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of intermittent lighting on the growth performances of a Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm. Flashing light effect (FLE) is common in traditional suspended cultures of microalgae; yet, publications about this phenomenon, in the context of biofilm cultivation, are scarce. In this work we demonstrate that, thanks to intermittent illumination, it is possible for attached cultivations to fulfill FLE, improve photoefficiency and productivity as well as providing protection from photoinhibition using much lower flashing light frequencies than those usually required with suspended cultures. Medium frequency intermittent lighting (0.1 Hz) guaranteed excellent light integration resulting in 9.13 g m(-2) d(-1) biomass productivity, which was 8.9% higher than with continuous lighting. Results showed that a light fraction value of 0.5 always improved photoefficiency values as related to continuous light with a 118.8% maximum increase. PMID:27561323

  9. Local subbasin characteristics are determinants of streamflow intermittency in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Olden, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams account for over half of the total discharge of the global river network and their extent is expected to increase as a result of forecasted changes in climate and water resource development. Recognizing the importance of stream flow as the master variable driving physical, chemical, and biological processes in fluvial systems there is inherent utility in predicting which regions of the landscape support varying degrees of flow permanence (e.g., perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral flow). Easily derivable landscape characteristics and readily available climate data may be useful for identifying streamflow permanence. We use local precipitation records and GIS-derived geologic and topographic descriptors to identify potential determinants of flow permanence in streams draining the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, USA. Flow permanence is based on 2- to 4-year time series for 43 electrical resistance sensors installed across 10 canyons in stream reaches that support a range of hydrologic flow conditions. Multivariate NMDS analysis identifie separation between stream reaches of different flow permanence classes based on subbasin-scale, GIS-derived landscape metrics. In particular, separation between perennial and ephemeral reaches is driven by steep surface slopes and small drainage areas that support perennial flow and which correspond to the location of specific geologic units. Ephemeral and intermittent reaches are also highly responsive to precipitation events, specifically, late summer convective thunderstorms with spatial extents limited to individual canyons or portions of a canyon. Further separation of landscape and precipitation characteristics is expected between flow classes that account for refined flow permanence metrics including seasonal timing and duration of flow. Our results demonstrate that for this system, easily derivable metrics and available climate data serve as useful metrics for prediction of flow permanence.

  10. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism. PMID:26902078

  11. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela;

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  12. Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.;

    2005-01-01

    Numerical fluid simulations of interchange turbulence for geometry and parameters relevant to the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas are shown to result in intermittent transport qualitatively similar to recent experimental measurements. The two-dimensional simulation domain features...... a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region...

  13. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential.

  14. Acute intermittent porphyria associated with respiratory failure: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Gil Cezar, Alkmim-Teixeira; Casarini, Karin Aparecida; Muniz Cordeiro, Kátia Simone; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential. PMID:21687623

  15. Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten; Dotzauer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -efficiency and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as low....... It is found that CHP-HP-FG-CS offers significant reductions in fuel consumption (−8.9%) and operational production costs (−11.4%). The plant’s fuel-to-energy efficiency increases from 88.9 to 95.5%, which is state-of-the-art. The plant’s intermittency-friendliness coefficient Rc improves only marginally due...

  16. Challenges to Cabin Humidity Removal Presented by Intermittent Condensing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonJouanne, Roger G.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    On-orbit temperature and humidity control (THC) is more easily accomplished when the THC hardware is either consistently dry (i.e., no humidity control is occurring), or consistently wet. The system is especially challenged when intermittent wet/dry conditions occur. The first six years of on-orbit ISS operations have revealed specific concerns within the THC system, specifically in the condensing heat exchanger and the downstream air/water separator. Failed or degraded hardware has been returned to ground and investigated. This paper presents the investigation findings, and the recommended hardware and procedural revisions to prevent and recover from the effects of intermittent condensing conditions.

  17. Solar flare intermittency and the earth's temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2003-06-20

    We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare intermittency are linked. The analysis is based upon the study of the scaling of both the spreading and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the fluctuations of the temperature time series. The joint use of these two methods evidences the presence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002. PMID:12857233

  18. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Gil Cezar, Alkmim-Teixeira; Casarini, Karin Aparecida; Muniz Cordeiro, Kátia Simone; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroenterological disorders on patients whose routine investigation tests are normal, especially when precipitating factors exist. Intensive care measures and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential. PMID:21687623

  19. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  20. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  1. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  2. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  3. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile. PMID:25629262

  4. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. Serum bilirubin kinetics in intermittent phototherapy of physiological jaundice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, S. P.; Fung, K P

    1984-01-01

    Thirty four term babies with physiological jaundice were subjected to continuous phototherapy and to two regimens of intermittent phototherapy. The difference in serum bilirubin kinetics between the three groups of treated babies was insignificant; a schedule of one in four hours of irradiation achieved the same treatment effect as continuous phototherapy.

  7. Intermittent Versus Continuous Phototherapy for Reducing Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoo Niknafs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical studies comparing intermittent versus continuous phototherapy for reducing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have produced conflicting results. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of intermittent with continuous phototherapy. Methods: This study was performed on 114 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Inclusion criteria were body weight above 2000 grams, absence of other concomitant diseases, and hyperbilirubinemia neither requiring intensive phototherapy nor exceeding the range of exchange transfusion. The neonates were randomly divided into two groups. Continuous phototherapy group received phototherapy on and off for 2 hours and half an hour respectively and the intermittent phototherapy group on and off for one hour. The phototherapy units were identical and serum total bilirubin levels were measured every 12 hours after starting phototherapy. Findings: Two groups were matched regarding weight and risk factors such as ABO and Rh incompatibility. The difference of total serum bilirubin levels between two groups was insignificant at the start of phototherapy and also after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours (P>0.2.Conclusion: Intermittent phototherapy defined as one hour on and one hour off is as effective as continuous phototherapy defined as 2 hours on and half an hour off, in reducing total serum bilirubin level in full term babies.

  8. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  9. Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. ...

  10. Two-scale analysis of intermittency in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A self-affinity test for turbulent time series is applied to experimental data for the estimation of intermittency exponents. The method employs exact relations satisfied by joint expectations of observables computed across two different length scales. One of these constitutes a verification tool for the existence and the extent of the inertial range. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs.

  11. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  12. Intermittent breeding as a cost of site fidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent breeding (skipping a breeding season) can be the result of an adaptive decision by a focal individual, trading current reproductive success in favour of future reproductive success (residual reproductive value hypothesis). In contrast, an individual can also be forced by conspecifics to

  13. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  14. Bochdalek Hernia As A Cause Of Intermittent AV Block

    OpenAIRE

    Etsadashvili, Kakhaber; Rashid, Haroon Mohammed; Jalabadze, Khatuna; Melia, Anzor

    2011-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is very rare cause of AV block. We report such a patient with sick sinus node syndrome and previous AAIR pacemaker implantation, in which intermittent AV block was diagnosed by 24-hours ECG monitoring and upgrade of pacing system to DDDR was suggested.

  15. Optimizing supervised exercise therapy for patients with intermittent claudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaï, Saskia P A; Hendriks, Erik J M; Prins, Martin H; Teijink, Joep A W; van Asselt, Thea

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first-line intervention for intermittent claudication is usually supervised exercise therapy (SET). The literature describes a range of exercise programs varying in setting, duration, and content. The purpose of the present study was to examine the exercise protocols offered and to i

  16. Radial evolution of intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, R; Primavera, L; Pietropaolo, E; D'Amicis, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Carbone, V; Malara, F; Veltri, P

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial evolution of intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between $0.3$ and $0.9$ AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different time scales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with distance from the Sun, at odds with intermittency of both magnetic field and all the other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process....

  17. Study of drying of small diameter Larch lumbers with intermittent heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming-hui; ZHAO Xi-ping

    2006-01-01

    Intermittent heating for drying of small diameter Larch lumbers is investigated experimentally. The lumbers were dried using an experimental drying schedule. Moisture content (MC) of the lumber was continuously recorded and final drying defects were examined. The drying curves showed that the drying rate was a constant in the early stage of intermittent heating drying and decreased evidently when the MC was about 18% ( intermittent 2h) and 20% (intermittent 6h). The drying quality reached the second (intermittent 2h) and first grade (intermittent 6h) of the Chinese National Standard. The visual drying defects, especially the check extent along grains were reduced with intermittent heating. When the intermittent time increased, the effect was more obvious.

  18. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on arcuate nucleus in the leptin-deficient rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, John; Moreau, Jason M; McCoy, Aaron; Jones, Douglas L

    2016-07-28

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major pathophysiological consequence of obstructive sleep apnea. Recently, it has been shown that IH results in changes in body energy balance, leptin secretion and concomitant alterations in arcuate nucleus (ARC). In this study, the role of leptin on these changes was investigated in leptin-deficient rats exposed to IH or normoxic control conditions. Body weights, consumatory and locomotor behaviours, and protein signaling in ARC were assessed immediately after IH exposure. Compared to normoxia, IH altered body weight, food intake, locomotor pattern, and the plasma concentration of leptin and angiotensin II in the wild-type rat. However, these changes were not observed in the leptin-deficient rat. Within ARC of wild-type animals, IH increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and pro-opiomelanocortin protein expression, but not in the leptin-deficient rat. The long-form leptin receptor protein expression was not altered following IH in either rat strain. These data suggest that leptin is involved in mediating the alterations to body energy balance and ARC activity following IH. PMID:27222924

  19. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  20. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  1. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B;

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication.......Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication....

  2. The influence of continuous and intermittent traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of road traffic noise on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to noise with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic noise of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent noise of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic noise. For one noise condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the noise peaks from the background, rather than the absolute noise peak level. Continuous traffic noise of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the noise dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum noise level, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.

  3. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, Alex; Wang, Wilbur; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yee, Judy; Webb, Emily M.; Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: ben.yeh@ucsf.edu

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 336 consecutive patients (189 men and 147 women) who were imaged between June 1 and June 17, 2010 and who had prior comparison scans. Readers recorded the presence or absence of an intermittently upturned omentum, defined as a thick rind of fat interposed between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall seen on one but not the other scan. At chart review, we recorded patient demographics and other clinical characteristics (prior surgical history, presence of cirrhosis). Results: An intermittently upturned omentum was found in 10 of 336 (3.0%) patients. An intermittently upturned omentum was seen more commonly in men than in women (9 of 189 men, or 4.8% versus 1 of 147 women, or 0.7%, p = 0.047) and in cirrhotics (4 of 37 cirrhotics, or 10.8% versus 6 of 299 non-cirrhotics, or 2.0%, p = 0.023). In a sub-analysis of patients without prior abdominal surgery, this finding was again seen more commonly in men than women (7 of 163 men, or 4.3% versus 0 of 134 women, or 0%, p = 0.018) and in cirrhotics (3 of 33 cirrhotics, or 9.1% versus 4 of 264 non-cirrhotics, or 1.5%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: An intermittently upturned omentum is not uncommon and is more frequently seen in men and in patients with cirrhosis who may have a larger anterior hepatic space.

  4. Observation of intermittency in gene expression on cDNA microarrays

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, L E

    2002-01-01

    We used scaled factorial moments to search for intermittency in the log expression ratios (LERs) for thousands of genes spotted on cDNA microarrays (gene chips). Results indicate varying levels of intermittency in gene expression. The observation of intermittency in the data analyzed provides a complimentary handle on moderately expressed genes, generally not tackled by conventional techniques.

  5. A Carrier Signal Approach for Intermittent Fault Detection and Health Monitoring for Electronics Interconnections System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wakil Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent faults are completely missed out by traditional monitoring and detection techniques due to non-stationary nature of signals. These are the incipient events of a precursor of permanent faults to come. Intermittent faults in electrical interconnection are short duration transients which could be detected by some specific techniques but these do not provide enough information to understand the root cause of it. Due to random and non-predictable nature, the intermittent faults are the most frustrating, elusive, and expensive faults to detect in interconnection system. The novel approach of the author injects a fixed frequency sinusoidal signal into electronics interconnection system that modulates intermittent fault if persist. Intermittent faults and other channel effects are computed from received signal by demodulation and spectrum analysis. This paper describes technology for intermittent fault detection, and classification of intermittent fault, and channel characterization. The paper also reports the functionally tests of computational system of the proposed methods. This algorithm has been tested using experimental setup. It generate an intermittent signal by external vibration stress on connector and intermittency is detected by acquiring and processing propagating signal. The results demonstrate to detect and classify intermittent interconnection and noise variations due to intermittency. Monitoring the channel in-situ with low amplitude, and narrow band signal over electronics interconnection between a transmitter and a receiver provides the most effective tool for continuously watching the wire system for the random, unpredictable intermittent faults, the precursor of failure.

  6. Ring intermittency near the boundary of the synchronous time scales of chaotic oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuravlev, Maxim O.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Moskalenko, Olga I.; Ovchinnikov, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study both experimentally and numerically the intermittent behavior taking place near the boundary of the synchronous time scales of chaotic oscillators being in the regime of time scale synchronization. We have shown that the observed type of the intermittent behavior should be classified as the ring intermittency.

  7. Ring intermittency near the boundary of the synchronous time scales of chaotic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Maxim O; Koronovskii, Alexey A; Moskalenko, Olga I; Ovchinnikov, Alexey A; Hramov, Alexander E

    2011-02-01

    In this Brief Report we study both experimentally and numerically the intermittent behavior taking place near the boundary of the synchronous time scales of chaotic oscillators being in the regime of time scale synchronization. We have shown that the observed type of the intermittent behavior should be classified as the ring intermittency.

  8. Introduction To Application Server Load Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Pamukumar Swamy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s, everything is going online. And most of the work is done on internet. So, web applications plays vital role on internet to provide 24*7 services to customers. When application becomes popular, traffic to that is also in a state of growing. For availability, scalability, performances boosting more and more servers are required. Load balancing is a key issue in these types of large scale situation. Load balancing is to achieve optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload. In many scenarios, however, it’s not simply a matter of distributing traffic equally across many servers once deploys; other factors can come into play. Here we studied different load balancing strategies, algorithms, methods and investigate the comparative behavior of load balancing with different parameters. The growing autonomy of servers’ significantly deteriorates the performance of traditional load-balancing so; idea is to implement application load balancer by using Dynamic load balancing method.

  9. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  10. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  11. User Demand Aware Grid Scheduling Model with Hierarchical Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a collection of computational and data resources, providing the means to support both computational intensive applications and data intensive applications. In order to improve the overall performance and efficient utilization of the resources, an efficient load balanced scheduling algorithm has to be implemented. The scheduling approach also needs to consider user demand to improve user satisfaction. This paper proposes a dynamic hierarchical load balancing approach which considers load of each resource and performs load balancing. It minimizes the response time of the jobs and improves the utilization of the resources in grid environment. By considering the user demand of the jobs, the scheduling algorithm also improves the user satisfaction. The experimental results show the improvement of the proposed load balancing method.

  12. The Role of Meteorological Forecasting in Quantifying the Carbon Emissions Associated with Highly Intermittent Renewable Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    A new model is proposed for carbon emissions assessments of systems with very high penetrations of intermittent renewables. Our approach combines a deterministic portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the conventional dispatchable generating capacity required to meet a reliability constraint. Least-cost scheduling optimizations utilize day-ahead wind speed, irradiance, and load forecasts, while real-time dispatch relies on simple statistical models of forecast errors that maintain historical geographical and temporal correlations. The model includes treatments of intermittent generators including wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as conventional generators including natural gas, hydroelectric, and geothermal plants. Results are presented from a model run of the years 2005 and 2006 with wind speed data from the Western Wind Resources Database (WWRD), irradiance data from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), hydroelectric discharge data from California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and load data from the California ISO. The resulting portfolio is capable of meeting the California ISO load over the simulation period with an 80% reduction in electric power sector carbon emissions, while also meeting a loss of load expectation of 1 day in 10 years. With this portfolio, over 99% of the annual load can be met with non-carbon-based generation and all of the instantaneous demand can be met with non-carbon-based sources in 97% of the hours in the Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggest that further reductions in carbon emissions may be achieved with emerging technologies that can reliably provide large capacities without necessarily providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage.

  13. Work-Life Balance: Beyond the Rhetoric. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Harper, H.; Dench, S.

    The current status of British policy and practice related to work-life balance was examined through case studies of six organizations identified as having well-developed work-life balance and flexible working practices. Interviews were conducted with human resource (HR) managers at all six organizations, and interviews and focus group discussions…

  14. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to streamflow or...

  15. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to stream flow or...

  16. 30 CFR 817.46 - Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.46 Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. (a) For the purposes of this... activities include diversion ditches, siltation structures, or roads that are designed, constructed...

  17. 30 CFR 816.46 - Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.46 Hydrologic balance: Siltation structures. (a) For the purpose of this... activities include diversion ditches, siltation structures, or roads that are designed constructed...

  18. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  19. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  20. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  1. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  2. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  3. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  4. Synthesis of Intermittent-Motion Linkages with Slight Difference in Length Between Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-bo; YU Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The design of intermittent-motion linkages using traditional methods iS usually complicated.In this paper,(1)a new method for realizing intermittent motion,using linkages with a slight difference in length between links,is studied;(2)some new types of intermittent-motion linkages and their software for visual analysis and design are developed;and(3)influences of some design parameters on intermittent.motion characteristics are clarifled.Results confirmed that the theory and the software are useful,making the synthesis of intermittent-motion linkages clear and easy.

  5. [Intermittent thrombolytic treatment. Results during severe, chronic arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiessinger, J N; Aiach, M; Lagneau, P; Cormier, J M; Housset, E

    1975-04-20

    38 patients with severe chronic arteritis of the lower limbs were treated with streptokinase intermittently. All had been refused for surgical operation. One patient died, 4 others had early interruption of treatment. Eleven of the 38 patients had efficient thrombolysis confirmed by arteriography. The facts confirm the possibility of thrombolysis during chronic arterial disease. The fact that the aggravation was recent was favourable factor in prognosis. The eleven patients improved, had severe aggravation of symptomes for less than 2 months. Thus thrombolytic treatment has a place of choice in the treatment of severe arterial disease where surgery is impossible, or dangerous, owing to the uncertain state of the vascular bed below the lesion. Efficacious, it permits reconstructive surgery in cases where it had been at first refused. The use of intermittent treatment, apart from advantages of confort and cost, seems to increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:176733

  6. Intermittency in an optomechanical cavity near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchoi, Oren; Ella, Lior; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally study an optomechanical cavity consisting of an oscillating mechanical resonator embedded in a superconducting microwave transmission line cavity. Tunable optomechanical coupling between the mechanical resonator and the microwave cavity is introduced by positioning a niobium-coated single-mode optical fiber above the mechanical resonator. The capacitance between the mechanical resonator and the coated fiber gives rise to optomechanical coupling, which can be controlled by varying the fiber-resonator distance. We study radiation-pressure-induced self-excited oscillation as a function of microwave driving parameters (frequency and power). Intermittency between limit-cycle and steady-state behaviors is observed with blue-detuned driving frequency. The experimental results are accounted for by a model that takes into account the Duffing-like nonlinearity of the microwave cavity. A stability analysis reveals a subcritical Hopf bifurcation near the region where intermittency is observed.

  7. Synchronization of intermittent behavior in ensembles of multistable dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R; Buldú, J M; Pisarchik, A N; Boccaletti, S; Gutiérrez, R

    2015-03-01

    We propose a methodology to analyze synchronization in an ensemble of diffusively coupled multistable systems. First, we study how two bidirectionally coupled multistable oscillators synchronize and demonstrate the high complexity of the basins of attraction of coexisting synchronous states. Then, we propose the use of the master stability function (MSF) for multistable systems to describe synchronizability, even during intermittent behavior, of a network of multistable oscillators, regardless of both the number of coupled oscillators and the interaction structure. In particular, we show that a network of multistable elements is synchronizable for a given range of topology spectra and coupling strengths, irrespective of specific attractor dynamics to which different oscillators are locked, and even in the presence of intermittency. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the MSF approach with a network of multistable electronic circuits.

  8. On the intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; 10.1063/1.2711429

    2009-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behaviour has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field.

  9. Intermittency in fractal Fourier hydrodynamics: Lessons from the Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Frisch, Uriel; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2016-03-01

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the one-dimensional stochastically forced Burgers equation decimated on a fractal Fourier set of dimension D. We investigate the robustness of the energy transfer mechanism and of the small-scale statistical fluctuations by changing D. We find that a very small percentage of mode-reduction (D ≲ 1) is enough to destroy most of the characteristics of the original nondecimated equation. In particular, we observe a suppression of intermittent fluctuations for D < 1 and a quasisingular transition from the fully intermittent (D=1) to the nonintermittent case for D ≲ 1. Our results indicate that the existence of strong localized structures (shocks) in the one-dimensional Burgers equation is the result of highly entangled correlations amongst all Fourier modes. PMID:27078449

  10. Tissue-specific splicing mutation in acute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inherited deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase in humans is responsible for the autosomal dominant disease acute intermittent porphyria. Different classes of mutations have been described at the protein level suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disease. It was previously demonstrated that porphobilinogen deaminase is encoded by two distinct mRNA species expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Analysis of the genomic sequences indicated that these two mRNAs are transcribed from two promoters and only differ in their first exon. The first mutation identified in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene is a single-base substitution (G → A) in the canonical 5' splice donor site of intron 1. This mutation leads to a particular subtype of acute intermittent porphyria characterized by the restriction of the enzymatic defect to nonerythropoietic tissues. Hybridization analysis using olignonucleotide probes after in vitro amplification of genomic DNA offers another possibility of detecting asymptomatic carriers of the mutation in affected families

  11. Intermittency and correlations in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Hoch, M; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    A multidimensional study of local multiplicity fluctuations and multiparticle correlations of hadrons produced in Z decays is performed. The study is based on the data sample of more than 4 million events recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The fluctuations and correlations are analysed in terms of the normalized scaled factorial moments and cumulants up to the fifth order. The moments are observed to have intermittency-like behaviour, which is found to be more pronounced with increasing dimension. The large data sample allows for the first time a study of the factorial cumulants in e+e- annihilation. The analysis of the cumulants shows the existence of genuine multiparticle correlations with a strong intermittency rise up to higher orders. These correlations are found to be stronger in higher dimensions. The decomposition of the factorial moments into lower-order correlations that the dynamical fluctuations have important contributions from genuine many-particle correlations. The Monte Carlo models JETSE...

  12. Intermittency and local heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K T; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Rappazzo, A F

    2012-06-29

    Evidence for nonuniform heating in the solar wind plasma near current sheets dynamically generated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is obtained using measurements from the ACE spacecraft. These coherent structures only constitute 19% of the data, but contribute 50% of the total plasma internal energy. Intermittent heating manifests as elevations in proton temperature near current sheets, resulting in regional heating and temperature enhancements extending over several hours. The number density of non-Gaussian structures is found to be proportional to the mean proton temperature and solar wind speed. These results suggest magnetofluid turbulence drives intermittent dissipation through a hierarchy of coherent structures, which collectively could be a significant source of coronal and solar wind heating.

  13. [Intermittent thrombolytic treatment. Results during severe, chronic arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiessinger, J N; Aiach, M; Lagneau, P; Cormier, J M; Housset, E

    1975-04-20

    38 patients with severe chronic arteritis of the lower limbs were treated with streptokinase intermittently. All had been refused for surgical operation. One patient died, 4 others had early interruption of treatment. Eleven of the 38 patients had efficient thrombolysis confirmed by arteriography. The facts confirm the possibility of thrombolysis during chronic arterial disease. The fact that the aggravation was recent was favourable factor in prognosis. The eleven patients improved, had severe aggravation of symptomes for less than 2 months. Thus thrombolytic treatment has a place of choice in the treatment of severe arterial disease where surgery is impossible, or dangerous, owing to the uncertain state of the vascular bed below the lesion. Efficacious, it permits reconstructive surgery in cases where it had been at first refused. The use of intermittent treatment, apart from advantages of confort and cost, seems to increase the efficacy of treatment.

  14. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  15. Spinal Plasticity following Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Spinal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dale-Nagle, Erica A.; Hoffman, Michael S.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity is a fundamental property of the neural system controlling breathing. One frequently studied model of respiratory plasticity is long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). pLTF arises from spinal plasticity, increasing respiratory motor output through a mechanism that requires new synthesis of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and extracellular...

  16. Low Dose Intermittent Isotretinoin Therapy in Moderate Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Belçın İzol; Emel Bülbül Başkan; Zübeyde Başar; Şükran Tunalı; Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficiency and side effects of intermittent low dose isotretinoin therapy in moderate acne. Materials and Methods: Patients followed up at our acne outpatient clinic between September 2007 and April 2009 were evaluated. Those treated with 20 mg/day isotretinoin three times a week were included in the study. Relevant data were recorded from patient files. We recorded the age and weight of the cases, duration of acne, previous treatments, ac...

  17. Intermittent ion trajectories and focusing in spherical inertial electromagnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of spherical magnetic electrostatic confinement fusion is analyzed. Magnetic field lines in spherical cusps provide a chaotic scattering system that improves the ion focusing due to synergetic effect of intermittent ion trajectories. Confined ions are bounced within electrostatic well reflecting from magnetic barriers shaped by convex field lines. The concept offers a means of enhancing ion reactivity provided by caustic formation that are resulted from an intersection of ion orbits within confinement volume. Parameters of the experimental device are estimated. (author)

  18. Intermittent control models of human standing: similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Two architectures of intermittent control are compared and contrasted in the context of the single inverted pendulum model often used for describing standing in humans. The architectures are similar insofar as they use periods of open-loop control punctuated by switching events when crossing a switching surface to keep the system state trajectories close to trajectories leading to equilibrium. The architectures differ in two significant ways. Firstly, in one case, the open-loop control trajec...

  19. Functions of intermittent locomotion in mustached tamarins ( Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Stojan-Dolar, Mojca; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many animals interrupt their moving with brief pauses, which appear to serve several different functions. We examined the function of such intermittent locomotion in wild living mustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax), small arboreal New World primates that form mixed-species groups with saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). We investigated how different environmental and social factors affect pausing during locomotion and used these data to infer the function of this behavior. As measures...

  20. Intermittent Jolts of Galactic UV Radiation: Mutagenetic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Scalo, John M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Williams, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of intermittent hypermutation events and disruptions of planetary/satellite photochemistry due to ultraviolet radiation from core collapse supernova explosions. Calculations are presented for planetary systems in the local Milky Way, including the important moderating effects of vertical Galactic structure and UV absorption by interstellar dust. The events are particularly frequent for satellites of giant gas planets at \\gtrsim 5-10 AU distance from solar-type parent...

  1. [Intermittent hemodialysis, irreplaceable in specific cases of severe poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, M; Teta, D; Burnier, M; Kissling, S

    2015-02-25

    The medical practitioner is in general well aware of the indications for hemodialysis in severe, acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Apart from the traditional indications for renal replacement therapy, there are some cases such as metfomin and ethylene glycol poisoning, lithium intoxication severe hypercalcemia and tumor lysis syndrome, in which intermittent hemodialysis is the most effective treatment, or sometimes the only effective one. Although these situations remain infrequent, it is crucial to recognize them as quickly as possible. PMID:25898458

  2. Epidemiological, clinical anf pathogenetic studies of acute intermittent porphyria

    OpenAIRE

    Bylesjö, Ingemar

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders characterised by an impairment of heme biosynthesis. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common of the acute porphyrias in Sweden. Acute attacks of AIP are characterised by neuro-psychiatric symptoms, including epileptic seizures. Environmental and acquired factors are related to the induction of symptoms. Acute attacks of AIP are treated with high doses of glucose and/or hematin infusions. The pathogenesis of the neuro-psychiatric sympt...

  3. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mark P Mattson; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on ...

  4. The experience of aggressive outbursts in intermittent explosive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kulper, Daniel A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Berman, Mitchell E.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualizations of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) have suffered from a scarcity of research investigating the subjective experience and phenomenology of the aggressive outbursts among those with IED relative to those who partake in more normative forms of aggression. Furthermore, though some studies have shown that individuals with IED are more impaired and have a poorer quality of life, few studies looked at negative outcomes specific to an individual with IED’s aggressive behavior...

  5. Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment for Children with Anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Athuman, Mwaka; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Rohwer, Anke C

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a global public health problem. Children under five years of age living in developing countries (mostly Africa and South-East Asia) are highly affected. Although the causes for anaemia are multifactorial, malaria has been linked to anaemia in children living in malaria-endemic areas. Administering intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (IPT) to children might reduce anaemia, since it could protect children from new Plasmodium parasite infection (the parasites tha...

  6. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  7. Merit order effect and strategic investments in intermittent generation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Concettini

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the strategic interactions between two electricity generators, the first producing with a \\traditional" technology and the second employing a \\renewable" technology characterized by the random availability of capacity due to the intermittency of its power source. The competition between the \\traditional" and the \\renewable" power producers is examined through a modified version of the two stage Dixit model for entry deterrence (Dixit, 1980) with Cournot competition in the p...

  8. Consensus of Multiagent Networks with Intermittent Interaction and Directed Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent interaction control is introduced to solve the consensus problem for second-order multiagent networks due to the limited sensing abilities and environmental changes periodically. And, we get some sufficient conditions for the agents to reach consensus with linear protocol from the theoretical findings by using the Lyapunov control approach. Finally, the validity of the theoretical results is validated through the numerical example.

  9. Predicting intermittent running performance: critical velocity versus endurance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Laursen, P B; Millet, G P; Pactat, F; Ahmaidi, S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest (30/30). Runs were performed until exhaustion at three intensities (100, 95 and 90 % of the speed reached at the end of the 30 - 15 intermittent fitness test, V (IFT)) to calculate i) CV from the slope of the linear relationship between the total covered distance and exhaustion time (ET) (iCV); ii) anaerobic distance capacity from the Y-intercept of the distance/duration relationship (iADC); and iii) EI from the relationship between the fraction of V (IFT) at which the runs were performed and the log-transformed ET (iEI). Anaerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the final velocity achieved during the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (VMART). ET was longer for 15/15 than for 30/30 runs at similar intensities. iCV (15/15) and iCV (30/30) were not influenced by changes in ET and were highly dependent on V (IFT). Neither iADC (15/15) nor iADC (30/30) were related to VMART. In contrast, iEI (15/15) was higher than iEI (30/30), and corresponded with the higher ET. In conclusion, only iEI estimated endurance capacity during repeated intermittent running.

  10. Functional independence measure in patients with intermittent claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Shihara de Assis; Letícia de Carvalho Batista; Nelson Wolosker; Antonio Eduardo Zerati; Rita de Cassia Gengo e Silva

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOBJECTIVEOf this study were to evaluate the functional independence of patients with intermittent claudication and to verify its association with sociodemographic and clinical variables, walking ability and physical activity level.METHODThis was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Fifty participants (66.4 years; 68% male) were recruited from Claudication Unit of a tertiary hospital. Functional Independence Measure were used to evaluate funct...

  11. CAN INTERMITTENT VIDEO SAMPLING CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURALISTIC DRIVING?

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Nazan; Schall, Mark; Anderson, Steven; Dawson, Jeffery; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We examined the utility and validity of intermittent video samples from black box devices for capturing individual difference variability in real-world driving performance in an ongoing study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and community controls. Three types of video clips were coded for several dimensions of interest to driving research including safety, exposure, and driver state. The preliminary findings indicated that clip types successfully captured variability along targeted dimension...

  12. The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in chronic intermittent hypoxia conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lucilia Neves Diogo; Emília Carreira Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea/hypopnea disorders include centrally originated diseases and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This last condition is renowned as a frequent secondary cause of hypertension (HT). The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HT can be summarized in relation to two main pathways: sympathetic nervous system stimulation mediated mainly by activation of carotid body (CB) chemoreflexes and/or asphyxia, and, by no means the least important, the systemic effects of chronic intermittent hyp...

  13. Prolapsed bilateral ureteroceles leading to intermittent outflow obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2012-02-01

    A ureterocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with a duplex system in some cases. We present an unusual case where a young patient was found to have large bilateral ureteroceles which prolapsed into the urethra, causing intermittent incontinence and obstruction. We discuss the case and review the literature concerning this rare anomaly.

  14. Single Stage Surgical Outcomes for Large Angle Intermittent Exotropia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    Full Text Available Although there were many prior studies about exotropia, few focused on large-angle intermittent exotropia. The goal of this study was to evaluate single-stage surgical outcomes for large-angle intermittent exotropia and analyze risk factors that may affect the success of surgery. Records from intermittent exotropia patients with exodeviations >60 prism diopters(PD who were surgically treated at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University were reviewed. Included within this review were data on, pre- and post-operative ocular motility, primary alignment, binocular vision and complications. Patients with exodeviations ≤70PD received two-muscle surgery, while those with exodeviations >70PD were subjected to a three-muscle procedure. A total of 40 records were reviewed. The mean exodeviation was 73±9PD at distance and 75±26PD at near. There were 25 patients received two-muscle surgery and 15 the three-muscle procedure. Orthophoria (deviation within 8PD was obtained in 77.5% of these patients and the ratios of surgical under-correction and over-correction were 15% and 7.5% respectively. However, when combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, success rates decreased to 30%. No statistically significant differences in success rates were obtained between the two- and three-muscle surgery groups. Seven subjects experienced an abduction deficit during the initial postoperative stages, but eventually showed a full recovery. One patient required a second surgery for overcorrection. No statistically significant risk factors for poor outcome were revealed. Our data showed that single-stage two- and three-muscle surgeries for large-angle intermittent exotropia are effective in achieving a favorable outcome.

  15. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  16. Noise-induced phase transition in the model of human virtual stick balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    Humans face the task of balancing dynamic systems near an unstable equilibrium repeatedly throughout their lives. Much research has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms of intermittent control in the context of human balance control. The present paper deals with one of the recent developments in the theory of human intermittent control, namely, the double-well model of noise-driven control activation. We demonstrate that the double-well model can reproduce the whole range of experimentally observed distributions under different conditions. Moreover, we show that a slight change in the noise intensity parameter leads to a sudden shift of the action point distribution shape, that is, a phase transition is observed.

  17. Non-locality and Intermittency in 3D Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Laval, J P; Nazarenko, S

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to determine the influence of the non-local and local interactions on the intermittency corrections in the scaling properties of 3D turbulence. We show that neglect of local interactions leads to an enhanced small-scale energy spectrum and to a significantly larger number of very intense vortices (tornadoes) and stronger intermittency. On the other hand, neglect of the non-local interactions results in even stronger small-scale spectrum but significantly weaker intermittency. Based on these observations, a new model of turbulence is proposed, in which non-local (RDT-like) interactions couple large and small scale via a multiplicative process with additive noise and the local interactions are modeled by a turbulent viscosity. This model is used to derive a simple toy version of the Langevin equations for small-scale velocity increments. A Gaussian approximation for the large scale fields yields the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function of the velocity i...

  18. Communication with acute intermittent porphyria patients who have tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Introducing acute intermittent porphyria disease and investigating the communication techniques for acute intermittent porphyria patients who have tracheostomyCase Report: 26 years old woman patient consulted to the hospital when she was 13 years old with nausea and vomiting complaints. In 2008, because of respiratory arrest, tracheostomy was implemented to the patient who had acute intermittent porphyria diagnose. The patient had two bullous lesions on the left hand and hyperpigmentation’s on the face and legs. As a result of metabolic acidosis (because of urine disease, the patient was taken to dialysis. After six months of dialysis, hypernatremia was found in the laboratory tests (Na: 85.Period of acute crisis developed In the patient with hypertension, atrophy in the muscles, fainting, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Because of serious diarrhea, TPN was started for the patient who was fed with gavage before. Laboratory test results are Na:126, K:8.1, BUN:23.83, Urine:51, Creatinine:0.94, Leukocyte:20.4, erytrocyte:2.22, Hb:6.87g/dl, Hct: %20.9, Plt:106. Result: It is really difficult to communicate with these patients with lifespan limited because of an extremely severe clinical condition and tracheostomy.

  19. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchen Liu; Chen Wu; Xiaohong Zhou; David Z.Zhu; Hanchang Shi

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards,and requires expensive programs for its prevention.The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments.The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated.The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment.The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide)ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions ofefficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss.The opth-nal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  20. Intermittency of rheological regimes in uniform liquid-granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele; Fraccarollo, Luigi

    2009-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a free surface-saturated liquid-granular mixture flowing over a static loose bed of grains, where the coexistence of layers dominated by collisional and frictional interactions among particles was observed. Kinetic theory was applied to the flow described above and it proved suitable for describing a realistic behavior of the collisional layers, although it failed to interpret the regions of the flow domain dominated by the frictional contacts. The paper provides a conceptual scheme with which to overcome this problem by focusing on the mechanisms governing the transition from the frictional to the collisional regime. In particular we observed that in highly concentrated flows the transition layer exhibits a typical intermittency of the dominating rheological regime, switching alternately from the frictional to the collisional one. By filtering the velocity signal, we introduced an intermittency function that made it possible to extend the validity of the equations derived from dense gas analogy, typical of the collisional regimes, also in the intermittent phase of the flow. Owing to the small values of the Stokes number, in the application of the kinetic theory we accounted for the possible variation of the elastic restitution coefficient along the flow depth. PMID:19518448

  1. Intermittency and velocity fluctuations in hopper flows prone to clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C. C.; Durian, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    We study experimentally the dynamics of granular media in a discharging hopper. In such flows, there often appears to be a critical outlet size Dc such that the flow never clogs for D >Dc . We report on the time-averaged velocity distributions, as well as temporal intermittency in the ensemble-averaged velocity of grains in a viewing window, for both D Dc , near and far from the outlet. We characterize the velocity distributions by the standard deviation and the skewness of the distribution of vertical velocities. We propose a measure for intermittency based on the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov DKS statistic for the velocity distributions as a function of time. We find that there is no discontinuity or kink in these various measures as a function of hole size. This result supports the proposition that there is no well-defined Dc and that clogging is always possible. Furthermore, the intermittency time scale of the flow is set by the speed of the grains at the hopper exit. This latter finding is consistent with a model of clogging as the independent sampling for stable configurations at the exit with a rate set by the exiting grain speed [C. C. Thomas and D. J. Durian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 178001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.178001].

  2. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  3. Improving Forecasting Accuracy in the Case of Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Takeyasu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In making forecasting, there are many kinds of data. Stationary time series data are relatively easy to make forecasting but random data are very difficult in its execution for forecasting. Intermittent data are often seen in industries. But it is rather difficult to make forecasting in general. In recent years, the needs for intermittent demand forecasting are increasing because of the constraints of strict Supply Chain Management. How to improve the forecasting accuracy is an important issue. There are many researches made on this. But there are rooms for improvement. In this paper, a new method for cumulative forecasting method is proposed. The data is cumulated and to this cumulated time series, the following method is applied to improve the forecasting accuracy. Trend removing by the combination of linear and 2nd order non-linear function and 3rd order non-linear function is executed to the production data of X-ray image intensifier tube device and Diagnostic X-ray image processing apparatus. The forecasting result is compared with those of the non-cumulative forecasting method. The new method shows that it is useful for the forecasting of intermittent demand data. The effectiveness of this method should be examined in various cases.

  4. Intermittency of solar system plasma turbulence near Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom

    2016-04-01

    We analyze magnetic field data from Venus Express (VEX) and CLUSTER to investigate the turbulent properties of the solar wind and the Earth's and Venus' magnetosheaths. A systematic study of the PDFs (Probability Distribution Functions) of the measured magnetic fluctuations and their fourth order moments (kurtosis) reveals numerous intermittent time series. The presence of intermittency is marked by non-Gaussian PDFs with heavy wings and a scale dependent kurtosis. Higher order analyses on the scale dependence of several moment orders of the PDFs, the structure functions, along with the scaling of the kurtosis allow for a selection of scales that pertain to different scaling regimes, governed by different physics. On such sub-ranges of scales we investigate the fractal structure of fluctuations through the Rank Ordered Multifractal Analysis - ROMA (Chang and Wu, 2008). ROMA is applied to a selection of intermittent magnetic field time series in the solar wind and planetary magnetosheaths and helps to quantify the turbulence properties through the estimation of a spectrum of local Hurst exponents. Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.

  5. Structure functions and intermittency in ionospheric plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dyrud

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the ionospheric E-region is studied by means of numerical and experimental methods. We use the structure functions of the electrostatic potential as a diagnostics of the fluctuations. We demonstrate the inherently intermittent nature of the low level turbulence in the collisional ionospheric plasma by using results for the space-time varying electrostatic potential from two dimensional numerical simulations. An instrumented rocket can not directly detect the one-point potential variation, and most measurements rely on records of potential differences between two probes. With reference to the space observations we demonstrate that the results obtained by potential difference measurements can differ significantly from the one-point results. It was found, in particular, that the intermittency signatures become much weaker, when the proper rocket-probe configuration is implemented. We analyze also signals from an actual ionospheric rocket experiment, and find a reasonably good agreement with the appropriate simulation results, demonstrating again that rocket data, obtained as those analyzed here, are unlikely to give an adequate representation of intermittent features of the low frequency ionospheric plasma turbulence for the given conditions.

  6. Chance for balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sævild, Katariina; Skov Sørensen, Katrine; Kildahl Lauritsen, Louise; Fuglsang, Sofie Olivia; Arnbjerg, Stine Høegh

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates how (im) balance between family and career influences Danish women's desire to have children. In order to answer this question, we have chosen to use qualitative method and our analysis is based on two semi-structured research interviews with two chosen women. Thus these women’s definition of balance and their view on children define the project. We have chosen to use of work-life balance theories, Thomas Hoejrup’s lifeform-analysis and Anthony Giddens’ theories ...

  7. Refined Critical Balance in Strong Alfv\\'enic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mallet, A; Chandran, B D G

    2014-01-01

    We present numerical evidence that in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, the critical balance principle---equality of the nonlinear decorrelation and linear propagation times---is scale invariant, in the sense that the probability distribution of the ratio of these times is independent of scale. This result only holds if the local alignment of the Elsasser fields is taken into account in calculating the nonlinear time. At any given scale, the degree of alignment is found to increase with fluctuation amplitude, supporting the idea that the cause of alignment is mutual dynamical shearing of Elsasser fields. The scale-invariance of critical balance (while all other quantities of interest are strongly intermittent, i.e., have scale-dependent distributions) suggests that it is the most robust of the scaling principles used to describe Alfv\\'enic turbulence.

  8. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  9. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  10. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  11. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  12. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  13. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  14. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  15. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  16. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  17. A New Load Balancing Scheme on Heterogeneous Database Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Weihua; WANG Yuanzhen

    2006-01-01

    In heterogeneous database cluster, the performance of load balancing is closely related to the computing capabilities of heterogeneous nodes and the different types of workloads. Thus, a method is introduced to evaluate the load status of nodes by the weighted load values with consideration of both the utilization of different resources and the workload types in a load balancer and an efficient and dynamic load balancing scheme is proposed for OLTP(online transaction processing) workloads to maximize the utilization of distributed resources and achieve better performance, which need not collect the feedback of load information from the lower nodes and effectively keeps from the data skew. The simulation results for OLTP services gained by TPC-C tool show that the dynamic weighted balancing policy leads to sub-linear throughput speedup and keeps the heterogeneous cluster well balanced.

  18. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  19. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  20. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  1. Cold intermittent cardioplegia reduces the acidosis during prolonged cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollo, Giandomenico; Ferrari, Paolo; Graffigna, Angelo C

    2011-01-01

    The effect on acid-base balance efficacy of intermittent warm and cold blood cardioplegia (IWBC, ICBC) was assessed in 44 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with prolonged aortic cross clamping. With this purpose a customized multi sensor probe was inserted in the coronary sinus, and pH, PO(2), PCO(2) and temperature were continuously measured at 1 Hz sampling rate. The mean cross-clamping time was of 76 ± 26 min on 19 IWBC cases and of 80 ± 24 min on 14 ICBC cases. With IWBC perfusion, at the end of every ischemic period, the lowest pH and PO(2) progressively decreased and the maximal PCO(2) increased. During ICBC the minimum of pH and PO(2) and maximum of PCO2 at the end of different ischemic period during time were constant, also during long cross-clamping time. With IWBC, myocardial ischemia seemed not completely reversed by standardized reperfusions, as reflected by steady deterioration of PCO(2) and pH after each reperfusion.

  2. Measures of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chen, C. H. K.; Horbury, T. S.; Wicks, R. T.; Greenan, C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfvénic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are `ribbon-like' - statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the nth-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran, Schekochihin & Mallet, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of the perpendicular anisotropy (i.e. of the aspect ratio of the Alfvénic structures in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field) depends on the amplitude of the fluctuations. This is shown to be equivalent to the anticorrelation of fluctuation amplitude and alignment at each scale. The dependence of the anisotropy on amplitude is shown to be more significant for the anisotropy between the perpendicular and fluctuation-direction scales than it is between the perpendicular and parallel scales.

  3. Effects of stomatal delays on the economics of leaf gas exchange under intermittent light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    • Understory plants are subjected to highly intermittent light availability and their leaf gas exchanges are mediated by delayed responses of stomata and leaf biochemistry to light fluctuations. In this article, the patterns in stomatal delays across biomes and plant functional types were studied and their effects on leaf carbon gains and water losses were quantified. • A database of more than 60 published datasets on stomatal responses to light fluctuations was assembled. To interpret these experimental observations, a leaf gas exchange model was developed and coupled to a novel formulation of stomatal movement energetics. The model was used to test whether stomatal delays optimize light capture for photosynthesis, whilst limiting transpiration and carbon costs for stomatal movement. • The data analysis showed that stomatal opening and closing delays occurred over a limited range of values and were strongly correlated. Plant functional type and climate were the most important drivers of stomatal delays, with faster responses in graminoids and species from dry climates. • Although perfectly tracking stomata would maximize photosynthesis and minimize transpiration at the expense of large opening costs, the observed combinations of opening and closure times appeared to be consistent with a near-optimal balance of carbon gain, water loss and movement costs. PMID:21851359

  4. Cost analysis of school-based intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukes Matthew CH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of malaria in schools is receiving increasing attention, but there remains currently no consensus as to the optimal intervention strategy. This paper analyses the costs of intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria in schools, implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast. Methods Financial and economic costs were estimated using an ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of IST are quantified and valued. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate how programme variation affects costs and to identify potential cost savings in the future implementation of IST. Results The estimated financial cost of IST per child screened is US$ 6.61 (economic cost US$ 6.24. Key contributors to cost were salary costs (36% and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT (22%. Almost half (47% of the intervention cost comprises redeployment of existing resources including health worker time and use of hospital vehicles. Sensitivity analysis identified changes to intervention delivery that can reduce programme costs by 40%, including use of alternative RDTs and removal of supervised treatment. Cost-effectiveness is also likely to be highly sensitive to the proportion of children found to be RDT-positive. Conclusion In the current context, school-based IST is a relatively expensive malaria intervention, but reducing the complexity of delivery can result in considerable savings in the cost of intervention. (Costs are reported in US$ 2010.

  5. Small-scale combined heat and power as a balancing reserve for wind – The case of participation in the German secondary control reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sorknæs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES are being integrated into energy systems worldwide. Due to the nature of these sources, they are found to increase the importance of mechanisms for balancing the electricity system. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP plants based on gas have proven their ability to participate in the electricity system balancing, and can hence be used to facilitate an integration of intermittent RES into electricity systems. Within the EU electricity system, balancing reserves have to be procured on a market basis. This paper investigates the ability and challenges of a small-scale CHP plant based on natural gas to participate in the German balancing reserve for secondary control. It is found that CHP plants have to account for more potential losses than traditional power plants. However, it is also found that the effect of these losses can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of the CHP unit.

  6. Intermittency in MHD turbulence and coronal nanoflares modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Veltri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution numerical simulations, solar wind data analysis, and measurements at the edges of laboratory plasma devices have allowed for a huge progress in our understanding of MHD turbulence. The high resolution of solar wind measurements has allowed to characterize the intermittency observed at small scales. We are now able to set up a consistent and convincing view of the main properties of MHD turbulence, which in turn constitutes an extremely efficient tool in understanding the behaviour of turbulent plasmas, like those in solar corona, where in situ observations are not available. Using this knowledge a model to describe injection, due to foot-point motions, storage and dissipation of MHD turbulence in coronal loops, is built where we assume strong longitudinal magnetic field, low beta and high aspect ratio, which allows us to use the set of reduced MHD equations (RMHD. The model is based on a shell technique in the wave vector space orthogonal to the strong magnetic field, while the dependence on the longitudinal coordinate is preserved. Numerical simulations show that injected energy is efficiently stored in the loop where a significant level of magnetic and velocity fluctuations is obtained. Nonlinear interactions give rise to an energy cascade towards smaller scales where energy is dissipated in an intermittent fashion. Due to the strong longitudinal magnetic field, dissipative structures propagate along the loop, with the typical speed of the Alfvén waves. The statistical analysis on the intermittent dissipative events compares well with all observed properties of nanoflare emission statistics. Moreover the recent observations of non thermal velocity measurements during flare occurrence are well described by the numerical results of the simulation model. All these results naturally emerge from the model dynamical evolution without any need of an ad-hoc hypothesis.

  7. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  8. Hybrid optimal scheduling for intermittent androgen suppression of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; di Bernardo, Mario; Bruchovsky, Nicholas; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-12-01

    We propose a method for achieving an optimal protocol of intermittent androgen suppression for the treatment of prostate cancer. Since the model that reproduces the dynamical behavior of the surrogate tumor marker, prostate specific antigen, is piecewise linear, we can obtain an analytical solution for the model. Based on this, we derive conditions for either stopping or delaying recurrent disease. The solution also provides a design principle for the most favorable schedule of treatment that minimizes the rate of expansion of the malignant cell population.

  9. Intermittency in hadronic decays of the Z sup 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akrawy, M.Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Armitage, J.C.; Ashton, P.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G.J.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bougerolle, S.; Brabson, B.B.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R.M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooper, M.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Jong, S.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M.M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fong, D.G.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N.I; OPAL Collaboration

    1991-06-20

    A factorial moment analysis has been performed on the differential multiplicity distributions of hadronic final states of the Z{sup 0} recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The moments of the one-dimensional rapidity and the two-dimensional rapidity versus azimuthal angle distributions are found to exhibit 'intermittent' behaviour attributable to the jet structure of the events. The moments are reproduced by both parton shower and matrix element QCD based hadronisation models. No evidence for fluctuations beyond those attributable to jet structure is observed. (orig.).

  10. Intermittency induced long-range cross-correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonos, Fotis K; Schmelcher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cross-correlations are usually considered to emerge through interaction between particles. Here we present a mechanism capable to generate power-law cross-correlations between non-interacting particles exposed to an external potential. This phenomenon can occur as an ensemble property when the external potential induces intermittent dynamics, providing laminar and stochastic phases of motion. We have strong indications that the divergence of the mean residence time in the laminar phase of the single particle motion - sporadic dynamics - is a sufficient condition for the emergence of long-range cross-correlations. We argue that this mechanism may be relevant for the occurrence of collective behaviour in critical systems.

  11. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  12. Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved, lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbocharging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  13. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of infrarenal arteries in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L O; Jørgensen, B; Holstein, P E;

    1988-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed on 55 iliac and 31 femoropopliteal arteries in 71 patients with intermittent claudication (23 women, 48 men). The two-year patency rate was 80% after iliac and 41% after femoropopliteal angioplasty. In 17 femoropopliteal cases with lesions greater...... than or equal to 5 cm the 2-year patency rate was only 32%, but the corresponding figure for shorter lesions was 53%. Complicating haematoma appeared in 10% of the cases and the arterial state deteriorated in one patient. There was no distal embolization. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty...

  14. Google matrix and Ulam networks of intermittency maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-03-01

    We study the properties of the Google matrix of an Ulam network generated by intermittency maps. This network is created by the Ulam method which gives a matrix approximant for the Perron-Frobenius operator of dynamical map. The spectral properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix are analyzed. We show that the PageRank of the system is characterized by a power law decay with the exponent beta dependent on map parameters and the Google damping factor alpha . Under certain conditions the PageRank is completely delocalized so that the Google search in such a situation becomes inefficient.

  15. Intermittent duty solar refrigerator assisted by heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hindi, R.R.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Akyurt, M.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a solar operated intermittent-duty aqua-ammonia type of absorption refrigerator is described. The generator is heated by an integral acetone heat pipe, the evaporator of which is in the form of a low-thermal-mass flat plate collector. The condenser is air cooled. The absorber is likewise cooled via a second R22 heat-pipe system by convection/radiation panels. Initial test results for the collector-generator loop are reported for a single-glazed collector. A discussion of overall performance is presented.

  16. Atomistic Model of Fluorescence Intermittency of Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, O.

    2014-04-16

    Optoelectronic applications of colloidal quantum dots demand a high emission efficiency, stability in time, and narrow spectral bandwidth. Electronic trap states interfere with the above properties but understanding of their origin remains lacking, inhibiting the development of robust passivation techniques. Here we show that surface vacancies improve the fluorescence yield compared to vacancy-free surfaces, while dynamic vacancy aggregation can temporarily turn fluorescence off. We find that infilling with foreign cations can stabilize the vacancies, inhibiting intermittency and improving quantum yield, providing an explanation of recent experimental observations. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  17. Monitoring antifolate resistance in intermittent preventive therapy for malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Alifrangis, Michael; Roper, Cally;

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr and Pfdhps have rendered sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) ineffective for malaria treatment in most regions of the world. Yet, SP is efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnant women (IPTp) and infants (IPTi) and as seasonal malaria...... control in children (SMC). SP-IPTp is being widely implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. SP-IPTi is recommended where the prevalence of SP-resistant malaria parasites is low, whereas SMC is recommended for areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission. The continuing success of these interventions depends...

  18. Intermittent contact atomic force microscopy in electrochemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, P.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In situ measurements with Atomic Force Microscopy may cause surface modifications due to the tip-surface interactions. As an alternative and less destructive method, Intermittent Contact Atomic Force Microscopy (ICAFM) has been tested in an electrolytic environment. In the ICAFM mode the tip is not constantly in contact with the surface under investigation but is tapping onto the surface with a certain frequency. A commercial Park Scientific Instruments Microscopy has been modified to enable in situ experiment with ICAFM. It was possible to image iridium oxide films with ICAFM in the electrolytic environment without any noticeable surface modifications. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Spatial optimization of an ideal wind energy system as a response to the intermittency of renewable energies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Sylvain; Boucher, Olivier; Breon, François-Marie; Tobin, Isabelle; Vautard, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The share of renewable energies in the mix of electricity production is increasing worldwide. This trend is driven by environmental and economic policies aiming at a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and an improvement of energy security. It is expected to continue in the forthcoming years and decades. Electricity production from renewables is related to weather and climate factors such as the diurnal and seasonal cycles of sunlight and wind, but is also linked to variability on all time scales. The intermittency in the renewable electricity production (solar, wind power) could eventually hinder their future deployment. Intermittency is indeed a challenge as demand and supply of electricity need to be balanced at any time. This challenge can be addressed by the deployment of an overcapacity in power generation (from renewable and/or thermal sources), a large-scale energy storage system and/or improved management of the demand. The main goal of this study is to optimize a hypothetical renewable energy system at the French and European scales in order to investigate if spatial diversity of the production (here electricity from wind energy) could be a response to the intermittency. We use ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-interim meteorological reanalysis and meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasts (WRF) model to estimate the potential for wind power generation. Electricity demand and production are provided by the French electricity network (RTE) at the scale of administrative regions for years 2013 and 2014. Firstly we will show how the simulated production of wind power compares against the measured production at the national and regional scale. Several modelling and bias correction methods of wind power production will be discussed. Secondly, we will present results from an optimization procedure that aims to minimize some measure of the intermittency of wind energy. For instance we estimate the optimal

  20. Influence of intermittency on the anisotropy of magnetic structure functions of solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua; Yan, Limei

    2016-02-01

    Intermittency appears to be connected with the spectral anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. We use the Local Intermittency Measure to identify and remove intermittency from the magnetic field data measured by the Ulysses spacecraft in fast solar wind. Structure functions are calculated based on the time sequences as obtained before and after removing intermittency and arranged by time scale (τ) and ΘRB (the angle between local mean magnetic field B0 and radial direction R). Thus, the scaling exponent (ξ(p, ΘRB)) of every structure function of order (p) is obtained for different angles. Before removing intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) shows a distinctive dependence on ΘRB: from monofractal scaling law at ΘRB ~0° to multifractal scaling law at ΘRB ~90°. In contrast after eliminating the intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) is found to be more monofractal for all ΘRB. The extended structure-function model is applied to ξ(p, ΘRB), revealing differences of its fitting parameters α (a proxy of the power spectral index) and P1 (fragmentation fraction) for the cases with and without intermittency. Parameter α shows an evident angular trend falling from 1.9 to 1.6 for the case with intermittency but has a relatively flat profile around 1.8 for the case without intermittency. Parameter P1 rises from around 0.5 to above 0.8 with increasing ΘRB for the intermittency case and is located between 0.5 and 0.8 for the case lacking intermittency. Therefore, we may infer that it is the anisotropy of intermittency that causes the scaling anisotropy of energy spectra and the unequal fragmentation of energy cascading.

  1. AMP: a new time-frequency feature extraction method for intermittent time-series data

    OpenAIRE

    Barrack, Duncan; Goulding, James; Hopcraft, Keith; Preston, Simon; Smith, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    The characterisation of time-series data via their most salient features is extremely important in a range of machine learning task, not least of all with regards to classification and clustering. While there exist many feature extraction techniques suitable for non-intermittent time-series data, these approaches are not always appropriate for intermittent time-series data, where intermittency is characterized by constant values for large periods of time punctuated by sharp and transient incr...

  2. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  3. WORK LIFE BALANCE AND IT PROFESSIONALS: A GREEN HRM PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Haridas P. K

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) is an important element of a company's strategy. It involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect the people who work for the organizations. Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) is the emerging subject in the current competitive business environment and it is the integration of environmental management into human resource management. This paper examines the key factors associated with work life balance (WLB) with a p...

  4. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  5. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  6. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  7. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  8. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  9. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  10. A Hierarchical Load Balancing Policy for Grid Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Fathy El Zoghdy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of high-speed wide-area networks and powerful yet low-cost computational resources, grid computing has emerged as an attractive computing paradigm. It provides resources for solving large scientific applications. It is typically composed of heterogeneous resources such as clusters or sites at different administrative domains connected by networks with widely varying performance characteristics. The service level of the grid software infrastructure provides two essential functions for workload and resource management. To efficiently utilize the resources at these environments, effective load balancing and resource management policies are fundamentally important. This paper addresses the problem of load balancing and task migration in grid computing environments. We propose a fully decentralized two-level load balancing policy for computationally intensive tasks on a heterogeneous multi-cluster grid environment. It resolves the single point of failure problem which many of the current policies suffer from. In this policy, any site manager receives two kinds of tasks namely, remote tasks arriving from its associated local grid manager, and local tasks submitted directly to the site manager by local users in its domain, which makes this policy closer to reality and distinguishes it from any other similar policy. It distributes the grid workload based on the resources occupation ratio and the communication cost. The grid overall mean task response time is considered as the main performance metric that need to be minimized. The simulation results show that the proposed load balancing policy improves the grid overall mean task response time.

  11. 新医改背景下卫生资源配置制度伦理研究——以效率与公平的平衡为视角%Ethlcal Study on Medical Resources Allocation under the Background of New Health Care Reform —from the Perspective of Balancing the Efficiency and Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 贺加

    2012-01-01

    Facing the growth of health needs of Chinese people, the scarcity of health resources increased the contradiction level of health supply and demand. In medical reform process, efficiency and fairness have become a debated issue in the field of health care resource allocation. In order to solve this problem, the authors proposed thai providing a system level guidance, fully respecting the social consensus and cultural values, with the guarantee of fair procedures and multiple constraints of all interests parties and then make the balance between efficiency and fairness in medical system come true.%面对中国民众日益增长的卫生需求,卫生资源的稀缺性更加重了日益突出的供需矛盾,在医疗改革进程中,效率和公平成为医疗资源分配领域争论的热点问题,就如何更好地开展卫生资源的配置工作,可以从制度层面加以引导,充分尊重社会共识文化价值观念,以公正的程序为保障,借以利益各方有效的制衡机制,来实现医疗系统效率和公平的平衡生态.

  12. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions. PMID:27562485

  13. Emission Enhancement and Intermittency in Polycrystalline Organolead Halide Perovskite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic halide organometal perovskites have demonstrated very promising performance for opto-electronic applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, single-photon sources, etc. However, the little knowledge on the underlying photophysics, especially on a microscopic scale, hampers the further improvement of devices based on this material. In this communication, correlated conventional photoluminescence (PL characterization and wide-field PL imaging as a function of time are employed to investigate the spatially- and temporally-resolved PL in CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite films. Along with a continuous increase of the PL intensity during light soaking, we also observe PL blinking or PL intermittency behavior in individual grains of these films. Combined with significant suppression of PL blinking in perovskite films coated with a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM layer, it suggests that this PL intermittency is attributed to Auger recombination induced by photoionized defects/traps or mobile ions within grains. These defects/traps are detrimental for light conversion and can be effectively passivated by the PCBM layer. This finding paves the way to provide a guideline on the further improvement of perovskite opto-electronic devices.

  14. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  15. Horizontal visibility graphs generated by type-I intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ángel M.; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Robledo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The type-I intermittency route to (or out of) chaos is investigated within the horizontal visibility (HV) graph theory. For that purpose, we address the trajectories generated by unimodal maps close to an inverse tangent bifurcation and construct their associated HV graphs. We show how the alternation of laminar episodes and chaotic bursts imprints a fingerprint in the resulting graph structure. Accordingly, we derive a phenomenological theory that predicts quantitative values for several network parameters. In particular, we predict that the characteristic power-law scaling of the mean length of laminar trend sizes is fully inherited by the variance of the graph degree distribution, in good agreement with the numerics. We also report numerical evidence on how the characteristic power-law scaling of the Lyapunov exponent as a function of the distance to the tangent bifurcation is inherited in the graph by an analogous scaling of block entropy functionals defined on the graph. Furthermore, we are able to recast the full set of HV graphs generated by intermittent dynamics into a renormalization-group framework, where the fixed points of its graph-theoretical renormalization-group flow account for the different types of dynamics. We also establish that the nontrivial fixed point of this flow coincides with the tangency condition and that the corresponding invariant graph exhibits extremal entropic properties.

  16. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions.

  17. [Denitrification water treatment with zeolite composite filter by intermittent operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Cheng-Song; Bao, Tao; Chen, Tian-Hu; Chen, Dong; Xie, Jing-Jing

    2012-12-01

    The zeolite composite filters (ZCF) with the size of4-8 mm were prepared using raw zeolite (0.15-0.18 mm) as the main material and the cement as binder. After a combination of material characterizations, such as the void fraction, apparent density, compression strength and surface area, the optimal prepared conditions of composite filters were obtained as follow: weight ratio of m (zeolite): m (cement) = 7 : 3, curing for 15 d under the moisture condition and ambient temperature. Through upflow low-concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater, ZCF filled in the experimental column was hung with the biological membrane. Thus, intermittent dynamic experiments were conducted, the intermittent operation cycle included adsorption, biological regeneration and drip washing. Until concentration of ammonia nitrogen was more than 2 mg x L(-1) of effluent standards, water in experiment column was firstly emptied, and then blast biological regeneration was conducted. After the filters were bathed with water, the zeolite adsorption-biological regeneration cycle was performed repeatedly. The experimental results show that under conditions of 24 h blast and 5 d of continuous operation period, ammonia nitrogen removal rate is up to 87.6% on average, total nitrogen removal rate reaches 51.2% on average. PMID:23379168

  18. Twist-induced Magnetosphere Reconfiguration for Intermittent Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the magnetosphere reconfiguration induced by magnetic twists in the closed field line region can account for the mode-switching of intermittent pulsars. We carefully investigate the properties of axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetospheres with magnetic twists in closed field line region around the polar caps. The magnetosphere with twisted closed lines leads to enhanced spin-down rates. The enhancement in spin-down rate depends on the size of region with twisted closed lines. Typically, it is increased by a factor of $\\sim2$, which is consistent with the intermittent pulsars' spin down behavior during the `off' and `on' states. We find there is a threshold of maximal twist angle $\\Delta\\phi_{\\rm thres}\\sim1$. The magnetosphere is stable only if the closed line twist angle is less than $\\Delta\\phi_{\\rm thres}$. Beyond this value, the magnetosphere becomes unstable and gets untwisted. The spin-down rate would reduce to its off-state value. The quasi-periodicity in spin-down rate change can be...

  19. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  20. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAJOGHLI Shirin MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepamin febrile seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy ofintermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age rangeof 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with ahistory of psychomotor delay, abnormal neurological examination, a history ofantiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from thestudy. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritmentand three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-freeafter 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common sideeffects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because theyhad prior awareness of the possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam isefficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informedof its side effects.

  1. Emission Enhancement and Intermittency in Polycrystalline Organolead Halide Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhong, Yu; Luna, Carlos Andres Melo; Unger, Thomas; Deichsel, Konstantin; Gräser, Anna; Köhler, Jürgen; Köhler, Anna; Hildner, Richard; Huettner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic-organic halide organometal perovskites have demonstrated very promising performance for opto-electronic applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, single-photon sources, etc. However, the little knowledge on the underlying photophysics, especially on a microscopic scale, hampers the further improvement of devices based on this material. In this communication, correlated conventional photoluminescence (PL) characterization and wide-field PL imaging as a function of time are employed to investigate the spatially- and temporally-resolved PL in CH₃NH₃PbI3-xClx perovskite films. Along with a continuous increase of the PL intensity during light soaking, we also observe PL blinking or PL intermittency behavior in individual grains of these films. Combined with significant suppression of PL blinking in perovskite films coated with a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, it suggests that this PL intermittency is attributed to Auger recombination induced by photoionized defects/traps or mobile ions within grains. These defects/traps are detrimental for light conversion and can be effectively passivated by the PCBM layer. This finding paves the way to provide a guideline on the further improvement of perovskite opto-electronic devices. PMID:27548128

  2. Reconstructing the intermittent dynamics of the torque in wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Pedro G; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We apply a framework introduced in the late nineties to analyze load measurements in off-shore wind energy converters (WEC). The framework is borrowed from statistical physics and properly adapted to the analysis of multivariate data comprising wind velocity, power production and torque measurements, taken at one single WEC. In particular, we assume that wind statistics drives the fluctuations of the torque produced in the wind turbine and show how to extract an evolution equation of the Langevin type for the torque driven by the wind velocity. It is known that the intermittent nature of the atmosphere, i.e. of the wind field, is transferred to the power production of a wind energy converter and consequently to the shaft torque. We show that the derived stochastic differential equation quantifies the dynamical coupling of the measured fluctuating properties as well as it reproduces the intermittency observed in the data. Finally, we discuss our approach in the light of turbine monitoring, a particular importa...

  3. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi. PMID:24459990

  4. Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe

  5. Intermittent cathodic protection for steel reinforced concrete bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Soltesz, S.M. (ODOT)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems on Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to prevent chloride-induced corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed zinc performs well as an ICCP anode but the service life of the zinc anode is directly related to the average current density used to operate the systems. After a ICCP system is turned off, the rebar in the concrete remains passive and protected for a period of time. Intermittent operation of CP systems is possible when continuous corrosion rate monitoring is used to identify conditions when the CP system needs to be turned on to reestablish protection conditions for the rebar. This approach applies CP protection only when needed and reflects the fact that external protection may not be needed for a range of environmental conditions. In doing so, intermittent CP would lower the average current necessary to protect rebar, increase the anode service life, and reduce the lifetime costs for protecting reinforced concrete bridges.

  6. Tracking Intermittently Speaking Multiple Speakers Using a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinlan Angela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.

  7. Timing of synchronization in intermittent irradiation synchronized with respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the increase in the irradiated volume caused by respiratory motion, a system which intermittently emits radiation synchronized with respiration was developed. A phantom of oscillating motion was made, and the effect of the motion on the penumbra of the dose profile was investigated by changing the distance of the motion and the timing of the synchronization. Irradiation was carried out by a 10-MV linear accelerator. Decreasing the irradiated time per motion cycle reduced the width of the penumbra. With a synchronized irradiation gated at end-of-inspiration or end-of-expiration, an intermittent irradiation ratio 47% kept the extension of the penumbra width to 2.2 times of the value measured in the phantom without motion when the motion distance was 4 cm. Investigation of the patients' diaphragmatic motion was done by reading the IBS (Image Brightness Stabilizer) circuit during fluoroscopic examination. A quiescent period was often observed at end-of-expiration. Synchronized irradiation gated at end-of-expiration was considered suitable for clinical application. (author)

  8. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  9. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  10. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  11. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  12. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.)

  13. Lives in the Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  14. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  15. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)

  16. Improving Resource Discovery in the Arigatoni Overlay Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Raphaël; Liquori, Luigi; Cosnard, Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience Arigatoni is a structured multi-layer overlay network providing various services with variable guarantees, and promoting an intermittent participation to the virtual organization where peers can appear, disappear and organize themselves dynamically. Arigatoni mainly concerns with how resources are declared and discovered in the overlay, allowing global computers to make a secure, PKI-based, use of global aggregated computational power, storage, information resources,...

  17. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  18. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  19. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  20. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer : An EORTC phase III study (10863)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  1. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer: an EORTC phase III study (10863).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.V.A.M.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  2. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  3. Recycling under a material balance constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, Karen [ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research, ZUE F14, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Amigues, Jean-Pierre [INRA/University of Toulouse, Universite des Sciences Sociales, INRA (IDEI and LERNA), 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Kuhn, Thomas [Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Economics, TU Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic implications of recycling for resource use, the level of economic activity and the long-run development of the economy. In contrast to former approaches, we take explicit account of the circulation of matter in the economy. We consider virgin resources and recycled wastes as essential inputs to production. These material inputs either end up as waste after consumption or are bound in the capital stock - depending on the utilization of the produced output. As accumulating wastes can be recycled and again be employed in production, the waste stock serves as a source of valuable inputs in our model. We focus on the implications of recycling-related market failures and the integration of material balances on the dynamics of the economy. It is shown that a market for waste and subsidies to resource extractors and recycling firms can restore optimality in the decentralized economy. (author)

  4. An investigation of apparent, intermittent fuel failure in TRIGA fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 1 Mw TRIGA Reactor is cooled by natural convection and 16N and 41Ar which were released from the pool caused an undesirably high background in the gas detector used for fission product monitorings. It was necessary to convert the gas detector which was very sensitive to 16N and 41Ar to a particulate monitor. The monitor chosen was a commercially available moving tape continuous air monitor. It was placed adjacent to the pool wall where air under the reactor bridge could be sampled at the surface of the pool water. This monitoring system proved to be adequate under normal conditions. However, on several occasions, sharp increases in activity of short, duration were noted on the monitor recorder. These brief high levels of activity were similar to those described by other facilities which had experienced intermittent fuel element leakage and the integrity of the reactor fuel was suspected. The filter paper from the monitor was removed and its gamma spectrum obtained using a 30 cc Ge(Li) detector. This analysis revealed only the naturally occurring airborne isotopes, and it was concluded that the recorder increases in activity were not from fuel leakage. It was suspected that the activity increases were due to the intermittent release of radioactive gases from the pool water at higher temperatures. A series of experiments was performed which demonstrated the following: 1. At pool temperatures up to 80oF, the reading of the CAM remained constant. From 80 to 95oF, the reading increased by nearly a factor of 3 and became more erratic. 2. With the air pump off, the CAM response did not change. 3. A gas monitor set up in series with the CAM exhibited nearly an identical response and its spectrum showed only the existence of 41Ar and 16N. 4. After reactor shutdown, the CAM reading decayed with a half-life of 1.4 hr. It was concluded that at the higher pool temperatures large bubbles containing 41Ar escaped to the pool surface and the 41Ar was seen through the

  5. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; van der Lippe, T.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employees with a partner, and employees with a partner and children. Using a sample of 482 employees at 24 organizations, the results showed that the organization’s work-family culture improved work perf...

  6. Tthe influence of technology on work/non-work balance

    OpenAIRE

    Vlačić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Master in Human Resources Management very important for HR departments to understand the way how technology shapes people lives in order to develop further HR policies that will help them to achieve balance between work and life of their employees. Thus, the question of this master thesis is to what extent employees perceive balance between work and non-work domains due to the availability and use of technology? The work is divided into three sections; first one is theoretical part that...

  7. Energy balances 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark's consumption of energy increased 1,6 % from 2000 to 2001, primarily due to the year 2001 being colder than the year 2000. The production of petroleum decreased from 2000 to 2001, the reason being an accident at the Gorm oil field. The production of renewable energy and natural gas, however, increased. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is presented for households and industry. In the energy balances the energy consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also an account is made of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including calculation of excises on energy, CO2 and SO2. (ln)

  8. Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration of apple slices Controlled by Intermittent Heating Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared heating controlled by intermittent heating mode was found to be able to achieve simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration of apple slices with a desirable quality. In order to better understand the performance of intermittent heating for simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration (SIDBD),...

  9. Intermittent turbulence and oscillations in the stable boundary layer over land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    As the title of this thesis indicates, our main subject of interest is: "Intermittent turbulence and oscillation in the stable boundary layer over land". As such, this theme connects the different chapters. Here, intermittent turbulence is defined as a sequence of events were 'burst' of increased tu

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825.203 Section 825.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  11. Persistence during Extinction: Examining the Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement on Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M.; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were four children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in problem behavior; and for whom functional analyses indicated sensitivity to social reinforcers. Experimental sessions included four successive 5-min components: No social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement...

  12. The influence of basketball dribbling on repeated high-intensity intermittent runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test could reflect the repeatability of high-intensity intermittent basketball dribbling performance, while dribbling skills may have different influences on high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity in adolescent players at different ages.

  13. 含间歇电源、储能和电动汽车的配电孤岛短时恢复供电策略%Short-period Restoration Strategy in Isolated Electrical Islands with Intermittent Energy Sources,Energy Storage Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟佳; 孙磊; 林振智; 福拴

    2015-01-01

    developed first,with the objective of providing continuous and stable power supply to the maximized amount of power load in a given period.The characteristics of different kinds of intermittent energy resources and their output capabilities are discussed next,and the controllable loads are employed to balance the power output fluctuations of these intermittent energy sources.Probabilistic models are utilized to describe the uncertainties of the predicted power outputs of the intermittent energy sources.The proposed restoration model is then transformed to a definite quadratic constrained integer programming one,and solved by the well-developed CPLEX solver. Finally,the proposed restoration strategy is verified by a modified IEEE 33-bus test system.

  14. Getting the Balance Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the next five years China will balance economic growth and improving the living standards of its people by Liu Wei IT was widely reported that the chaos in some Middle East and North African countries were results of the inadequate efforts in improving people’s livelihood, a fundamental aspect of social stability. In early March,China held its annual sessions of the National People’s

  15. Ballet Balance Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous...

  16. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  17. France's energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several terminological definitions of words and concepts used for the establishment of France's energy balance (i.e. the supply and utilization of energy) are presented, taken from the Energy dictionary, published in 1992 by the world Energy Council: primary, secondary, final and useful energy. Statistics concerning energy production, importation and exportation, consumption, and costs are discussed, showing the market share evolution of the different energy types; the France's energy independence ratio has increased from 22% in 1973 to 51% in 1995

  18. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  19. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  20. Gait and balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  1. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  2. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  3. Coexistence of intermittencies in the neuronal network of the epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Moskalenko, Olga I.; Sitnikova, Evgenia; Pavlov, Alexey N.

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent behavior occurs widely in nature. At present, several types of intermittencies are known and well-studied. However, consideration of intermittency has usually been limited to the analysis of cases when only one certain type of intermittency takes place. In this paper, we report on the temporal behavior of the complex neuronal network in the epileptic brain, when two types of intermittent behavior coexist and alternate with each other. We prove the presence of this phenomenon in physiological experiments with WAG/Rij rats being the model living system of absence epilepsy. In our paper, the deduced theoretical law for distributions of the lengths of laminar phases prescribing the power law with a degree of -2 agrees well with the experimental neurophysiological data.

  4. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Belkacemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  5. Effects of intermittent aeration on pollutants removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Fei, Hexin; Song, Siyu; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the pollutant removal performances in two pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration were investigated. Matrix oxidation reduction potential (ORP) results showed that intermittent aeration well developed aerobic conditions in upper matrix and anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the subsequent sections, which resulted in high NH4(+)-N and TN removal. Moreover, intermittent aeration increased removal rates of COD and TP. Microbial populations and enzyme activities analysis proved that intermittent aeration not only obviously boosted the growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungus, actinomyces, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, but also successfully increased nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NIR) in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The results suggest that the intermittent aeration could be a widespread research and application strategy for achieving the high removal performance in SWISs.

  6. Intermittency, nonlinear dynamics and dissipation in the solar wind and astrophysical plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W H; Wan, Minping; Servidio, S; Greco, A; Osman, K T; Oughton, S; Dmitruk, P

    2015-05-13

    An overview is given of important properties of spatial and temporal intermittency, including evidence of its appearance in fluids, magnetofluids and plasmas, and its implications for understanding of heliospheric plasmas. Spatial intermittency is generally associated with formation of sharp gradients and coherent structures. The basic physics of structure generation is ideal, but when dissipation is present it is usually concentrated in regions of strong gradients. This essential feature of spatial intermittency in fluids has been shown recently to carry over to the realm of kinetic plasma, where the dissipation function is not known from first principles. Spatial structures produced in intermittent plasma influence dissipation, heating, and transport and acceleration of charged particles. Temporal intermittency can give rise to very long time correlations or a delayed approach to steady-state conditions, and has been associated with inverse cascade or quasi-inverse cascade systems, with possible implications for heliospheric prediction.

  7. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  9. Intermittency and chaos in intracavity doubled lasers. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.E.; Harrell, E.M. II (School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA)); Roy, R. (School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    We describe the nonlinear dynamics of intracavity doubled multimode lasers. Baer (J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1175 (1986)) observed irregular amplitude fluctuations in a multimode yttrium aluminum garnet laser with an intracavity potassium titanyl phosphate frequency-doubling crystal; we identify type-III intermittency as the route to chaos. Subsequently, Oka and Kubota (Opt. Lett. 13, 805 (1988)) demonstrated the stabilization of such a laser by the introduction of a quarter wave plate into the cavity. A generalized model of rate equations for this case is introduced. It is shown that a second route to chaos through a Hopf bifurcation, synchronization, and period-doubling sequence occurs on rotation of the quarter wave plate within the cavity. In addition, we predict that the laser output may be stable for particular lengths of the doubling crystal.

  10. A conditional simulation model of intermittent rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Lanza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic generation of random fields with specified probability distribution, correlation structure and probability of no-rain areas is used as the basis for the formulation of a stochastic space-time rainfall model conditional on rain gauge observations. A new procedure for conditioning while preserving intermittence is developed to provide constraints to Monte Carlo realisations of possible rainfall scenarios. The method addresses the properties of the convolution operator involved in generating random field realisations and is actually independent of the numerical algorithm used for unconditional simulation. It requires only the solution of a linear system of algebraic equations the order of which is given by the number of the conditioning nodes. Applications of the methodology are expected in rainfall field reconstruction from sparse rain gauge data and in rainfall downscaling from the large scale information that may be provided by remote sensing devices or numerical weather prediction models. Keywords: Space-time rainfall; Conditioning; Stochastic models

  11. Detecting the temporal structure of intermittent phase locking

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2011-01-01

    This study explores a method to characterize temporal structure of intermittent phase locking in oscillatory systems. When an oscillatory system is in a weakly synchronized regime away from a synchronization threshold, it spends most of the time in parts of its phase space away from synchronization state. Therefore characteristics of dynamics near this state (such as its stability properties/Lyapunov exponents or distributions of the durations of synchronized episodes) do not describe system's dynamics for most of the time. We consider an approach to characterize the system dynamics in this case, by exploring the relationship between the phases on each cycle of oscillations. If some overall level of phase locking is present, one can quantify when and for how long phase locking is lost, and how the system returns back to the phase-locked state. We consider several examples to illustrate this approach: coupled skewed tent maps, which stability can be evaluated analytically, coupled R\\"{o}ssler and Lorenz oscill...

  12. Hyperchaotic Intermittent Convection in a Magnetized Viscous Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, Wieslaw M

    2014-01-01

    We consider a low-dimensional model of convection in a horizontally magnetized layer of a viscous fluid heated from below. We analyze in detail the stability of hydromagnetic convection for a wide range of two control parameters. Namely, when changing the initially applied temperature difference or magnetic field strength, one can see transitions from regular to irregular long-term behavior of the system, switching between chaotic, periodic, and equilibrium asymptotic solutions. It is worth noting that owing to the induced magnetic field a transition to hyperchaotic dynamics is possible for some parameters of the model. We also reveal new features of the generalized Lorenz model, including both type I and III intermittency.

  13. Turbulent energy dissipation and intermittency in ambipolar diffusion magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Momferratos, Georgios; Falgarone, Edith; Forêts, Guillaume Pineau des

    2015-01-01

    The dissipation of kinetic and magnetic energy in the interstellar medium (ISM) can proceed through viscous, Ohmic or ambipolar diffusion (AD). It occurs at very small scales compared to the scales at which energy is presumed to be injected. This localized heating may impact the ISM evolution but also its chemistry, thus providing observable features. Here, we perform 3D spectral simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence including the effects of AD. We find that the AD heating power spectrum peaks at scales in the inertial range, due to a strong alignment of the magnetic and current vectors in the dissipative range. AD affects much greater scales than the AD scale predicted by dimensional analysis. We find that energy dissipation is highly concentrated on thin sheets. Its probability density function follows a lognormal law with a power-law tail which hints at intermittency, a property which we quantify by use of structure function exponents. Finally, we extract structures of high dissipation, de...

  14. Fractal clusters and intermittency in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, Nikos G; Diakonos, F K

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the formation of particle clusters (pions) associated with the chiral QCD phase transition in thermodynamic equilibrium. The geometry of these clusters at the critical point (T=T/sub c/) turns out to be fractal reflecting the self similar structure of the density fluctuations of the produced pions. The fractal dimension of the "critical" clusters is related to the critical exponents characterizing the phase transition. We examine the possibility to observe such pion clusters in relativistic heavy ion collisions. A Monte Carlo simulation of the critical system in 3D is performed leading to a typical set of "critical" events. Factorial moment analysis of the rapidity and transverse momentum distribution for these events shows a characteristic intermittency pattern. Mini-jet like structures arise in a azimuth angle rapidity lego plot. These features allow for a unique identification of the class of "critical events" in an event by event analysis in current and future experiments with relativistic ...

  15. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  16. Suppression of spiral waves using intermittent local electric shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Ying He-Ping; Li Yan-Long

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an intermittent local electric shock scheme is proposed to suppress stable spiral waves in the Barkley model by a weak electric shock (about 0.4 to 0.7) imposed on a random selected n × n grids (n = 1-5, compared with the original 256×256 lattice) and monitored synchronically the evolutions of the activator on the grids as the sampled signal of the activator steps out a given threshold (i.e., the electric shock works on the n × n grids if the activator u (≤) 0.4 or u (≥) 0.8). The numerical simulations show that a breakup of spiral is observed in the media state evolution to finally obtain homogeneous states if the electric shock with appropriate intensity is imposed.

  17. Wind and Current Intermittency in Coastal and Atmospheric Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Emil; Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Redondo, Jose M.; Jorge, Juan; Mahjoub, Otman B.

    2015-04-01

    We study at several non-homogeneous sites, such as the coastal Mediterranean Area (Ebro Delta, Blanes) and in the iberian Plateau the wind intermittency as well as the fractal structure of the induced cloud and wave fronts. Weather data from 10 and 100m hight masts are used to calculate Local Richardson number, Monin-Obukhov length, eddy transfer coefficients, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent intensities, friction velocities and sensible heat flux at three levels (5, 17 and 32 m) were considered. The results show how the stability at 17 and 32 m influences the turbulent transfer near the ground. The shear of wind or convection are the main mechanism to produce mixing in the surface, which is often detected in satellite images of nearby clouds or coastal features. The influence of internal gravity-waves on the atmospheric boundary-layer during strong stable stratification is quantified. atmospheric and oceanic circulation involve non-linear intermittency that account for unresolved turbulent mixing and diffusion. The most sophisticated turbulent closure models involve using structure functions of higher order [1,2]. The relationship between the intermittency of turbulence and the type of stratification for different atmospheric situations during the SABLES98 field campaign. We first show that the scaling behaviour of the velocity structure function in events such as GABLS (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study)and in combined ESA SAR measurements [3-6] near the coast exhibit fractal and intermittent scaling. Near the Gulf of Lyons, vortical scaling show coupling between synoptic and rossby deformation scales [7]. [1]Mahjoub O., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (1998) Structure Functions in Complex Flows, Applied Scientific Research 59, 299-313. [2]Fraunie P., Berreba S. Chashechkin Y., Velasco D. and Redondo J.M. (2008)LES and laboratory experiments on the decay of grid wakes in strongly stratified flows. Il Nuovo Cimento C 31, 909-930. [3]Diez M., Bezerra M

  18. Intermittent Jolts of Galactic UV Radiation Mutagenetic Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J M; Williams, P; Scalo, John M.; Williams, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of intermittent hypermutation events and disruptions of planetary/satellite photochemistry due to ultraviolet radiation from core collapse supernova explosions. Calculations are presented for planetary systems in the local Milky Way, including the important moderating effects of vertical Galactic structure and UV absorption by interstellar dust. The events are particularly frequent for satellites of giant gas planets at \\gtrsim 5-10 AU distance from solar-type parent stars, or in the conventional habitable zones for planets orbiting spectral type K and M parent stars, with rates of significant jolts about 10^3 - 10^4 per Gyr. The steep source spectra and existing data on UVA and longer-wavelength radiation damage in terrestrial organisms suggest that the mutational effects may operate even on planets with ozone shields. We argue that the mutation doubling dose for UV radiation should be much smaller than the mean lethal dose, using terrestrial prokaryotic organisms as our model, and ...

  19. Caustics and Intermittency in Turbulent Suspensions of Heavy Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bec, J; Cencini, M; Lanotte, A S; Toschi, F

    2009-01-01

    The statistics of velocity differences between very heavy inertial particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent flow is found to be extremely intermittent. When particles are separated by distances within the viscous subrange, the competition between quiet regular regions and multi-valued caustics leads to a quasi bi-fractal behavior of the particle velocity structure functions, with high-order moments bringing the statistical signature of caustics. Contrastingly, for particles separated by inertial-range distances, the velocity-difference statistics is characterized in terms of a local H\\"{o}lder exponent, which is a function of the scale-dependent particle Stokes number only. Results are supported by high-resolution direct numerical simulations. It is argued that these findings might have implications in the early stage of rain droplets formation in warm clouds.

  20. Intermittency and transient chaos from simple frequency-dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilets, S; Hastings, A

    1995-08-22

    Frequency-dependent selection is an important determinant of the evolution of gametophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants, aposematic (warning) and cryptic coloration, systems of mimicry, competitive interactions among members of a population, mating preferences, predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, aggression and other behavioural traits. Past theoretical studies of frequency-dependent selection have shown it to be a plausible mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variability in natural populations. Here, through an analysis of a simple deterministic model for frequency-dependent selection, we demonstrate that complex dynamic behaviour is possible under a broad range of parameter values. In particular we show that the model exhibits not only cycles and chaos but also, for a more restricted set of parameters, transient chaos and intermittency: alterations between an apparently deterministic behaviour and apparently chaotic fluctuations. This behaviour, which has not been stressed within the population genetics literature, provides an explanation for erratic dynamics of gene frequencies.