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Sample records for balance intermittent resources

  1. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that are expected to occur at high penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator...

  2. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  3. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Sporborg, Pamela; Sheik, Imran; Huffaker, Erich; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-30

    This scoping study summarizes the challenges with integrating wind and solar generation into the California's electricity grid. These challenges include: Smoothing intra-hour variability; - Absorbing excess renewable energy during over-generation periods; - Addressing morning and evening ramping periods. In addition, there are technical challenges to integrating retail demand response (DR) triggered by the wholesale conditions into the CAISO markets. The study describes the DR programs available to the consumers through the utilities in California and CAISO's ancillary services market because an integration of the wholesale and retail DR requires an understanding of these different offerings and the costs associated with acquiring them. Demand-side active and passive storage systems are proposed as technologies that may be used to mitigate the effects of intermittence due to renewable generation. Commercial building technologies as well as industrial facilities with storage capability are identified as targets for the field tests. Two systems used for ancillary services communications are identified as providing the triggers for DR enablement. Through the field tests, issues related to communication, automation and flexibility of demand-side resources will be explored and the performance of technologies that participate in the field tests will be evaluated. The major outcome of this research is identifying and defining flexibility of DR resources and optimized use of these resources to respond to grid conditions.

  4. Efficient pricing and investment in electricity markets with intermittent resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Hung-po

    2011-01-01

    Facing growing technological and environmental challenges, the electricity industry needs effective pricing mechanism to promote efficient risk management and investment decisions. In a restructured electricity market with competitive wholesale prices and traditionally regulated retail rates, however, there are technical and institutional barriers that prevent dynamic pricing with price responsive demand. In regions with limited energy storage capacity, intermittent renewable resources present special challenges. This could adversely affect the effectiveness of public policies causing inefficient investments in energy technologies. In this paper, we present an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market and use the model in a simulation study for an initial assessment of renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. A key objective of the study is to shed light on the policy issues so that effective decisions can be made to improve efficiency. - Highlights: → Renewable resources present special challenges in regions with limited energy storage capacity. → This paper presents an updated economic model of pricing and investment in restructured electricity market. → A simulation study assesses renewable energy strategy and alternative pricing mechanisms. → The study results inform policy decisions to improve efficient investments in energy technologies.

  5. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands...... the participation of demand-side resources. In light of the future environment of increasing intermittent renewable power and distributed energy/storage resources, stochastic time-series and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to analyze the relationship between balancing requirement and generation/demand uncertainties...

  6. Computerized dynamic posturography in the objective assessment of balance in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Katherine A; Mazari, Fayyaz A K; Jordan, Alastair R; Vanicek, Natalie; Chetter, Ian C; Coughlin, Patrick A

    2011-02-01

    One-third of all elderly patients fall each year and impaired balance has been recognized as a specific risk factor. Intermittent claudication is common among the elderly population, affecting approximately 5% of the population over the age of 50. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to assess the prevalence of impaired balance among elderly claudicants and to assess each patient's insight into their own risk of falling. A total of 58 claudicants (45 men), median age of 70 (interquartile range = 65-73) years, underwent objective balance assessment by using computerized dynamic posturography. As compared with 195 (5%) historic controls, 24 (41%) of the claudicants demonstrated abnormal balance when the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) was used. Vestibular dysfunction occurred in 52% of the claudicants. Abnormalities including somatosensory (22%), visual function (17%), and preferential reliance on inaccurate visual cues (17%) occurred less often. Prolonged Motor Control Test latency times were uncommon (n = 13) and were in most cases evenly distributed between those with normal (n = 7) and abnormal (n = 6) composite SOT scores. There was a significant difference in history of falling between claudicants with abnormal and normal SOT scores (p = 0.003), with a higher number of patients with abnormal SOT having experienced falling in the past year. However, no correlation between fear of falling and composite SOT score was found (Spearman rank correlation, r = 0.124; p = 0.381). Impaired balance, particularly secondary to vestibular problems, is very common among claudicants and may predispose to a high incidence of falls. Claudicants with abnormal balance are more likely to have a history of falls but not a fear of falling, thus potentially rendering these patients to be at a greater risk. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Intermittent fasting, energy balance and associated health outcomes in adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Iain; Thompson, Dylan; Gonzalez, Javier; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Reeves, Sue; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2018-02-02

    Prior studies have shown that intermittent fasting is capable of producing improvements in body weight and fasted health markers. However, the extent to which intermittent fasting incurs compensatory changes in the components of energy balance and its impact on postprandial metabolism are yet to be ascertained. A total of 30-36 lean participants and 30-36 overweight/obese participants will be recruited to provide two separate study groups who will undergo the same protocol. Following an initial assessment of basic anthropometry and key health markers, measurements of habitual energy intake (weighed food and fluid intake) and physical activity energy expenditure (combined heart rate and accelerometry) will be obtained over 4 weeks under conditions of energy balance. Participants will then be randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions for 20 days, namely (1) daily calorie restriction (reduce habitual daily energy intake by 25%), (2) intermittent fasting with calorie restriction (alternate between 24-hour periods of fasting and feeding to 150% of habitual daily energy intake), (3) intermittent fasting without calorie restriction (alternate between 24-hour periods of fasting and feeding to 200% of habitual daily energy intake). In addition to continued monitoring of energy intake and physical activity during the intervention, participants will report for laboratory-based assessments of various metabolic parameters both before and after the intervention. Specifically, fasting and postprandial measurements of resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, appetite, food preference, and plasma concentrations of key metabolites and hormones will be made, in addition to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies in the fasted state and an assessment of body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Comparing observed changes in these measures across the three intervention arms in each group will establish the impact of intermittent fasting on

  8. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  9. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  10. Intermittent Hypoxia and Locomotor Training Enhances Dynamic but Not Standing Balance in Patients With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Alcayaga, Julio J; Sepúlveda, Oscar; Varas, Gonzalo

    2017-03-01

    To test the effect of combined intermittent hypoxia (IH) and body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on standing and dynamic balance in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Rehabilitation medical centers. Study participants (N=35) with chronic iSCI with American Spinal Injury Association grades C and D (>1y postinjury) were randomly assigned to either IH plus BWSTT (n=18) or continued normoxia (placebo) plus BWSTT protocol (n=17). Participants received either IH (alternating 1.5min 9% inspired O 2 with 1.5min 21% inspired O 2 , 15 cycles per day) or continued normoxia (21% O 2 ) combined with 45 minutes of BWSTT for 5 consecutive days, followed by 3 times per week IH or normoxia plus BWSTT, for 3 additional weeks. Standing balance (normalized jerk and root-mean-square [RMS]) and dynamic balance (turning duration, cadence in a turn, and turn-to-sit duration) were assessed before and after IH and normoxia protocol by means of instrumented sway and instrumented timed Up and Go test. There was no significant difference in standing balance between interventions for both normalized jerk and RMS instrumented sway components (both P>.05). There was a significantly faster cadence (P<.001), turning duration (P<.001), and turn-to-sit duration (P=.001) in subjects receiving IH plus BWSTT, compared with placebo. A 4-week protocol of IH combined with locomotor training improves dynamic, but not standing, balance in persons with iSCI. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cinquin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproductive capacity," i.e. in the number of progeny that can be produced until cessation of reproduction. We show that stem cell cycling diminishes remaining reproductive capacity, at least in part through the DNA damage response. Paradoxically, gonads kept under conditions that preclude reproduction keep cycling and producing cells that undergo apoptosis or are laid as unfertilized gametes, thus squandering reproductive capacity. We show that continued activity is in fact beneficial inasmuch as gonads that are active when reproduction is initiated have more sustained early progeny production. Intriguingly, continued cycling is intermittent-gonads switch between active and dormant states-and in all likelihood stochastic. Other organs face tradeoffs whereby stem cell cycling has the beneficial effect of providing freshly-differentiated cells and the detrimental effect of increasing the likelihood of cancer or senescence; stochastic stem cell cycling may allow for a subset of cells to preserve proliferative potential in old age, which may implement a strategy to deal with uncertainty as to the total amount of proliferation to be undergone over an organism's lifespan.

  12. Fossil resource trade balances. Emerging trends for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni; Jackson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which the UK can be classified as a net importer of fossil resources and a creator of pollution havens abroad between 1968 and 2000. Using input-output techniques and a derived Resource Flow Classification System, both the physical trade balance (PTB) and pollution trade balance (UTB) associated with fossil resource use are computed. The PTB shows that between 1968 and the early 1980's the UK is presented as a net importer of direct fossil resource flows. Between 1984 and 2000, the UK is identified as a net exporter of direct fossil resources. These trends are primarily explained by the UK's discovery and commercial production of North Sea oil and gas fields in the late 1970s. On the other hand, the UTB shows that over the whole period the indirect used flows attributable to the UK's exports are higher than those attributable to its imports. These findings suggest that the UK did not create pollution havens abroad from the use of fossil resources between 1968 and 2000. However, it is noticeable in both cases that from 1995 the UK's position as a net exporter has been decreasing considerably. Maturing North Sea oil and gas fields set against increasing demands for fossil fuels and imported goods is signalling a return to the UK's pre-1984 dependence on direct imported fossil resources and the possible creation of pollution havens abroad. Knowledge of these trends contributes to the evidence base for the UK's changing import and export structure and the potential environmental repercussions at home and abroad. (author)

  13. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  14. Healthcare resource consumption for intermittent urinary catheterisation: cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic catheters and budget impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, Carla; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-01-17

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing hydrophilic coated to uncoated catheters for patients performing urinary intermittent catheterisation. A national budget impact analysis is also included to evaluate the impact of intermittent catheterisation for management of bladder dysfunctions over a period of 5 years. A Markov model (lifetime horizon, 1 year cycle length) was developed to project health outcomes (life years and quality-adjusted life years) and economic consequences related to patients using hydrophilic coated or uncoated catheters. The model was populated with catheter-related clinical efficacy data retrieved from randomised controlled trials and quality-of-life data (utility weights) from the literature. Cost data (EUR, 2015) were estimated on the basis of healthcare resource consumption derived from an e-survey addressed to key opinion leaders in the field. Italian Healthcare Service perspective. Patients with spinal cord injury performing intermittent urinary catheterisation in the home setting. Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios (ICER and ICUR) of hydrophilic coated versus uncoated catheters and associated healthcare budget impact. The base-case ICER and ICUR associated with hydrophilic coated catheters were €20 761 and €24 405, respectively. This implies that hydrophilic coated catheters are likely to be cost-effective in comparison to uncoated ones, as proposed Italian threshold values range between €25 000 and €66 400. Considering a market share at year 5 of 89% hydrophilic catheters and 11% uncoated catheters, the additional cost for Italy is approximately €12 million in the next 5 years (current market share scenario for year 0: 80% hydrophilic catheters and 20% uncoated catheters). Considered over a lifetime, hydrophilic coated catheters are potentially a cost-effective choice in comparison to uncoated ones. These findings can assist policymakers in evaluating intermittent

  15. Flexible C : N ratio enhances metabolism of large phytoplankton when resource supply is intermittent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talmy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton cell size influences particle sinking rate, food web interactions and biogeographical distributions. We present a model in which the uptake, storage and assimilation of nitrogen and carbon are explicitly resolved in different-sized phytoplankton cells. In the model, metabolism and cellular C : N ratio are influenced by the accumulation of carbon polymers such as carbohydrate and lipid, which is greatest when cells are nutrient starved, or exposed to high light. Allometric relations and empirical data sets are used to constrain the range of possible C : N, and indicate that larger cells can accumulate significantly more carbon storage compounds than smaller cells. When forced with extended periods of darkness combined with brief exposure to saturating irradiance, the model predicts organisms large enough to accumulate significant carbon reserves may on average synthesize protein and other functional apparatus up to five times faster than smaller organisms. The advantage of storage in terms of average daily protein synthesis rate is greatest when modeled organisms were previously nutrient starved, and carbon storage reservoirs saturated. Small organisms may therefore be at a disadvantage in terms of average daily growth rate in environments that involve prolonged periods of darkness and intermittent nutrient limitation. We suggest this mechanism is a significant constraint on phytoplankton C : N variability and cell size distribution in different oceanic regimes.

  16. Salutogenic resources in relation to teachers' work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingemar

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers. To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis. Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related. This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.

  17. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  18. Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy - Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevics, O.; Ivanova, P.; Balodis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

  19. Optimal real time cost-benefit based demand response with intermittent resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen, N.; Mustafa, M.W.; Sultana, U.; Nadia, R.; Khattak, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing price of conventional energy resources and related environmental concern enforced to explore alternative energy sources. Inherent uncertainty of power generation and demand being strongly influenced by the electricity market has posed severe challenges for DRPs (Demand Response Programs). Definitely, the success of such uncertain energy systems under new market structures is critically decided by the advancement of innovative technical and financial tools. Recent exponential growth of DG (distributed generations) demanded both the grid reliability and financial cost–benefits analysis for deregulated electricity market stakeholders. Based on the SGT (signaling game theory), the paper presents a novel user-aware demand-management approach where the price are colligated with grid condition uncertainties to manage the peak residential loads. The degree of information disturbances are considered as a key factor for evaluating electricity bidding mechanisms in the presence of independent multi-generation resources and price-elastic demand. A correlation between the cost–benefit price and variable reliability of grid is established under uncertain generation and demand conditions. Impacts of the strategies on load shape, benefit of customers and the reduction of energy consumption are inspected and compared with Time-of-Used based DRPs. Simulation results show that the proposed DRP can significantly reduce or even eliminate peak-hour energy consumption, leading to a substantial raise of revenues with 18% increase in the load reduction and a considerable improvement in system reliability is evidenced. - Highlights: • Proposed an optimal real time cost-benefit based demand response model. • Used signaling game theory for the information disturbances in deregulated market. • Introduced a correlation between the cost–benefit price and variable grid reliability. • Derive robust bidding strategies for utility/customers successful participation.

  20. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  1. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  2. Balancing feasibility and precision of wildlife habitat analysis in planning for natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita T. Morzillo; Joshua S. Halofsky; Jennifer DiMiceli; Blair Csuti; Pamela Comeleo; Miles Hemstrom

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife conservation often is a central focus in planning for natural resource management. Evaluation of wildlife habitat involves balancing the desire for information about detailed habitat characteristics and the feasibility of completing analyses across large areas. Our objective is to describe tradeoffs made in assessments of wildlife habitat within a multiple-...

  3. Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Roo, de N.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC.

  4. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyugovskaya Larissa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged neutrophil survival is evident in various cardiovascular and respiratory morbidities, in hypoxic conditions in-vitro and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia (IH. This may lead to persistent inflammation, tissue injury and dysfunction. We therefore investigated by a translational approach the potential contribution of the intrinsic stress-induced mitochondrial pathway in extending neutrophil survival under IH conditions. Thus, neutrophils of healthy individuals treated with IH in-vitro and neutrophils of OSA patients undergoing nightly IH episodes in-vivo were investigated. Specifically, the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated. Methods Purified neutrophils were exposed to IH and compared to normoxia and to sustained hypoxia (SH using a BioSpherix-OxyCycler C42 system. Bax and Mcl-1 levels, and p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Also, Bax/Mcl-1 expression and Bax translocation to the mitochondria were assessed by confocal microscopy in pre-apoptotic neutrophils, before the appearance of apoptotic morphology. Co-localization of Bax and mitochondria was quantified by LSM 510 CarlZeiss MicroImaging using Manders Overlap Coefficient. A paired two-tailed t test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, was used for statistical analysis. Results Compared to normoxia, IH and SH up-regulated the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 by about 2-fold, down-regulated the pro-apoptotic Bax by 41% and 27%, respectively, and inhibited Bax co-localization with mitochondria before visible morphological signs of apoptosis were noted. IH induced ERK1/2 and p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only p38MAPK phosphorylation. Accordingly, both ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors attenuated

  5. Distributed Continuous-Time Algorithms for Resource Allocation Problems Over Weight-Balanced Digraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenhua; Liang, Shu; Hong, Yiguang

    2017-10-17

    In this paper, a distributed resource allocation problem with nonsmooth local cost functions is considered, where the interaction among agents is depicted by strongly connected and weight-balanced digraphs. Here the decision variable of each agent is within a local feasibility constraint described as a convex set, and all the decision variables have to satisfy a network resource constraint, which is the sum of available resources. To solve the problem, a distributed continuous-time algorithm is developed by virtue of differentiated projection operations and differential inclusions, and its convergence to the optimal solution is proved via the set-valued LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the exponential convergence of the proposed algorithm can be achieved when the local cost functions are differentiable with Lipschitz gradients and there are no local feasibility constraints. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.In this paper, a distributed resource allocation problem with nonsmooth local cost functions is considered, where the interaction among agents is depicted by strongly connected and weight-balanced digraphs. Here the decision variable of each agent is within a local feasibility constraint described as a convex set, and all the decision variables have to satisfy a network resource constraint, which is the sum of available resources. To solve the problem, a distributed continuous-time algorithm is developed by virtue of differentiated projection operations and differential inclusions, and its convergence to the optimal solution is proved via the set-valued LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the exponential convergence of the proposed algorithm can be achieved when the local cost functions are differentiable with Lipschitz gradients and there are no local feasibility constraints. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  6. Joint Dynamic Radio Resource Allocation and Mobility Load Balancing in 3GPP LTE Multi-Cell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Load imbalance, together with inefficient utilization of system resource, constitute major factors responsible for poor overall performance in Long Term Evolution (LTE network. In this paper, a novel scheme of joint dynamic resource allocation and load balancing is proposed to achieve a balanced performance improvement in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP LTE Self-Organizing Networks (SON. The new method which aims at maximizing network resource efficiency subject to inter-cell interference and intra-cell resource constraints is implemented in two steps. In the first step, an efficient resource allocation, including user scheduling and power assignment, is conducted in a distributed manner to serve as many users in the whole network as possible. In the second step, based on the resource allocation scheme, the optimization objective namely network resource efficiency can be calculated and load balancing is implemented by switching the user that can maximize the objective function. Lagrange Multipliers method and heuristic algorithm are used to resolve the formulated optimization problem. Simulation results show that our algorithm achieves better performance in terms of user throughput, fairness, load balancing index and unsatisfied user number compared with the traditional approach which takes resource allocation and load balancing into account, respectively.

  7. IMPROVING RESOURCE UTILIZATION USING QoS BASED LOAD BALANCING ALGORITHM FOR MULTIPLE WORKFLOWS IN IAAS CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shakkeera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available loud computing is the extension of parallel computing, distributed computing and grid computing. It provides secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing services through the internet. The services are available to user in pay per-use-on-demand model. The main aim of using resources from cloud is to reduce the cost and to increase the performance in terms of request response time. Thus, optimizing the resource usage through efficient load balancing strategy is crucial. The main aim of this paper is to develop and implement an Optimized Load balancing algorithm in IaaS virtual cloud environment that aims to utilize the virtual cloud resources efficiently. It minimizes the cost of the applications by effectively using cloud resources and identifies the virtual cloud resources that must be suitable for all the applications. The web application is created with many modules. These modules are considered as tasks and these tasks are submitted to the load balancing server. The server which consists our load balancing policies redirect the tasks to the corresponding virtual machines created by KVM virtual machine manager as per the load balancing algorithm. If the size of the database inside the machine exceeds then the load balancing algorithm uses the other virtual machines for further incoming request. The load balancing strategy are evaluated for various QoS performance metrics like cost, average execution times, throughput, CPU usage, disk space, memory usage, network transmission and reception rate, resource utilization rate and scheduling success rate for the number of virtual machines and it improves the scalability among resources using load balancing techniques.

  8. Estimation of climate change impact on water resources by using Bilan water balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Stanislav; Kasparek, Ladislav; Novicky, Oldrich

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of water balance under changed climate conditions has been carried out by T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute in Prague for basins in the Czech Republic since 1990. The studies presently use climate change scenarios derived from simulations by regional climate models. Climate change scenarios are reflected in meteorological time-series for given catchment and subsequently used for simulation of water cycle components by using Bilan water balance model. Results of Bilan model simulations for input meteorological series not affected and affected by climate change scenarios give information for assessing the climate change impacts on output series of the model. The results of the studies generally show that annual runoff could largely decrease. The increased winter temperature could cause an increase in winter flows and a decrease in snow storage, and consequently, spring and summer outflows will decrease significantly, even to their current minimum values. The groundwater storage and base flow could also be highly reduced. The described method has been used in a number of research projects and operational applications. Its typical application is aimed at assessing possible impacts of climate change on surface water resources, whose availability can subsequently be analysed by using water management models of the individual basins. The Bilan model, particularly in combination with Modflow model, can also suitably be used for simulation and assessments of groundwater resources.

  9. Intermittency '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing data definitely indicate the existence of intermittency, i.e. of self similar structures in the systems of particles created in high-energy collisions. The effect seems universal: it was found in most of the processes investigated and its measures parameters depend only weakly (if at all) on the process in question. Strong HBT effect was found, suggesting that intermittency is related to space-time structure of the pion source rather than to detailed momentum structure of the production amplitudes. There are indications that this space time structure may be fractal, but more data is needed to establish this. The theoretical explanation remains obscure: it seems that both parton cascade and hadronization play an important role. Their interrelation, however, remains a mystery. 5 figs., 19 refs

  10. The user-level scheduling of divisible load parallel applications with resource selection and adaptive workload balancing on the Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, V.V.; Moscicki, J.T.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid resource management environment, operating on both application and system levels developed for minimizing the execution time of parallel applications with divisible workload on heterogeneous grid resources. The system is based on the adaptive workload balancing algorithm

  11. Balancing public health and resource limitations: A role for ethical low-level risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinn, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recognition of the pervasiveness of risk in everyday life in modern industrial society has elicited calls for greater efforts to protect individual and public health. Yet, it is increasingly clear that decisions to do so must often be made in the context of significant limits in the amounts of financial resources available for achieving that protection. Achieving risk-free work, residential, and community environments may be so expensive as to render a private business unit uncompetitive or as to divert resources from or prelude commencing with other governmental projects with equal or greater health benefit potential. Ethical low-level risk communication (LLRC) is something risk-generating entities are morally obligated to do. However, such communication also offers important opportunities for such entities to move toward achieving better balances between health and the costs of protecting it. In this paper, the authors elaborate on several features of an ethically ideal LLRC process, focusing on those with aspects they hope are not obvious or common knowledge. In discussing these features, they provide examples of conflicts between health risks and resource limits at the level of the individual private firm, the local community, or the national government, such that LLRC with the feature in question provides an opportunity for mitigating or at least clarifying the conflict in question

  12. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  13. Sustainability of Water Cooled Reactors - Energy Balance for Low Grade Uranium Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The opponents of nuclear power claim that as uranium resources get exhausted the energy needed to mine low grade uranium ore will be larger than the energy that can be obtained from fission in a nuclear power plant. This would result in loss of sustainability of nuclear power, with the negative energy balance expected within the next 40-60 years. Since the opponents state clearly that the ore containing less than 0.013% U 3 O 8 cannot yield positive energy balance, the study of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Poland referenced three mines of decreasing ore grade: Ranger 0.234% U 3 O 8 , Rossing 0.028% U 3 O 8 and Trekkopje 0.00126% U 3 O 8 , that is with ore grade below the postulated cut off value. The study considered total energy needs for uranium mining, including not only electricity needed for mining and milling, for water treatment and delivery, but also fuel for transportation and ore crushing, explosives for rock blasting, chemicals for uranium leaching and the energy needed for mine reclamation after completed exploitation. It has been shown that the energy estimates of nuclear opponents are wrong for Ranger mine and go off much further for the mines with lower uranium ore grades. The reasons for erroneous reasoning of nuclear opponents have been found. Their errors arise from treating the uranium ore deposits as if their layout and properties were the same as those of uranium ore mined in the US in the 70-ies. This results in an oversimplified formula, which yields large errors when the thickness of the overlayer is less than it was in the US. In addition the energy needs claimed for mine reclamation are much too high. The study showed that the energy needed for very low grade uranium ore mining and milling increases but the overall energy balance of the nuclear fuel cycle remains strongly positive. (author)

  14. Yoga lessons for consciousness research: a paralimbic network balancing brain resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to play a key role in shaping flexible learning and as such is thought to confer an evolutionary advantage. Attention and awareness are the perhaps most important underlying processes, yet their precise relationship is presently unclear. Both of these processes must, however, serve the evolutionary imperatives of survival and procreation. They are thus intimately bound by reward and emotion to help to prioritize efficient brain resource allocation in order to predict and optimize behaviour. Here we show how this process is served by a paralimbic network consisting primarily of regions located on the midline of the human brain. Using many different techniques, experiments have demonstrated that this network is effective and specific for self-awareness and contributes to the sense of unity of consciousness by acting as a common neural path for a wide variety of conscious experiences. Interestingly, haemodynamic activity in the network decreases with focusing on external stimuli, which has led to the idea of a default mode network. This network is one of many networks that wax and vane as resources are allocated to accommodate the different cyclical needs of the organism primarily related the fundamental pleasures afforded by evolution: food, sex and conspecifics. Here we hypothesize, however, that the paralimbic network serves a crucial role in balancing and regulating brain resource allocation, and discuss how it can be thought of as a link between current theories of so-called default mode, resting state networks and global workspace. We show how major developmental disorders of self-awareness and self-control can arise from problems in the paralimbic network as demonstrated here by the example of Asperger syndrome. We conclude that attention, awareness and emotion are integrated by a paralimbic network that helps to efficiently allocate brain resources to optimize behaviour and help survival.

  15. Intermittent hyperthyreosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulman, F.G.; Tal, E.; Pfeifer, Y.; Superstine, E.

    1975-01-01

    Intermittent hyperthyreosis occurs under various forms of stress, especially heat stress. The clinician may diagnose such cases as masked or apathetic hyperthyroidism or 'forme fruste' hyperthyreosis or thyroid autonomy. As most routine and standard tests may here yield inconsistent results, it is the patients' anamnesis which may provide the clue. Our Bioclimatology Unit has now seen over 100 cases in which thyroid hypersensitivity towards heat was the most prominent syndrome: 10-15% of weather-sensitive patients are affected. The patients complain before or during heat spells of such contradictory symptoms as insomnia, irritability, tension, tachycardia, palpitations, precordial pain, dyspnoe, flushes with sweating or chills, tremor, abdominal pain or diarrhea, polyuria or pollakisuria, weight loss in spite of ravenous appetite, fatigue, exhaustion, depression, adynamia, lack of concentration and confusion. Determination of urinary neurohormones allows a differential diagnosis, intermittent hyperthyreosis being characterized by three cardinal symptoms: tachycardia - every case with more than 80 pulse beats being suspect (not specific); urinary histamine - every case excreting more than 90 μg/day being suspect. Again the drawback of this test is its lack of specificity, as histamine may also be increased in cases of allergy and spondylitis; urinary thyroxine - every case excreting more than 20 μg/day T-4 being suspect. This is the only specific test. Therapy should make use of lithium carbonate and betablockers. Propyl thiouracil is rarely required. (orig.) [de

  16. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  17. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  18. Responsible management of tropical peatlands: balancing competing demands on a fragile resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Susan; Evans, Christopher; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the International Peatland Society published a strategy for responsible peatland management, with the following guiding principles: (i) ensure that high conservation value peatlands are identified and conserved, (ii) manage 'utilised' peatlands responsibly, and (iii) rehabilitate or restore drained, degraded or otherwise irreversibly changed peatlands to restore as many ecological and landscape functions as possible. At the time of its publication, the main focus of the strategy was on northern peatlands, although a few partner organisations in SE Asia were involved in the strategy consultation process. Given the rapid rate of peatland development in SE Asia in the last 7 years and the growing interest in tropical peatland rehabilitation and restoration, we believe that it is now timely to review what a strategy for responsible tropical peatland management might look like. SE Asia's peatlands cover 250,000 km2 of the region and store 69 Gt C but they are subject to continuing deforestation, biodiversity loss, land subsidence/flooding, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and health impacts due to air pollution from land-clearing fires, all of which pose huge regional and global challenges. Around 75% of the peatlands have been deforested in the last 20 years, with 35% of cleared land now under industrial plantation, 34% under smallholder cultivation, and 25% unutilised, largely as a result of uncontrolled land-clearing fires. The production intensity (GHG emissions per calorie produced) of crops grown on SE Asian organic soils is among the highest in the world (Carlson et al. 2016). There are clear tensions between reconciling peatland management for conservation goals (of biodiversity, carbon and natural resources) with economic and livelihood development goals. A balance needs to be struck between the absolute value and distribution of short term economic gains vs. peatland management strategies that deliver longer-term, sustainable and shared

  19. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  20. Neutron balance as indicator of long-term resource availability in growing nuclear energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandinskiy, Victor [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    The article describes neutron balance in nuclear energy system as necessary but not sufficient indicator of long-term sustainability. Three models are introduced to evaluate neutron balance based on nuclide chain evolution and reaction rates comparison. The indicator introduced is used to compare several nuclear energy systems consisting of thermal, fast and molten salt reactors.

  1. "Pushing the Limits": Rethinking Motor and Cognitive Resources After a Highly Challenging Balance Training Program for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Breiffni; Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Nylund, Kamilla; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the positive effects of exercise training programs on balance control in Parkinson disease (PD). To be effective, balance training needs to be specific, progressive, and highly challenging. Little evidence exists, however, for how people with PD-related balance impairments perceive highly challenging and progressive balance training programs with dual-task components. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of a highly challenging balance training program among people with mild to moderate PD. This study was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 individuals with mild to moderate PD who had participated in a highly challenging balance training program. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with an inductive approach. The analysis revealed 3 subthemes concerning participants' perceptions of highly challenging and progressive balance training: (1) movement to counter the disease, (2) dual-task training in contrast to everyday strategies, and (3) the struggle to maintain positive effects. The first subtheme reflects how physical activity was used as a short-term and long-term strategy for counteracting PD symptoms and their progression. The second subtheme incorporates the described experiences of being maximally challenged in a secure and supportive group environment, circumstances that stood in contrast to participants' everyday lives. The third subtheme describes participants' long-term struggle to maintain program effects on cognitive and physical function in the face of disease progression. Interpretation of the underlying patterns of these subthemes resulted in one overarching theme: training at the limits of balance capacity causes a rethinking motor and cognitive resources. The findings of this study cannot be considered to reflect the beliefs of those with weaker or negative beliefs concerning physical activity or be transferred to those at

  2. [The balance between quality and resources in health care organizations: study on a hospital cleaning service managed in outsourcing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusaferro, S; Toscani, P; Fiappo, E; Quattrin, R; Majori, S

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the performances of a hospital cleaning service managed in outsourcing with respect to the balance between available resources and expected quality standards. Data were referred to a high specialization hospital and were collected through a multiple approach (interviews, cost analysis, performance simulations and field investigations). A difference (48%) emerged between expected and observed standards. In order to quantify the estimated gap, two models were examined with respect to personnel costs (euro 7.09/hr for NHS personnel and euro 4.5/hr for private personnel). Additional resources needed to achieve required standards resulted respectively 182% and 115% of the invested budget. This result stresses the importance to define the minimum standard to be guaranteed for safe and clean environment in health care organizations and the break-even point between quality and costs, leaving the single institutions the decision about additional quality level and resources needed for it.

  3. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  4. Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyhan, D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to effectively conserve the non-renewable resource phosphorus (P), flows and stocks of P must be known at national, regional and global scales. P is a key non-renewable resource because its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production in the

  5. Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad; Henfridsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Prior research documents the significance of using platform boundary resources (e.g. application programming interfaces) for cultivating platform ecosystems through third-party development. However, there are few, if any, theoretical accounts of this relationship. To this end, this paper proposes......-party development: self-resourcing, regulation-based securing, diversity resourcing and sovereignty securing. Our research extends and complements existing platform literature and contributes new knowledge about an alternative form of system development...... a theoretical model that centres on two drivers behind boundary resources design and use –resourcing and securing – and how these drivers interact in third-party development. We apply the model to a detailed case study of Apple’s iPhone platform. Our application of the model not only serves as an illustration...

  6. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  7. Using the balanced scorecard to mobilize human resources in organizational transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Harber, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Traditionally, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has been an effective tool in linking measurement to strategy. However, what is least understood is how the BSC can be used to redefine organizational relationships, re-engineer fundamental processes and transform organizational culture, for superior performance in an organization with the same people, services and technology that previously delivered dismal performance. This paper highlights the process and uses York Central Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as an illustrative example.

  8. Work-Family Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees in a Human Resource Management Context

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The study explored work-family balance among Irish hotel employees. Employees of a 5*, 4* and 3* hotels were surveyed in a unionised hotel group, a non-unionised hotel group and two family-run hotels, including a 4* and a 3*. Two thirds of those surveyed were front-line employees and a total of 246 (22%) returned questionnaires were used for data analysis. Regarding work-family supports, there was a considerable range varying from hotels with no supports, hotels with one support and hotels wi...

  9. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  10. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  11. The Human Dimension: Balancing People Needs and Resources. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Harold C.

    The call for accountability in higher education has resulted in a demand for the effective use of scarce resources and institutional survival is affected. Since the vitality of an institution is the true measure of its strength, all decisions, including cost-based ones, should be made in terms of their effect on morale and motivation. Faculty, by…

  12. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  13. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  14. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  15. Intermittent detection of fetal heart rate abnormalities identify infants at greatest risk for fresh stillbirths, birth asphyxia, neonatal resuscitation, and early neonatal deaths in a limited-resource setting: a prospective descriptive observational study at Haydom Lutheran Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langli Ersdal, Hege; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Sundby, Johanne; Perlman, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor using an acoustic stethoscope is the most frequent method for fetal assessment of well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence concerning reliability and efficacy of this technique is almost nonexistent. To determine the value of routine intermittent FHR monitoring during labor in the detection of FHR abnormalities, and the relationship of abnormalities to the subsequent fresh stillbirths (FSB), birth asphyxia (BA), need for neonatal face mask ventilation (FMV), and neonatal deaths within 24 h. This is a descriptive observational study in a delivery room from November 2009 through December 2011. Research assistants/observers (n = 14) prospectively observed every delivery and recorded labor information including FHR and interventions, neonatal information including responses in the delivery room, and fetal/neonatal outcomes (FSB, death within 24 h, admission neonatal area, or normal). 10,271 infants were born. FHR was abnormal (i.e. 160 beats/min) in 279 fetuses (2.7%) and absent in 200 (1.9%). Postnatal outcomes included FSB in 159 (1.5%), need for FMV in 695 (6.8%), BA (i.e. 5-min Apgar score neonatal resuscitation, BA, and neonatal death in a limited-resource setting. The likelihood of an abnormal FHR is magnified with labor complications. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A Participatory Physical and Psychosocial Intervention for Balancing the Demands and Resources Among Industrial Workers (PIPPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Nøhr Henriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    the background, design and protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce need for recovery and improve work ability among industrial workers. Methods/Design: A two-year cluster randomized controlled design will be utilized, in which controls will also...... an intervention based on the abovementioned features which may improve the work environment, available resources and health of industrial workers, and hence their need for recovery and work ability....

  17. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciandrini, Luca; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  18. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  20. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi

    2011-12-01

    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Alignment of University Information Technology Resources with the Malcolm Baldrige Results Criteria for Performance Excellence in Education: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Deborah F.; Humphrey, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors suggest using a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate information technology (IT) resources in higher education institutions. The BSC approach illustrated is based on the performance criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in Education. This article suggests areas of potential impact of IT on BSC measures in…

  2. [Neurogenic intermittent claudication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmundowicz, W; Haftek, J

    1984-01-01

    In the period 1971-1981 operations were carried out in 1114 cases of discopathy or lumbar spondylosis. Three patients in this group had pains of the type of intermittent claudication as the main symptoms. In all these cases narrowing of the vertebral canal was found in the lumbar part caused in two cases by degenerative changes and herniation of the intervertebral discs, and in a third case it was due to an extensive connective tissue scar at the site of previously done laminectomy. The nerve roots of the cauda were relieved from pressure surgically and in all cases pains disappeared. The authors discuss factors contributing to the development of neurogenic intermittent claudication.

  3. Urban water metabolism indicators derived from a water mass balance - Bridging the gap between visions and performance assessment of urban water resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, M A; Serrao-Neumann, S; Kenway, S J; Morgan, E A; Low Choy, D

    2017-10-01

    Improving resource management in urban areas has been enshrined in visions for achieving sustainable urban areas, but to date it has been difficult to quantify performance indicators to help identify more sustainable outcomes, especially for water resources. In this work, we advance quantitative indicators for what we refer to as the 'metabolic' features of urban water management: those related to resource efficiency (for water and also water-related energy and nutrients), supply internalisation, urban hydrological performance, sustainable extraction, and recognition of the diverse functions of water. We derived indicators in consultation with stakeholders to bridge this gap between visions and performance indicators. This was done by first reviewing and categorising water-related resource management objectives for city-regions, and then deriving indicators that can gauge performance against them. The ability for these indicators to be quantified using data from an urban water mass balance was also examined. Indicators of water efficiency, supply internalisation, and hydrological performance (relative to a reference case) can be generated using existing urban water mass balance methods. In the future, indicators for water-related energy and nutrient efficiencies could be generated by overlaying the urban water balance with energy and nutrient data. Indicators of sustainable extraction and recognising diverse functions of water will require methods for defining sustainable extraction rates and a water functionality index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K

    1986-01-01

    The fate of 257 consecutive patients (100 women) aged 36-85 years (mean 65) first seen with intermittent claudication in 1977 was analysed after a mean of 6.5 (SD 0.5) years. When first seen none of the patients complained of rest pain or had ulcers or gangrenous lesions on the feet. At follow up...

  5. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A; Reier, Paul J; Mitchell, Gordon S; Fuller, David D

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a "respiratory memory"). AIH elicits similar phrenic "long-term facilitation" (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K

    1986-01-01

    113 of the patients (44%) had died. Causes of death were no different from those in the general population. Mortality was twice that of the general population matched for age and sex. Mortality among the men was twice that among the women. In men under 60 mortality was four times that expected......, or an ankle/arm pressure index below 50% were individually significantly associated with progression of the arteriosclerotic disease. These findings show the importance of peripheral blood pressure measurements in the management of patients with intermittent claudication due to arteriosclerotic disease....

  7. Intermittency in Complex Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to control

  8. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  9. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level...... and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance...... of chloride to the small Risby Stream down gradient of the landfill was approximately 31kg/year. The contaminant mass balance method worked well for chloride and dissolved organic carbon, but the uncertainties were elevated for ammonium due to substantial spatial variability in the source composition...

  10. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  11. Subtypes in clinical burnout patients enrolled in an employee rehabilitation program: differences in burnout profiles, depression, and recovery/resources-stress balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Bassa, Daniela; Canazei, Markus; Jiménez, Paulino; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2018-01-17

    Burnout is generally perceived a unified disorder with homogeneous symptomatology across people (exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy). However, increasing evidence points to intra-individual patterns of burnout symptoms in non-clinical samples such as students, athletes, healthy, and burned-out employees. Different burnout subtypes might therefore exist. Yet, burnout subtypes based on burnout profiles have hardly been explored in clinical patients, and the samples investigated in previous studies were rather heterogeneous including patients with various physical, psychological, and social limitations, symptoms, and disabilities. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore burnout subtypes based on burnout profiles in clinically diagnosed burnout patients enrolled in an employee rehabilitation program, and to investigate whether the subtypes differ in depression, recovery/resources-stress balance, and sociodemographic characteristics. One hundred three patients (66 women, 37 men) with a clinical burnout diagnosis, who were enrolled in a 5 week employee rehabilitation program in two specialized psychosomatic clinics in Austria, completed a series of questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Work. Cluster analyses with the three MBI-GS subscales as clustering variables were used to identify the burnout subtypes. Subsequent multivariate/univariate analysis of variance and Pearson chi-square tests were performed to investigate differences in depression, recovery/resources-stress balance, and sociodemographic characteristics. Three different burnout subtypes were discovered: the exhausted subtype, the exhausted/cynical subtype, and the burned-out subtype. The burned-out subtype and the exhausted/cynical subtype showed both more severe depression symptoms and a worse recovery/resources-stress balance than the exhausted subtype

  12. Filipino Personality Traits and Values for Social Support : FOW as human resources for work life balance in Japan (1)

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO, Isamu; IMAMURA, Taiko; MIYAGI, Mariko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help contribute to solving nursing care problems in Japan by studying the characteristics, personality traits and values of the Filipino people. Filipinos work as nurses and caregivers overseas,serving to be the largest supplier of human resources relating to socialsupport. Literary documents and books were analyzed to gather concrete examples of Filipino personality traits and values. Interview surveys were also conducted. The ten most depicted traits were the...

  13. A Theoretical Essay on Sustainability and Environmentally Balanced Output Growth: Natural Capital, Constrained Depletion of Resources and Pollution Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcos Carvalho de Sena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that today’s activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources and polluted the environment. The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital, connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate pollution. The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a qualitative (seeking definitions-analytical (appraising models apparatus to reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main essay’s contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover, that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the only way to obtain sustainability.

  14. Intermedia and Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Bálint

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that medial reflections have been initiated by attempts to secure the borders of discrete medial forms and to define the modus operandi of each essentialized medial area. Later on, the focus of study has shifted to plurimedial formations and the interactions between predefined medial genres. In the last few decades, taxonomic approaches to various multi-, inter-, and transmedial phenomena dominated the discussions, which offered invaluable support in mapping the terrain, but at the same time hindered the analysis of the ephemeral, time-dependent aspects of plurimedial operations. While we explore the properties of each medial configuration, we lose sight of the actual historical drivers that produce ever-new configurations. My thesis is that any discourse on intermediality should be paralleled by a discourse on cultural intermittency, and consequently, media studies should involve an approach that focuses on the “ecosystem” of the constantly renewing media configurations from the point of view of their vitalizing potential and capability to trigger heightened experiences. This approach draws much inspiration from K. Ludwig Pfeiffer’s media anthropology that gives orientation in my paper.

  15. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  16. Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in theKorean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheem, Sungsue; Rheem, Insoo; Oh, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources .

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-10-28

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data.

  18. The analysis of clean water demand for land use optimization based on water resource balance in Balikpapan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghozali, Achmad; Yanti, Rossana Margaret Kadar

    2017-11-01

    Balikpapan city has transformed from oil city to trade and industry center. In the last 5 years, industry and trade sectors experienced annual economic growth by more than 25%, while mining had only 0.05%. This condition raised a strong economic attraction which increased urban activities and population growth, especially urbanization process. Nevertheless, the growth of the city had a challenge in the urban water supply. Due to natural condition of the city, Balikpapan does not have a large river, making water supply conducted by reservoirs relying on rainfall intensity. In line with population growth and conversion of green open space, the city government should consider to the allocation of land use effectively based on sustainable water resources. As the associated pressure on water resources continued to increase, it is crucial to identify the water demand future in Balikpapan City related to domestic and non-domestic activities as the first step to optimize land use allocation. Domestic's activities is defined as household and public hydrant, while non-domestic sectors are public facilities, offices, trade and services, and industrial areas. Mathematical calculations, population projections and water consumption estimation, were used as analysis methods. Analysis result showed that the total the city population in 2025 amounted to 740.302 people, increasing by 14.5% from 2016. Population growth increased the urban water needs. From the calculations, the amount of water consumption in 2016 amounted to 5075.77 liter/s, and in 2025 to 7528.59 liter/s. Thus, the water needs of the population of Balikpapan from 2016-2025 year increased by 32.58%.

  19. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  20. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  1. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR...

  2. Quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of flow intermittency using spatially contiguous runoff data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu (于松延), Songyan; Bond, Nick R.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Xu, Zongxue; Kennard, Mark J.

    2018-04-01

    River channel drying caused by intermittent stream flow is a widely-recognized factor shaping stream ecosystems. There is a strong need to quantify the distribution of intermittent streams across catchments to inform management. However, observational gauge networks provide only point estimates of streamflow variation. Increasingly, this limitation is being overcome through the use of spatially contiguous estimates of the terrestrial water-balance, which can also assist in estimating runoff and streamflow at large-spatial scales. Here we proposed an approach to quantifying spatial and temporal variation in monthly flow intermittency throughout river networks in eastern Australia. We aggregated gridded (5 × 5 km) monthly water-balance data with a hierarchically nested catchment dataset to simulate catchment runoff accumulation throughout river networks from 1900 to 2016. We also predicted zero flow duration for the entire river network by developing a robust predictive model relating measured zero flow duration (% months) to environmental predictor variables (based on 43 stream gauges). We then combined these datasets by using the predicted zero flow duration from the regression model to determine appropriate 'zero' flow thresholds for the modelled discharge data, which varied spatially across the catchments examined. Finally, based on modelled discharge data and identified actual zero flow thresholds, we derived summary metrics describing flow intermittency across the catchment (mean flow duration and coefficient-of-variation in flow permanence from 1900 to 2016). We also classified the relative degree of flow intermittency annually to characterise temporal variation in flow intermittency. Results showed that the degree of flow intermittency varied substantially across streams in eastern Australia, ranging from perennial streams flowing permanently (11-12 months) to strongly intermittent streams flowing 4 months or less of year. Results also showed that the

  3. Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Homan, Gregory [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, Robert [Olivine, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Hernandez, John [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with direct participation of third-parties and customers including customer acceptance; market transformation challenges (wholesale market, technology); technical and operational feasibility; and value to the rate payers, DR resource owners and the utility on providing an enabling mechanism for DR resources into the wholesale markets. The customer had the option of committing to either three contiguous hour blocks for 24 days or six contiguous hours for 12 days a month with day-ahead notification that aligned with the CAISO integrated forward market. As a result of their being available, the customer was paid $10/ kilowatt (kW)-month for capacity in addition to CAISO energy settlements. The participants were limited to no more than a 2 megawatt (MW) capacity with a six-month commitment. Four participants successfully engaged in the pilot. In this report, we provide the description of the pilot, participant performance results, costs and value to participants as well as outline some of the issues encountered through the pilot. Results show that participants chose to participate with storage and the value of CAISO settlements were significantly lower than the capacity payments provided by the utility as incentive payments. In addition, this pilot revealed issues both on the participant side and system operations side. These issues are summarized in the report.The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with

  4. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Sprint cycling significantly improved intermittent run performance, VO2max and peak power output at VO2max. Sprint cycling training is suitable for intermittent sports athletes but separate speed and COD training should be included.

  5. Intermittent control of coexisting attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wiercigroch, Marian; Ing, James; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina

    2013-06-28

    This paper proposes a new control method applicable for a class of non-autonomous dynamical systems that naturally exhibit coexisting attractors. The central idea is based on knowledge of a system's basins of attraction, with control actions being applied intermittently in the time domain when the actual trajectory satisfies a proximity constraint with regards to the desired trajectory. This intermittent control uses an impulsive force to perturb one of the system attractors in order to switch the system response onto another attractor. This is carried out by bringing the perturbed state into the desired basin of attraction. The method has been applied to control both smooth and non-smooth systems, with the Duffing and impact oscillators used as examples. The strength of the intermittent control force is also considered, and a constrained intermittent control law is introduced to investigate the effect of limited control force on the efficiency of the controller. It is shown that increasing the duration of the control action and/or the number of control actuations allows one to successfully switch between the stable attractors using a lower control force. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  7. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  8. THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE IN REACHING A REALISTIC BALANCE OF RESOURCES AND GOALS IN THE STRATEGY FOR SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kurakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores key issues in reaching a balance of funding resources, needed for fulfilling strategic goals for scientific-technological development ofRussia. Shared forecasts predict that in 2016, Russia's share of the global budget for Research and Development (R&D will amount to less than 2%, whereas the share of only three countries – the USA, China and Japan, will amount to 55,6%. The six leading countries investing heavily state funded in R&D in 2016, will be theUSA,China,Japan,Germany,South KoreaandIndia. The accumulative share of investments in R&D in 2016, will amount to 68,5%. Comparing the investment volumes of leading countries',Russia's expected national investment in R&D might be non-competitive. It is noted that the needed resources for increasing volumes of state funding in Russian scientific-technological field in the midterm perspective are already exhausted. Therefore, the single opportunity for reaching the goal of Russian President's Order № 599 for increasing internal spending on R&D, so it amounts 1,77% of GDP is to dramatically increase the volume of extra-budgetary financing in the domestic R&D sector. Special attention is paid to the disproportion of the budget spending on R&D and the number of people employed in R&D, which leads toRussiahaving one of the lowest indicators among developed countries for «internal expenditure on R&D per researcher». It is concluded that without a clear strategic answer to the posed question about how the Russian industrial sector will be able to increase internal spending on R&D from current 1,15% to 1,77% and how will it accommodate the 4th biggest corpus of scientists in the world in the processes of reindustrialization of the country, strategic targets for becoming a global technological leader risk to remain in the status of «ambitious goals». 

  9. Intermittent bolus feeding increases visceral tissue protein synthesis more than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is commonly used in infants unable to feed orally. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on visceral tissue protein synthesis, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced formula orally either by int...

  10. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  11. TIBAR : Therapist Inspired Balance Assisting Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Stroke survivors who are classified with a Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) of 2, typically are able to ambulate on level surfaces, but intermittently require manual contact of a physical therapist to assist their balance during walking. In order to execute Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s),

  12. Facets of Work–Life Balance across Europe : How the interplay of institutional contexts, work arrangements and individual resources affect capabilities for having a family, and for being involved in family life

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to explore various dimensions of work–life balance in Europe. I examine the extent to which institutional factors, working conditions and individual resources influence individuals’ capabilities to have a family and engage in family life. The theoretical framework is inspired by Amartya Sen’s capability framework, a multi-dimensional approach that provides a deeper understanding of the relationship between institutional contexts and individual capabilities. Fou...

  13. Empirical heuristics for improving Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Fotios; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spithourakis, George; Assimakopoulos, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose– Intermittent demand appears sporadically, with some time periods not even displaying any demand at all. Even so, such patterns constitute considerable proportions of the total stock in many industrial settings. Forecasting intermittent demand is a rather difficult task but of critical importance for corresponding cost savings. The current study aims to examine the empirical outcomes of three heuristics towards the modification of established intermittent demand forecasting approaches...

  14. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  15. Probabilistic signatures of spatiotemporal intermittency in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where spatiotemporal intermittency with travelling wave laminar states and solitons is seen at points marked with boxes (2). (b) The space-time plot of spatiotemporal intermittency with solitons. the strength of nonlinearity in the map and Ω is the frequency of the map in the absence of nonlinearity. The phase diagram of the ...

  16. Intermittent behavior of the logistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Haken, H.

    1981-03-01

    In the discrete logistic model a transition to chaotic behavior via intermittency occurs in a neighborhood of periodic bands. Intermittent behavior is also induced if a stable periodic orbit is perturbed by low-level external noise, whereas alterations due to computer digitalisation produce remarkable periodicities. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of Pomeau and Manneville for the Lorenz system.

  17. Probabilistic signatures of spatiotemporal intermittency in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with triangles (△) and asterisks (∗). Inset shows a part of the phase diagram where spatiotemporal intermittency with travelling wave laminar states and solitons is seen at points marked with boxes (2). (b) The space-time plot of spatiotemporal intermittency with solitons. the strength of nonlinearity in the map and Ω is the ...

  18. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  19. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  1. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, Saskia P A; Kruidenier, Lotte M; Bendermacher, Bianca L W; Prins, Martin H; Stokmans, Rutger A; Broos, Pieter P H L; Teijink, Joep A W

    2013-06-06

    People with intermittent claudication (IC) suffer from pain in the muscles of the leg occurring during exercise which is relieved by a short period of rest. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by (supervised) exercise therapy and pharmacological treatments. Ginkgo biloba is a vasoactive agent and is used to treat IC. To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba on walking distance in people with intermittent claudication. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (March 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 2). Randomised controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba extract, irrespective of dosage, versus placebo in people with IC. Two authors independently assessed trials for selection, assessed study quality and extracted data. We extracted number of patients, mean walking distances or times and standard deviations. To standardise walking distance or time, caloric expenditures were used to express the difference between the different treadmill protocols, which were calculated from the speed and incline of the treadmill. Fourteen trials with a total of 739 participants were included. Eleven trials involving 477 participants compared Ginkgo biloba with placebo and assessed the absolute claudication distance (ACD). Following treatment with Ginkgo biloba at the end of the study the ACD increased with an overall effect size of 3.57 kilocalories (confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 7.23, P = 0.06), compared with placebo. This translates to an increase of just 64.5 ( CI -1.8 to 130.7) metres on a flat treadmill with an average speed of 3.2 km/h. Publication bias leading to missing data or "negative" trials is likely to have inflated the effect size. Overall, there is no evidence that Ginkgo biloba has a clinically significant benefit for patients with peripheral arterial disease.

  2. Tolerance for nutrient imbalance in an intermittently feeding herbivorous cricket, the Wellington tree weta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla M Wehi

    Full Text Available Organisms that regulate nutrient intake have an advantage over those that do not, given that the nutrient composition of any one resource rarely matches optimal nutrient requirements. We used nutritional geometry to model protein and carbohydrate intake and identify an intake target for a sexually dimorphic species, the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens. Despite pronounced sexual dimorphism in this large generalist herbivorous insect, intake targets did not differ by sex. In a series of laboratory experiments, we then investigated whether tree weta demonstrate compensatory responses for enforced periods of imbalanced nutrient intake. Weta pre-fed high or low carbohydrate: protein diets showed large variation in compensatory nutrient intake over short (<48 h time periods when provided with a choice. Individuals did not strongly defend nutrient targets, although there was some evidence for weak regulation. Many weta tended to select high and low protein foods in a ratio similar to their previously identified nutrient optimum. These results suggest that weta have a wide tolerance to nutritional imbalance, and that the time scale of weta nutrient balancing could lie outside of the short time span tested here. A wide tolerance to imbalance is consistent with the intermittent feeding displayed in the wild by weta and may be important in understanding weta foraging patterns in New Zealand forests.

  3. Intermittent Swimming with a Flexible Propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Aquatic animals use a variety of swimming gaits to propel themselves efficiently through the oceans. One type of gait known as intermittent or burst-and-coast swimming is used by species such as saithe, cod and trout. Recent studies have shown that this gait can save up to 60% of a swimmer's energy by exploiting an inviscid Garrick mechanism. These detailed studies have examined the effects of an intermittent swimming gait on rigid propulsors, yet the caudal fins of intermittent swimmers are in fact highly flexible propulsors. In this respect, to gain a comprehensive understanding of intermittent swimming, the effect of elasticity on the swimming performance and wake flow of an intermittent swimmer is investigated. To accomplish this a torsional spring structural model is strongly coupled to a fast boundary element method solver that captures the fluid-structure interaction of a two-dimensional self-propelled intermittently pitching hydrofoil. It is shown that flexibility introduces extra vortices to the coasting phase of motion that can either promote or diminish thrust production depending upon the hydrofoil parameters. An optimal intermittent flexible swimmer is shown to increase its efficiency by as much as 28% when compared to an optimal continuous flexible swimmer. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  4. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  5. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Modeled intermittency risk for small streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Poff, N. LeRoy

    2015-01-01

    Longer, drier summers projected for arid and semi-arid regions of western North America under climate change are likely to have enormous consequences for water resources and river-dependent ecosystems. Many climate change scenarios for this region involve decreases in mean annual streamflow, late summer precipitation and late-summer streamflow in the coming decades. Intermittent streams are already common in this region, and it is likely that minimum flows will decrease and some perennial streams will shift to intermittent flow under climate-driven changes in timing and magnitude of precipitation and runoff, combined with increases in temperature. To understand current intermittency among streams and analyze the potential for streams to shift from perennial to intermittent under a warmer climate, we analyzed historic flow records from streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Approximately two-thirds of 115 gaged stream reaches included in our analysis are currently perennial and the rest have some degree of intermittency. Dry years with combinations of high temperatures and low precipitation were associated with more zero-flow days. Mean annual flow was positively related to minimum flows, suggesting that potential future declines in mean annual flows will correspond with declines in minimum flows. The most important landscape variables for predicting low flow metrics were precipitation, percent snow, potential evapotranspiration, soils, and drainage area. Perennial streams in the UCRB that have high minimum-flow variability and low mean flows are likely to be most susceptible to increasing streamflow intermittency in the future.

  7. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... is to be achieved and what should be avoided? • Through what types of processes are the criteria, conditions and values that are to be realised or taken into consideration constructed and decided upon? • What characterises the content, differences and complexity of the different types of values and criteria...

  8. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  9. Intermittent cranial lung herniation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Carlo; De Simone, Antonio; Valbonetti, Luca; Diana, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    Two aged dogs with chronic obstructive airway disease were evaluated because of intermittent swelling of the ventral cervical region. Radiographs made at expiration and caudal positioning of the forelimbs allowed identification of intermittent cervical lung herniation of the left and right cranial lung lobe in both dogs. Pulmonary hyperinflation, increased expiratory effort, and chronic coughing were considered responsible for the lung herniation. Cervical lung hernia should be included in the differential diagnoses of intermittent cervical swelling in dogs with chronic respiratory disorders associated with increased expiratory effort and chronic coughing.

  10. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  11. Subsurface Controls on Stream Intermittency in a Semi-Arid Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohman, J.; Godsey, S.; Thackray, G. D.; Hale, R. L.; Wright, K.; Martinez, D.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent streams currently constitute 30% to greater than 50% of the global river network. In addition, the number of intermittent streams is expected to increase due to changes in land use and climate. These streams provide important ecosystem services, such as water for irrigation, increased biodiversity, and high rates of nutrient cycling. Many hydrological studies have focused on mapping current intermittent flow regimes or evaluating long-term flow records, but very few have investigated the underlying causes of stream intermittency. The disconnection and reconnection of surface flow reflects the capacity of the subsurface to accommodate flow, so characterizing subsurface flow is key to understanding stream drying. We assess how subsurface flow paths control local surface flows during low-flow periods, including intermittency. Water table dynamics were monitored in an intermittent reach of Gibson Jack Creek in southeastern Idaho. Four transects were delineated with a groundwater well located in the hillslope, riparian zone, and in the stream, for a total of 12 groundwater wells. The presence or absence of surface flow was determined by frequent visual observations as well as in situ loggers every 30m along the 200m study reach. The rate of surface water drying was measured in conjunction with temperature, precipitation, subsurface hydraulic conductivity, hillslope-riparian-stream connectivity and subsurface travel time. Initial results during an unusually wet year suggest different responses in reaches that were previously observed to occasionally cease flowing. Flows in the intermittent reaches had less coherent and lower amplitude diel variations during base flow periods than reaches that had never been observed to dry out. Our findings will help contribute to our understanding of mechanisms driving expansion and contraction cycles in intermittent streams, increase our ability to predict how land use and climate change will affect flow regimes, and

  12. Lenses generated by intermittent currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, Doron

    1991-03-01

    A nonlinear mechanism for the generation of anticyclonic lens-like eddies from boundary currents is proposed. In contrast to the familiar generation processes that rely on unstable long waves that grow and close upon themselves or vortex shedding due to the geometry of the boundary, the present mechanism is related to intermittency in the current's mass transport. The essence of the new mechanism is that intermittencies in the transport (such as those in the Denmark Strait or the Mediterranean outflow) lead to unbalanced patches of fluid which break up into a discrete sets of eddies that interact with the boundary. The process is highly nonlinear because both the amplitude and the Rossby number are of order unity. It is modeled as follows: we begin with a rectangular box containing the motionless (light) fluid near the boundary. At, say, t = 0, the conceptual box is removed the unbalanced fluid undergoes two main processes. The first involves the establishment of a set of eddies via breakup and geostrophic adjustment, whereas the second is associated with the interaction of the set with the wall. These two processes are examined independently even though in reality the processes are, obviously, taking place at the same time. To examine the first processes we consider the nonlinear collapse of a (light) rectangular box in the open ocean away from the boundary. The breakup processes involves, of course, some sort of instability (because the patch does not remain intact) but this is not necessarily related to the long wave instability that is usually associated with long gravity currents. The general structures of the resulting final chain of eddies can be computed analytically by using the usual connecting principles, the conservation of potential vorticity and mass. It turns out, however, that the number of eddies and their detailed structure cannot be computed unless one invokes an additional constraint. To resolve this closure difficulty, the integrated angular

  13. Sky dancer: an intermittent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Anne; Rodríguez Romero, Jesse Alexander; Damián Díaz Andrade, Oscar

    2009-11-01

    Sky dancers attract people sight to make advertising. What is the origin of those large vertical tubes fluctuations above an air blower? This study complements the previous one [1] about the system analysis from a dynamical system point of view. As a difference from the ``garden hose-instability'' [2], the tube shape has got ``break points''. Those ``break points'' separate the air-filled bottom tube portion from its deflated top portion. We record the tube dynamics with a high-speed videocamera simultaneously that we measure the pressure at the air blower exit. The intermittent pressure evolution displays picks when the tube fluctuates. We compare those overpressure values with the ones that appears in a rigid tube whose exit is partially obstructed. [1] F. Castillo Flores & A. Cros ``Transition to chaos of a vertical collapsible tube conveying air flow'' J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 166, 012017 (2009). [2] A. S. Greenwald & J. Dungundji ``Static and dynamic instabilities of a propellant line'' MIT Aeroelastic and Structures Research Lab, AFOSR Sci. Report: AFOSR 67-1395 (1967).

  14. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  15. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  16. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  17. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  18. On-line intermittent connector anomaly detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper investigates a non-traditional use of differential current sensor and current sensor to detect intermittent disconnection problems in connectors. An...

  19. Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmi, Simona; Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Two symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia m display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendulums. In particular, we report evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the other...

  20. 30 CFR 780.28 - Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values to the extent possible, as required by... disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values to the extent possible, as... intermittent streams. 780.28 Section 780.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  2. Bladder Management in Children: Intermittent Catheterization Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Suzanne Marie; Korcal, Layna; Thomas, Ginger

    2018-03-01

    Clean intermittent catheterization (IC) of the bladder is one example of advanced medical care required by students with special health care needs. The success of a child's intermittent catheterization program in a community setting such as a school is dependent on an educated team. This article discusses indications and problems that arise with IC bladder management in the pediatric population. The article also provides information about current best practice for IC management to assist school nurses in the optimization of bladder health.

  3. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  4. Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium. Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials demonstrated a 180-meter increase in treadmill walking distance in response to supervised exercise interventions compared with a nonexercising control group. Supervised treadmill exercise has been inaccessible to many patients with PAD because of lack of medical insurance coverage. However, in 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a decision memorandum to support health insurance coverage of 12 weeks of supervised treadmill exercise for patients with walking impairment due to PAD. Recent evidence also supports home-based walking exercise to improve walking performance in people with PAD. Effective home-exercise programs incorporate behavioral change interventions such as a remote coach, goal setting, and self-monitoring. Supervised treadmill exercise programs preferentially improve treadmill walking performance, whereas home-based walking exercise programs preferentially improve corridor walking, such as the 6-minute walk test. Clinical trial evidence also supports arm or leg ergometry exercise to improve walking endurance in people with PAD. Treadmill walking exercise appears superior to resistance training alone for improving walking endurance. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD by approximately 180 meters compared with no exercise. Recent evidence suggests that home-based exercise is also effective and preferentially improves over-ground walking performance, such as

  5. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder can profoundly affect daily activities and cause psychological and emotional hardship. What are the symptoms of ... that help with balance but are destroyed by aging, medications, infections, or trauma can someday be regrown ...

  6. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  7. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2...... (Yo-Yo IR2) determines an individual's ability to recover from repeated exercise with a high contribution from the anaerobic system. Evaluations of elite athletes in various sports involving intermittent exercise showed that the higher the level of competition the better an athlete performs in the Yo......-Yo IR tests. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR tests for young athletes increases with rising age. The Yo-Yo IR tests have shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in performance than maximum oxygen uptake. The Yo-Yo IR tests provide a simple and valid way to obtain important information...

  8. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  9. Forces and energetics of intermittent swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Daniel; Van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-08-01

    Experiments are reported on intermittent swimming motions. Water tunnel experiments on a nominally two-dimensional pitching foil show that the mean thrust and power scale linearly with the duty cycle, from a value of 0.2 all the way up to continuous motions, indicating that individual bursts of activity in intermittent motions are independent of each other. This conclusion is corroborated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow visualizations, which show that the main vortical structures in the wake do not change with duty cycle. The experimental data also demonstrate that intermittent motions are generally energetically advantageous over continuous motions. When metabolic energy losses are taken into account, this conclusion is maintained for metabolic power fractions less than 1.

  10. Dynamics of social balance under temporal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Real social contacts are often intermittent such that a link between a pair of nodes in a social network is only temporarily used. The effects of such temporal networks on social dynamics have been investigated for several phenomenological models such as epidemic spreading, linear diffusion processes, and nonlinear oscillations. Here, we numerically investigate nonlinear social balance dynamics in such a situation. Social balance is a classical psychological theory, which dictates that a triad is balanced if the three agents are mutual friends or if the two of them are the friends of each other and hostile to the other agent. We show that the social balance dynamics is slowed down on the temporal complete graph as compared to the corresponding static complete graph.

  11. Unsteady propulsion by an intermittent swimming gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith W.

    2018-01-01

    Inviscid computational results are presented on a self-propelled swimmer modeled as a virtual body combined with a two-dimensional hydrofoil pitching intermittently about its leading edge. Lighthill (1971) originally proposed that this burst-and-coast behavior can save fish energy during swimming by taking advantage of the viscous Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning mechanism. Here, an additional inviscid Garrick mechanism is discovered that allows swimmers to control the ratio of their added mass thrust-producing forces to their circulatory drag-inducing forces by decreasing their duty cycle, DC, of locomotion. This mechanism can save intermittent swimmers as much as 60% of the energy it takes to swim continuously at the same speed. The inviscid energy savings are shown to increase with increasing amplitude of motion, increase with decreasing Lighthill number, Li, and switch to an energetic cost above continuous swimming for sufficiently low DC. Intermittent swimmers are observed to shed four vortices per cycle that form into groups that are self-similar with the DC. In addition, previous thrust and power scaling laws of continuous self-propelled swimming are further generalized to include intermittent swimming. The key is that by averaging the thrust and power coefficients over only the bursting period then the intermittent problem can be transformed into a continuous one. Furthermore, the intermittent thrust and power scaling relations are extended to predict the mean speed and cost of transport of swimmers. By tuning a few coefficients with a handful of simulations these self-propelled relations can become predictive. In the current study, the mean speed and cost of transport are predicted to within 3% and 18% of their full-scale values by using these relations.

  12. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F. Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2......-Yo IR tests. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR tests for young athletes increases with rising age. The Yo-Yo IR tests have shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in performance than maximum oxygen uptake. The Yo-Yo IR tests provide a simple and valid way to obtain important information...

  13. Sprint cycling training improves intermittent run performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan; Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho; Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to...

  14. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...... platforms for providing necessary balancing services, where the market clearing (nodal or zonal prices depending on markets) is very close to real time operations of power systems. One of the primary functions of RTMs in modern power systems is establishing an efficient and effective mechanism for small DER...

  15. Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater by Intermittent Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Marie B. Ensano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous release of emerging contaminants (ECs in the aquatic environment, as a result of the inadequate removal by conventional treatment methods, has prompted research to explore viable solutions to this rising global problem. One promising alternative is the use of electrochemical processes since they represent a simple and highly efficient technology with less footprint. In this paper, the feasibility of treating ECs (i.e., pharmaceuticals using an intermittent electrocoagulation process, a known electrochemical technology, has been investigated. Diclofenac (DCF, carbamazepine (CBZ and amoxicillin (AMX were chosen as being representative of highly consumed drugs that are frequently detected in our water resources and were added in synthetic municipal wastewater. The removal efficiencies of both individual and combined pharmaceuticals were determined under different experimental conditions: hydraulic retention time (HRT (6, 19 and 38 h, initial concentration (0.01, 4 and 10 mg/L and intermittent application (5 min ON/20 min OFF of current density (0.5, 1.15 and 1.8 mA/cm2. Results have shown that these parameters have significant effects on pharmaceutical degradation. Maximum removals (DCF = 90%, CBZ = 70% and AMX = 77% were obtained at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and HRT of 38 h.

  16. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial intervention to balance the demands and resources of industrial workers: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Christian Dyrlund; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen; Henriksen, Louise Nøhr; Nielsen, Karina; Holtermann, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial workplace intervention (known as PIPPI) on work ability and recovery among industrial workers. Methods Eligible workers were cluster-randomized into intervention (N=193) and control (N=222) groups. Intervention group members participated in three workshops where they mapped positive and negative aspects of their physical and psychosocial work environment and developed action plans addressing the highlighted issues, which were subsequently implemented by the participants. Questionnaire-based data on work ability and recovery were collected at baseline and 8-, 10- and 12-month follow-up. Data on productivity, well-being, mental health, and physical demands and resources were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Results The intervention was delivered and received as planned (100% planned workshops conducted, 69% [standard deviation (SD) 7%] participation in workshops) and with a response rate of 76% (SD 8%) to the questionnaires. No significant between-group improvements for any of the outcomes were found in intention-to-treat multi-level mixed models. On the contrary, tendencies were observed for poorer recovery and reduced work ability in the intervention compared to control group. Conclusion The intervention did not improve the outcomes. This result can have several explanations, such as a regression-toward-the-mean effect or that the intervention might have put an additional burden on the workers already facing high work demands. In addition, there may have been an insufficient match between the intervention components implemented and the predetermined outcomes, and implementation may have been unsuccessful. These potential explanations need to be investigated using process evaluation data.

  18. The polymorphic and contradictory aspects of intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Gozal, David

    2014-07-15

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been extensively studied during the last decade, primarily as a surrogate model of sleep apnea. However, IH is a much more pervasive phenomenon in human disease, is viewed as a potential therapeutic approach, and has also been used in other disciplines, such as in competitive sports. In this context, adverse outcomes involving cardiovascular, cognitive, metabolic, and cancer problems have emerged in obstructive sleep apnea-based studies, whereas beneficial effects of IH have also been identified. Those a priori contradictory findings may not be as contradictory as initially thought. Indeed, the opposite outcomes triggered by IH can be explained by the specific characteristics of the large diversity of IH patterns applied in each study. The balance between benefits and injury appears to primarily depend on the ability of the organism to respond and activate adaptive mechanisms to IH. In this context, the adaptive or maladaptive responses can be generally predicted by the frequency, severity, and duration of IH. However, the presence of underlying conditions such as hypertension or obesity, as well as age, sex, or genotypic variance, may be important factors tilting the balance between an appropriate homeostatic response and decompensation. Here, the two possible facets of IH as derived from human and experimental animal settings will be reviewed. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Fractal structures and intermittency in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta.

    1990-04-01

    New results are presented for fractal structures and intermittency in QCD parton showers. A geometrical interpretation of the anomalous dimension in QCD is given. It is shown that model predications for factorial moments in the PEP-PETRA energy range are increased. if the properties of directly produced pions are more carefully taken into account

  20. Intermittent mechanical and clinical intravalvar regurgitation aortic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    due to intravalvar occlusion caused by thrombosis and/or tissue ingrowth or to periprosthetic regurgitation. .... position). A. The tilting disc of the prosthetic aortic valve is in the normal closed position during diastole. B. The disc is 'stuck' in the open position during diastole. Intermittent AR in patients with aortic prosthetic ...

  1. Intermittent and global transitions in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2003-07-01

    The dynamics of the transition processes in plasma turbulence described by the nonlinear Langevin equation (1) is studied. We show that intermittent or global transitions between metastable states can appear. The conditions for the generation of these transitions and their statistical characteristics are determined. (author)

  2. Acute intermittent porphyria presenting as progressive muscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute intermittent porphyria, the most common porphyria affecting the nervous system, typically presents with neurovisceral crises followed by a motor neuropathy. We describe a 23-year-old black South African man presenting with a progressive stuttering, lower motor neuron syndrome developing over months. He had not ...

  3. Walking training for intermittent claudication in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubels, FL; Links, TP; Sluiter, WJ; Smit, AJ

    OBJECTIVE - Walking training (WT) is an established treatment for patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Abnormalities specific to diabetes, such as a relative preponderance of distal lesions and the contribution of microcirculatory disease, might well influence the results of WT. We compared

  4. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  5. Intermittent demand : Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.; Babai, M. Zied

    2011-01-01

    The standard method to forecast intermittent demand is that by Croston. This method is available in ERP-type solutions such as SAP and specialised forecasting software packages (e.g. Forecast Pro), and often applied in practice. It uses exponential smoothing to separately update the estimated demand

  6. Prevalence of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Orish VN, Onyeabor OS, Boampong JN , Afoakwah R, Nwaefuna E, Acquah S, et al. Prevalence of intermittent preventive treat- ment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) use ..... by the increase of SP drug resistance in pregnant wom- en in Ghana since the adoption and implementation of. IPTp-SP policy35.

  7. Intermittent resistive faults in digital cmos circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Ebrahimi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    A major threat in extremely dependable high-end process node integrated systems in e.g. Avionics are no failures found (NFF). One category of NFFs is the intermittent resistive fault, often originating from bad (e.g. Via or TSV-based) interconnections. This paper will show the impact of these faults

  8. 40 CFR 51.119 - Intermittent control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent control systems. 51.119... Intermittent control systems. (a) The use of an intermittent control system (ICS) may be taken into account in... of any constant pollution control system which was in use before December 31, 1970, or the equivalent...

  9. Implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological...... of the recommended interventions. OBJECTIVE: To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors...... and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential...

  10. Implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. The vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological...... of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa...... discriminatory socio-cultural values on and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV...

  11. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  12. CONDITIONED ANALYSIS OF HIGH-LATITUDE SOLAR WIND INTERMITTENCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Consolini, G.; Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium displaying intermittency. Its intermittent features have been widely documented and studied, showing how the intermittent character is different in fast and slow wind. In this paper, a statistical conditioned analysis of the solar wind intermittency for a period of high-latitude fast solar wind is presented. In particular, the intermittent features are investigated as a function of the Alfvénic degree of fluctuations at a given scale. The results show that the main contribution to solar wind intermittency is due to non-Alfvénic structures, while Alfvénic increments are found to be characterized by a smaller level of intermittency than the previous ones. Furthermore, the lifetime statistics of Alfvénic periods are discussed in terms of a multiscale texture of randomly oriented flux tubes.

  13. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  14. Insights from intermittent binocular rivalry and EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical approaches, including EEG microstates, event-related potentials, and statistically-based source estimation, and propose a spatio-temporal model that integrates findings from several studies. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using binocular rivalry as a tool to investigate the neural basis of perceptual awareness.

  15. Effects of vacusac in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil; Mehlsen, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a new physical treatment modality, Vacusac, was tested on a group of patients with stable intermittent claudication. Twenty-two patients with a median age of 65 years and a median duration of intermittent claudication of 5 years were randomized to either active or placebo treatments....... Seventeen patients completed the study. The effect of treatment was quantified by measurements of systemic and peripheral systolic blood pressures and by measurements of the pain-free and the maximal walking distance on a treadmill. The ankle pressure index (ankle systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure......) and toe pressure index (toe systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure) were calculated. After 25 active treatments, administered over a period of 2 months, the patients allocated to this group attained a significant increase in the pain-free walking distance from 54 m (24-107 m) to 99 m (30-420 m) (P less...

  16. Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field

  17. Intermittency exponent of the turbulent energy cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleve, J.; Greiner, M.; Pearson, B.R.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2006-12-01

    We consider the turbulent energy dissipation from one-dimensional records in experiments using air and gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures, and obtain the intermittency exponent via the two-point correlation function of the energy dissipation. The air data are obtained in a number of flows in a wind tunnel and the atmospheric boundary layer at a height of about 35 m above the ground. The helium data correspond to the centerline of a jet exhausting into a container. The air data on the intermittency exponent are consistent with each other and with a trend that increases with the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, R λ , of up to about 1000 and saturates thereafter. On the other hand, the helium data cluster around a constant value at nearly all R λ , this being about half of the asymptotic value for the air data. Some possible explanation is offered for this anomaly. (author)

  18. Optimal intermittent search strategies: smelling the prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, J A; Wio, H S; Rojo, F; Budde, C E

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of the search of a single fixed target by a searcher/walker that performs an intermittent random walk, characterized by different states of motion. In addition, we assume that the walker has the ability to detect the scent left by the prey/target in its surroundings. Our results, in agreement with intuition, indicate that the prey's survival probability could be strongly reduced (increased) if the predator is attracted (or repelled) by the trace left by the prey. We have also found that, for a positive trace (the predator is guided towards the prey), increasing the inhomogeneity's size reduces the prey's survival probability, while the optimal value of α (the parameter that regulates intermittency) ceases to exist. The agreement between theory and numerical simulations is excellent.

  19. Downstream effects of intermittent power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschko, G. (Austrian Academy of Sciences, Lunz (AT). Inst. fuer Limnologie); Moog, O. (Univ. Agric., Vienna (AT). Inst. Water Prov., Water Quality and Fisheries Management)

    1990-01-01

    Intermittent hydro-power generation creates frequent and dramatic discharge peaks combined with intervening extremely low water conditions downstream of the plant. Studies of the two Austrian rivers showed that whereas no alterations were found in the qualitative composition of zoobenthos, the decrease in abundance and biomass may amount up to 95%. The mismatch between the hydrography of surface water and groundwater might well be a cause of the detrimental effects of frequent and artificially created spates. The drastic reduction of zoobenthic biomass affects not only fish production but minimizes self-purification processes as well. Until tributaries diminish the effects of intermittent power generation, the river is reduced to a mere transport vehicle. (author).

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A.K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non-randomized comm......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non......, still births, and maternal and child deaths were secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: 1404 (67.5%) of 2081 with the new delivery system received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus 281 (39.9%) of 704 with health units (P

  1. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  2. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  3. Climate, intermittent humidification, and humidifier fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K; Watt, A D; Sinclair, D; Lewis, C; McSharry, C P; Boyd, G

    1989-01-01

    Two summer outbreaks of humidifier fever (HF) are described in a microprocessor factory (factory A) and a printing factory (factory B). The air in each factory was humidified intermittently and controlled by present humidistats operating to maintain a relative humidity of 45% by an air handler incorporating a spray humidifier in factory A and two ceiling mounted spray humidifiers in factory B. Questionnaire data from each workforce suggested that although symptoms apparently occurred most com...

  4. AN ELDERLY WOMAN WITH INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyer Naveed Wazir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report illustrates the misdiagnosis of intermittent claudication in an elderly with multiple cardiac risk factors. Careful clinical evaluation and imaging shifts the diagnosis from peripheral vascular disease to spinal stenosis. The decision whether to offer conservative therapy or proceed to spinal surgery requires an accurate assessment of the severity of the symptoms without ignoring the important role of patient preferences.

  5. Intermittent structures in atmospheric wind fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueksek, Oersan; Muecke, Tanja; Peinke, Joachim [Wind Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For design processes and load calculations of wind energy convertors (WEC) realistic synthetic wind fields are needed. The widely used norm is the standard IEC 61400. The IEC standard considers different simulation methods based on Gaussian statistics. However, the analysis of the measured wind fields by means of velocity increment statistics yields that these do not obey Gaussian statistics but are quite intermittent. The intermittent nature of atmospheric wind affects the whole chain of the wind energy conversion process and is assumed to be a major effect for additional loads and fatigue. A recently proposed method based on continuous time random walks (CTRWs) adequately reproduces the intermittency of turbulent atmospheric velocity increments on small time scales and provides wind fields with the desired high order two point statistics. In this work, we analyze highly time-resolved data sets measured in an extensive grid over the whole rotor plane of a WEC. The atmospheric wind fields are characterized statistically and the dependency of the higher order two point statistics on turbulence intensity, mean wind speed and height is shown. With this knowledge we are able to generate synthetic CTRW wind fields with the correct small scale structure.

  6. Library Resources for Gender Balancing the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nancy Seale

    This paper argues that gender/women's studies are becoming an essential element of research and curricula in a number of disciplines. Several scholars of gender who conduct research in various disciplines are mentioned, and their areas of work are briefly outlined: Kate Millett, Shulamith Firestone, Simone de Beauvoir, Anne Oakley, Nancy Chodorow,…

  7. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.

  8. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance Balance is very important for people with osteoporosis. Your ... all play an important role in maintaining your balance and preventing broken bones. Medical conditions and medicines ...

  9. Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: the MATADOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N M; Sainsbury, A; King, N A; Hills, A P; Wood, R E

    2018-02-01

    The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total). Forty-seven participants completed a 4-week baseline phase and commenced the intervention (CON: N=23, 39.4±6.8 years, 111.1±9.1 kg, 34.3±3.0 kg   m -2 ; INT: N=24, 39.8±9.5 years, 110.2±13.8 kg, 34.1±4.0 kg   m -2 ). During ER, energy intake was equivalent to 67% of weight maintenance requirements in both groups. Body weight, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured throughout the study. For the N=19 CON and N=17 INT who completed the intervention per protocol, weight loss was greater for INT (14.1±5.6 vs 9.1±2.9 kg; Penergy balance blocks was minimal (0.0±0.3 kg). While reduction in absolute REE did not differ between groups (INT: -502±481 vs CON: -624±557 kJ d -1 ; P=0.5), after adjusting for changes in body composition, it was significantly lower in INT (INT: -360±502 vs CON: -749±498 kJ d -1 ; Penergy balance 'rest periods' may reduce compensatory metabolic responses and, in turn, improve weight loss efficiency.

  10. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity.

  11. Comprehensive Solutions for Integration of Solar Resources into Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, Kenneth [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Makarov, Yuri V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rajagopal, Sankaran [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Loutan, Clyde [California Independent System Operator; Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Laurie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lu, Bo [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Mansingh, Ashmin [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Zack, John [MESO, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sherick, Robert [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Romo, Abraham [Southern California Edison; Habibi-Ashrafi, Farrokh [Southern California Edison; Johnson, Raymond [Southern California Edison

    2016-01-14

    The need for proactive closed-loop integration of uncertainty information into system operations and probability-based controls is widely recognized, but rarely implemented in system operations. Proactive integration for this project means that the information concerning expected uncertainty ranges for net load and balancing requirements, including required balancing capacity, ramping and ramp duration characteristics, will be fed back into the generation commitment and dispatch algorithms to modify their performance so that potential shortages of these characteristics can be prevented. This basic, yet important, premise is the motivating factor for this project. The achieved project goal is to demonstrate the benefit of such a system. The project quantifies future uncertainties, predicts additional system balancing needs including the prediction intervals for capacity and ramping requirements of future dispatch intervals, evaluates the impacts of uncertainties on transmission including the risk of overloads and voltage problems, and explores opportunities for intra-hour generation adjustments helping to provide more flexibility for system operators. The resulting benefits culminate in more reliable grid operation in the face of increased system uncertainty and variability caused by solar power. The project identifies that solar power does not require special separate penetration level restrictions or penalization for its intermittency. Ultimately, the collective consideration of all sources of intermittency distributed over a wide area unified with the comprehensive evaluation of various elements of balancing process, i.e. capacity, ramping, and energy requirements, help system operators more robustly and effectively balance generation against load and interchange. This project showed that doing so can facilitate more solar and other renewable resources on the grid without compromising reliability and control performance. Efforts during the project included

  12. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  13. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B; Madsen, M R; Vestersgaard-Andersen, T; Lindholt, J S

    2010-10-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study included 88 patients recruited by surgeons from outpatient clinics. The participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h before each test and then received either a placebo or oral caffeine (6 mg/kg). After 75 min, pain-free and maximal walking distance on a treadmill, perceived pain, reaction times, postural stability, maximal isometric knee extension strength, submaximal knee extension endurance and cognitive function were measured. The analysis was by intention to treat. Caffeine increased the pain-free walking distance by 20.0 (95 per cent confidence interval 3.7 to 38.8) per cent (P = 0.014), maximal walking distance by 26.6 (12.1 to 43.0) per cent (P postural stability was reduced significantly, by 22.1 (11.7 to 33.4) per cent with eyes open (P < 0.001) and by 21.8 (7.6 to 37.8) per cent with eyes closed (P = 0.002). Neither reaction time nor cognition was affected. In patients with moderate intermittent claudication, caffeine increased walking distance, maximal strength and endurance, but affected balance adversely.

  14. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  15. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three dif...

  16. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2010-01-01

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (∼0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  17. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  18. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  19. Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A E; Lewis, W A

    1992-04-01

    Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player is described. The typical features of a delayed and difficult diagnosis of an external iliac artery stenosis were found. The noninvasive diagnostic protocol used to investigate this young patient with a minimal arterial lesion enabled accurate localization and angioplasty to be performed at the same time as diagnostic angiography. The patient was symptom free with normal arterial pressures on follow-up. It is suggested that appropriate noninvasive investigations should be performed before angiography in young people with minimal lesions.

  20. A stochastic model for intermittent search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, O; Coppey, M; Moreau, M; Suet, P H; Voituriez, R

    2005-01-01

    It is often necessary, in scientific or everyday life problems, to find a randomly hidden target. What is then the optimal strategy to reach it as rapidly as possible? In this article, we develop a stochastic theory for intermittent search behaviours, which are often observed: the searcher alternates phases of intensive search and slow motion with fast displacements. The first results of this theory have already been announced recently. Here we provide a detailed presentation of the theory, as well as the full derivation of the results. Furthermore, we explicitly discuss the minimization of the time needed to find the target

  1. Renewable energies: the cost of intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The authors indicate the different adaptations which will be required for the electric system to cope with the intermittency of solar and wind energy production, and propose an approximate assessment of the associated costs. Different types of adaptation are addressed: secure production in case of absence of wind or sun (electricity imports, construction of additional power stations), use of more flexible production means (gas turbines), grid extensions (connection to offshore production sites, routing of production one part of the country to the other). They think that beyond a 20 per cent share for renewable energies, these costs could rapidly increase

  2. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training

    OpenAIRE

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-01-01

    Live high‐train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance m...

  3. Intermittent fasting and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and unresolved questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Horne, Benjamin D

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent fasting has produced a variety of beneficial health effects in animal models, although high-quality research in humans has been limited. This special report examines current evidences for intermittent fasting in humans, discusses issues that require further examination, and recommends new research that can improve the knowledge base in this emerging research area. While potentially useful for health improvement, intermittent fasting requires further study prior to widespread implementation for health purposes. Randomized, longer-term studies are needed to determine whether using intermittent fasting as a lifestyle rather than a diet is feasible and beneficial for the health of some members of the human population.

  4. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  5. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seeking a Balance in International Trade: Pacific Rim Import-Export Transactions. Grade 12 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Robert

    In this lesson, student teams roleplay an import-export company's purchasing department. Students consider the reasons for the U.S. trade deficit and develop a plan to help their company achieve an import-export balance. Teams will research international trade and economic issues that impact trade balance. Students are provided with background…

  7. Intermittent exotropia: facts, opinions, and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Kenneth G

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent exotropia (IXT) can be a controversial topic, often eliciting lively discussion. This lecture will discuss its definition, incidence, age of onset, presentation, natural variation, criteria for deterioration, goals of treatment, effectiveness of surgical treatment, types of surgical treatment, and unwanted effects of surgical treatment. Results from the scientific literature, opinions of respected colleagues, the opinion of the author, and the results of live polling of the audience during the John Pratt-Johnson lecture are presented. IXT is defined as an exotropia that is present intermittently predominantly for distance. Its incidence is about 1% and it usually has an onset before age 5. Patients often present because of concern regarding the appearance of the eye misalignment. There is natural variation in the control of IXT, the angle of IXT, and the amount of stereopsis. Criteria that denote deterioration are increasing frequency of IXT, progressively and consistently increasing angle of IXT, loss of binocular vision, and increasing concern regarding the patient's appearance and its effect on social interaction. Goals of treatment are to retain equal or nearly equal vision, to obtain acceptable cosmesis, and to retain binocular vision. The long-term success of surgical treatment is not well proven. Persistent postoperative overcorrection is an unwanted effect of surgical treatment. The inherent biologic variation that occurs when measuring the components of IXT makes it difficult to be dogmatic about IXT, particularly when trying to decide when deterioration is occurring.

  8. Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kaiser, Eurika; Kutz, J Nathan

    2017-05-30

    Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth's magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.The huge amount of data generated in fields like neuroscience or finance calls for effective strategies that mine data to reveal underlying dynamics. Here Brunton et al.develop a data-driven technique to analyze chaotic systems and predict their dynamics in terms of a forced linear model.

  9. Intermittency Statistics in the Expanding Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, M. E.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is observed to be turbulent. One of the open questions in solar wind research is how the turbulence evolves as the solar wind expands to great distances. Some studies have focused on evolution of the outer scale but not much has been done to understand how intermittency evolves in the expanding wind beyond 1 AU (see [1,2]). We use magnetic field data from Voyager I spacecraft from 1 to 10AU to study the evolution of statistics of magnetic discontinuities. We perform various statistical tests on these discontinuities and make connections to the physical processes occurring in the expanding wind.[1] Tsurutani, Bruce T., and Edward J. Smith. "Interplanetary discontinuities: Temporal variations and the radial gradient from 1 to 8.5 AU." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 84.A6 (1979): 2773-2787.[2] Greco, A., et al. "Evidence for nonlinear development of magnetohydrodynamic scale intermittency in the inner heliosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 749.2 (2012): 105.

  10. Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, M.; Dabbousi, B. O.; Bawendi, M. G.; Macklin, J. J.; Trautman, J. K.; Harris, T. D.; Brus, L. E.

    1996-10-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR nanocrystals offer the opportunity to study the evolution of bulk materials properties as the size of a system increases from the molecular scale1,2. In addition, their strongly size-dependent optical properties render them attractive candidates as tunable light absorbers and emitters in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes3,4 and quantum-dot lasers5,6, and as optical probes of biological systems7. Here we show that light emission from single fluorescing nanocrystals of cadmium selenide under continuous excitation turns on and off intermittently with a characteristic timescale of about 0.5 seconds. This intermittency is not apparent from ensemble measurements on many nanocrystals. The dependence on excitation intensity and the change in on/off times when a passivating, high-bandgap shell of zinc sulphide encapsulates the nanocrystal8,9 suggests that the abrupt turning off of luminescence is caused by photo-ionization of the nanocrystal. Thus spectroscopic measurements on single nanocrystals can reveal hitherto unknown aspects of their photophysics.

  11. Impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the most recent human trials that have examined the impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis. Our literature search retrieved one human trial of alternate day fasting, and three trials of Ramadan fasting published in the past 12 months. Current evidence suggests that 8 weeks of alternate day fasting that produces mild weight loss (4% from baseline) has no effect on glucose homeostasis. As for Ramadan fasting, decreases in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance have been noted after 4 weeks in healthy normal weight individuals with mild weight loss (1-2% from baseline). However, Ramadan fasting may have little impact on glucoregulatory parameters in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who failed to observe weight loss. Whether intermittent fasting is an effective means of regulating glucose homeostasis remains unclear because of the scarcity of studies in this area. Large-scale, longer-term randomized controlled trials will be required before the use of fasting can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  12. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A.K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non-randomized comm......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non......-randomized community trial was implemented in 21 community clusters (intervention) and four clusters where health units provided routine IPTp (control). The primary outcome measures were access and adherence to IPTp, number of malaria episodes, prevalence of anaemia, and birth weight. Numbers of live births, abortions......, still births, and maternal and child deaths were secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: 1404 (67.5%) of 2081 with the new delivery system received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus 281 (39.9%) of 704 with health units (P malaria episodes decreased from 906 (49...

  13. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-01-01

    Live high‐train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude® hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10–15% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre‐ and post‐exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, ±5% to ±9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, ±8%; 9%, ±7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, ±8%) and tackle sprints (11%, ±9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level. PMID:17311807

  14. Modes of exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauret, Gert Jan; Fakhry, Farzin; Fokkenrood, Hugo J P; Hunink, M G Myriam; Teijink, Joep A W; Spronk, Sandra

    2014-07-04

    According to international guidelines and literature, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive an initial treatment of cardiovascular risk modification, lifestyle coaching, and supervised exercise therapy. In most studies, supervised exercise therapy consists of treadmill or track walking. However, alternative modes of exercise therapy have been described and yielded similar results to walking. Therefore, the following question remains: Which exercise mode gives the most beneficial results? To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on the maximum walking distance (MWD) of patients with intermittent claudication. To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on pain-free walking distance (PFWD) and health-related quality of life scores (HR-QoL) of patients with intermittent claudication. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialised Register (July 2013); CENTRAL (2013, Issue 6), in The Cochrane Lib rary; and clinical trials databases. The authors searched the MEDLINE (1946 to July 2013) and Embase (1973 to July 2013) databases and reviewed the reference lists of identified articles to detect other relevant citations. Randomised controlled trials of studies comparing alternative modes of exercise training or combinations of exercise modes with a control group of supervised walking exercise in patients with clinically determined intermittent claudication. The supervised walking programme needed to be supervised at least twice a week for a consecutive six weeks of training. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for each study. Because of different treadmill test protocols to assess the maximum or pain-free walking distance, we converted all distances or walking times to total metabolic equivalents (METs) using the American College of Sports Medicine

  15. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  16. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  17. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  18. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  19. Intermittent Testicular Torsion | Obi | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Clinical and demographic data of all patients treated for intermittent testicular torsion from January 2007 to June 2015 were prospectively collected in a pro forma and analyzed. A diagnosis of intermittent torsion was made on the basis of recurrent scrotal pain, presence of abnormal testicular lie in otherwise normal ...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868.5955 Section 868.5955 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5955 Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. (a)...

  1. Directly-Observed Intermittent Therapy versus Unsupervised Daily Regimen during the Intensive Phase of Antituberculosis Therapy in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization strongly recommends using daily antituberculosis therapy (ATT during the intensive phase for HIV infected patients. India has the highest burden of tuberculosis in the world, but HIV infected patients are still receiving intermittent ATT. In this study we compared the mortality in patients who received directly-observed intermittent ATT versus self-administered daily ATT with fixed dose combinations during the intensive phase in a context of freely available antiretroviral therapy. The study included 1460 patients, 343 in the intermittent ATT group and 1117 in the daily ATT group. Baseline covariates of the two groups were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting based on propensity score methods. In a sensitivity analysis, continuous variables (albumin, CD4 count, and age were modelled using restricted cubic smoothing splines. Compared with patients who received daily ATT, patients who received intermittent ATT had a 40% higher risk of mortality (1.4 hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.7. We estimated that the use of daily ATT could achieve a 10% absolute reduction in mortality at 12 months. Self-administered daily ATT was not associated with an increased risk of default from treatment. These results support the immediate implementation of daily ATT for HIV infected patients during the intensive phase in India.

  2. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2015-12-15

    Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of Integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) into Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    state‐of‐the‐art DER integration concepts  relations existing DER integration concepts to the EV system The power balancing challenges of power systems brought by high penetration of intermittent DER have been discussed, especially the wind power integration in the Danish context. The relevance...... of the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) to the DER integration concepts have been analyzed as well based on the energy storage potential of EVs.   Two main concepts for DER integration, virtual power plant (VPP) and microgrids, are described and a comparison of the two concepts have been done. The comparison......An overview of the integration of distributed energy resources (DER) into power systems has been presented in this report. Different aspects of integration of DER into power systems have been reviewed and discussed which are listed below.    needs of DER integration into power systems  various...

  4. Turbulent water vapor exchanges and two source energy balance model estimated fluxes of heterogeneous vineyard canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, S.; Hipps, L.; Alfieri, J. G.; Prueger, J. H.; Kustas, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture in semi-arid regions is globally facing increasing stress on water resources. Hence, knowledge of water used in irrigated crops is essential for water resource management. However, quantifying spatial and temporal distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) has proven difficult because of the inherent complexities involved. Understanding of the complex biophysical relationships that govern ET is incomplete, particularly for heterogeneous vegetation. The USDA-ARS is developing a remotely-sensed ET modeling system that utilizes a two-source energy balance (TSEB) model capable of simulating turbulent water and energy exchange from measurements of radiometric land surface temperature. The modeling system has been tested over a number of vegetated surfaces and is currently being validated for vineyard sites in the Central Valley of California through the Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profiling & Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX). The highly variable, elevated canopy structure and semi-arid climatic conditions of these sites give the opportunity to gain knowledge of both turbulent exchange processes and the TSEB model's ability to simulate turbulent fluxes for heterogeneous vegetation. Analyzed are fast-response (20 Hz) 3-D velocity, temperature, and humidity measurements gathered over 4 years at two vineyard sites. These data were collected at a height of 5 m, within the surface layer but above the canopy, and at 1.5 m, below the canopy top. Power spectra and cross-spectra are used to study behavior of turbulent water vapor exchanges and coupling between the canopy layer and surface layer under various atmospheric conditions. Frequent light winds and unstable daytime conditions, combined with the complicated canopy structure, often induce intermittent and episodic turbulence transport. This resulted in a modal behavior alternating between periods of more continuous canopy venting and periods where water vapor fluxes are dominated by transient, low

  5. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnosis per chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundravally R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a case of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP diagnosed by chance during routine investigations. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 21-year-old female presented with vague gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon admission, she was disoriented. Later she developed generalized seizures and was treated with phenytoin, but the condition worsened. Upon investigation, her liver function, renal function, blood sugar level and electrolytes were within normal limits. When kept for routine laboratory testing, the color change in urine prompted us to investigate for porphyria. It was positive for phorphobilinogen (PBG and urophorphyrin. Since AIP had been diagnosed, the initial treatment with phenytoin was discontinued with a favorable outcome. A screening test for PBG in urine by Ehrlich′s reagent was performed on the patient′s mother and was positive. Conclusion: A high degree of suspicion at the laboratory can also determine the diagnosis of AIP, which is often missed by the clinician.

  6. Intermittent hypoxia and cancer: Undesirable bed partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Isaac; Gozal, David

    2017-08-14

    The deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark characteristic of this condition. Such recent studies are undoubtedly adding more information regarding the role of IH on tumor malignancy. In terms of the IH patterns associated with OSA, this altered oxygenation paradigm has been recently proposed as a determinant factor in fostering cancer incidence and progression from both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Here, we summarize all the available evidence to date linking IH effects on several types of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration...... still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump......Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators...

  8. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of a physical treatment modality in patients with intermittent claudication. During this treatment a major part of the skin surface is subjected to intermittent suction and pressure. In a previous, preliminary study the authors found a beneficial effect...... participated in an open trial investigating the possible effects of the treatment on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Pain-free and maximal walking distances were measured on a treadmill, and systolic blood pressure was measured on the upper limb, the ankle, and the first toe bilaterally. The threshold...... for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was tested, and the fibrinolytic activity was estimated from the euglobulin clot lysis time. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found during placebo...

  9. Secret Underlying Unexplained Abdominal Pain, Neurological Symptoms and Intermittent Hypertension: Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komac Andac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old female patient with abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation was admitted to the hospital with the possible diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Due to increased abdominal pain and constipation the patient underwent a surgery with the diagnosis of ileus. However, no pathological findings were found in the abdominal organs apart from serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. The patient became hypertensive, tachycardic and had an episode of seizures postoperatively. Neurological manifestations with unexplained abdominal pain indicated a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP. Acute intermittent porphyria diagnosis is based on elevated urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG levels as well as hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS IVS13-2 A>G heterozygous mutation. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF gene mutations were not confirmed. Porphyria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent abdominal pain, neurological symptoms and lack of FMF gene polymorphism.

  10. Sustainable integration of high levels of intermittent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Cabral, P.

    2005-01-01

    The sustainable development of electric power systems rely on three main drivers: the security of supply, the competitiveness and the protection of the environment. For this purpose the promotion of endogenous energy sources, mainly the renewable ones, should be underlined. Still, most of renewable energy sources raise very sensitive issues concerning the security of supply, due to its randomness and unpredictability. The wind power, currently in its fast growing development, plays a relevant role on this matter. From the demand-side perspective, there is also a lot to do regarding the promotion of more efficient use of energy as well as mechanisms that contribute to security of supply. This paper aims to present guidelines for the selection of the most adequate solutions regarding: sustainable evolution of renewable generation technologies, based on the most meritorious resources under economic and security of supply assessments; complementary energy storage systems that allow the integration of intermittent generation ensuring adequate security of supply levels; and sustainable evolution of demand, based on DSM measures selected from different available alternatives. (author)

  11. Supporting the externality of intermittency in policies for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek W.; Muñoz, José I.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the joint problem of supporting renewables and resource adequacy in a liberalised electricity market and present a detailed model-based comparison of two alternative policies. We undertake this in the context of the British market. We show how, ceteris paribus, the progressive replacement of coal with wind imposes extra costs of reserve and evaluate alternative way to meet this, whether through capacity payments funded by customers, or a reliability requirement on wind generators with capital cost or energy feed-in subsidies. We consider the reality of market concentration and the extent to which pragmatic regulation could allow prices to rise above marginal cost to reduce the extent of direct subsidies and complex market designs. We also evaluate the implied cost of carbon reduction in a progressive replacement of coal with wind, when the security is maintained by extra peaking gas. We find that support through capital allowances rather than the energy market is more efficient. - Highlights: • Progressively replacing coal by offshore wind may require increasing subsidies. • Risk-averse investors seek higher financial hurdles with more intermittent technologies. • The externality of providing extra reserves should be bundled with the renewable subsidies. • Using capital grants rather than green certificates leads to lower costs.

  12. Cost effectiveness of intermittent screening followed by treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Silke; Sicuri, Elisa; Halimatou, Diawara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emergence of high-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in parts of Africa has led to growing concerns about the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness of intermittent screening and treatme...

  13. Intermittent intravenous followed by intermittent oral 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandi, L; Daugaard, H; Egsmose, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether intermittent oral 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment of patients on haemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was able to maintain the marked suppression of PTH, which previously had been induced by an intermittent intravenous administration of 1 alpha(OH)D3...

  14. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Controversial Diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan Pablo; Palacio, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is aan externalizing externalising disorder characterized characterised by recurrent aggression episodes. Even though this disorder was described several decades ago, and it carries personal and social consequences, there is little in the medical scientific literature on this. bibliographic production about it is scanty. To perform a conceptualization conceptualisation of this disorder, through the review and bibliometric analysis of the available scientific articles. A search was performed in databases with the english English terms intermittent explosive disorder, impulse disorders control [MeSH], in combination with other terms. A bibliometric analysis in the GoPubMed® search engineer was also performed using all data obtained in the search. was also perfomed. IED prevalence ranges from 1.4% to 7%, it presents more frequently during middle adolescence, and with more noticeable repercussions in men males than in womenfemales. The psychopathological core of IED is the impulsive aggressive behaviour that presents in the form of «attacks» that occurs in response to a lower precipitating stimulus. Scientific publications about IED are few and relatively recent, and the vast majority is provided bycomes from the United States (56.56%), and headed by a single author. This fact highlights the need to replicate the findings described about the IED in order to demonstrate the validity and reliability of its diagnostic criteria. It is possible that doubts about the existence of a diagnosis lead have led to such a scant literature about the IED. Available studies about IED allow have allowed characterizing a group of subjects with episodes of impulsive aggression to be characterised, but this description requires replication in different latitudesneeds to be repeated in different areas. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Squinting and photophobia in intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Suh, Soh-Youn; Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Joon

    2014-05-01

    To report factors associated with preoperative squinting, defined as transient eye closure in bright light, and photophobia and the factors affecting improvement of these symptoms postoperatively in intermittent exotropia. In this retrospective study, patients (N = 99) were divided into groups according to the presence (n = 54) or absence (n = 45) of preoperative squinting and the presence (n = 64) or absence (n = 35) of photophobia. Clinical characteristics, including overaction or underaction of the oblique muscle and fundus intorsion and extorsion, were compared between the two groups. The squinting and photophobia groups were further categorized into two subgroups each according to postoperative improvement. The extended list of characteristics, including the duration from onset to surgery, postoperative angle of deviation, and fusion, was compared between the two subgroups. Preoperatively, 54 (54.5%) and 64 (64.6%) patients had squinting and photophobia, respectively. The coincidence of squinting and photophobia was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Postoperatively, squinting and photophobia disappeared in 64.8 and 59.4% of the patients, respectively. The photophobia group had a younger onset age of strabismus than the nonphotophobia group (39.3 vs. 56.4 months; p = 0.03). Good fusional status at the near range was more common in the nonsquinting group than in the squinting group (74.3 vs. 47.6%; p = 0.02). Superior oblique overaction was significantly more common in the squinting group than in the nonsquinting group (11.1 vs. 0%; p = 0.03). Early surgical correction and successful outcomes were associated with squinting improvement (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). More than 50% of patients with intermittent exotropia had squinting or photophobia, and approximately 60% of symptomatic patients experienced improvement postoperatively. The onset of strabismus, near fusion, superior oblique overaction, and fundus intorsion were related to these symptoms

  17. Managing server clusters on intermittent power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the energy footprint of data centers continues to receive significant attention due to both its financial and environmental impact. There are numerous methods that limit the impact of both factors, such as expanding the use of renewable energy or participating in automated demand-response programs. To take advantage of these methods, servers and applications must gracefully handle intermittent constraints in their power supply. In this paper, we propose blinking—metered transitions between a high-power active state and a low-power inactive state—as the primary abstraction for conforming to intermittent power constraints. We design Blink, an application-independent hardware–software platform for developing and evaluating blinking applications, and define multiple types of blinking policies. We then use Blink to design both a blinking version of memcached (BlinkCache and a multimedia cache (GreenCache to demonstrate how application characteristics affect the design of blink-aware distributed applications. Our results show that for BlinkCache, a load-proportional blinking policy combines the advantages of both activation and synchronous blinking for realistic Zipf-like popularity distributions and wind/solar power signals by achieving near optimal hit rates (within 15% of an activation policy, while also providing fairer access to the cache (within 2% of a synchronous policy for equally popular objects. In contrast, for GreenCache, due to multimedia workload patterns, we find that a staggered load proportional blinking policy with replication of the first chunk of each video reduces the buffering time at all power levels, as compared to activation or load-proportional blinking policies.

  18. A Classification Regression Tree Analysis to Reduce Balance Impairments and Falls in the Older population: Impact on Resource Utilization and Clinical Decision-Making in USA Rehabilitation Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Pfalzer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Over 1/3 of adults over age 65 experiences at least one fall each year. This pilot report uses a classification regression tree analysis (CART to model the outcomes for balance/risk of falls from the Gentiva® Safe Strides® Program (SSP. Methods/Outcomes: SSP is a home-based balance/fall prevention program designed to treat root causes of a patient

  19. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  20. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  1. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy (IAAT) may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  2. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2004-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  3. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  4. Analysis of Financial Position Based on the Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial position based on the balance sheet is mainly aimed at assessing the extent to which financial structure chosen by the firm, namely, financial resources, covering the needs reflected in the balance sheet financed. This is done through an analysis known as horizontal analysis balance sheet financial imbalances.

  5. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§ 816.41...

  6. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  7. Intermittent fasting: a "new" historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Rubenstein, James E; Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-05-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in dielectric environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, A.

    2006-08-11

    The experimental studies presented in this thesis deal with the photoluminescence intermittency of semiconductor quantum dots in different dielectric environments. Detailed analysis of intermittency statistics from single capped CdSe/ZnS, uncapped CdSe and water dispersed CdSe/ZnS QDs in different matrices provide experimental evidence for the model of photoionization with a charge ejected into the surrounding matrix as the source of PL intermittency phenomenon. We propose a self-trapping model to explain the increase of dark state lifetimes with the dielectric constant of the matrix. (orig.)

  9. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are...

  10. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  11. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  12. Scaling, Intermittency and Decay of MHD Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a few recent developments that are important for understanding of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is usually believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, viscosity by neutrals does not suppress MHD turbulence in a partially ionized gas. Instead, MHD turbulence develops magnetic cascade at scales below the scale at which neutrals damp ordinary hydrodynamic motions. Forth, density statistics does not exhibit the universality that the velocity and magnetic field do. For instance, at small Mach numbers the density is anisotropic, but it gets isotropic at high Mach numbers. Fifth, the intermittency of magnetic field and velocity are different. Both depend on whether the measurements are done in a local system of reference oriented along the local magnetic field or in the global system of reference related to the mean magnetic field

  13. The "galloping" history of intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, A; Eckert, J; Rüttimann, B; Becker, F

    2000-11-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) due to arterial occlusive disease was first diagnosed by the French veterinary surgeon Jean-François Bouley jeune in a horse drawing a cabriolet in the streets of Paris as early as 1831. The animal was repeatedly exercised and always started to limp with the hind legs at similar work loads. Autopsy revealed partially thrombosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and occlusions of both femoral arteries which were correctly identified as the cause of IC. In 1858 the famous neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot working at the Salpêtrière in Paris first discovered the condition in a patient, who was wounded by a bullet during the conquest of Algery and developed iliac artery aneurysm obliterated by a thrombus. He was aware of the first description in veterinary medicine. In Germany IC was also first mentioned in horses (Rademacher, 1838). 13 reports of patients were contributed by the neurologist Heinrich Erb in 1898 and 1904. Some interesting features of the phenomenon of IC like the amount of exercise necessary to provoke it, localization, social relevance, prolongation of the Achilles tendon reflex, decrease of maximal plantar flexion force of the foot and production of "Lewis factor p" are summarized. In human patients arteriosclerosis is the well recognized principal cause of arterial obstructions, in horses, however, the lesions are due to infection by the roundworm Strongylus vulgaris. In the fascinating life cycle the larvae migrate into the intima of small and large arteries and provoke aneurysms and intravascular thrombosis.

  14. Emotion regulation deficits in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettich, Karla C; McCloskey, Michael S; Look, Amy E; Coccaro, Emil F

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by repeated acts of affective aggression. Despite the diagnostic emphasis on the failure to control aggressive impulses, there is little research on affective processes and emotion regulation in IED; however, this research suggests possible dysfunctions in experiences of emotional intensity and lability. The hypothesis in the present study was that compared to individuals with other psychiatric disorders, and psychologically healthy individuals, individuals with IED experience greater negative affect intensity and emotional lability. Participants (N = 373) consisted of 202 individuals diagnosed with IED, 68 non-IED psychiatric controls (PC), and 103 healthy volunteers (HV). Emotion regulation was assessed using the General Behavior Inventory, the Affective Lability Scale, and the Affect Intensity Measure. Results showed that IED participants reported greater negative affect intensity and greater emotional lability across several emotion domains (e.g., anger, anxiety, depression) than PC and HV participants. These findings suggest that IED is characterized by more global emotion regulation deficits than those associated with anger alone. Aggr. Behav. 41:25-33 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... outside the permit area; and otherwise prevents water pollution. (2) The requirement in § 816.45(a) that... and adverse impacts on fish and wildlife and related environmental values and achieve enhancement of... high value for fish and wildlife, and riparian vegetation along rivers and streams and bordering ponds...

  17. Factors Relevant to Utility Integration of Intermittent Renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Parsons, B.

    1993-08-24

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among fmdings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface, (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels am feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also indentified.

  18. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  19. Scaling laws and intermittent structures in solar wind MHD turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Pierluigi; Mangeney, André

    1999-06-01

    Thirteen months of velocity and magnetic field data from ISEE space experiment have been used to calculate spectra and structure functions using Haar wavelets technique in the range from 1 minute to about 1 day. Using conditioned structure function definition we have been able to eliminate the intermittency effects in the spectra and thus to evidentiate which kind of phenomenology of nonlinear cascade between Kolmogorov and Kraichnan is taking place in Solar Wind turbulence. By the same technique the most intermittent structures in solar wind turbulence can also be identified and they turn out to be either shock waves or one dimensional current sheets, at variance with ordinary fluid intermittency, where the most intermittent structures are two dimensional vortices.

  20. Computing moving and intermittent queue propagation in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Drivers may experience intermittent congestion and moving queue conditions in work zones due to several reasons such as presence of lane closure, roadway geometric changes, higher demand, lower speed, and reduced capacity. The congestion and queue ha...

  1. Sensing and characterization of EMI during intermittent connector anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new on-line methodology for detecting intermittent disconnection failures. The detection principle operates on the fundamental Lorentz Law that...

  2. The impact of a large penetration of intermittent sources on the power system operation and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausin, Juan Carlos

    conventional rotating machines the aggregate fluctuation starts to become an important factor, and should be taken into account for the calculation of the balancing requirements. Additional balancing requirements would increase the total balancing cost and this could stop the future development of the intermittent sources.

  3. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    OpenAIRE

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term su...

  4. Transfert thermique à travers une interface de contact intermittent en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfert thermique à travers une interface de contact intermittent en régime périodique établi. ... Mots clés: modélisation; conduction; contact intermittent; pseudo résistance de contact; résistance de contact; couplage de matériaux. In this paper, we present one-dimensional model to describe the thermal transfer through an ...

  5. Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm: Photoefficiency and biomass production under intermittent lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Efrem Toninelli; Junfeng Wang; Mingshen Liu; Hong Wu; Tianzhong Liu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of intermittent lighting on the growth performances of a Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm. Flashing light effect (FLE) is common in traditional suspended cultures of microalgae; yet, publications about this phenomenon, in the context of biofilm cultivation, are scarce. In this work we demonstrate that, thanks to intermittent illumination, it is possible for attached cultivations to fulfill FLE, improve photoefficiency and productivity as well as providing prote...

  6. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKarniel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The minimum transitions hypothesis (MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  7. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniel, Amir

    2013-01-01

    In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis (MTH) and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  8. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an increment...

  9. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Lanzarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6 and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5, which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG and control group (CG. Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP during the sensory organization test (SOT and the motor control test (MCT. Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027 and speed (p =0.033 of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004. There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects.

  10. Suppression of methanogenesis in hydrogen fermentation by intermittent feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether intermittent feeding by using a concentrated carbon source is an appropriate method for selective enrichment of hydrogenesis by means of methanogen suppression. In a conventional reactor fed continuously for 10 d, methanogens increased from 2.8 × 10(7) to 1.1 × 10(9) gene copy number (GCN)/mg-cell dry weight, and methane concentration in the resulting biogas was 5.8%. However, when a carbon source was intermittently supplied for 10 d to the reactor, the number of methanogens was reduced 98.9% from 2.77 × 10(7) to 1.2 × 10(3) GCN/mg-cell dry weight, and methane was not detected during this period of intermittent feeding. Intermittent feeding shifted the dominants in the reactor from Clostridiaceae (70.5%) and Lactobacillaceae (11.0%) to Acetobacteraceae (62.0%) and Clostridiaceae (38.0%). In the reactor operated in continuous feeding mode after intermittent feeding, methane concentration was below 0.3% and the portion of methanogens in the bacterial community was maintained below 0.2%. These results suggest that the intermittent feeding of a carbon source during hydrogen production processes is a suitable method to suppress the activity of methanogens.

  11. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, is often present in diabetic (DB patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J (db/db mice (10 weeks old and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic, IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic, IADB (intermittent air diabetic, and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice.

  12. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  13. The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether or not recreational soccer players (SP) and non-soccer players (non-SP) with similar intermittent-running ability had similar physiological responses to a soccer match-simulation protocol. Twenty-two recreational SP and 19 fitness-matched non-SP participated. Yo-Yo level 1 assessed intermittent-running ability, while the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test served as soccer match-simulation protocol. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La - ] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after each bout (1-5, plus an exhaustive task). SP had lower HR after the third, fourth and fifth bout, compared to non-SP. Similarly, SP had lower [La - ] after the third, fourth and the fifth bout. SP also had lower RPE after the third, fourth and fifth bout. The appropriateness of intermittent-running ability as the main determinant of physical performance in SP was questioned.

  14. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  15. Managing natural resources

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The balance between these two is a key issue in many developing ... that results when trees are cut to make fuel. New bamboo-based ... Improvement Center and the Mexican natural resources agency INIFAP can- vassed farmers and catalogued the attrib- utes of preferred varieties. These were then “frozen in time” in ...

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  17. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  18. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  19. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  1. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  2. Groundwater Discharge into Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and/or Lagoons (ICOLLs) via Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, M.; Santos, I. R.; Tait, D. R.; McMahon, A.; Kadel, S.; Maher, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and Lagoons (ICOLLs) are brackish coastal water bodies with an intermittent connection to the ocean that is closed periodically due to the accumulation of marine sediment forming an entrance berm. ICOLLs have dynamic coastal systems that may be vulnerable to minor changes in catchment hydrology. However, little is known regarding the impacts of groundwater on the hydrological cycles of ICOLLs. The relative contribution of rainfall versus groundwater discharge in two ICOLLs (Welsby, and Mermaid Lagoon) and a nearby wetland (South Welsby Lagoon) located on Bribie Island (Australia) were investigated using radon (222Rn) as natural geochemical groundwater tracer. Four seasonal surveys were undertaken to quantify the temporal and spatial groundwater dynamics of the ICOLLs. Radon contour maps revealed temporal and spatial changes over the study period. The estimated groundwater discharge rates from a radon-mass balance were 3.4±3.1, 7.3±9.8 and 2.6±3.8 cm d-1 in Weslby, South Weslby and Mermaid Lagoons, respectively. These values are at least 8-fold greater than rainfall (1420 mm per year, or 0.4 cm d-1). Assuming very minor surface water flows (not perceived during field surveys), this demonstrates that these systems are groundwater-dominated and their hydrology can be influenced by regional changes in groundwater level.

  3. Stability of synchrony against local intermittent fluctuations in tree-like power grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sabine; Hellmann, Frank; Krause, Marie; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    90% of all Renewable Energy Power in Germany is installed in tree-like distribution grids. Intermittent power fluctuations from such sources introduce new dynamics into the lower grid layers. At the same time, distributed resources will have to contribute to stabilize the grid against these fluctuations in the future. In this paper, we model a system of distributed resources as oscillators on a tree-like, lossy power grid and its ability to withstand desynchronization from localized intermittent renewable infeed. We find a remarkable interplay of the network structure and the position of the node at which the fluctuations are fed in. An important precondition for our findings is the presence of losses in distribution grids. Then, the most network central node splits the network into branches with different influence on network stability. Troublemakers, i.e., nodes at which fluctuations are especially exciting the grid, tend to be downstream branches with high net power outflow. For low coupling strength, we also find branches of nodes vulnerable to fluctuations anywhere in the network. These network regions can be predicted at high confidence using an eigenvector based network measure taking the turbulent nature of perturbations into account. While we focus here on tree-like networks, the observed effects also appear, albeit less pronounced, for weakly meshed grids. On the other hand, the observed effects disappear for lossless power grids often studied in the complex system literature.

  4. Stability of synchrony against local intermittent fluctuations in tree-like power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sabine; Hellmann, Frank; Krause, Marie; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    90% of all Renewable Energy Power in Germany is installed in tree-like distribution grids. Intermittent power fluctuations from such sources introduce new dynamics into the lower grid layers. At the same time, distributed resources will have to contribute to stabilize the grid against these fluctuations in the future. In this paper, we model a system of distributed resources as oscillators on a tree-like, lossy power grid and its ability to withstand desynchronization from localized intermittent renewable infeed. We find a remarkable interplay of the network structure and the position of the node at which the fluctuations are fed in. An important precondition for our findings is the presence of losses in distribution grids. Then, the most network central node splits the network into branches with different influence on network stability. Troublemakers, i.e., nodes at which fluctuations are especially exciting the grid, tend to be downstream branches with high net power outflow. For low coupling strength, we also find branches of nodes vulnerable to fluctuations anywhere in the network. These network regions can be predicted at high confidence using an eigenvector based network measure taking the turbulent nature of perturbations into account. While we focus here on tree-like networks, the observed effects also appear, albeit less pronounced, for weakly meshed grids. On the other hand, the observed effects disappear for lossless power grids often studied in the complex system literature.

  5. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Honing, R.; Schotanus, Fredo

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  6. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  7. Get the Balance Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  8. Intermittent hypoxia alters dose dependent caffeine effects on renal prostanoids and receptors in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Kay D; Cai, Charles L; Soontarapornchai, Kultida; Ahmad, Taimur; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in preterm neonates, is given in standard or suprapharmacologic doses. Although known as a diuretic, its effects in the neonatal kidneys are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) and high caffeine doses (HCD) alter renal regulators of vasomotor tone and water balance. Newborn rats were randomized to room air, hyperoxia, or IH and treated with standard or high caffeine doses; or placebo saline. Renal prostanoids; histopathology; and cyclooxygenase (COX), prostanoid receptor, and aquaporin (AQP) immunoreactivity were determined. HCD in IH caused severe pathological changes in the glomeruli and proximal tubules, consistent with acute kidney injury. This was associated with reductions in anthropometric growth, PGI 2, and IP, DP, and AQP-4 immunoreactivity, well as a robust increase in COX-2, suggesting that the use of HCD should be avoided in preterm infants who experience frequent IH episodes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Acceleration feedback improves balancing against reflex delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insperger, Tamás; Milton, John; Stépán, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    A model for human postural balance is considered in which the time-delayed feedback depends on position, velocity and acceleration (proportional–derivative–acceleration (PDA) feedback). It is shown that a PDA controller is equivalent to a predictive controller, in which the prediction is based on the most recent information of the state, but the control input is not involved into the prediction. A PDA controller is superior to the corresponding proportional–derivative controller in the sense that the PDA controller can stabilize systems with approximately 40 per cent larger feedback delays. The addition of a sensory dead zone to account for the finite thresholds for detection by sensory receptors results in highly intermittent, complex oscillations that are a typical feature of human postural sway. PMID:23173196

  10. Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, James C [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  11. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  12. Pressure Autoregulation Measurement Techniques in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I: A Scoping Review of Intermittent/Semi-Intermittent Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Donnelly, Joseph; Calviello, Leanne; Menon, David K; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic, scoping review of commonly described intermittent/semi-intermittent autoregulation measurement techniques in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine separate systematic reviews were conducted for each intermittent technique: computed tomographic perfusion (CTP)/Xenon-CT (Xe-CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arteriovenous difference in oxygen (AVDO 2 ) technique, thigh cuff deflation technique (TCDT), transient hyperemic response test (THRT), orthostatic hypotension test (OHT), mean flow index (Mx), and transfer function autoregulation index (TF-ARI). MEDLINE ® , BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to December 2016), and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. A two tier filter of references was conducted. The total number of articles utilizing each of the nine searched techniques for intermittent/semi-intermittent autoregulation techniques in adult TBI were: CTP/Xe-CT (10), PET (6), MRI (0), AVDO 2 (10), ARI-based TCDT (9), THRT (6), OHT (3), Mx (17), and TF-ARI (6). The premise behind all of the intermittent techniques is manipulation of systemic blood pressure/blood volume via either chemical (such as vasopressors) or mechanical (such as thigh cuffs or carotid compression) means. Exceptionally, Mx and TF-ARI are based on spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The method for assessing the cerebral circulation during these manipulations varies, with both imaging-based techniques and TCD utilized. Despite the limited literature for intermittent/semi-intermittent techniques in adult TBI (minus Mx), it is important to acknowledge the availability of such tests. They have provided fundamental insight into human autoregulatory capacity, leading to the development of continuous and more commonly applied techniques in the intensive care unit (ICU). Numerous methods of

  13. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  14. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  15. 30 CFR 872.29 - What are prior balance replacement funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are prior balance replacement funds? 872... § 872.29 What are prior balance replacement funds? “Prior balance replacement funds” are moneys we must... SMCRA, we distribute prior balance replacement funds to you, the State or Indian tribe, for seven years...

  16. Effect of continuous and intermittent bouts of isocaloric cycling and running exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; McNaughton, Lars R; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) induced by isocaloric bouts of continuous and intermittent running and cycling exercise. This was a counterbalanced randomized cross-over study. Ten healthy men, aged 23-34yr, performed six bouts of exercise: (a) two maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests for running and cycling to determine exercise modality-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak); and (b) four isocaloric exercise bouts (two continuous bouts expending 400kcal and two intermittent bouts split into 2×200kcal) performed at 75% of the running and cycling oxygen uptake reserve. Exercise bouts were separated by 72h and performed in a randomized, counter-balanced order. The VO2 was monitored for 60-min postexercise and for 60-min during a control non-exercise day. The VO2 was significantly greater in all exercise conditions compared to the control session (PEPOC from the two intermittent bouts was significantly greater than that of the continuous cycling (mean difference=3.5L, P=0.001) and running (mean difference=6.4L, PEPOC, where running elicited a higher net EPOC than cycling (mean difference=2.2L, PEPOC compared to a continuous exercise bout of equivalent energy expenditure. Furthermore, the magnitude of EPOC was influenced by exercise modality, with the greatest EPOC occurring with isocaloric exercise involving larger muscle mass (i.e., treadmill running vs. cycling). Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-Scale observation of time-variable surface and subsurface interactions of an intermittent urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Molly; Ward, Adam; Schmadel, Noah; Hixson, Jase

    2016-04-01

    Our current understanding of stream-hyporheic tansport is primarily based on field observations conducted during baseflow conditions in perennial streams, with few studies considering time-variable stream-aquifer interactions during storm events. During the summer of 2015, we completed 21 sets of four slug injections prior to, during and after storm events in an urban stream. These data allow for the comparison of temporal heterogeneity in transport processes when the stream was intermittent, or consisting of spatially disconnected pools of water with subsurface flow in between, and when there was continuous surface flow during and after rainfall. The injections were performed in three adjacent 50-meter study reaches, enabling the additional comparison of spatial heterogeneity in transport processes. Reach-scale data demonstrate apparent trends with discharge in both short-term storage (commonly "transient storage") and long-term storage (commonly "channel water balance"). Preliminary results indicate the interaction of changing advective timescales for tracer studies are an important control on inferred process dynamics. Furthermore, observations of stream connectivity inform time-variable transport processes within intermittent streams. Comparison of short-term and long-term storage at varying discharge demonstrates opportunities and challenges for interpretation of multi-scale solute tracer data along the stream-hyporheic-riparian-floodplain continuum in intermittent streams.

  18. Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Queiros-Conde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments  and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension  and crest dimension  are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency  (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.

  19. Intermittent synchronization in a network of bursting neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choongseok; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-09-01

    Synchronized oscillations in networks of inhibitory and excitatory coupled bursting neurons are common in a variety of neural systems from central pattern generators to human brain circuits. One example of the latter is the subcortical network of the basal ganglia, formed by excitatory and inhibitory bursters of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, involved in motor control and affected in Parkinson's disease. Recent experiments have demonstrated the intermittent nature of the phase-locking of neural activity in this network. Here, we explore one potential mechanism to explain the intermittent phase-locking in a network. We simplify the network to obtain a model of two inhibitory coupled elements and explore its dynamics. We used geometric analysis and singular perturbation methods for dynamical systems to reduce the full model to a simpler set of equations. Mathematical analysis was completed using three slow variables with two different time scales. Intermittently, synchronous oscillations are generated by overlapped spiking which crucially depends on the geometry of the slow phase plane and the interplay between slow variables as well as the strength of synapses. Two slow variables are responsible for the generation of activity patterns with overlapped spiking, and the other slower variable enhances the robustness of an irregular and intermittent activity pattern. While the analyzed network and the explored mechanism of intermittent synchrony appear to be quite generic, the results of this analysis can be used to trace particular values of biophysical parameters (synaptic strength and parameters of calcium dynamics), which are known to be impacted in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Intermittency on simultaneous observations of riometer at several Antarctic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Foppiano, A. J.; Stepanova, M. V.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that auroral radio wave absorption, as measured by riometers, consists of periods of relative quiescence which are interrupted by short bursts of activity. Such patterns in activity are observed in systems ranging from the stock market to turbulence, i.e. they exhibit intermittency. In the case of the auroral absorption it has also been found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the night-time sector. This can be interpreted as indicating that the precipitating particles responsible of the absorption exhibit intermittency, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Here, we analyse simultaneous observations of riometer absorption at seven Antarctic locations, to determine whether they exhibit intermittency. We determine the Probability Distribution Functions of the fluctuations of riometer absorption for absorption events larger than 0.1 dB, as well as those for the time-intervals between absorption events. Observations are for locations within the austral auroral absorption zone and on the polar cap. It is found that the parameters of a power law used to describe the calculated PDFs are consistent with the formation of coherent structures being more frequent within the auroral zone, as a manifestation of intermittency.

  1. Eccentric strength and endurance in patients with unilateral intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Basyches

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze concentric and eccentric strength and endurance in patients with unilateral intermittent claudication. INTRODUCTION: Basic motor tasks are composed of concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions, which are related and contribute to physical performance. In previous studies of patients with intermittent claudication, the disease-related reduction in concentric and isometric muscular strength and endurance resulted in poorer walking performance. To date, no study has evaluated eccentric muscle action in patients with intermittent claudication. METHODS: Eleven patients with unilateral intermittent claudication performed isokinetic concentric and eccentric actions at the ankle joints to assess peak torque and total work in both symptomatic and asymptomatic legs. RESULTS: Concentric peak torque and total work were lower in the symptomatic than in the asymptomatic leg (80 ± 32 vs. 95 ± 41 N/m, P = 0.01; 1479 ± 667 vs. 1709 ± 879 J, P = 0.03, respectively. There were no differences in eccentric peak torque and total work between symptomatic and asymptomatic legs (96 ± 30 vs. 108 ± 48 N/m; 1852 ± 879 vs. 1891 ± 755 J, respectively. CONCLUSION: Strength and endurance in the symptomatic leg were lower during concentric compared to eccentric action. Future studies are recommended to investigate the mechanisms underlying these responses and to analyze the effects of interventions to improve concentric strength and endurance on functional limitations in patients with intermittent claudication.

  2. Complex economic dynamics: Chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Rempel, Erico L.; Rogers, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within a periodic window of the bifurcation diagram, at the onset of a saddle-node bifurcation and of an attractor merging crisis, and in the chaotic regions associated with type-I intermittency and crisis-induced intermittency, in non-linear economic cycles. Inside a periodic window, chaotic saddles are responsible for the transient motion preceding convergence to a periodic or a chaotic attractor. The links between chaotic saddles, crisis and intermittency in complex economic dynamics are discussed. We show that a chaotic attractor is composed of chaotic saddles and unstable periodic orbits located in the gap regions of chaotic saddles. Non-linear modeling of economic chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency can improve our understanding of the dynamics of financial intermittency observed in stock market and foreign exchange market. Characterization of the complex dynamics of economic systems is a powerful tool for pattern recognition and forecasting of business and financial cycles, as well as for optimization of management strategy and decision technology

  3. Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2009-11-30

    Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: (1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and (2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury.

  4. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  5. A Dynamic Model for Load Balancing in Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Bhagwandas Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis various challenges faced in optimizing computing resource utilization via load balancing and presents a platform-independent model for load balancing which targets high availability of resources, low SLA (Service Level agreement violations and saves power. To achieve this, incoming requests are monitored for sudden burst, a prediction model is employed to maintain high availability and a power-aware algorithm is applied for choosing a suitable physical node for a virtual host. The proposed dynamic load balancing model provides a way to conflicting goals of saving power and maintaining high resource availability.For anyone building a private, public or hybrid IaaS cloud infrastructure, load balancing of virtual hosts on a limited number of physical nodes, becomes a crucial aspect. This paper analysis various challenges faced in optimizing computing resource utilization via load balancing and presents a platform independent model for load balancing which targets high availability of resources, low SLA (Service Level agreement violations and saves power. To achieve this, incoming requests are monitored for sudden burst, prediction model is employed to maintain high availability and power aware algorithm is applied for choosing a suitable physical node for virtual host. The proposed dynamic load balancing model provides a way to conflicting goals of saving power and maintaining high resource availability.

  6. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT FOR A PATIENT WITH ACUTE INTERMITTENT PORPHYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Savić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare metabolic disorder resulting from a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase, enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Its inheritance is autosomal dominant. A deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase is not sufficient by its self to produce acute intermittent porphyria, and other activating factors must also be present. These include some drugs, hormones, infection, injury and alcohol. Besides others, anesthetics have been implicated in the triggering of a number of severe porphyric reactions. Although there is no clinical evidence, the fear of hypothesized porphyrinogenicity of repetitive anesthetics exposures still remains. Despite these doubts, we report here the case of uneventful repeated exposure to anesthetics in a patient suffering from acute intermittent porphyria, within a fifteen- month period. On both occasions, the patient was safely exposed to certain anesthetics included: propofol, sevoflurane, rocuronium, midazolam and fentanyl.

  7. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families.

  8. Intermittency in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency data in e + e - and lepton-hadron collisions are reviewed. The power-law behavior of the moments has been established by various e + e - experiments and a μp experiment. The intermittency in the two-dimensional space of rapidity and azimuthal angle is much stronger than in the rapidity space only. The neutrino-nucleus data indicate significant effects from nuclear reinteractions. The LUND parton shower model fits the data better than the matrix element model without special retuning. The relations among the moments of different orders are in good agreement with the predictions by the negative binomial and pure birth distributions. The origin of the intermittency in e + e - and μp collisions is consistent with the self-similar cascade mechanism of jet formation. 11 refs., 7 figs

  9. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experiments is presented using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e + e - annihilation data. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the intermittency strength on the target and projectile nuclei. A 1-dimensional (1D) cellular-automaton and a 1D forest-fire model is studied. On the example of the noncritical 1D Ising model the difficulties of the scaled factorial moment (SFM) method in extracting genuine scaling behaviour is illustrated. All these studies could serve as tools to test the sensibility of the SFM method as used in the analysis of the high energy production. (K.A.) 122 refs.; 38 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Effect of Linguizhugan decoction on hyperlipidemia rats with intermittent fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubin; Qin, Jian; Ke, Bin; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Lanying; Li, Qiong

    2013-04-01

    To explore the effect of Linguizhugan decoction on hyperlipidemia rats with caloric restriction. The hyperlipidemia model of rat was induced by high fat diet for 8 weeks. After the model was established, 26 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group (n = 6), the model group (n = 6), the intermittent fasting (IF) group (n = 8), and the IF and herbal medicine (IFH) group (n = 6). IF group was applied intermittent fasting every other day. The IFH group was given Linguizhugan decoction every day and intermittent fasting every other day. Blood samples were taken at the end of 16 weeks, and serum ghrelin and lipid was tested. Serum ghrelin in the IF group significantly increased (P < 0.01). Serum ghrelin in IFH group was lower than the IF group (P < 0.05), but higher than the model group (P < 0.01). Linguizhugan decoction may play a part in regulation of energy and appetite in hyperlipidemia rats with IF.

  11. Controls on streamflow intermittence in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Puntenney, K.; Martin, C.; Weber, R.; Gerlich, J.; Hammond, J. C.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent streams comprise more than 60% of the channel length in semiarid northern Colorado, yet little is known about their flow magnitude and timing. We used field surveys, stream sensors, and remote sensing to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of streamflow intermittence in the Cache la Poudre basin in 2016-2017. To evaluate potential controls on streamflow intermittence, we delineated the drainage area to each monitored point and quantified the catchment's mean precipitation, temperature, snow persistence, slope, aspect, vegetation type, soil type, and bedrock geology. During the period of study, most streams below 2500 m elevation and 1 km2 had perennial flow, whereas nearly all streams with drainage areas GIS data products. Initial analyses have identified no clearly quantifiable controls on flow duration of high elevation streams, but field observations indicate subsurface flow paths are important contributors to surface streams.

  12. Analyzing the Efficiency of Introduction of the Intermittent Heating Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E.; Shcherbak, A.

    2017-11-01

    The efficiency of introduction of an optimal intermittent heating mode for a service center building in Chelyabinsk is estimated. The optimal intermittent heating mode ensures heat energy saving while maintaining the required microclimate parameters. The graphical dependencies of the amount of heat energy saving on the heat retention of the building and the outdoor air temperature are shown. The fundamental formulas which were the basis for calculating the periods of cooling, warming and expenditures of heat energy for the two heating modes are given. The literature on the issue is reviewed, the main points, advantages and disadvantages in the works of both Russian and foreign authors are revealed. The calculation was carried out in compliance with the modern state standards and regulatory documents. The capital costs of a system construction with an intermittent heating mode are determined.

  13. Acute intermittent porphyria with SIADH and fluctuating dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabin, A; Thapa, L J; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S

    2012-01-01

    Three cases of acute intermittent porphyria are reported. While in first case severe pain in abdomen with intermittent exacerbation was the only presentation, the second patient presented as accelerated hypertension and acute abdominal crises in whom the clinical course was characterized by development of deep coma due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone before she made complete recovery. The third patient, initially manifested as acute encephalitic syndrome. After initial improvement, she developed features of acute intermittent porphyria i.e. acute abdomen, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rapidly progressing acute motor neuropathy leading to respiratory and bulbar paralysis. In addition, she developed severe and fluctuating dysautonomia leading to cardiac arrest and fatal termination. The importance of early diagnosis, recognition of autonomic disturbances, prompt treatment and counseling for avoidance of precipitating factors is stressed.

  14. Generation of intermittent gravitocapillary waves via parametric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Gustavo; Falcón, Claudio

    2018-04-01

    We report on the generation of an intermittent wave field driven by a horizontally moving wave maker interacting with Faraday waves. The spectrum of the local gravitocapillary surface wave fluctuations displays a power law in frequency for a wide range of forcing parameters. We compute the probability density function of the local surface height increments, which show that they change strongly across time scales. The structure functions of these increments are shown to display power laws as a function of the time lag, with exponents that are nonlinear functions of the order of the structure function. We argue that the origin of this scale-invariant intermittent spectrum is the Faraday wave pattern breakup due to its advection by the propagating gravity waves. Finally, some interpretations are proposed to explain the appearance of this intermittent spectrum.

  15. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bozek, P

    1992-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experi- ments is done using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e + e~ annihilation data. The language of the self-similar distribution func- tions, which is used in this work, is shown to be largely equivalent to the well known a-model. In the case of the ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions, where the Monte-Carlo simulations fail to reproduce the data, we argue that the observed intermittency pattern is a signal of some nonlinear effect beyond the simple superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of t...

  16. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  17. The intermittency of vector fields and random-number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. O.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Tutubalin, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We examine how well natural random-number generators can reproduce the intermittency phenomena that arise in the transfer of vector fields in random media. A generator based on the analysis of financial indices is suggested as the most promising random-number generator. Is it shown that even this generator, however, fails to reproduce the phenomenon long enough to confidently detect intermittency, while the C++ generator successfully solves this problem. We discuss the prospects of using shell models of turbulence as the desired generator.

  18. Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film....... The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching) avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting...

  19. Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow associated turbulence, interpreted as a cross-scale coupling (CSC process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetotail; plasma sheet – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  20. Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasničková, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Work-Life Balance - the reconciliation of professional and personal lives. The primary objective of this work is to analyze employee satisfaction in achieving a balance between the professional and personal life and to develop recommendations for employer on that basis. The theoretical portion of this work defines the issues surrounding Work-Life Balance and tools that employees can use to harmonize the two with an analysis of applications in the Czech Republic a...

  1. Simulation of demand management and grid balancing with electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druitt, James; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the potential role of electric vehicles in an electricity network with a high contribution from variable generation such as wind power. Electric vehicles are modelled to provide demand management through flexible charging requirements and energy balancing for the network. Balancing applications include both demand balancing and vehicle-to-grid discharging. This study is configured to represent the UK grid with balancing requirements derived from wind generation calculated from weather station wind speeds on the supply side and National Grid data from on the demand side. The simulation models 1000 individual vehicle entities to represent the behaviour of larger numbers of vehicles. A stochastic trip generation profile is used to generate realistic journey characteristics, whilst a market pricing model allows charging and balancing decisions to be based on realistic market price conditions. The simulation has been tested with wind generation capacities representing up to 30% of UK consumption. Results show significant improvements to load following conditions with the introduction of electric vehicles, suggesting that they could substantially facilitate the uptake of intermittent renewable generation. Electric vehicle owners would benefit from flexible charging and selling tariffs, with the majority of revenue derived from vehicle-to-grid participation in balancing markets.

  2. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  3. Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: provider knowledge and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Smith Paintain

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy (MiP is associated with increased risks of maternal and foetal complications. The WHO recommends a package of interventions including intermittent preventive treatment (IPT with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, insecticide-treated nets and effective case management. However, with increasing SP resistance, the effectiveness of SP-IPT has been questioned. Intermittent screening and treatment (IST has recently been shown in Ghana to be as efficacious as SP-IPT. This study investigates two important requirements for effective delivery of IST and SP-IPT: antenatal care (ANC provider knowledge, and acceptance of the different strategies. Structured interviews with 134 ANC providers at 67 public health facilities in Ashanti Region, Ghana collected information on knowledge of the risks and preventative and curative interventions against MiP. Composite indicators of knowledge of SP-IPT, and case management of MiP were developed. Log binomial regression of predictors of provider knowledge was explored. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with fourteen ANC providers with some knowledge of IST to gain an indication of the factors influencing acceptance of the IST approach. 88.1% of providers knew all elements of the SP-IPT policy, compared to 20.1% and 41.8% who knew the treatment policy for malaria in the first or second/third trimesters, respectively. Workshop attendance was a univariate predictor of each knowledge indicator. Qualitative findings suggest preference for prevention over cure, and increased workload may be barriers to IST implementation. However, a change in strategy in the face of SP resistance is likely to be supported; health of pregnant women is a strong motivation for ANC provider practice. If IST was to be introduced as part of routine ANC activities, attention would need to be given to improving the knowledge and practices of ANC staff in relation to appropriate treatment of MiP. Health

  4. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  5. Work-Life Balance: Beyond the Rhetoric. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Harper, H.; Dench, S.

    The current status of British policy and practice related to work-life balance was examined through case studies of six organizations identified as having well-developed work-life balance and flexible working practices. Interviews were conducted with human resource (HR) managers at all six organizations, and interviews and focus group discussions…

  6. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees,

  7. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  8. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Sanchez, Angélica B; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR) and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  9. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  10. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  11. Lust-Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Cas

    2007-01-01

    The concept of the lust-balance refers to the social organization and accompanying social codes (ideals and practices) regarding the relationship between the longing for sexual gratification and the longing for enduring relational intimacy. It thus draws attention to the balance between emotive

  12. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  13. Balance og stofskifte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/......Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/...

  14. Pollution by air filters: Continuous vs intermittent air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, C.W.J.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of the EU research project Airless, a long-term experiment of 28 weeks was carried out to investigate the influence of intermittent airflow compared to continuous airflow on the pollution effect of glass fibre filters (F7). No statistical relevant differences between odour

  15. Benign intermittent gastric outlet obstruction in an elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration without any alarming symptoms. On upper GI endoscopy she was found to have gastric polyp with a long stalk which was partially obstructing her pyloric ring giving rise to features of intermittent gastric outlet obstruction Polypectomy was done with complete relief of symptoms .She is following our clinic for last 6 ...

  16. missed opportunities for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is of global health concern particularly among pregnant women. Nigeria contributes largely to global burden but coverage of. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy using. Sulphadoxine pyrimethamine ..... awareness campaigns at sensitizing the community about the dangers of ...

  17. Governance, legislation and protection of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institutions and processes governing the conveyance and control of water have a long history. In this chapter, we discuss the extent to which water governance systems consider the management of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) and identify where research could inf...

  18. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  19. Intermittent Preventive Therapy and Treatment of Malaria during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intermittent Preventive Therapy and Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy: A Study of Knowledge among Pregnant Women in Rufiji District, Southern Tanzania. ... Most women (76.6 %) did not know the use of SP for IPT in relationship with gestation age. Overall, the results show that most women had very low knowledge ...

  20. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.; Datry, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are

  1. Factors influencing utilization of intermittent presumptive treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is one of the recommended interventions by World Health Organization to mitigate the impact of malaria in pregnancy in malaria stable transmission zones such as Sub Saharan regions so as to ensure the best outcome for both the mother and ...

  2. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Deep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed.

  3. From quantum fields to fractal structures: intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1991-01-01

    Some features and theoretical interpretations of the intermittency phenomenon observed in high-energy multi-particle production are recalled. One develops on the various connections found with fractal structuration of fluctuations in turbulence, spin-glass physics and aggregation phenomena described by the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. This may lead to a new approach to quantum field properties

  4. Two-scale analysis of intermittency in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A self-affinity test for turbulent time series is applied to experimental data for the estimation of intermittency exponents. The method employs exact relations satisfied by joint expectations of observables computed across two different length scales. One of these constitutes a verification tool for the existence and the extent of the inertial range. (author) 2 figs., 13 refs.

  5. Giant urethral stone in a patient using clean intermittant catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Gedik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stone is a rare entity in clinical practice. Primary urethral stone happening directly in urethra is even rare, and it usually occurs as a result frequent urinary infection, urethral stricture and trauma.While the application of clear intermittant catheterization reliably protects bladder function, in long term use, it may cause various complications.In this case, we discussed giant urethral stone in a patient who has been acting clean intermittent catheterization regularly and without problem fort he last five years and who has had total loss of sensation in this lower extremity as a result of falling from height. Considering that the urethral calibration, in the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization is interesting, the giant urethra stone as much as examined such a case has not been presented in literature.In the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization and having loss of urethral sensation and with neurogenic bladder, we call attention to urethral pathologies the symptoms of which were seeing late

  6. Clean Intermittent Catheterization: Overview of Results in 194 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is a life-saving procedure in children with spina bifida, but its effectiveness in Kenya has not been previously documented. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed the application of CIC in a series of 194 patients with spina bifida who fulfilled set criteria for ...

  7. Intermittent stimulus presentation stabilizes neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P.C.; Oleksiak, A.; Lankheet, M.J.M.; Wezel, R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Klink PC, Oleksiak A, Lankheet MJ, van Wezel RJ. Intermittent stimulus presentation stabilizes neuronal responses in macaque area MT. J Neurophysiol 108: 2101-2114, 2012. First published July 25, 2012; doi: 10.1152/jn.00252.2012.-Repeated stimulation impacts neuronal responses. Here we show how

  8. The dialysis catheter and infectious peritonitis in intermittent peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Hemmeløff Andersen, Karl Erik; Hansen, Lise

    1984-01-01

    118 episodes of infectious peritonitis registered among 156 patients treated with intermittent peritoneal dialysis over a 5-yr period were analysed with special reference to potential routes of infection associated with the dialysis catheter. Peritonitis was randomly distributed among the patients...

  9. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in improving walking capacity and health-related quality of life for people with intermittent claudication. DATASOURCES: We searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and relevant websites for studies published from the start of the databa...... of the databases to February 2009. In addition, reference lists were manually searched....

  10. The Role of Community Participation in Intermittent Preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very little attention was paid to community participation in malaria control in the past and this has affected most of the desired outcomes. The recent recognition of the importance of community participation in malaria control had informed the implementation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Childhood Malaria (IPTc).

  11. Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research aims to foster uptake of intermittent irrigation at the watershed level (Valle de Jequetepeque in La Libertad) by exploring ways to: - disseminate knowledge and skills (farmer-to-farmer agricultural extension); - assess and document social, health, environmental, and economic trade-offs as farmers adopt new ...

  12. Intermittent reservoir daily-inflow prediction using lumped and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, multi-linear regression (MLR) approach is used to construct intermittent reservoir daily inflow forecasting system. To illustrate the applicability and effect of using lumped and distributed input data in MLR approach, Koyna river watershed in Maharashtra, India is chosen as a case study. The results are also ...

  13. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed to intermit...

  14. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  15. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, G.; De Marco, R.; De Michelis, P.

    2013-07-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008), which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  16. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mohan Deep; Hazarika, Nita; Saraswat, Namita; Sood, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed. PMID:26330726

  17. Optimal Integration of Intermittent Renewables: A System LCOE Stochastic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lucheroni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system level approach to value the impact on costs of the integration of intermittent renewable generation in a power system, based on expected breakeven cost and breakeven cost risk. To do this, we carefully reconsider the definition of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE when extended to non-dispatchable generation, by examining extra costs and gains originated by the costly management of random power injections. We are thus lead to define a ‘system LCOE’ as a system dependent LCOE that takes properly into account intermittent generation. In order to include breakeven cost risk we further extend this deterministic approach to a stochastic setting, by introducing a ‘stochastic system LCOE’. This extension allows us to discuss the optimal integration of intermittent renewables from a broad, system level point of view. This paper thus aims to provide power producers and policy makers with a new methodological scheme, still based on the LCOE but which updates this valuation technique to current energy system configurations characterized by a large share of non-dispatchable production. Quantifying and optimizing the impact of intermittent renewables integration on power system costs, risk and CO 2 emissions, the proposed methodology can be used as powerful tool of analysis for assessing environmental and energy policies.

  18. Flow intermittence and ecosystem services in rivers of the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are watercourses that cease flow at some point in time and space. Arguably Earth's most widespread type of flowing water, IRES are expanding where Anthropocenic climates grow drier and human demands for water escalate. However, IRE...

  19. Acute and intermittent testicular torsion: Analysis of presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testicular torsion compromises the blood supply to the testes and may result in testicular loss or damage if not dealt with promptly. It can occur either as acute testicular torsion (ATT) or intermittent testicular torsion (ITT). This study examines the presentation, management, and outcome of adult testicular torsion.

  20. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of Intermittent Cryotherapy in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore, designed to investigate the efficacy of intermittent cryotherapy in the management of pain among human subjects who sustained closed soft tissue injuries (CSTIs). Subjects' pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) and the sessions of treatment were ...

  2. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  3. Peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication: Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the effect of two training programmes and advice to exercise at home on physiological adaptations in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Design. 30 patients with a typical history of PAD and intermittent claudication were randomised to either an upper body strength training programme ...

  4. Safety of supervised exercise therapy in patients with intermittent claudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Lindy N. M.; Fokkenrood, Hugo J. P.; van Dalen, Hendrika C. W.; Scheltinga, Marc R. M.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Peters, Ron J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Supervised exercise therapy (SET) is recommended as the primary treatment for patients with intermittent claudication (IC). However, there is concern regarding the safety of performing SET because IC patients are at risk for untoward cardiovascular events. The Dutch physical therapy guideline

  5. Optimizing supervised exercise therapy for patients with intermittent claudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaï, Saskia P A; Hendriks, Erik J M; Prins, Martin H; Teijink, Joep A W; van Asselt, Thea

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first-line intervention for intermittent claudication is usually supervised exercise therapy (SET). The literature describes a range of exercise programs varying in setting, duration, and content. The purpose of the present study was to examine the exercise protocols offered and to

  6. Design feasibility of an intermittent domestic energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahat, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Sceince and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Babus`Haq, R.F.; O`Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, energy storage has been recognised as a potentially significant means by which primary energy consumption can be reduced in domestic, commercial and industrial processes. An intermittent domestic thermochemical heat pump, with a 5 kW{sub e} electric power output when employed as an energy store, is proposed. Different design options have been considered and their economic feasibilities evaluated. (author)

  7. Investigation of Intermittent Resistive Faults in Digital CMOS Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Ebrahimi, Hassan

    No fault found (NFF) is a major threat in extremely dependable high-end process node integrated systems, in e.g., avionics. One category of NFFs is the intermittent resistive fault (IRF), often originating from bad (e.g., via- or TSV-based) interconnections. This paper will show the impact of these

  8. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication.......Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication....

  9. Intermittent Anisotropic Turbulence Detected by THEMIS in the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Kucharuk, B.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Following our previous study of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data, we consider intermittent turbulence in the magnetosheath depending on various conditions of the magnetized plasma behind the Earth’s bow shock and now also near the magnetopause. Namely, we look at the fluctuations of the components of the Elsässer variables in the plane perpendicular to the scale-dependent background magnetic fields and along the local average ambient magnetic fields. We have shown that Alfvén fluctuations often exhibit strong anisotropic non-gyrotropic turbulent intermittent behavior resulting in substantial deviations of the probability density functions from a normal Gaussian distribution with a large kurtosis. In particular, for very high Alfvénic Mach numbers and high plasma beta, we have clear anisotropy with non-Gaussian statistics in the transverse directions. However, along the magnetic field, the kurtosis is small and the plasma is close to equilibrium. On the other hand, intermittency becomes weaker for moderate Alfvén Mach numbers and lower values of the plasma parameter beta. It also seems that the degree of intermittency of turbulence for the outgoing fluctuations propagating relative to the ambient magnetic field is usually similar as for the ingoing fluctuations, which is in agreement with approximate equipartition of energy between these oppositely propagating Alfvén waves. We believe that the different characteristics of this intermittent anisotropic turbulent behavior in various regions of space and astrophysical plasmas can help identify nonlinear structures responsible for deviations of the plasma from equilibrium.

  10. Demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, Alex; Wang, Wilbur; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yee, Judy; Webb, Emily M.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and frequency of the intermittently upturned omentum at CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 336 consecutive patients (189 men and 147 women) who were imaged between June 1 and June 17, 2010 and who had prior comparison scans. Readers recorded the presence or absence of an intermittently upturned omentum, defined as a thick rind of fat interposed between the liver and the anterior abdominal wall seen on one but not the other scan. At chart review, we recorded patient demographics and other clinical characteristics (prior surgical history, presence of cirrhosis). Results: An intermittently upturned omentum was found in 10 of 336 (3.0%) patients. An intermittently upturned omentum was seen more commonly in men than in women (9 of 189 men, or 4.8% versus 1 of 147 women, or 0.7%, p = 0.047) and in cirrhotics (4 of 37 cirrhotics, or 10.8% versus 6 of 299 non-cirrhotics, or 2.0%, p = 0.023). In a sub-analysis of patients without prior abdominal surgery, this finding was again seen more commonly in men than women (7 of 163 men, or 4.3% versus 0 of 134 women, or 0%, p = 0.018) and in cirrhotics (3 of 33 cirrhotics, or 9.1% versus 4 of 264 non-cirrhotics, or 1.5%, p = 0.032). Conclusions: An intermittently upturned omentum is not uncommon and is more frequently seen in men and in patients with cirrhosis who may have a larger anterior hepatic space

  11. Observation of intermittency in gene expression on cDNA microarrays

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, L E

    2002-01-01

    We used scaled factorial moments to search for intermittency in the log expression ratios (LERs) for thousands of genes spotted on cDNA microarrays (gene chips). Results indicate varying levels of intermittency in gene expression. The observation of intermittency in the data analyzed provides a complimentary handle on moderately expressed genes, generally not tackled by conventional techniques.

  12. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  13. Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabali, Amirsaman

    The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation

  14. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  15. Assessment of a Combined Offshore Renewable Energy Resource for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Gary; Ringwood, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess if extracting energy from a combined offshore, wind, wave and tidal resource can reduce the difficulties envisaged from integrating a large volume of a single intermittent source into the current electricity system in Ireland. The paper concludes that the use of wave power and tidal power, in combination with wind power, has significant merit.

  16. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriot, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  17. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  18. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  19. DNS load balancing in the CERN cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero Naredo, Ignacio; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena

    2017-10-01

    Load Balancing is one of the technologies enabling deployment of large-scale applications on cloud resources. A DNS Load Balancer Daemon (LBD) has been developed at CERN as a cost-effective way to balance applications accepting DNS timing dynamics and not requiring persistence. It currently serves over 450 load-balanced aliases with two small VMs acting as master and slave. The aliases are mapped to DNS subdomains. These subdomains are managed with DDNS according to a load metric, which is collected from the alias member nodes with SNMP. During the last years, several improvements were brought to the software, for instance: support for IPv6, parallelization of the status requests, implementing the client in Python to allow for multiple aliases with differentiated states on the same machine or support for application state. The configuration of the Load Balancer is currently managed by a Puppet type. It discovers the alias member nodes and gets the alias definitions from the Ermis REST service. The Aiermis self-service GUI for the management of the LB aliases has been produced and is based on the Ermis service above that implements a form of Load Balancing as a Service (LBaaS). The Ermis REST API has authorisation based in Foreman hostgroups. The CERN DNS LBD is Open Software with Apache 2 license.

  20. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt

  1. In Balance With

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'In Balance With' (2012 is a live performance with Courtney Kessel and her daughter, Chloé, sitting at opposite ends of a seesaw. During the 30-minute performance, Kessel adds items representative of their lives to Chloé's side of the seesaw. After each group of items is added, she returns to her side to check the balance. Toys, violin, research books, food, pots, tools, and laundry are strapped on to the seesaw. The audience witnesses the struggle to create a balance between work, home, research, and play as a single mother and artist. As equilibrium is achieved, Kessel stills labors to maintain the balance until Chloé is ready to get down, thus signaling that her work can only happen when her daughter is cared for and occupied.

  2. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  3. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt

  4. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Energy balances 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 2000 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  6. A grid-based virtual reactor: Parallel performance and adaptive load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, V.V.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of porting parallel distributed applications from static homogeneous cluster environments to dynamic heterogeneous Grid resources. We introduce a generic technique for adaptive load balancing of parallel applications on heterogeneous resources and evaluate it using a case

  7. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  8. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  9. Optimization of the rapping process of an intermittent electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloua, F.; Tilmatine, A.; Gouri, R.; Kadous, N.; Dascalescu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent operation mode is specific to electrostatic precipitators (ESP) used in workshops where the polluting product is produced in a discontinuous way. The rapping system is necessary in order to ensure a continuous and effective operation of a dry electrostatic precipitator, but causes at the same time, a problem of re-entrainment of dust and thus the degradation of filtration efficiency. The objective of this paper is to propose a procedure based on the methodology of experimental designs (Tagushi's Methodology) aiming at optimizing the rapping process; it consists to determine optimal values of rapping, i.e. the moment, the position and the force of rapping. Several “one-factor-at-a-time" experimental designs followed by a Full Factorial design, made it possible to model the process and to analyze interactions between the factors. The experiments were carried out on a laboratory experimental device which simulates an industrial precipitator with intermittent operation.

  10. Managing intermittent energy for generating electricity on islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiou, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in 'zones not interconnected' (ZNI) with the continental grid. What characterizes them is the strong growth of consumption and the quite high cost of electricity, the latter heavily subsidized through arrangements under the legal obligation to 'contribute to the public service of electricity'. Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008 thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. Owing to several experiments under way, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix

  11. Intermittency and local heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K T; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Rappazzo, A F

    2012-06-29

    Evidence for nonuniform heating in the solar wind plasma near current sheets dynamically generated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is obtained using measurements from the ACE spacecraft. These coherent structures only constitute 19% of the data, but contribute 50% of the total plasma internal energy. Intermittent heating manifests as elevations in proton temperature near current sheets, resulting in regional heating and temperature enhancements extending over several hours. The number density of non-Gaussian structures is found to be proportional to the mean proton temperature and solar wind speed. These results suggest magnetofluid turbulence drives intermittent dissipation through a hierarchy of coherent structures, which collectively could be a significant source of coronal and solar wind heating.

  12. Intermittent magnetic reconnection in TS-3 merging experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Ii, T.; Tanabe, H.; Ito, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ito, T.; Kamino, Y.; Yamada, T.; Inomoto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ejection of current sheet with plasma mass causes impulsive and intermittent magnetic reconnection in the TS-3 spherical tokamak (ST) merging experiment. Under high guide toroidal field, the sheet resistivity is almost classical due to the sheet thickness much longer than the ion gyroradius. Large inflow flux and low current-sheet resistivity result in flux and plasma pileup followed by rapid growth of the current sheet. When the pileup exceeds a critical limit, the sheet is ejected mechanically from the squeezed X-point area. The reconnection (outflow) speed is slow during the flux/plasma pileup and is fast during the ejection, suggesting that intermittent reconnection similar to the solar flare increases the averaged reconnection speed. These transient effects enable the merging tokamaks to have the fast reconnection as well as the high-power reconnection heating, even when their current-sheet resistivity is low under high guide field.

  13. Observation of intermittent transition by electrode biasing in Heliotron J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kosuke; Kitajima, Sumio; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We observed intermittent increases in the electrode current in electrode biasing experiments in Heliotron J. In addition, electron density and floating potential showed pulsating behavior associated with the electrode current. The relation between line density and electrode current and that between floating potential and electrode current showed a hysteresis feature in transitions. Then it is evident that the pulsating behavior was the intermittent transition between two distinctive states. We also observed the mode (∼10 kHz) that accompanied the pulsating behavior in the power spectrum density of the floating potential and ion saturation current obtained via fast Fourier transform. The electron density gradient increased, and subsequently the power spectrum density of the fluctuation increased. (author)

  14. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling......) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following...... exercise with heat stress, the core and muscle temperatures peaked at 39.5±0.2 and 40.2±0.2°C to be ~ 1°C higher (Pstress trial (P

  15. Elastically driven intermittent microscopic dynamics in soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mehdi; Colombo, Jader; Barbosa, Lucas Vieira; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2017-06-01

    Soft solids with tunable mechanical response are at the core of new material technologies, but a crucial limit for applications is their progressive aging over time, which dramatically affects their functionalities. The generally accepted paradigm is that such aging is gradual and its origin is in slower than exponential microscopic dynamics, akin to the ones in supercooled liquids or glasses. Nevertheless, time- and space-resolved measurements have provided contrasting evidence: dynamics faster than exponential, intermittency and abrupt structural changes. Here we use 3D computer simulations of a microscopic model to reveal that the timescales governing stress relaxation, respectively, through thermal fluctuations and elastic recovery are key for the aging dynamics. When thermal fluctuations are too weak, stress heterogeneities frozen-in upon solidification can still partially relax through elastically driven fluctuations. Such fluctuations are intermittent, because of strong correlations that persist over the timescale of experiments or simulations, leading to faster than exponential dynamics.

  16. Continuous use of intermittent bladder catheterization - can social support contribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoyre Anne Lindozo Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the factors affecting the adequate continuous use of intermittent catheterization and its relation with social support.METHOD: sectional, descriptive and correlational study involving 49 patients with neuropathic bladder caused by spinal cord injury.RESULTS: almost all (92% participants continued the intermittent catheterization, but 46.9% made some changes in the technique. The complications (28.6% of the sample were mainly infection and vesicolithiasis. There were high scores for social support in relation to people that were part of the patient's social support.CONCLUSION: All of them noticed great support from the family, but not from the society in general. The difficulties were related to the lack of equipment and inadequate infrastructure, leading to changes that increased urologic complications.

  17. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  18. Considering Intermittent Dormancy in an Advanced Life Support Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.

  19. Kullback-Leibler divergence measure of intermittency: Application to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Belinchón, Carlos; Roux, Stéphane G.; Garnier, Nicolas B.

    2018-01-01

    For generic systems exhibiting power law behaviors, and hence multiscale dependencies, we propose a simple tool to analyze multifractality and intermittency, after noticing that these concepts are directly related to the deformation of a probability density function from Gaussian at large scales to non-Gaussian at smaller scales. Our framework is based on information theory and uses Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. We provide an extensive application to three-dimensional fully developed turbulence, seen here as a paradigmatic complex system where intermittency was historically defined and the concepts of scale invariance and multifractality were extensively studied and benchmarked. We compute our quantity on experimental Eulerian velocity measurements, as well as on synthetic processes and phenomenological models of fluid turbulence. Our approach is very general and does not require any underlying model of the system, although it can probe the relevance of such a model.

  20. INTERMITTENT ANTIARYTHMIC THERAPY OF ARIOVENTICULAR NODAL REENTRY TACHYCARDIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Djindjic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recent advances in pharmacology and clinical cardiology regarding farmacodynamics of antiarrhythmic drugs and their efficiency in patients with refractory paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, chronic prophylactic therapy was the only treatment option for patients refusing catheter ablation. Another treatment option, also known by eponym “pill in pocket” have been shown to be equally useful and efficacious.The aim of our study was prospective examination of children with refractory atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT who were withdrawn from chronic antiarrhythmic prophylactic therapy and started with intermittent oral beta blocker treatment (propranolol at dosage 1 mg/kg - max 80 mg.Twelve children (8 boys and 4 girls with AVNRT were included in the study. Four children did not have arrhythmia during first six months after withdrawal and 7 were successfully treated without complication.Intermittent antiarrhythmic therapy in children with AVNRT could be very efficacious and useful treatment option which significantly improves their quality of life.

  1. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  2. Thermal degradation of groundnut oil during continuous and intermittent frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit K; Babylatha, R; Pavithra, A S; Khatoon, Sakina

    2013-12-01

    The quality of refined groundnut oil, as affected by frying Poori, was assessed with respect to two types of frying operations viz., continuous frying and intermittent frying. Continuous frying was carried out consistently for 8 h, whereas intermittent frying was performed for 2 h everyday for 4 days for a total of 8 frying hours. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of deterioration that occurred during the two operations. Among the parameters studied, peroxide value (11.3 ± 0.26 meqO2/kg), anisidine value (172.4 ± 2.71), diene value (1.57 ± 0.095), oxidized fatty acid (2.6 ± 0.17%) and viscosity (103.8 ± 2.5 mPa s(-1)), were found to be higher after 8 h due to intermittent frying. The corresponding values 4.9 ± 0.15, 133.3 ± 0.49, 0.811 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.023 and 81.8 ± 2.02 were observed in continuous frying. Parameters such as iodine value, unsaturated fatty acids, saponification value and smoke point decreased significantly (P frying. Results showed that intermittent frying caused more quality degradation to GNO than continuous frying.

  3. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan: does it affect sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Almushailhi, Khalid; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Sharif, Munir M

    2014-02-01

    Islamic intermittent fasting is distinct from regular voluntary or experimental fasting. We hypothesised that if a regimen of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake is followed during intermittent fasting, the effects of fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness will be minimal. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of Islamic intermittent fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness. Eight healthy volunteers reported to the Sleep Disorders Centre on five occasions for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests: (1) during adaptation; (2) 3 weeks before Ramadan, after having performed Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting); (3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline); (4) 2 weeks into Ramadan (Ramadan); and (5) 2 weeks after Ramadan (non-fasting; Recovery). Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the multiple sleep latency test. The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years, a body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg m(-2) and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 7.3 ± 2.7. There was no change in weight or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the four study periods. The rapid eye movement sleep percentage was significantly lower during fasting. There was no difference in sleep latency, non-rapid eye movement sleep percentage, arousal index and sleep efficiency. The multiple sleep latency test analysis revealed no difference in the sleep latency between the 'non-fasting baseline', 'baseline fasting', 'Ramadan' and 'Recovery' time points. Under conditions of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake, Islamic intermittent fasting results in decreased rapid eye movement sleep with no impact on other sleep stages, the arousal index or daytime sleepiness. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Consensus of Multiagent Networks with Intermittent Interaction and Directed Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent interaction control is introduced to solve the consensus problem for second-order multiagent networks due to the limited sensing abilities and environmental changes periodically. And, we get some sufficient conditions for the agents to reach consensus with linear protocol from the theoretical findings by using the Lyapunov control approach. Finally, the validity of the theoretical results is validated through the numerical example.

  5. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  6. Intermittency route to chaos in a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, I M; Martinez, L; Veguillas, J

    1996-01-01

    The numerical analysis of a glycolytic model performed through the construction of a system of three differential-delay equations reveals a phenomenon of intermittency route to chaos. In our biochemical system, the consideration of delay time variations under constant input flux as well as frequency variations of the periodic substrate input flux allows us, in both cases, to observe a type of transition to chaos different from the 'Feigenbaum route'.

  7. Sand intermittent filtration technology for safer domestic sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum pollution reduction potential of intermittent filtration bed was recorded at 2 feet depth of sand and soil mixture at ratio of 3:1. Percentage of pollution reducing potential was found in CO2 83.4%, BOD 72.5%, COD 69.9%, Total alkalinity 37.9%, Total solids 88.5%, Total dissolved solids 86.1%, Total suspended solids ...

  8. Intermittent bisphosphonate therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis - Progress to date

    OpenAIRE

    Reginster, Jean-Yves; Malaise, Olivier; Neuprez, A.; Jouret, V. E.; Close, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs in osteoporosis today. They have unequivocally shown their ability to reduce fracture rate at the spine (alendronic acid, risedronic acid, ibandronic acid) and at the hip (alendronic acid and risedronic acid). However, their dosage and administration procedures and the adverse reactions induced by their oral intake are responsible for low adherence. Therefore, intermittent regimens have been developed. Weekly alendronic acid and risedronic ...

  9. The stochastic dynamics of intermittent porescale particle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentz, Marco; Morales, Veronica; Puyguiraud, Alexandre; Gouze, Philippe; Willmann, Matthias; Holzner, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Numerical and experimental data for porescale particle dynamics show intermittent patterns in Lagrangian velocities and accelerations, which manifest in long time intervals of low and short durations of high velocities [1, 2]. This phenomenon is due to the spatial persistence of particle velocities on characteristic heterogeneity length scales. In order to systematically quantify these behaviors and extract the stochastic dynamics of particle motion, we focus on the analysis of Lagrangian velocities sampled equidistantly along trajectories [3]. This method removes the intermittency observed under isochrone sampling. The space-Lagrangian velocity series can be quantified by a Markov process that is continuous in distance along streamline. It is fully parameterized in terms of the flux-weighted Eulerian velocity PDF and the characteristic pore-length. The resulting stochastic particle motion describes a continuous time random walk (CTRW). This approach allows for the process based interpretation of experimental and numerical porescale velocity, acceleration and displacement data. It provides a framework for the characterization and upscaling of particle transport and dispersion from the pore to the Darcy-scale based on the medium geometry and Eulerian flow attributes. [1] P. De Anna, T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, A.M. Tartakovsky, D. Bolster, and P. Davy, "Flow intermittency, dispersion, and correlated continuous time random walks in porous media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 184502 (2013). [2] M. Holzner, V. L. Morales, M. Willmann, and M. Dentz, "Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three- dimensional porous medium flow," Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015). [3] M. Dentz, P. K. Kang, A. Comolli, T. Le Borgne, and D. R. Lester, "Continuous time random walks for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities," Phys. Rev. Fluids (2016).

  10. Prolapsed bilateral ureteroceles leading to intermittent outflow obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2012-02-01

    A ureterocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with a duplex system in some cases. We present an unusual case where a young patient was found to have large bilateral ureteroceles which prolapsed into the urethra, causing intermittent incontinence and obstruction. We discuss the case and review the literature concerning this rare anomaly.

  11. Adaptations with Intermittent Exercise Training in Post- and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael; Piil, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training frequency. Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency of approximately one training session per week. In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P < 0.05) and the total lean leg mass increased (P < 0.05) during the 12-wk training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 1 (YYIET-1) performance was better (P < 0.05) after the 12-wk training period. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide was higher (P < 0.05) in PM, and total leg bone mineral density (BMD) was higher (P < 0.05) in both PM and PRM after the 12-wk training period. In PM40, total lean leg mass, V˙O2max, YYIET-1 performance, level of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, and total leg BMD were maintained, whereas whole-body BMD and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were reduced (P < 0.05) and the expression of muscle glucose transporter type 4 was higher (P < 0.05). Twelve weeks of intermittent exercise training increased BMD, intermittent exercise capacity, and V˙O2max in PM and PRM, with PM also having positive changes in body composition. Additional 40 wk of training with a reduced frequency was sufficient to preserve these physiological adaptations and also improve blood glucose regulation in PM.

  12. Brazilian energy balance 2004: calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2003. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1970 to 2003; energy supply and demand by source, from 1988 to 2003; energy consumption by sector from 1988 to 2003; energy foreign trading also from 1988 to 2003; transformation centers balances in the same period; energy resources and reserves from 1973 to 2003; energy and socio-economy from 1988 to 2003; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances. It also presents analytical texts on the main energy numbers for 2003 and also energy evolution in Brazil and energy expansion all over the world

  13. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  14. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experiments is presented using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e + e - annihilation data. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the intermittency strength on the target and projectile nuclei. A 1-dimensional (lD) cellular-automaton (CA) and a lD forest-fire model is studied. On the example of the noncritical lD Ising model the difficulties of the scaled factorial moment (SFM) method in extracting genuine scaling behaviour are illustrated. The problem of the finite-size effect in connection to the dimensional projection can be easily exemplified in the case of the 2D critical system with conformal symmetry. (R.P.) 122 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Detection and localization of multiple wideband intermittent acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Hedley, R.; Taylor, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We have been interested in the analytical and experimental study of real-life bird song sources for several years. Bird sources are characterized by either a single or multiple bird vocalizations independent of each other or in response to others. The sources may be physically-stationary or exhibit movements and the signals are wide-band in frequency and often intermittent with pauses and possibly restarting with repeating previously used songs or with new songs. Thus, the detection, classification, and 2D or 3D localization of these birds pose challenging signal and array problems. Due to the fact that some birds can mimic other birds, time-domain waveform characterization may not be sufficient for determining the number of birds. Similarly, due to the intermittent nature of the vocalizations, data collected over a long period cannot be used naively. Thus, it is necessary to use short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to fully exploit the intricate natures of the time and frequency properties of these sources and displayed on a spectrogram. Various dominant spectral data over the relevant frames are used to form sample covariance matrices. Eigenvectors associated with the decompositions of these matrices for these spectral indices can be used to provide 2D/3D DOA estimations of the sources over different frames for intermittent sources. Proper cluttering of these data can be used to perform enhanced detection, classification, and localization of multiple bird sources. Two sets of collected bird data will be used to demonstrate these claims.

  16. Remote ischemic preconditioning in patients with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Fernandes Saes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC is a phenomenon in which a short period of sub-lethal ischemia in one organ protects against subsequent bouts of ischemia in another organ. We hypothesized that RIPC in patients with intermittent claudication would increase muscle tissue resistance to ischemia, thereby resulting in an increased ability to walk. METHODS: In a claudication clinic, 52 ambulatory patients who presented with complaints of intermittent claudication in the lower limbs associated with an absent or reduced arterial pulse in the symptomatic limb and/or an ankle-brachial index <0.90 were recruited for this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C. All of the patients underwent two tests on a treadmill according to the Gardener protocol. Group A was tested first without RIPC. Group A was subjected to RIPC prior to the second treadmill test. Group B was subjected to RIPC prior to the first treadmill test and then was subjected to a treadmill test without RIPC. In Group C (control group, both treadmill tests were performed without RIPC. The first and second tests were conducted seven days apart. Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant increase in the initial claudication distance in the second test compared to the first test. CONCLUSION: RIPC increased the initial claudication distance in patients with intermittent claudication; however, RIPC did not affect the total walking distance of the patients.

  17. Effect of warm-up on intermittent sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Landers, G; Wallman, K

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of different warm-up (WUP) intensities on 10 min of subsequent intermittent-sprint running performance. Eleven male, team-sport players performed four trials in a randomized, cross-over design, consisting of an intermittent-sprint protocol (15 × 20-m sprints) that followed either no-WUP or one of three 10-min WUP trials that varied in intensity. Warm-up intensities were performed at either (1) half the difference between anaerobic threshold (AT) and lactate threshold (LT) [(AT-LT)/2] below the LT = WUP 1; (2) midway between LT and AT level = WUP 2; (3) [(AT-LT)/2] above AT = WUP 3. Sprint times were fastest following WUP 3, compared with all other trials, for sprints 1-9 and 14, as well as for total accumulated sprints, with these results supported by moderate to large effect size (ES; range: d = -0.50 to -1.06) and "possible" to "almost certain" benefits. Warm-up 3 resulted in faster intermittent-sprint running performance compared with lower intensity WUPs and no WUP for the first 6 min of sprinting, with accumulated sprints for the entire 10 min protocol also being faster after WUP 3. This information may be pertinent to coaches of team-sport games with respect to player substitutions.

  18. New advances on chaotic intermittency and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elaskar, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important routes to chaos is the chaotic intermittency. However, there are many cases that do not agree with the classical theoretical predictions. In this book, an extended theory for intermittency in one-dimensional maps is presented. A new general methodology to evaluate the reinjection probability density function (RPD) is developed in Chapters 5 to 8. The key of this formulation is the introduction of a new function, called M(x), which is used to calculate the RPD function. The function M(x) depends on two integrals. This characteristic reduces the influence on the statistical fluctuations in the data series. Also, the function M(x) is easy to evaluate from the data series, even for a small number of numerical or experimental data. As a result, a more general form for the RPD is found; where the classical theory based on uniform reinjection is recovered as a particular case. The characteristic exponent traditionally used to characterize the intermittency type, is now a function depending ...

  19. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced neural plasticity in respiratory motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tao; Fong, Angelina Y; Bautista, Tara G; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory neural networks can adapt to rapid environmental change or be altered over the long term by various inputs. The mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing remain unclear. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)-induced respiratory long-term facilitation (LTF) is one of the most extensively studied types of respiratory plasticity. Acute intermittent hypoxia-induced LTF is present in several respiratory motor outputs, innervating both pump muscles (i.e. diaphragm) and valve muscles (i.e. tongue, pharynx and larynx). Long-term facilitation is present in various species, including humans, and the expression of LTF is influenced by gender, age and genetics. Serotonin plays a key role in initiating and modulating plasticity at the level of respiratory motor neurons. Recently, multiple intracellular pathways have been elucidated that are capable of giving rise to respiratory LTF. These mainly activate the metabolic receptors coupled to Gq ('Q' pathway) and Gs ('S' pathway) proteins. Herein, we discuss AIH-induced respiratory LTF in animals and humans, as well as recent advances in our understanding of the synaptic and intracellular pathways underlying this form of plasticity. We also discuss the potential to use intermittent hypoxia to induce functional recovery following cervical spinal injury. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Intermittency in small-scale turbulence: a velocity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneveau, Charles; Johnson, Perry

    2017-11-01

    Intermittency of small-scale motions is an ubiquitous facet of turbulent flows, and predicting this phenomenon based on reduced models derived from first principles remains an important open problem. Here, a multiple-time scale stochastic model is introduced for the Lagrangian evolution of the full velocity gradient tensor in fluid turbulence at arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers. This low-dimensional model differs fundamentally from prior shell models and other empirically-motivated models of intermittency because the nonlinear gradient self-stretching and rotation A2 term vital to the energy cascade and intermittency development is represented exactly from the Navier-Stokes equations. With only one adjustable parameter needed to determine the model's effective Reynolds number, numerical solutions of the resulting set of stochastic differential equations show that the model predicts anomalous scaling for moments of the velocity gradient components and negative derivative skewness. It also predicts signature topological features of the velocity gradient tensor such as vorticity alignment trends with the eigen-directions of the strain-rate. This research was made possible by a graduate Fellowship from the National Science Foundation and by a Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  1. Sprint vs. intermittent training in young female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, G; Pizzolato, F; Calcagno, G; Ibba, G; Pinna, M; Salernitano, G; Padulo, J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at comparing the effects of intermittent and repeated sprint ability training on physiological variables. Sixteen young female basketball players were randomly allocated to intermittent training (IT=8) or repeated sprint ability training (RST=8) groups. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks of training: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (Yo-Yo) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) tests. For all the variables investigated the effect of training type showed a different trend respect at current knowledge. In the RSA, best time (BT) was a significant main effect of training time (pre- vs. post-) (Ptraining type/time (P=0.03). The RST showed a decrease in BT of 3.1% (P=0.005) while the IT showed a decrease of 6.2% (Ptraining methods used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing anaerobic and basketball-specific training schedules. Besides, even when IT training is not done at very high speed, it can increase the maximum speed of the RSA.

  2. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Cavendish Balance Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  4. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  5. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  6. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001), the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0)); for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001) post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4) than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2) training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05). Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La]) than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively) (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak), time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak), and [La]-(0) between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1) and removal (γ2) indexes. Key points Coaches and athletes need to be aware of the potentiality positive effects of exercise intensity. Improvements

  7. LACTATE KINETICS AFTER INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnene Gharbi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT and intermittent (IT physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG. The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001, the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0; for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001 post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4 than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2 training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05. Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La] than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak, time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak, and [La]-(0 between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1 and removal (γ2 indexes

  8. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnech?re, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeabilit...

  9. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  10. The application of condensate water as an additional cooling media intermittently in condenser of a split air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardita, I. N.; Subagia, I. W. A.

    2018-01-01

    The condensate water produced by indoor a split air conditioning is usually not utilized and thrown away into the environment. The result of measurement shows that the temperature of condensate water produced by split air conditioning is quite low, that is 19-22 °C at the rate of 16-20 mL / min and it has PH balance. Under such conditions, Air Condensate produced by split air conditioning should still be recovered as an additional cooling medium on the condenser. This research will re-investigate the use of condensate water as an intermittent additional cooling of the condenser to increase the cooling capacity and performance of the air conditioning system. This research is done by experimental method whose implementation includes; designing and manufacturing of experimental equipment, mounting measuring tools, experimental data retrieval, data processing and yield analysis. The experimental results show that the use of condensate water as an intermittent additional cooling medium on split air conditioning condenser can increase the refrigeration effect about 2%, cooling capacity about 4% and 7% of COP system. Experimental results also show a decrease in power consumption in the system compressor about 3%

  11. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  12. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical

  13. Rotary and Magnus balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  14. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  15. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  16. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  17. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  18. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  19. GRK5 deficiency leads to susceptibility to intermittent hypoxia-induced cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhakar; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, XueFeng; Suo, William Z

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to cognitive impairment in about 25% patients, though it remains elusive what makes one more susceptible than the other to be cognitively impaired. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) deficiency is recently found to render subjects more susceptible to cognitive impairment triggered by over-expression of Swedish mutant ß-amyloid precursor protein. This study is to determine whether GRK5 deficiency also renders subjects more susceptible to the OSA-triggered cognitive impairment. Both wild type (WT) and GRK5 knockout (KO) mice were placed in conditions absence and presence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) with 8%/21% O2 90-s cycle for 8h a day for a month, and then followed by behavioral assessments with battery of tasks. We found that the selected IH condition only induced marginally abnormal behavior (slightly elevated anxiety with most others unchanged) in the WT mice but it caused significantly more behavioral deficits in the KO mice, ranging from elevated anxiety, impaired balancing coordination, and impaired short-term spatial memory. These results suggest that GRK5 deficiency indeed makes the mice more susceptible to wide range of behavioral impairments, including cognitive impairments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Intermittent cold stress enhances features of atherosclerotic plaque instability in apolipoprotein E‑deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Tang, Bing; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2014-10-01

    The cold weather is associated with an increased occurrence of acute coronary events. However, the mechanisms underlying cold‑induced myocardial infarctions have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, 20 male, eight week‑old, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)‑deficient mice were subjected to either control conditions or intermittent cold exposure for eight weeks. Mice in the cold group were placed in a cold room at 4˚C for 4 h per day, while the mice in the control group were kept in a room at 24˚C. Cold‑exposed mice did not significantly differ from control mice in body weight, fasting glucose concentration and plasma lipid levels, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein and high‑density lipoprotein. The hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections of the aortic root demonstrated increased plaque size in the cold group compared with the control group (Pinstability. Additionally, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9 and MMP‑14 were significantly increased (Pinstability in ApoE‑deficient mice by altering the balance of MMPs and TIMPs. These findings may provide mechanistic insights into sudden cardiac death in cold environments.

  1. Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jonathan; Polman, Remco; O'Donoghue, Peter; McNaughton, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Different coaching methods are often used to improve performance. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 methodologies for speed and agility conditioning for random, intermittent, and dynamic activity sports (e.g., soccer, tennis, hockey, basketball, rugby, and netball) and the necessity for specialized coaching equipment. Two groups were delivered either a programmed method (PC) or a random method (RC) of conditioning with a third group receiving no conditioning (NC). PC participants used the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) conditioning method, and RC participants played supervised small-sided soccer games. PC was also subdivided into 2 groups where participants either used specialized SAQ equipment or no equipment. A total of 46 (25 males and 21 females) untrained participants received (mean +/- SD) 12.2 +/- 2.1 hours of physical conditioning over 6 weeks between a battery of speed and agility parameter field tests. Two-way analysis of variance results indicated that both conditioning groups showed a significant decrease in body mass and body mass index, although PC achieved significantly greater improvements on acceleration, deceleration, leg power, dynamic balance, and the overall summation of % increases when compared to RC and NC (p speed and agility parameters; however, this study found that specialized SAQ equipment was not a requirement to observe significant improvements. Further research is required to establish whether these benefits transfer to sport-specific tasks as well as to the underlying mechanisms resulting in improved performance.

  2. Effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Martin; Chan Moy Fat, Rachel; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m²; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.

  3. Effects of five days of bed rest with intermittent centrifugation on neurovestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, G; Bareille, M P; Goel, R; Linnarsson, D; Mulder, E; Paloski, W H; Rittweger, J; Wuyts, F L; Zange, J

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether intermittent short-radius centrifugation was effective for mitigating alteration in balance and gait following bed rest. Ten male subjects were exposed to 5 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest with: (a) no countermeasure; (b) daily 1-g centrifugation for a continuous 30-min period; and (c) daily 1-g centrifugation for six periods of 5 min. During and after the bed rest, subjects were asked to scale the severity of neurovestibular symptoms that followed centrifugation or 80° head-up tilt. Following the bed rest, equilibrium scores were derived from anterior-posterior sway while standing on a foam pad with the eyes open or closed while making pitch head movements, and gait was evaluated by grading subjects' performance during various locomotion tasks. At the beginning of bed rest, one single 30-min period of centrifugation induced more severe neurovestibular symptoms than six periods of 5-min centrifugation. After bed rest, although equilibrium scores and gait performance were not significantly altered, subjects felt less neurovestibular dysfunction with orthostatic stress when centrifugation was used. Centrifugation was effective at reducing the severity of neurovestibular symptoms after bed rest, but this decrease was not different between one or multiple daily sessions.

  4. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  6. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  7. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  8. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Balance of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact.We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players.This theory of conduct predicts that

  10. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  11. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt

  12. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h...... for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...... significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process (ARP) can...

  13. Intermittency in relation with 1/f noise and stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseckas, J; Kaulakys, B

    2013-06-01

    One of the models of intermittency is on-off intermittency, arising due to time-dependent forcing of a bifurcation parameter through a bifurcation point. For on-off intermittency, the power spectral density (PSD) of the time-dependent deviation from the invariant subspace in a low frequency region exhibits 1/√f power-law noise. Here, we investigate a mechanism of intermittency, similar to the on-off intermittency, occurring in nonlinear dynamical systems with invariant subspace. In contrast to the on-off intermittency, we consider the case where the transverse Lyapunov exponent is zero. We show that for such nonlinear dynamical systems, the power spectral density of the deviation from the invariant subspace can have 1/f(β) form in a wide range of frequencies. That is, such nonlinear systems exhibit 1/f noise. The connection with the stochastic differential equations generating 1/f(β) noise is established and analyzed, as well.

  14. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. Methods A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Results Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Conclusions Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Trial

  15. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Minqi Yang; Ning Ma; Yingying Zhu; Ying-Chu Su; Qingwei Chen; Fan-Chi Hsiao; Yanran Ji; Chien-Ming Yang; Guofu Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light o...

  16. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions.

  17. Intermittent dynamics of nonlinear resistive tearing modes at extremely high magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takahiro; Becchaku, Masahiro; Kusano, Kanya

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of the resistive tearing instability in high magnetic Reynolds number (R m ) plasmas is studied by newly developing an accurate and robust resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scheme. The results show that reconnection processes strongly depend on R m . Particularly, in a high R m case, small-scale plasmoids induced by a secondary instability are intermittently generated and ejected accompanied by fast shocks. According to the intermittent processes, the reconnection rate increases intermittently at a later nonlinear stage. (author)

  18. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. PMID:23206889

  19. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Hupkens, Emeline; Nguidjoe, Evrard; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such benefic...

  20. Circulating, cell-free DNA as a marker for exercise load in intermittent sports

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Nils; Helmig, Susanne; Taenny, Pascal; Petry, Julian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Background Attempts to establish a biomarker reflecting individual player load in intermittent sports such as football have failed so far. Increases in circulating DNA (cfDNA) have been demonstrated in various endurance sports settings. While it has been proposed that cfDNA could be a suitable marker for player load in intermittent sports, the effects on cfDNA of repeated sprinting as an essential feature in intermittent sports are unknown. For the first time, we assessed both alterations of ...

  1. Intermittency in MHD turbulence and coronal nanoflares modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Veltri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution numerical simulations, solar wind data analysis, and measurements at the edges of laboratory plasma devices have allowed for a huge progress in our understanding of MHD turbulence. The high resolution of solar wind measurements has allowed to characterize the intermittency observed at small scales. We are now able to set up a consistent and convincing view of the main properties of MHD turbulence, which in turn constitutes an extremely efficient tool in understanding the behaviour of turbulent plasmas, like those in solar corona, where in situ observations are not available. Using this knowledge a model to describe injection, due to foot-point motions, storage and dissipation of MHD turbulence in coronal loops, is built where we assume strong longitudinal magnetic field, low beta and high aspect ratio, which allows us to use the set of reduced MHD equations (RMHD. The model is based on a shell technique in the wave vector space orthogonal to the strong magnetic field, while the dependence on the longitudinal coordinate is preserved. Numerical simulations show that injected energy is efficiently stored in the loop where a significant level of magnetic and velocity fluctuations is obtained. Nonlinear interactions give rise to an energy cascade towards smaller scales where energy is dissipated in an intermittent fashion. Due to the strong longitudinal magnetic field, dissipative structures propagate along the loop, with the typical speed of the Alfvén waves. The statistical analysis on the intermittent dissipative events compares well with all observed properties of nanoflare emission statistics. Moreover the recent observations of non thermal velocity measurements during flare occurrence are well described by the numerical results of the simulation model. All these results naturally emerge from the model dynamical evolution without any need of an ad-hoc hypothesis.

  2. Supplemental intermittent-day heat training and the lactate threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Stuart; Chalmers, Samuel; Alderton, Stephen; Norton, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Heat acclimation over consecutive days has been shown to improve aerobic-based performance. Recently, it has been suggested that heat training can improve performance in a temperate environment. However, due to the multifactorial training demands of athletes, consecutive-day heat training may not be suitable. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of brief (8×30min) intermittent (every 3-4 days) supplemental heat training on the second lactate threshold point (LT 2 ) in temperate and hot conditions. 21 participants undertook eight intermittent-day mixed-intensity treadmill exercise training sessions in hot (30°C; 50% relative humidity [RH]) or temperate (18°C; 30% RH) conditions. A pre- and post-incremental exercise test occurred in temperate (18°C; 30% RH) and hot conditions (30°C; 50% RH) to determine the change in LT 2 . The heat training protocol did not improve LT 2 in temperate (Effect Size [ES]±90 confidence interval=0.10±0.16) or hot (ES=0.26±0.26) conditions. The primary finding was that although the intervention group had a change greater than the SWC, no statistically significant improvements were observed following an intermittent eight day supplemental heat training protocol comparable to a control group training only in temperate conditions. This is likely due to the brief length of each heat training session and/or the long duration between each heat exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  4. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  5. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  6. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  7. The Potential Wind Power Resource in Australia: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia’s wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia’s electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia’s energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia’s wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast’s electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it’s intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale. PMID:24988222

  8. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  9. Dynamic droop scheme considering effect of intermittent renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic droop control scheme for islanded microgrids dominated by intermittent renewable energy sources, which is able to perform desirable power sharing in the presence of renewable energy source fluctuation. First, allowable maximum power points of wind generator and PV...... flexibility and effectiveness in the presence of the renewable energy sources fluctuation....... controller of each DG unit is activated through local logic variable inferred by wind speed and solar insolation information. Simulation results are given for validating the droop control scheme. The proposed dynamic droop scheme preserves the advantage of conventional droop control method, and provides...

  10. Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    fluctuation wave forms and transport statistics are also in a good agreement with those derived from the experiments. Associated with the turbulence bursts are relaxation oscillations in the particle and heat confinements as well as in the kinetic energy of the sheared poloidal flows. The formation of blob...... a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region...

  11. Fluctuation relations with intermittent non-Gaussian variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A

    2011-12-01

    Nonequilibrium stationary fluctuations may exhibit a special symmetry called fluctuation relations (FRs). Here, we show that this property is always satisfied by the subtraction of two random and independent variables related by a thermodynamiclike change of measure. Taking one of them as a modulated Poisson process, it is demonstrated that intermittence and FRs are compatible properties that may coexist naturally. Strong non-Gaussian features characterize the probability distribution and its generating function. Their associated large deviation functions develop a "kink" at the origin and a plateau regime respectively. Application of this model in different stationary nonequilibrium situations is discussed.

  12. Intermittent sizing on carbon fiber for composite application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paulauskas, Felix L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ozcan, Soydan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xiong, Fue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent sizing is a technique designed to improve the bonding of carbon fiber to a resin when manufacturing composite parts. The purpose of this technique is to improve Sheet Molding Composites (SMC) made of non-continuous carbon fibers while using regular material. At the end of the project, tests showed that improved mechanical properties have been achieved using this technique compared to conventional process. Mechanical properties have been improved by 110% for the peak tensile stress and by 60% for the modulus at the laboratory scale. In this project, Continental Structural Plastics and ORNL have worked to demonstrate the scalability and viability of commercialization of this technique.

  13. Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity of a Volleyball Intermittent Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina-Carrillo, Javier; García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the concurrent and construct validity of a volleyball intermittent endurance test (VIET). The VIET's test-retest reliability and sensitivity to assess seasonal changes was also studied. During the preseason, 71 volleyball players of different competitive levels took part in this study. All performed the VIET and a graded treadmill test with gas-exchange measurement (GXT). Thirty-one of the players performed an additional VIET to analyze the test-retest reliability. To test the VIET's sensitivity, 28 players repeated the VIET and GXT at the end of their season. Significant (P volleyball players.

  14. Multi-point observations of intermittency in the cusp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of magnetic field fluctuations measured by the four Cluster spacecraft in the cusp and close to the interface with the magnetospheric lobes, magnetopause and magnetosheath. At lower altitudes along the outbound orbit of 26 February 2001, the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by all four spacecraft are random and their Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs are Gaussian at all scales. The flatness parameter, F – related to the kurtosis of the time series, is equal to 3. At higher altitudes, in the cusp and its vicinity, closer to the interface with the magnetopause and magnetosheath, the PDFs from all Cluster satellites are non-Gaussian and show a clear intermittent behavior at scales smaller than τG≈ 61 s (or 170 km. The flatness parameter increases to values greater than 3 for scales smaller than τG. A Haar wavelet transform enables the identification of the "events" that produce sudden variations of the magnetic field and of the scales that have most of the power. The LIM parameter (i.e. normalized wavelet power indicates that events for scales below 65 s are non-uniformly distributed throughout the cusp passage. PDFs, flatness and wavelet analysis show that at coarse-grained scales larger than τG the intermittency is absent in the cusp. Fluctuations of the magnetic energy observed during the same orbit in the magnetosheath show PDFs that tend toward a Gaussian at scales smaller than τG found in the cusp. The flatness analysis confirms the decreasing of τG from cusp to magnetosheath. Our analysis reveals the turbulent cusp as a transition region from a non-intermittent turbulent state inside the magnetosphere to an intermittent turbulent state in the magnetosheath that has statistical properties resembling the solar wind turbulence. The observed turbulent fluctuations in the cusp suggests a phenomenon of nonlinear

  15. Atomistic Model of Fluorescence Intermittency of Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, O.

    2014-04-16

    Optoelectronic applications of colloidal quantum dots demand a high emission efficiency, stability in time, and narrow spectral bandwidth. Electronic trap states interfere with the above properties but understanding of their origin remains lacking, inhibiting the development of robust passivation techniques. Here we show that surface vacancies improve the fluorescence yield compared to vacancy-free surfaces, while dynamic vacancy aggregation can temporarily turn fluorescence off. We find that infilling with foreign cations can stabilize the vacancies, inhibiting intermittency and improving quantum yield, providing an explanation of recent experimental observations. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  16. Dispersion from safety valves and other momentum emission sources: Intermittent

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Faveri, D. M.; Hanzevack, E. L.; Delaney, B. T.

    A previous paper confirmed a method for calculating critical ground level concentrations from a continuous momentum plume emission source. However, use of the correlations developed for steady state releases results in inaccurate ground level concentration predictions for short term release situations. Therefore, additional tracer-gas experiments were performed in order to measure critical ground level concentrations from intermittent safety valve vent releases. These experimental results led to the development of a calculation procedure for estimating critical ground level concentrations resulting from releases for various lengths of time (up to 15 min) and for estimating critical ground level concentrations for averaging times longer than the release time.

  17. Fluvial Volumes, Timescales, and Intermittency in Milna Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, P.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Lamb, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Ancient lake deposits and valley networks on Mars provide strong evidence that its surface was once modified by liquid water, but the extent of that modification is still debated. Ancient lacustrine deposits in Milna Crater provide insight into the timescale and fluid volume required to construct fluvially derived sedimentary deposits near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. Placing the lacustrine deposits their regional context in Paraná Valles provides a quantitative measurement of the intermittency of large, water-mediated sediment transport events in that region.

  18. Intermittent contact atomic force microscopy in electrochemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, P.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In situ measurements with Atomic Force Microscopy may cause surface modifications due to the tip-surface interactions. As an alternative and less destructive method, Intermittent Contact Atomic Force Microscopy (ICAFM) has been tested in an electrolytic environment. In the ICAFM mode the tip is not constantly in contact with the surface under investigation but is tapping onto the surface with a certain frequency. A commercial Park Scientific Instruments Microscopy has been modified to enable in situ experiment with ICAFM. It was possible to image iridium oxide films with ICAFM in the electrolytic environment without any noticeable surface modifications. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Google matrix and Ulam networks of intermittency maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-03-01

    We study the properties of the Google matrix of an Ulam network generated by intermittency maps. This network is created by the Ulam method which gives a matrix approximant for the Perron-Frobenius operator of dynamical map. The spectral properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix are analyzed. We show that the PageRank of the system is characterized by a power law decay with the exponent beta dependent on map parameters and the Google damping factor alpha . Under certain conditions the PageRank is completely delocalized so that the Google search in such a situation becomes inefficient.

  20. Intermittency in hadronic decays of the Z sup 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akrawy, M.Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Armitage, J.C.; Ashton, P.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G.J.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bougerolle, S.; Brabson, B.B.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R.M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooper, M.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Jong, S.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M.M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fong, D.G.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N.I; OPAL Collaboration

    1991-06-20

    A factorial moment analysis has been performed on the differential multiplicity distributions of hadronic final states of the Z{sup 0} recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The moments of the one-dimensional rapidity and the two-dimensional rapidity versus azimuthal angle distributions are found to exhibit 'intermittent' behaviour attributable to the jet structure of the events. The moments are reproduced by both parton shower and matrix element QCD based hadronisation models. No evidence for fluctuations beyond those attributable to jet structure is observed. (orig.).

  1. Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain – acute intermittent porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Klobučić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominatedby a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-fi- ve-year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days between the first presentationto the medical department and the diagnosis confirmation. It has accentuated possible mistakes in symptomatic therapy administration as well as dangers of a delayed diagnosis.

  2. Degrees-of-Freedom of the MIMO Three-Way Channel with Node-Intermittency

    KAUST Repository

    Neu, Joachim

    2017-08-28

    The characterization of fundamental performance bounds of many-to-many communication systems in which participating nodes are active in an intermittent way is one of the major challenges in communication theory. In order to address this issue, we introduce the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) three-way channel (3WC) with an intermittent node and study its degrees-of-freedom (DoF) region and sum-DoF. We devise a non-adaptive encoding scheme based on zero-forcing, interference alignment and erasure coding, and show its DoF region (and thus sum-DoF) optimality for non-intermittent 3WCs and its sum-DoF optimality for (node-)intermittent 3WCs. However, we show by example that in general some DoF tuples in the intermittent 3WC can only be achieved by adaptive schemes, such as multi-hop or decode-forward relaying. This shows that non-adaptive encoding is sufficient for the non-intermittent 3WC and for the sum-DoF of intermittent 3WCs, but adaptive encoding is necessary for the DoF region of intermittent 3WCs. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the fundamental limits of multi-way communication systems with intermittency and the impact of adaptation therein.

  3. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  4. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  5. Indoor climate optimization with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, A.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    This report presents experimental data and models for optimisation of the indoor climate parameters temperature, noise, draught and window opening. Results are based on experiments with human subjects performed in climate chambers at University of the Philippines. The report may assist building...... designers to balance attention and resources between the parameters of the indoor climate when resources are less than optimal....

  6. Balancing compliance and cost when implementing a Quality Assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.

    1997-12-01

    When implementing a Quality Assurance (QA) program, compliance and cost must be balanced. A QA program must be developed that hits the mark in terms of adequate control and documentation, but does not unnecessarily expand resources. As the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has moved towards certification, Sandia National Laboratories has learned much about balancing compliance and costs. Some of these lessons are summarized here

  7. Balancing trust and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm-Jørgensen, Marie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how strategies of retaining patients are acted out by general practitioners (GPs) in the clinical encounter. With this study, we apply Grimens’ (2009) analytical connection between trust and power to explore how trust and power appear in preventive health checks...... from the GPs’ perspectives, and in what way trust and power affect and/or challenge strategies towards retaining patients without formal education. Design: Data in this study were obtained through semi-structured interviews with GPs participating in an intervention project, as well as observations...... of power in the encounter. The GPs articulated that a balance was needed in preventive health checks in order to establish trust and thus retain the patient in the clinic. One way this balance of respect was carried out was with the use of humour. Conclusions: To retain patients without formal education...

  8. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  9. Life Balancing -- A Better Way to Balance Large Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. Dyche; Zane, Regan; Plett, Gregory; Maksimovic, Dragan; Smith, Kandler; Trimboli, M. Scott

    2017-03-28

    A new cell balancing technology was developed under a Department of Energy contract which merges the DC/DC converter function into cell balancing. Instead of conventional passive cell balancing technology which bypasses current through a resistor, or active cell balancing which moves current from one cell to another, with significant cost and additional inefficiencies, this concept takes variable amount of current from each cell or small group of cells and converts it to current for the low voltage system.

  10. Sustaining a world in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The world balance of population and resources is the internationally accepted goal for the 20th century. There is agreement that the requirements are elimination of absolute poverty, the legitimate satisfaction of the majority population, reduction in the environmental cost of development, fairer distribution of the benefits of development, slower population growth, and more balanced distribution within and between countries. A profile is given for 15 development and population measures for the Philippines. In the Philippines over 50% of the population lives in poverty, and the numbers are increasing. Unemployment is high at 10.6% in 1991, and underemployment is estimated to be 31.6%. Limited employment opportunities are push factors for international labor migration, which has swelled to over 600,000 workers. The Philippines is losing forest at the rate of about 119,000 hectares per year, which would result in a total loss of forests in 12 years. The loss of biodiversity is apparent. Marine resources are being depleted, and average farm size per rural person is 0.38 hectares. The average family of 6 persons must produce food on only 2.28 hectares. The annual population growth rate is 2.3%, and the rate of food production is only 1%. Metro Manila is now the 18th largest urban area in the world. Air pollution is very high, and the water supply is polluted with salt. 14% of children under 6 years old are severely underweight. Iron deficiency anemia affects 60% of children 1-6 years old and 40% of children 7-12 years old. 3.5 million children are working, and 20,000 are child prostitutes. 85,000 street children live in 17 cities. Maternal mortality is estimated at 1600 women each year, and 24% of deaths in 78 hospitals were due to induced abortion. About 2.7 million women have unmet need for family planning, and 1.8 million desire family planning but are not using any method.

  11. Safeguards resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of systems upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and cost and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers

  12. Competing For industry Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-01-01

    This presentation by Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies' participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  13. The Effect of Intermittent Vest Cooling on Thermoregulation and Cardiovascular Strain in Baseball Catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Szymanski, David J; Ryan, Greg A; Herron, Robert L; Bishop, Phil A

    2017-08-01

    Bishop, SH, Szymanski, DJ, Ryan, GA, Herron, RL, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent vest cooling on thermoregulation and cardiovascular strain in baseball catchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2060-2065, 2017-Baseball catchers are exposed to multiple physiological challenges while playing outside during the spring and summer months, many of which deal with recovery and thermoregulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent cooling on core temperature, cardiovascular strain, exertion, and recovery during a simulated catching performance in the heat. Six trained college-aged baseball catchers performed in a controlled, hot (35° C), and humid (25% relative humidity) environment in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Ice vest cooling (VC) was used as a cooling modality and was compared with a control of no cooling (NC). Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived recovery scale (PRS) were recorded before and after each simulated inning. All activities took place in a heat chamber, and each inning consisted of catchers receiving 12 pitches in their position followed by 6 minutes of recovery. Nine total innings were performed, and 27 total innings were performed with each of the 2 treatments. A significantly smaller mean Tre change was seen in VC when compared with NC (0.58 ± 0.2° C, 0.98 ± 0.2° C, p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly lower and PRS was significantly improved for VC compared with NC (both p ≤ 0.05). Mean recovery HR during VC was significantly lower than NC in the fifth (VC = 84 ± 8 b·min, NC = 90 ± 9 b·min, p = 0.04), seventh (VC = 84 ± 3 b·min, NC = 92 ± 7 b·min, p = 0.02), and ninth (VC = 85 ± 7 b·min, NC = 93 ± 5 b·min, p = 0.01) innings. Heart rate during catching was significantly lower at the end of the VC trials when compared with NC (108 ± 16 b·min vs. 120 ± 19 b·min, p = 0.02, respectively

  14. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Matsui, Akira; Hada, Tetsuro; Jones, James H

    2013-08-17

    Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (VO2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated VO2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, VO2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting VO2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809±3 m/s) and L (804±9 m/s) higher than C (764±27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able

  15. Implementace metody Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na hodnocení výkonnosti společnosti pomocí metody Balanced Scorecard. Teoretická část práce popisuje východiska měření výkonnosti, metody Balanced Scorecard a postup při její implementaci. Analytická část vychází z teoretických poznatků z první části a hodnotí situaci společnosti finanční analýzou poměrových ukazatelů, strategickou analýzou a následným sestavením návrhu implementace metody Balanced Scorecard v konkrétní společnosti. Thesis is focused on evaluati...

  16. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  17. Thymic Selection of T Cells as Diffusion with Intermittent Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košmrlj, Andrej

    2011-04-01

    T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses by recognizing short peptides derived from pathogens, and by distinguishing them from self-peptides. To ensure the latter, immature T cells (thymocytes) diffuse within the thymus gland, where they encounter an ensemble of self-peptides presented on (immobile) antigen presenting cells. Potentially autoimmune T cells are eliminated if the thymocyte binds sufficiently strongly with any such antigen presenting cell. We model thymic selection of T cells as a random walker diffusing in a field of immobile traps that intermittently turn "on" and "off". The escape probability of potentially autoimmune T cells is equivalent to the survival probability of such a random walker. In this paper we describe the survival probability of a random walker on a d-dimensional cubic lattice with randomly placed immobile intermittent traps, and relate it to the result of a well-studied problem where traps are always "on". Additionally, when switching between the trap states is slow, we find a peculiar caging effect for the survival probability.

  18. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with intermittent claudication: epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M J; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero-Puerta, C; Vallina-Victorero, M; Vicente-Santiago, M; Vaquero-Lorenzo, F; Alvarez-Salgado, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence of extracraneal carotid artery disease in patients with intermittent claudication, to describe classic cardiovascular risk factors in those with hemodynamically significant stenosis and to try to define subgroups at high risk, improving therefore the performance of non invasive testing. A prospective descriptive study was conducted, with 146 patients reporting an intermittent claudication of the lower limbs and without a previous cerebrovascular event or carotid surgery. An ultrasonography examination was done. Risk factors were registed (smoking, dislipemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus), also ischemic cardiopathy and myocardial revascularization procedures. Univariate and multivariate analysis was made to define the variables associated with hemodynamically significant stenosis. Prevalence of hemodynamically significant stenosis was 23.2%. Smoking, dislipemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significantly associated with carotid stenosis; 24.2% of patients affected of ischemic cardiopathy present a severe stenosis, and myocardial revascularization was a risk factor for carotid stenosis. Patients with claudication and ischemic miocardiopathy, especially when myocardial revascularization is needed, must be explored with carotid ultrasonography. In this patients, probably of hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis that requires treatment is more frequent.

  19. Intermittent structures at ion scales in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny; Roberts, Owen W.; Maksimovic, Milan; Escoubet, Philippe C.; Zouganelis, Yannis

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms of dissipation, and the related heating, in turbulent collisionless plasmas (such as the solar wind) represents nowadays one of the key issues of plasma physics. Although the complex behavior of the solar wind has been matter of investigation of many years, some of the primary problems still remain a puzzle for the scientific community. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to current sheets and Alfvén vortex-like structures. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field and typical scales around ion characteristic scales. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame. Moreover, a further analysis on the ion velocity distribution shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the proton distribution function appears strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss possible interpretation of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma.

  20. Biological Nutrient Removal in an Intermittently Aerated Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of biological processes from carbonaceous impurities removal to nitrogen and phosphorus removal had an impact on the biological system configuration. The system must be well designed, optimized, and operated at its optimum in order to meet the ever more stringent effluent standards. An intermittently aerated completely mixed lab-scale activated sludge bioreactor (IACMB has been used for modelling biological processes of nutrients removal. Concerning the nitrogen removal, the operating cycles 15–30 (15 minutes of aeration, 30 minutes of only mixing without aeration and 30–30 were tested. For the experiments with luxury uptake processes, the operating cycles 15–45, 15–90, 30–60 and 15–75 were used. The cycle 15–75 was the most satisfactory with convenient lengths of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic period, high efficiency of the nitrification and denitrification processes, and significant decrease in phosphorus concentration. The results have shown that the intermittently aerated bioreactors are suitable for nitrogen removal as well as luxury uptake of phosphorus. The main advantage is high flexibility in maintenance and control of biochemical environments in the bioreactor.

  1. Tracking Intermittently Speaking Multiple Speakers Using a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Quinlan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.

  2. Positive effects of intermittent fasting in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, David Yang-Wei; Ng, Gavin Yong Quan; Poh, Luting; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2017-03-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary protocol where energy restriction is induced by alternate periods of ad libitum feeding and fasting. Prophylactic intermittent fasting has been shown to extend lifespan and attenuate the progress and severity of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular (e.g. stroke and myocardial infarction), neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) and cancerous diseases in animal models. Stroke is the second leading cause of death, and lifestyle risk factors such as obesity and physical inactivity have been associated with elevated risks of stroke in humans. Recent studies have shown that prophylactic IF may mitigate tissue damage and neurological deficit following ischemic stroke by a mechanism(s) involving suppression of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death pathways in animal stroke models. This review summarizes data supporting the potential hormesis mechanisms of prophylactic IF in animal models, and with a focus on findings from animal studies of prophylactic IF in stroke in our laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Intermittent Traction in Patients With Cervical Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OA is the most common joint disease occuring after middle age.Because of the high mobility of the neck, OA is common in the cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of intermittent traction on patients with mild and moderate cervical OA. Therefore, 32 patients with cervical OA were recruited.Methods:Aclinical trial study was designed for patients with cervical OA that were randomly assigned in two equal groups.Control group received a routine physical therapy protocol which included moist heat, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, and an exercise for neck and shoulder girdle. Experimental group received a routine physical therapy protocol plus intermittent traction (IT.Results: Pain and mobility improved in both groups.There was significant difference in interaction of the improvement of cervical pain between the two groups,the rate of pain reduction; sleep ease, medicine taking and range of motion (ROM improvement in the experimental group were higher than that of the control group.Conclusion: The results justify the efficacy of IT, therefore it can be concluded that the IT is an effective modality for patients with mild and moderate cervical OA.  

  4. Intermittency in the Helimak, a simple magnetic torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. I.; Rowan, W. L.; Gentle, K. W.; Horton, W.; Bernard, T.

    2017-10-01

    Irregularly-spaced, large-amplitude bursts are observed in the Helimak plasma turbulence with sufficient definition to investigate their physical basis and possibly improve understanding of the induced particle transport. The Helimak is an experimental realization of a sheared cylindrical slab that generates and heats a plasma with microwaves and confines it in a helical magnetic field. Although it is MHD stable, the plasma is always in a nonlinearly saturated state of microturbulence. The intermittency in this turbulence manifests itself in highly skewed PDFs of the normalized electron density. Cross-conditional averaging exposes large amplitude structures propagating down the density gradient at a few hundred meters per second. Introduction of a radial electric field via bias plates appears to suppress these intermittent transport events (ITEs) for Er pointing down the density gradient. In addition, the cross-conditionally averaged waveforms are relatively unchanged as connection length is varied. Within certain regimes, our measurements are consistent with the predictions of a stochastic model that represents the plasma fluctuations as a random sequence of burst events. Furthermore, we attempt to gain insight into the physical origin of these ITEs by searching for similar statistical behavior in fluid and gyrokinetic simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02- 04ER5476.

  5. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  6. Intermittent exotropia surgery: results in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaho, Dayane Cristine; Wang, Serena Xiaohong; Weakley, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (groups. One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (page, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.

  7. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  8. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  9. Lagrangian Statistics and Intermittency in Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liru; Zhuang, Wei; Huang, Yongxiang

    2017-12-12

    Due to the nonlinear interaction between different flow patterns, for instance, ocean current, meso-scale eddies, waves, etc, the movement of ocean is extremely complex, where a multiscale statistics is then relevant. In this work, a high time-resolution velocity with a time step 15 minutes obtained by the Lagrangian drifter deployed in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from July 2012 to October 2012 is considered. The measured Lagrangian velocity correlation function shows a strong daily cycle due to the diurnal tidal cycle. The estimated Fourier power spectrum E(f) implies a dual-power-law behavior which is separated by the daily cycle. The corresponding scaling exponents are close to -1.75 and -2.75 respectively for the time scale larger (resp. 0.1 ≤ f ≤ 0.4 day -1 ) and smaller (resp. 2 ≤ f ≤ 8 day -1 ) than 1 day. A Hilbert-based approach is then applied to this data set to identify the possible multifractal property of the cascade process. The results show an intermittent dynamics for the time scale larger than 1 day, while a less intermittent dynamics for the time scale smaller than 1 day. It is speculated that the energy is partially injected via the diurnal tidal movement and then transferred to larger and small scales through a complex cascade process, which needs more studies in the near future.

  10. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  11. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  12. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  13. Optimization of Flowline Scheduling vs. Balanced Resources and Task Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Martinez, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis is a study of the location-based management systems (LBMS) in construction projects. First, a review of the history of both the traditional (CPM, PERT) and the new methods (LBMS) set the basis of understanding for the need of changing the approach in planning. This change claims for an evolution from the activity-based planning to the location-based as a response to the change this production type has suffered, especially with the introduction of new philosophies as lean co...

  14. Balanced Ecological Use of Biomass Resources in DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    . The use of biomass for energy purposes may however conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. The official Danish policies are supporting both an expansion of ecological farming and an expansion of the use of biomass in the energy supply system. This may give rise to conflicts...

  15. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance

  17. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  18. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  19. Data-driven planning of distributed energy resources amidst socio-technical complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rishee K.; Qin, Junjie; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-08-01

    New distributed energy resources (DER) are rapidly replacing centralized power generation due to their environmental, economic and resiliency benefits. Previous analyses of DER systems have been limited in their ability to account for socio-technical complexities, such as intermittent supply, heterogeneous demand and balance-of-system cost dynamics. Here we develop ReMatch, an interdisciplinary modelling framework, spanning engineering, consumer behaviour and data science, and apply it to 10,000 consumers in California, USA. Our results show that deploying DER would yield nearly a 50% reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over the status quo even after accounting for socio-technical complexities. We abstract a detailed matching of consumers to DER infrastructure from our results and discuss how this matching can facilitate the development of smart and targeted renewable energy policies, programmes and incentives. Our findings point to the large-scale economic and technical feasibility of DER and underscore the pertinent role DER can play in achieving sustainable energy goals.

  20. Water Resources Systems Engineering - Cornell University

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Growing concerns about how “change” (climate, land-use, population, etc.) will strain our water resources is motivating the need for the next generation of professionals that can innovate the planning and management of these systems. Course topics build on the legacy of research in the water resources systems area and seek to provide a new generation of planners with an enhanced ability to discover and negotiate the highly uncertain tradeoffs we face in balancing the water resources demands o...