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Sample records for balance alters global

  1. Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D Claire; Cheng, Zhangrui; Chowdhury, Waliul; Fenwick, Mark A; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Morris, Dermot G; Patton, Joe; Murphy, John J

    2009-09-01

    Most dairy cows suffer uterine microbial contamination postpartum. Persistent endometritis often develops, associated with reduced fertility. We used a model of differential feeding and milking regimes to produce cows in differing negative energy balance status in early lactation (mild or severe, MNEB or SNEB). Blood hematology was assessed preslaughter at 2 wk postpartum. RNA expression in endometrial samples was compared using bovine Affymetrix arrays. Data were mapped using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I remained lower in the SNEB group, whereas blood nonesterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were raised. White blood cell count and lymphocyte number were reduced in SNEB cows. Array analysis of endometrial samples identified 274 differentially expressed probes representing 197 recognized genes between the energy balance groups. The main canonical pathways affected related to immunological and inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorders. Inflammatory response genes with major upregulation in SNEB cows included matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines, cytokines, and calgranulins. Expression of several interferon-inducible genes including ISG20, IFIH1, MX1, and MX2 were also significantly increased in the SNEB cows. These results provide evidence that cows in SNEB were still undergoing an active uterine inflammatory response 2 wk postpartum, whereas MNEB cows had more fully recovered from their energy deficit, with their endometrium reaching a more advanced stage of repair. SNEB may therefore prevent cows from mounting an effective immune response to the microbial challenge experienced after calving, prolonging the time required for uterine recovery and compromising subsequent fertility.

  2. Global Leadership is a Balancing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Global leadership is not a "state of being" or achievement, but rather a continuous process of achieving balance between control and empowerment on the one hand, and between global and local priorities on the other - all in the face of an increasing number of complexities, constituencies...

  3. Altered balance of functional brain networks in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Todd S; Leong, KaWai; Sanford, Nicole; Tipper, Christine M; Lavigne, Katie M

    2016-02-28

    Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is linked to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task switching Stroop paradigm which demanded internally directed attention to task instructions. The typical pattern of reciprocity between the DAN/FPN and DMN was observed for healthy controls but not for patients, suggesting a reduction in the internally focussed thought important for maintenance of instructions and strategies in schizophrenia. The observed alteration in the balance between DAN/FPN and DMN in patients may reflect a general mechanism underlying multiple forms of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including global processing deficits such as cognitive inefficiency and impaired context processing. PMID:26786152

  4. Global helium particle balance in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global helium particle balance in long-pulse discharges is analyzed for the first time in the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the plasma-facing components of the first wall and the divertor tiles composed of stainless steel and carbon, respectively. During the 2-min discharge sustained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH), helium is observed to be highly retained in the wall (regarded as both the first wall and the divertor tiles). Almost all (about 96%) puffed helium particles (1.3 × 1022 He) are absorbed in the wall near the end of the discharge. Even though a dynamic retention is eliminated, 56% is still absorbed. The analysis is also applied to longer pulse discharges over 40 min by ICRH and ECH, indicating that the helium wall retention is dynamically changed in time. At the initial phase of the discharge, a mechanism for adsorbing helium other than dynamical retention is invoked

  5. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  6. Altered global brain signal in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Glasser, Matthew F.; Pittenger, Christopher; Krystal, John H.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Glahn, David C.; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia display a complex neurobiology, which has long been associated with distributed brain dysfunction. However, no investigation has tested whether schizophrenia shows alterations in global brain signal (GS), a signal derived from functional MRI and often discarded as a meaningless baseline in many studies. To evaluate GS alterations associated with schizophrenia, we studied two large chronic patient samples (n = 90, n = 71), comparing them to healthy subjects (n = 220) and patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 73). We identified and replicated increased cortical power and variance in schizophrenia, an effect predictive of symptoms yet obscured by GS removal. Voxel-wise signal variance was also increased in schizophrenia, independent of GS effects. Both findings were absent in bipolar patients, confirming diagnostic specificity. Biologically informed computational modeling of shared and nonshared signal propagation through the brain suggests that these findings may be explained by altered net strength of overall brain connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:24799682

  7. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Aalbers

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy a

  8. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Baines, Kevin H.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  9. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  10. Global Banking and the Balance Sheet Channel of Monetary Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Uluc Aysun; Sami Alpanda

    2012-01-01

    The literature typically finds that the development of financial markets has decreased the ability of central banks to affect the real economy. This paper shows that this negative relationship does not hold between the balance sheet channel of monetary transmission and bank globalization -- one aspect of financial development. The reason is that global banks are more sensitive to their borrowers’ leverage. By affecting this leverage, monetary policy has a larger impact on global banks’ lendin...

  11. Unconscious local motion alters global image speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieu K Khuu

    Full Text Available Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed.

  12. Wanted: institutions for balancing global food and energy markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass for energy use is further escalating existing food security risks. Managing these risks is a task for global institutions. These should ensure timely investment in the world's capacity for producing biomass and balance the use of this biomass for foods and for non-f

  13. Memetic Algorithms: Parametrization and Balancing Local and Global Search

    CERN Document Server

    Sudholt, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This is a preprint of a book chapter from the Handbook of Memetic Algorithms, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 379, ISBN 978-3-642-23246-6, Springer, edited by F. Neri, C. Cotta, and P. Moscato. It is devoted to the parametrization of memetic algorithms and how to find a good balance between global and local search.

  14. Applying for a New Paradigm. Not Anti-globalization, but Alter-globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the alter-globalization opposed not only to the present globalization but also toanti-globalization.Why? Which are the essential arguments in this direction, what does the alter-globalization rely on,as well as its criticism in the field of present day globalization? Why is it often stated that alter globalizationcan constitute a component in the building of a new paradigm that our world however needs somuch?These are the questions our article is trying to answer underlining a Romanian point of view as well.

  15. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  16. Marine ecosystems in alteration under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly thought among fishermen, researchers and in the fishing industries that the administration and harvesting of the fish resources is more important for the stock of fish than are changes in the climate. However, many scientific investigations now link changes in temperature with changes in the spreading, survival and beginning of life processes. There is solid evidence that there are important changes in progress in the North Atlantic marine ecosystem caused by global warming. If the heating of the water masses continues, it will probably have a large impact on the ocean's productivity and consequently for the fishing industry

  17. Carbon Nanomaterials Alter Global Gene Expression Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Sara; Short, John C W; McDermott, Hyoeun; Linan, Alexander; Bartlett, Katelyn; Gadila, Shiva Kumar Goud; Schmelzle, Katie; Wanekaya, Adam; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), which include carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their derivatives, have diverse technological and biomedical applications. The potential toxicity of CNMs to cells and tissues has become an important emerging question in nanotechnology. To assess the toxicity of CNTs and fullerenol C60(OH)24, we in the present work used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the simplest eukaryotic organisms that share fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. We found that treatment with CNMs, regardless of their physical shape, negatively affected the growth rates, end-point cell densities and doubling times of CNM-exposed yeast cells when compared to unexposed cells. To investigate potential mechanisms behind the CNMs-induced growth defects, we performed RNA-Seq dependent transcriptional analysis and constructed global gene expression profiles of fullerenol C60(OH)24- and CNT-treated cells. When compared to non-treated control cells, CNM-treated cells displayed differential expression of genes whose functions are implicated in membrane transporters and stress response, although differentially expressed genes were not consistent between CNT- and fullerenol C60(OH)24-treated groups, leading to our conclusion that CNMs could serve as environmental toxic factors to eukaryotic cells. PMID:27483901

  18. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    C Yue; Ciais, Philippe; P. Cadule; Thonicke, K.; T. T. van Leeuwen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901–2012, using the ORCHIDEE global ...

  19. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 2 : Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    C Yue; Ciais, P.; P. Cadule; Thonicke, K.; T. T. van Leeuwen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901-2012, using the ORCHIDEE global ...

  20. Global Energy and Water Balances in the Latest Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Kang, Suchul; Park, Hye-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The recently released Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data are evaluated and compared with three other global reanalyses, namely Interim version of the next European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERRA-Interim), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), in terms of global energy and water balances. All four reanalyses show an energy imbalance at TOA and surface. Especially, clouds in JRA-55 are optically weaker than those in the three other reanalyses, leading to excessive outgoing longwave radiation, which in turn causes negative net energy flux at TOA. Moreover, JRA-55 has a negative imbalance at surface and at TOA, which is attributed to systematic positive biases in latent heat flux over the ocean. As for the global water balance, all reanalyses present a similar spatial pattern of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E-P). However, JRA-55 has a relatively strong negative (positive) E-P in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and South Pacific Convergence Zone (extratropical regions) due to overestimated precipitation (evaporation), in spite of the global net being close to zero. In time series analysis, especially in E-P, significant stepwise changes occur in MERRA, CFSR and ERA-Interim due to the changes occur in MERRA, CFRS and ERA-Interim due to the changes in the satellite observing system used in the data assimilation. Both MERRA and CFSR show a strong downward E-P shift in 1998, simultaneously with the start of the assimilation of AMSU-A sounding radiances. ERA-Interim exhibits an upward E-P shift in 1992 due to changes in observations from the SSM/I of new DMSP satellites. On the contrary, JRA-55 exhibits less trends and remains stable over time, which may be caused by newly available, homogenized observations and advances in data assimilation technique. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological

  1. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  2. Global application of a surface mass balance model using gridded climate data

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. Giesen; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications...

  3. Calibration of a surface mass balance model for global-scale applications

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. Giesen; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, thi...

  4. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    C Yue; Ciais, P.; P. Cadule; Thonicke, K.; T. T. van Leeuwen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901–2012, using th...

  5. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    C Yue; Ciais, P.; P. Cadule; Thonicke, K.; T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought; so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 19...

  6. Global dynamic load-balancing for decentralised distributed simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bragard, Quentin; Ventresque, Anthony; Murphy, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Distributed simulations require partitioning mechanisms to operate, and the best partitioning algorithms try to load-balance the partitions. Dynamic load-balancing, i.e. re-partitioning simulation environments at run-time, becomes essential when the load in the partitions change. In decentralised distributed simulation the information needed to dynamically load-balance seems difficult to collect and to our knowledge, all solutions apply a local dynamic load balancing: partitions exchange load...

  7. The global land and ocean mean energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2016-04-01

    land, and 16 and 100 Wm-2 over oceans, for sensible and latent heat fluxes, respectively. Estimated uncertainties are on the order of 10 and 5 Wm-2 for most surface and TOA fluxes, respectively. Combining these surface budgets with satellite-determined TOA budgets (CERES-EBAF) results in an atmospheric solar absorption of 77 and 82 Wm-2 and a net atmospheric thermal emission of -165 and -190 Wm-2 over land and oceans, respectively. We further revisit the global mean energy balance by combining the area weighed land and ocean mean budgets. This study is published in: Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M., Schär, C., Seneviratne, S.I., Kato, S., Rutan, D., Ammann, C., Wood, E.F., and König-Langlo, G., 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Clim. Dyn., Dyn., 44, 3393-3429, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

  8. Calibration of a surface mass balance model for global-scale applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R. H.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a

  9. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET decreased by 23% during 1986–2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  10. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  11. Global Warming: The Balance of Evidence and Its Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Keller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its societal implications. With the recent publication of the Third Assessment Report of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there has been renewed interest and controversy about how certain the scientific community is of its conclusions: that humans are influencing the climate and that global temperatures will continue to rise rapidly in this century. This review attempts to update what is known and in particular what advances have been made in the past 5 years or so. It does not attempt to be comprehensive. Rather it focuses on the most controversial issues, which are actually few in number. They are: 1-Is the surface temperature record accurate or is it biased by heat from cities, etc.? 2-Is that record significantly different from past warmings such as the Medieval Warming Period? 3-Is not the sun’s increasing activity the cause of most of the warming? 4-Can we model climate and predict its future, or is it just too complex and chaotic? 5-Are there any other changes in climate other than warming, and can they be attributed to the warming?Despite continued uncertainties, the review finds affirmative answers to these questions. Of particular interest are advances that seem to explain why satellites do not see as much warming as surface instruments, how we are getting a good idea of recent paleoclimates, and why the 20th century temperature record was so complex. It makes the point that in each area new information could come to light that would change our thinking on the quantitative magnitude and timing of anthropogenic warming, but it is unlikely to alter the basic conclusions.Finally, there is a very brief discussion of the societal policy response to the scientific message, and the author comments on his 2-year email discussions with many of the world’s most outspoken critics of the

  12. Global monthly water stress: I. Water balance and water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields f

  13. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  14. A proposal for a balanced business administration's curricula in a globalized world

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Naruo; Sorin George Toma

    2007-01-01

    In the society of the 21st century, the importance of education is greater than ever. The authors of the paper make a proposal for a balanced business administration's curricula in a globalized world.

  15. Are extremes of consumption in eating disorders related to an altered balance between reward and inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E Wierenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED is the disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.

  16. Are Extremes of Consumption in Eating Disorders Related to an Altered Balance between Reward and Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E.; Ely, Alice; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Bailer, Ursula F.; Simmons, Alan N.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is the “disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food” (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches. PMID:25538579

  17. Sox7-sustained expression alters the balance between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors at the onset of blood specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandillet, Arnaud; Serrano, Alicia G; Pearson, Stella; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2009-11-26

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation of precursors at the onset of hematopoiesis specification are poorly understood. By using a global gene expression profiling approach during the course of embryonic stem cell differentiation, we identified Sox7 as a potential candidate gene involved in the regulation of blood lineage formation from the mesoderm germ layer. In the present study, we show that Sox7 is transiently expressed in mesodermal precursors as they undergo specification to the hematopoietic program. Sox7 knockdown in vitro significantly decreases the formation of both primitive erythroid and definitive hematopoietic progenitors as well as endothelial progenitors. In contrast, Sox7-sustained expression in the earliest committed hematopoietic precursors promotes the maintenance of their multipotent and self-renewing status. Removal of this differentiation block driven by Sox7-enforced expression leads to the efficient differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors to all erythroid and myeloid lineages. This study identifies Sox7 as a novel and important player in the molecular regulation of the first committed blood precursors. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the mere sustained expression of Sox7 is sufficient to completely alter the balance between proliferation and differentiation at the onset of hematopoiesis.

  18. [Comment on “GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment”] More global water balance uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.

    I concur strongly with Chahine's January 14, 1992, Eos article on GEWEX and support his response to Dincer's letter (Eos, June 16, 1992) emphasizing that “our quantitative knowledge of the hydrological cycle remains surprisingly poor.” This is despite the magnificent report on the world water balance to which Dincer refers and his allusion that the existence of a low residual in closing the water balance indicates low errors of measurement of the global budget components.

  19. Global energy balance and density limit on CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total radiative power losses were measured with a pyroelectric detector on the CASTOR tokamak in a broad range of plasma parameters. It was shown that while the most important channel of energy losses for the low density operation (average ne19 m-3) is thermal conductivity, the high density regimes are radiative dominant. Using a simple analytic energy balance model, the connection is discussed between such a high level of radiation and the shrinking of the current channel resulting in an enhanced MHD activity. (author)

  20. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  1. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gleeson, T.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Beek, L.P.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems1,2. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water3–6, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater

  2. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F P; van Beek, Ludovicus P H

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional and global scales. It remains unclear how the rate of global groundwater depletion compares to the rate of natural renewal and the supply needed to support ecosystems. Here we define the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services) and show that humans are overexploiting groundwater in many large aquifers that are critical to agriculture, especially in Asia and North America. We estimate that the size of the global groundwater footprint is currently about 3.5 times the actual area of aquifers and that about 1.7 billion people live in areas where groundwater resources and/or groundwater-dependent ecosystems are under threat. That said, 80 per cent of aquifers have a groundwater footprint that is less than their area, meaning that the net global value is driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. The groundwater footprint is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the use, renewal and ecosystem requirements of groundwater at an aquifer scale. It can be combined with the water footprint and virtual water calculations, and be used to assess the potential for increasing agricultural yields with renewable groundwaterref. The method could be modified to evaluate other resources with renewal rates that are slow and spatially heterogeneous, such as fisheries, forestry or soil.

  3. EVALUATION OF TWO-LEVEL GLOBAL LOAD BALANCING FRAMEWORK IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Huei Liang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With technological advancements and constant changes of Internet, cloud computing has been today's trend. With the lower cost and convenience of cloud computing services, users have increasingly put their Web resources and information in the cloud environment. The availability and reliability of the client systems will become increasingly important. Today cloud applications slightest interruption, the impact will be significant for users. It is an important issue that how to ensure reliability and stability of the cloud sites. Load balancing would be one good solution. This paper presents a framework for global server load balancing of the Web sites in a cloud with two-level load balancing model. The proposed framework is intended for adapting an open-source load-balancing system and the framework allows the network service provider to deploy a load balancer in different data centers dynamically while the customers need more load balancers for increasing the availability.

  4. Simulation of rock mass balance of two typical altered rocks in Wulong gold deposit of Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wulong gold deposit hosted in granite and fine-grained diorite dikes, is a typical gold deposit of quartz vein type. Granite and fine-grained diorite dikes in the ore deposit were altered by metallogenic fluid.Based on the altered zoning, the samples of petrochemistry were collected and major and trace elements were analyzed systematically. Calculation of rock mass balance shows that the major elements (SiO2, K2 O, P2O5,Fe2 O3) in the two typical altered rocks are clearly added into the altered system, and that trace elements (V,Y, Zr, Ni, Co, Sr) assume an increasing and decreasing tendencies in the altered granite and altered diorite dike, respectively. The fluid/rock ratios are 30.17-181.00 and 115.44-692.67 respectively for altered granite and altered diorite dike, they have profoundly effects on metallogenesis.

  5. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content...... tuned by the attention map considers the degradations on the significantly attended stimuli. To generate the overall video quality score, global and local quality features are combined by a content adaptive linear fusion method and pooled over time, taking the temporal quality variation...

  6. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  7. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    absorbed solar and net thermal radiative exchanges at the Earth's surface. Globally averaged, this surface radiation balance is positive, since radiative absorption, scattering and emission in the climate system act to generate an energy surplus at the surface and an energy deficit in the atmosphere (Liepert 2010). Evaporation, or more precisely its energy equivalent, the latent heat flux, is the main process that compensates for this imbalance between surface and atmosphere, since the latent heat dominates the convective energy flux over sensible heating. The radiative energy surplus at the surface is thus mainly consumed by evaporation and moist convection and subsequently released in the atmosphere through condensation. This implies that any alterations in the available radiative energy will induce changes in the water fluxes. Our focus in this editorial is therefore on the surface radiation balance as the principal driver of the global hydrological cycle. Note that this energetic view is in agreement with that of Richter and Xie (2008) who argue that the spatial and temporal behaviour of the process of evaporation is controlled by surface and atmospheric properties such as atmospheric stability, wind speed, moisture deficit and moisture availability. From radiation theory it is expected that with increasing radiative absorption due to abundance of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and consequent warming, the emission of thermal energy from the atmosphere towards the surface is increasing (known as downward thermal radiation). This enhances the radiative energy surplus at the surface, and, where surface water is not limited, fuels evaporation besides warming the Earth's surface. The enhanced greenhouse effect therefore tends to accelerate the hydrological cycle, as also shown in many climate model simulations with increasing levels of greenhouse gases (e.g., IPCC 2007, but also see Yang et al 2003, Andrews et al 2009). We can assume that the increase in

  8. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hoogeveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for Internal Renewable Water Resources, as published in AQUASTAT, FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water. The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models.

  9. Attention modeling for video quality assessment:balancing global quality and local quality

    OpenAIRE

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in ...

  10. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm.

  11. Good Governance of land and natural resources : Balancing local and global interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Roo, de N.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seminar on ‘good governance of land and natural resources; balancing local and global interests’. Three case studies were presented on large-scale land acquisitions, biofuels – fuelling development in Brazil and governance of the mineral sector in Eastern DRC. P

  12. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed hig

  13. Association between functional alterations of senescence and senility and disorders of gait and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Teixeira-Leite

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. METHODS: Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1 a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA to evaluate gait; 2 a mini-mental state examination (MMSE; 3 the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4 the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS; and 5 a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA scale. RESULTS: Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.

  14. Calibration of a surface mass balance model for global-scale applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and, hence, influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Modelled winter mass balance profiles are fitted to observations on 82 glaciers in different regions to determine representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation. For 75 of the 82 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate dataset has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.5. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a−1 m−1. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 82 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance

  15. Global application of a surface mass balance model using gridded climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and hence influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation are determined by fitting modelled winter mass balance profiles to observations on 80 glaciers in different regions. For 72 of the 80 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate data set has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.55. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a−1 m. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 80 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance sensitivity to

  16. Calibration of a surface mass balance model for global-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, R. H.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and, hence, influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Modelled winter mass balance profiles are fitted to observations on 82 glaciers in different regions to determine representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation. For 75 of the 82 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate dataset has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.5. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a-1 m-1. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 82 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance sensitivity to changes in temperature is

  17. Global application of a surface mass balance model using gridded climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, R. H.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and hence influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation are determined by fitting modelled winter mass balance profiles to observations on 80 glaciers in different regions. For 72 of the 80 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate data set has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.55. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a-1 m. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 80 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance sensitivity to changes in temperature is

  18. Trends and variability in the global dataset of glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwedeff, William G.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2016-06-01

    Glacier mass balance (i.e., accumulation and ablation) is the most direct connection between climate and glaciers. We perform a comprehensive evaluation of the available global network of mass-balance measurements. Each mass-balance time series is decomposed into a trend and the variability about that trend. Observed variability ranges by an order of magnitude, depending on climate setting (i.e., maritime vs continental). For the great majority of glaciers, variability is well characterized by normally distributed, random fluctuations that are uncorrelated between seasons, or in subsequent years. The magnitude of variability for both summer and winter is well correlated with mean wintertime balance, which reflects the climatic setting. Collectively, summertime variability exceeds wintertime variability, except for maritime glaciers. Trends in annual mass balance are generally negative, driven primarily by summertime changes. Approximately 25 % of annual-mean records show statistically significant negative trends when judged in isolation. In aggregate, the global trend is negative and significant. We further evaluate the magnitude of trends relative to the variability. We find that, on average, trends are approximately -0.2 standard deviations per decade, although there is a broad spread among individual glaciers. Finally, for two long records we also compare mass-balance trends and variability with nearby meteorological stations. We find significant differences among stations meaning caution is warranted in interpreting any point measurement (such as mass balance) as representative of region-wide behavior. By placing observed trends in the context of natural variability, the results are useful for interpreting past glacial history, and for placing constraints on future predictability.

  19. Detecting Disturbance and its Impact on Ecosystem Carbon Balance from Global to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Anderegg, W.; Poulter, B.; Cooper, L. A.; Smith, W. K.; Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the terrestrial biosphere is the removal of approximately one quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. However, as patterns of temperature and precipitation change so is the frequency and intensity of ecosystem disturbance. Despite evidence that ecosystem disturbance regimes have shifted leading to widespread forest mortality, the net effect of disturbance on the carbon (C) balance of forest ecosystems remains uncertain. We will use satellite and atmospheric observations to deconvolve net carbon exchange (NEE) into its component fluxes of gross primary productivity and total respiration (e.g. NEE= GPP - R) at global to regional scales. At the global scale we find that NEE has increased over the last 50 years and appears to have accelerated as a result of diminished R over the last 15 years. However the variance in global NEE has also increased perhaps due to inter-annual variability in R, especially within semi-arid ecosystems. These global trends are not necessarily consistent with regional patterns in the net carbon balance, especially across the western US. Atmospheric mass balance suggests that ecosystems of North America have shifted from a net C sink to a net C source. While prolonged drought across the Western US has likely caused this shift in continental scale NEE, attributing this shift in the net C balance to any one mechanism of disturbance (e.g. drought, insect infestation, and fire) or their interactions is challenging. Lastly, we will evaluate existing observing networks, such as NOAA/ESRL and Ameriflux, and how they can be combined with nascent networks, such as NEON, EarthNetworks, and OCO-2, to identify regional disturbance processes that may be causing increasing variance in the global C cycle.

  20. The balanced development of basic education in the context of globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qi-lin; Kong Kai

    2006-01-01

    Basic education is not only an essential means for eliminating stratification and differences in society but also one of the main reasons for the enlargement of the gap between the rich and the poor.Because it faces pressure in the context of globalization,a balanced development of basic education would be a good way to relieve this pressure.This paper summarizes the international experience of balanced development of basic education in five aspects:policies and laws,educational funds,teacher resources,disadvantaged groups and conditions for running a school.On the basis of these,the authors put forward relevant suggestions concerning the balanced development of basic education in China.

  1. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships.

  2. Global Functioning of COPD Patients With and Without Functional Balance Impairment: An Exploratory Analysis Based on the ICF Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Jácome, Cristina; Gabriel, Raquel; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Balance impairment is a common manifestation in older people with COPD and may contribute to overall functional decline; however, the relationship between balance and global functioning has not been studied. This study aimed to explore the global functioning of COPD patients with and without functional balance impairment. Functional balance was assessed with the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test and global functioning with the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases. Participants (n = 134) were divided in 2 groups according to their performance in TUG (with and without balance impairment) and the ICF Core Set results were compared between groups. Fifty-four (40.3%) participants had functional balance impairment. The groups presented a similar extent of problems in several categories of the ICF components. However, participants with balance impairment were more severely affected (p social life, and a more negative perception of Environmental factors related to products and technology of buildings for private use and social support services (p balance impairment have more functional problems and are more severely restricted in daily life than patients without compromised balance. Understanding the relationship between balance control and global functioning will contribute to guide interventions aimed at maintaining functioning and minimizing disability.

  3. A global balance for the stable water isotopes: A comparison between observations and general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) equipped with water isotope diagnostics present a major step forward in the understanding of the global cycle of the stable water isotopes, 18O and Deuterium. Several studies published until now focused on a detailed comparison between simulated isotope signals in meteoric water and the IAEA/GNIP network in order to gain further insight into the water cycle as numerically represented by the AGCMs. Another set of studies focused on the application of AGCMs on paleo time scales (from inter-annual to glacial/interglacial cycles). In our contribution here, we discuss the global balance of the water isotopes under varying boundary conditions. We use the ECHAM4 general circulation model which was run under boundary conditions corresponding to different time slices throughout the Holocene until the last glacial (pre-industrial, 6 Kyr BP, 11 Kyr BP, 11 Kyr BP, 14 Kyr BP, 16 Kyr BP, 3 different runs for 21 Kyr BP, 175 Kyr BP). A further simulation was performed corresponding to the estimated boundary conditions for a possible future doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. The global balance of the water isotopes is controlled by the isotopic signal emitted in the tropics and subtropics. In these regions, principally sea surface temperatures and the relative humidity in the planetary boundary layer affect the isotopic composition of evaporated vapour. We therefore discuss the influence of this principal water vapour source on extra-tropical precipitation and its isotopic composition. We specifically focus on the possibility of a compensation effect between low and high latitudes in the global balance of the water isotopes. This approach is evaluated by analysing the global water isotope budget for the last 50 years on one hand as simulated by a long-term integration of the ECHAM4 model forced with observed SSTs for the same time period and, on the other hand, as observed by the IAEA/GNIP network. (author)

  4. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  5. Impact of climatic noise on global estimates of terrestrial water balance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, Olga; Gusev, Yeugeniy; Semenov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of water balance components performed by different authors in climate impact studies are characterized by a large scatter or uncertainty associated, in particular, with application of different meteorological forcing data (simulated by climate models), different estimates of model parameters, and different hydrological models. In the present work, the objective uncertainty, which cannot be reduced by means of better physical description of the processes under study or by means of improvement of the quality of input data for model simulations, and which is an internal feature of the atmosphere - hydrosphere - land surface system, is considered. This uncertainty is caused by a chaotic character of atmospheric processes (i.e. by so-called climatic noise), their instability with respect to small errors in determination of initial conditions for modeling the evolution of meteorological variables. Our study is devoted to investigating the impact of climatic noise on the estimates of terrestrial water balance components (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration) on a global scale. To achieve the effect of climatic noise 45 simulations were performed by the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 under identical lower boundary conditions (including sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations) and constant external forcing parameters. The only differences between the simulations were initial conditions of the atmosphere. Meteorological fields simulated by ECHAM5 for the period of 1979-2012 were used as forcing data (with 6-hour temporal resolution and one-degree spatial one) by the land surface model Soil Water - Atmosphere - Plants (SWAP) for hydrological simulations on a global scale. As a result, 45-member ensemble of the water balance components for the land surface of the Earth excluding Antarctica was obtained. Analysis of the obtained results allowed us to estimate the lowest level of uncertainty which can be achieved in climate impact

  6. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  7. A new technology aimed at re-establishing a global sulphur supply/demand balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavens, A.F. [Black and Veatch Energy, Redhill (United Kingdom); Jorgensen, C.; Ogg, D. [Black and Veatch Energy, Kansas (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The world's sulphur supply is mainly determined by involuntary production of elemental sulphur during the processing of oil and gas. As a result, sulphur supply is decoupled from demand, resulting in an imbalance between the two. For almost two decades, sulphur supply has exceeded demand, which has raised significant concerns for oil and gas producers such as where to store all of the excess sulphur, and how to transport a low-value commodity to market in an economically attractive fashion. Black and Veatch is involved in the development of a new technology called sulphur to energy process (STEP{sup TM}) which has the potential to assist in balancing global sulphur supply and demand, as well as affording other benefits such as low-emission energy production. This paper presented the potential merits of the STEP as a means to reestablish a global sulphur supply/demand balance for the world trading market. It explored the other potential benefits that may result from the use of this new technology and compared STEP to other technologies and operating schemes that regulate sulphur supply. It was concluded that STEP has the potential to allow the processor to produce elemental sulphur when demand is high, or to provide safe and ecological disposal when demand is low, with the added benefits of energy recovery from the sulphur combustion process, and sour gas reservoir sweetening over time as sulphur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulphide present in the reservoir. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 22 figs.

  8. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901-2012, using the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model equipped with the SPITFIRE model. We conducted two simulations with and without the fire module being activated, using a static land cover. The simulated global fire carbon emissions for 1997-2009 are 2.1 Pg C yr-1, which is close to the 2.0 Pg C yr-1 as estimated by GFED3.1. The simulated land carbon uptake after accounting for emissions for 2003-2012 is 3.1 Pg C yr-1, which is within the uncertainty of the residual carbon sink estimation (2.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr-1). Fires are found to reduce the terrestrial carbon uptake by 0.32 Pg C yr-1 over 1901-2012, or 20% of the total carbon sink in a world without fire. The fire-induced land sink reduction (SRfire) is significantly correlated with climate variability, with larger sink reduction occurring in warm and dry years, in particular during El Niño events. Our results suggest a "fire respiration partial compensation". During the 10 lowest SRfire years (SRfire = 0.17 Pg C yr-1), fires mainly compensate for the heterotrophic respiration that would occur in a world without fire. By contrast, during the 10 highest SRfire fire years (SRfire = 0.49 Pg C yr-1), fire emissions far exceed their respiration partial compensation and create a larger reduction in terrestrial carbon uptake. Our findings have important implications for the future role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance, because the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon will be diminished by future climate change characterized by increased

  9. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought; so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901–2012, using the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE equipped with the SPITFIRE model. We conducted two simulations with and without the fire module being activated, with a static land cover. The simulated global fire carbon emissions for 1997–2009 are 2.1 Pg C yr−1, which is close to the 2.0 Pg C yr−1 as given by the GFED3.1 data. The simulated land carbon uptake after accounting for emissions for 2003–2012 is 3.1Pg C yr−1, within the uncertainty of the residual carbon sink estimation (2.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr−1. Fires are found to reduce the terrestrial carbon uptake by 0.32 Pg C yr−1 over 1901–2012, that is 20% of the total carbon sink in a world without fire. The fire-induced land sink reduction (SRfire is significantly correlated with climate variability, with larger sink reduction occurring in warm and dry years, in particular during El Niño events. Our results suggest a symmetrical "respiration equivalence" by fires. During the ten lowest SRfire years (SRfire = 0.17 Pg C yr−1, fires mainly compensate the heterotrophic respiration that would happen if no fires had occurred. By contrast, during the ten highest SRfire fire years (SRfire = 0.49 Pg C yr−1, fire emissions exceed their "respiration equivalence" and create a substantial reduction in terrestrial carbon uptake. Our finding has important implication for the future role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance, because the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon will be diminished by future climate

  10. 77 FR 14832 - Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 21, 2012 (76 FR 9971). At the... Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, ME; Amended Certification Regarding..., Inc., including on-site leased workers from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing,...

  11. Parallelization Load Balance Strategy for a Global Grid-Point Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiangjun; CHEN Dehui; SONG Junqiang; JIN Zhiyan; YANG Xuesheng; ZHANG Hongliang

    2010-01-01

    The Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System(GRAPES)is a new-generation operational numerical weather prediction(NWP)model developed by the China Meteorological Administration(CMA).It is a grid-point model with a code structure different from that of spectral models used in other operational NWP centers such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF),National Centers for Environmental Prediction(NCEP),and Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA),especially in the context of parallel computing.In the GRAPES global model,a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian scheme is used for the discretization over a sphere,which requires careful planning for the busy communications between the arrays of processors,because the Lagrangian differential scheme results in shortened trajectories interpolated between the grid points at the poles and in the associated adjacent areas.This means that the latitude-longitude partitioning is more complex for the polar processors.Therefore,a parallel strategy with efficient computation,balanced load,and synchronous communication shall be developed.In this paper,a message passing approach based on MPI(Message Passing Interface)group communication is proposed.Its key-point is to group the polar processors in row with matrix-topology during the processor partitioning.A load balance task distribution algorithm is also discussed.Test runs on the IBM-cluster 1600 at CMA show that the new algorithm is of desired scalability,and the readjusted load balance scheme can reduce the absolute wall clock time by 10% or more.The quasi-operational runs of the model demonstrate that the wall clock time secured by the strategy meets the real-time needs of NWP operations.

  12. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full weight bearing. One problem with this technique not commonly acknowledged is that the harness provides external support that essentially eliminates associated postural adjustments (APAs required for independent gait. We have developed a device to address this issue and conducted a training study for proof of concept of efficacy. Methods We present a tool that can enhance the concept of BWS training by allowing natural APAs to occur mediolaterally. While in a supine position in a 90 deg tilted environment built around a modified hospital bed, subjects wear a backpack frame that is freely moving on air-bearings (cf. puck on an air hockey table and attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provides a load that can be set to emulate various G-like loads. Veridical visual input is provided through two 3-D automultiscopic displays that allow glasses free 3-D vision representing a virtual surrounding environment that may be acquired from sites chosen by the patient. Two groups of 12 healthy subjects were exposed to either strength training alone or a combination of strength and balance training in such a tilted environment over a period of four weeks. Results Isokinetic strength measured during upright squat extension improved similarly in both groups. Measures of balance assessed in upright showed statistically significant improvements only when balance was part of the training in the tilted environment. Postural measures indicated less reliance on

  13. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Ince Serdar; Konrad Janusz; Karlsson Robin; Oddsson Lars IE; Williams Steve R; Zemkova Erika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS) on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full...

  14. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  15. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  16. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  17. Water Balance Defines a Threshold in Soil Chemistry at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E.; Bingham, N.; Lin, Y.; Schimel, J.; Chadwick, O.

    2015-12-01

    Carefully constrained studies in model landscapes demonstrate the existence of pedogenic thresholds, where small changes in external forcing lead to large changes in soil properties. One important threshold defines the relationship between water balance, the availability of nutrient cations, and soil pH. Across rainfall gradients, the loss of alkali and alkaline earth cations occurs abruptly at a critical water-balance. At this threshold, the removal of exchangeable base cations by leaching outstrips their production from weathering, causing a drop in soil pH. This leaching threshold has never been characterized at a global scale, in part because of the tremendous sampling effort required to overcome the confounding effects of rock chemistry, soil age, and topography outside of carefully constrained environmental gradients. We compile an extensive database of soil pH measurements to show that there is a mean global leaching threshold near an annual water balance of zero. Where evaporative demand exceeds precipitation, soil pH is buffered near values of 8.1, but where precipitation exceeds evaporative demand, soil pH rapidly collapses to values near 5.0. Deviations from the threshold can be explained in terms of climatic variability, soil age, and rock chemistry. Regions with arid climates and acid soil pH correspond to zones of intense, periodic leaching (e.g. strongly monsoonal climates), or to highly weathered continental surfaces that have permanently lost their stock of cations (e.g. Australia). Regions with humid climates and neutral soil pH correspond to young landscapes, or to soils derived from base-rich rock (e.g. the Pacific Rim volcanic belt). These results demonstrate that the leaching threshold is a dominant feature of the Earth's surface, with the potential to affect both natural and human-dominated ecosystems. For instance: the leaching threshold might impose a step-function on the terrestrial response to CO2 fertilization, the capacity of soils to

  18. Are Extremes of Consumption in Eating Disorders Related to an Altered Balance between Reward and Inhibition?

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Christina E.; Alice eEly; Amanda eBischoff-Grethe; Bailer, Ursula F.; Alan N Simmons; Kaye, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is the “disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food” (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such ...

  19. The Alteration History of Clovis Class Rocks in Gusev Crater as Determined by Ti-Normalzed Mass Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brat; Ming, Douglas W.; Niles, P. B.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    The West Spur Clovis class rocks in Gusev Crater are some of the most altered rocks in Gusev Crater and likely contain a mixed sulfate and phyllosilicate mineralogy [1,2]. The high S and Cl content of the Clovis rocks suggests that acidic vapors or fluids of H2SO4 and HCl reacted with the Clovis parent rock to form Ca, Mg,- sulfates, iron-oxyhydroxides and secondary aluminosilicates (approx.60 wt.%) of a poorly crystalline nature (e.g., allophane) [1]. Up to 14-17 wt.% phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite, chlorite, serpentine) are hypothesized to exist in the Clovis materials suggesting that Clovis parent materials while possibly exposed to acidic pHs were likely neutralized by basalt dissolution which resulted in mildly acidic pHs (4-6) [1, 2]. This work proposes that subsequent to the alteration of the Clovis rocks, alteration fluids became concentrated in ions resulting in the addition of silicate and salts. The objective of this work is to utilize Ti-normalized mass balance analysis to evaluate (1) mineral gains and losses and (2) elemental gains and losses in the Clovis rocks. Results of this work will be used evaluate the nature of geochemical conditions that affect phyllosilicate and sulfate formation at Gusev crater.

  20. Balancing Global Water Availability and Use at Basin Scale in an Integrated Assessment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Liu, Lu; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Wise, Marshall A.; Davies, Evan

    2016-05-06

    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in IAMs and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.

  1. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water balance models of simple structure are easier to grasp and more clearly connect cause and effect than models of complex structure. Such models are essential for studying large spatial scale land surface water balance in the context of climate and land cover change, both natural and anthropogenic. This study aims to (i develop a large spatial scale water balance model by modifying a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM, and (ii test the model's performance in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET, soil moisture and surface runoff for the coterminous United States (US. Toward these ends, we first introduced development of the "LPJ-Hydrology" (LH model by incorporating satellite-based land covers into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ DGVM instead of dynamically simulating them. We then ran LH using historical (1982–2006 climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells. The simulated ET, soil moisture and surface runoff were compared to existing sets of observed or simulated data for the US. The results indicated that LH captures well the variation of monthly actual ET (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.01 in the Everglades of Florida over the years 1996–2001. The modeled monthly soil moisture for Illinois of the US agrees well (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.01 with the observed over the years 1984–2001. The modeled monthly stream flow for most 12 major rivers in the US is consistent R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficients >0.52 with observed values over the years 1982–2006, respectively. The modeled spatial patterns of annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data. Compared to its predecessor, LH simulates better monthly stream flow in winter and early spring by incorporating effects of solar radiation on snowmelt. Overall, this study proves the feasibility of incorporating satellite-based land-covers into a DGVM for simulating

  2. Energy Balance Alterations Due to Cropland Conversion in a Tropical Montane Environment: Shaded Coffee to Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Holwerda, F.; Salazar-Martinez, D.

    2014-12-01

    Although land use change (LUC) is an important driver of changes in climate, very limited field observations of atmosphere-landscape interactions exist in tropical montane zones to examine the extent to which LUCs affect climate locally and regionally. The lack of ground observations hampers the evaluation of satellite-derived datasets of land surface parameters as well as the validation of regional climate models. The first results of an ongoing study of the climate effects of a LUC trajectory in the lower montane region (1200 m a.s.l.) of central Veracruz, Mexico, are presented. The radiation balance, turbulent fluxes and soil heat flux were measured in order to obtain field-derived land surface parameters (albedo and Bowen ratio) of two contrasting land uses: shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU) plantations. Measurements were conducted on days representing different seasons and crop stages during 2014: cold-dry (January), warm-dry (March) and warm-wet (July). Average noon-time albedo was higher for SU than for CO (0.14 vs. 0.11). Soil heat flux was on average 13% and 12% of net radiation for SU and CO, respectively. Preliminary turbulent flux calculations indicate that noon-time Bowen ratio was higher for sugar cane (range: 1.0-1.5) compared to shaded coffee (range: 0.5-1.0). Seasonal (and crop-stage) changes affected the surface parameters of SU mostly. For example, the SU Bowen ratio increased with decreasing soil moisture, indicating soil moisture limitation for transpiration reducing latent heat flux. In contrast, the shaded coffee Bowen ratio remained relatively constant across measuring periods. The energy balance closure was 80% (pending complete eddy covariance data corrections). These results indicate that the conversion of shaded coffee to sugarcane result in a drier and hotter lower atmosphere. Next steps include examining the implications of these local changes for regional climate, with special attention to cloud formation, using a regional model

  3. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity. PMID:26498815

  4. Altered excitatory-inhibitory balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kehrer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disorder of high incidence, affecting approximately 1% of the world population. The essential neurotransmitter pathology of schizophrenia remains poorly defined, despite huge advances over the past half-century in identifying neurochemical and pathological abnormalities in the disease. The dopamine/serotonin hypothesis has originally provided much of the momentum for neurochemical research in schizophrenia. In recent years, the attention has, however, shifted to the glutamate system, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS and towards a concept of functional imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission at the network level in various brain regions in schizophrenia. The evidence indicating a central role for the NMDAreceptor subtype in the etiology of schizophrenia has led to the NMDA-hypofunction model of this disease and the use of phencyclidines as a means to induce the NMDA-hypofunction state in animal models. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings highlighting the importance of the NMDA-hypofunction model of schizophrenia, both from a clinical perspective, as well as in opening a line of research, which enables electrophysiological studies at the cellular and network level in vitro. In particular, changes in excitation-inhibition (E/I balance in the NMDA-hypofunction model of the disease and the resulting changes in network behaviours, particularly in gamma frequency oscillatory activity, will be discussed.

  5. Evidence for altered transcapillary fluid balance in women with the premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Fadnes, H O; Maltau, J M

    1993-05-01

    Redistribution of body fluids has been suggested as a possible pathophysiological mechanism for the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To elucidate this hypothesis, transcapillary fluid balance was studied in ten women with well defined PMS. Wick-methods were used for measuring colloid osmotic and hydrostatic interstitial pressures on the thorax and on the leg. The capillary filtration coefficient was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. From the follicular to the luteal phase the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure on the leg was significantly reduced (mean 3.6 mm Hg, p = 0.005), whereas the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure on the thorax remained constant. The capillary filtration coefficient increased 30% (mean 5.3 x 10(-4) ml/min/100 gm/mm Hg, p = 0.04) from the follicular to the luteal phase. No change was observed in body weight. These findings indicate an instability of vascular regulation in women with premenstrual syndrome, and lend support to the hypothesis that redistribution of fluid, rather than water retention, is responsible for the subjective symptoms such as bloatedness, in the premenstrual syndrome.

  6. Cold-water immersion alters muscle recruitment and balance of basketball players during vertical jump landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Christiane de Souza Guerino; Vicente, Rafael Chagas; Cesário, Mauricio Donini; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold-water immersion on the electromyographic (EMG) response of the lower limb and balance during unipodal jump landing. The evaluation comprised 40 individuals (20 basketball players and 20 non-athletes). The EMG response in the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus, rectus femoris, hamstring and gluteus medius; amplitude and mean speed of the centre of pressure, flight time and ground reaction force (GRF) were analysed. All volunteers remained for 20 min with their ankle immersed in cold-water, and were re-evaluated immediately post and after 10, 20 and 30 min of reheating. The Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test and Dunn's post test (P < 0.05) were used. The EMG response values decreased for the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus and rectus femoris of both athletes and non-athletes (P < 0.05). The comparison between the groups showed that the EMG response was lower for the athletes. Lower jump flight time and GRF, greater amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure were predominant in the athletes. Cold-water immersion decreased the EMG activity of the lower limb, flight time and GRF and increased the amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure.

  7. Ether lipid generating enzyme AGPS alters the balance of structural and signaling lipids to fuel cancer pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel I; Cozzo, Alyssa; Ji, Xiaodan; Roberts, Lindsay S; Louie, Sharon M; Mulvihill, Melinda M; Luo, Kunxin; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-09-10

    Aberrant lipid metabolism is an established hallmark of cancer cells. In particular, ether lipid levels have been shown to be elevated in tumors, but their specific function in cancer remains elusive. We show here that the metabolic enzyme alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), a critical step in the synthesis of ether lipids, is up-regulated across multiple types of aggressive human cancer cells and primary tumors. We demonstrate that ablation of AGPS in cancer cells results in reduced cell survival, cancer aggressiveness, and tumor growth through altering the balance of ether lipid, fatty acid, eicosanoid, and fatty acid-derived glycerophospholipid metabolism, resulting in an overall reduction in the levels of several oncogenic signaling lipids. Taken together, our results reveal that AGPS, in addition to maintaining ether lipids, also controls cellular utilization of fatty acids, favoring the generation of signaling lipids necessary for promoting the aggressive features of cancer. PMID:23980144

  8. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consisten

  9. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  10. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  11. Deforestation for oil palm alters the fundamental balance of the soil N cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Liz; Trimmer, Mark; Bradley, Chris; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    soils were first disturbed. These results are an important precursor to studies providing improved estimates of regional N turnover and loss in Southeast Asia which will have global implications for N biogeochemical cycling.

  12. SPATIAL ALTERATION AT UBUD TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, GIANYAR, BALI IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: A CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Oka Artha Ardhana Sukawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of globalization much spatial alteration has taken place at Ubud TraditionalVillage, Gianyar Regency, Bali as the consequence of fast development of tourism. The aspectswhich have changed, as the result of the shift from agricultural culture to tourism culture since1970, include the spatial relationship between man and God (parhyangan, the spatial relationshipbetween man and his environment (palemahan, and the spatial relationship between man and hisfellow being or the three things which cause physical and spiritual prosperity among human beings.This research in cultural studies was conducted to reveal the spatial alteration which hadtaken place at Ubud Traditional Market in the globalization era especially since 1970 as theconsequence of the fast development in tourism. The data were analyzed by applying qualitativeanalysis technique, eclecticism of the theory of change, the theory of space, the theory ofhegemony, and critical and practical theories. The research was conducted by employing qualitativemethod which features cultural studies.The results of the research show that the increase in population and in what is needed bytourism has led to the spatial alteration in parhyangan in the village and home levels. The spatialalteration in pawongan as a unity of membership (krama does not take place and the spatialalternation in families does not either. This indicates that Ubud Traditional Village is getting morecomplex in facing modern and global condition with its commercial culture. Its tradition,agricultural culture and nature have contributed to the development of tourism. In regard topalemahan, catus patha has not been the only center of orientation any more. The settlement of thepopulation has followed the development of tourist facilities. Tourism has also altered the landusefulness causing zero-settlement based on groups of banjar (neighborhood under a traditionalvillage to be irrelevant. In regard to the patterns of space

  13. GLB: Lifeline-based Global Load Balancing library in X10

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Tardieu, Olivier; Grove, David; Herta, Benjamin; Kamada, Tomio; Saraswat, Vijay; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    We present GLB, a programming model and an associated implementation that can handle a wide range of irregular paral- lel programming problems running over large-scale distributed systems. GLB is applicable both to problems that are easily load-balanced via static scheduling and to problems that are hard to statically load balance. GLB hides the intricate syn- chronizations (e.g., inter-node communication, initialization and startup, load balancing, termination and result collection) from the...

  14. An altered redox balance and increased genetic instability characterize primary fibroblasts derived from xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlanti, Eleonora; Pietraforte, Donatella; Iorio, Egidio; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Zijno, Andrea; D'Errico, Mariarosaria; Simonelli, Valeria; Sanchez, Massimo; Fattibene, Paola; Falchi, Mario; Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-A patients are characterized by increased solar skin carcinogenesis and present also neurodegeneration. XPA deficiency is associated with defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) and increased basal levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage. In this study we search for the origin of increased levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions in XP-A cell genome and then address the question of whether increased oxidative stress might drive genetic instability. We show that XP-A human primary fibroblasts present increased levels and different types of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to normal fibroblasts, with O₂₋• and H₂O₂ being the major reactive species. Moreover, XP-A cells are characterized by decreased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios as compared to normal fibroblasts. The significant increase of ROS levels and the alteration of the glutathione redox state following silencing of XPA confirmed the causal relationship between a functional XPA and the control of redox balance. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) analysis of the metabolic profile revealed a more glycolytic metabolism and higher ATP levels in XP-A than in normal primary fibroblasts. This perturbation of bioenergetics is associated with different morphology and response of mitochondria to targeted toxicants. In line with cancer susceptibility, XP-A primary fibroblasts showed increased spontaneous micronuclei (MN) frequency, a hallmark of cancer risk. The increased MN frequency was not affected by inhibition of ROS to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. PMID:26546826

  15. Alterations in the interleukin-1/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist balance modulate cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Abbate

    Full Text Available Healing after acute myocardial infarction (AMI is characterized by an intense inflammatory response and increased Interleukin-1 (IL-1 tissue activity. Genetically engineered mice lacking the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1-/-, not responsive to IL-1 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, enhanced response to IL-1 have an altered IL-1/IL-1Ra balance that we hypothesize modulates infarct healing and cardiac remodeling after AMI.IL-1R1-/- and IL-1Ra-/- male mice and their correspondent wild-types (WT were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation or sham surgery. Infarct size (trichrome scar size, apoptotic cell death (TUNEL and left ventricular (LV dimensions and function (echocardiography were measured prior to and 7 days after surgery.When compared with the corresponding WT, IL-1R1-/- mice had significantly smaller infarcts (-25%, less cardiomyocyte apoptosis (-50%, and reduced LV enlargement (LV end-diastolic diameter increase [LVEDD], -20% and dysfunction (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] decrease, -50%, whereas IL-1Ra-/- mice had significantly larger infarcts (+75%, more apoptosis (5-fold increase, and more severe LV enlargement (LVEDD increase,+30% and dysfunction (LVEF decrease, +70%(all P values <0.05.An imbalance in IL-1/IL-1Ra signaling at the IL-1R1 level modulates the severity of cardiac remodeling after AMI in the mouse, with reduced IL-1R1 signaling providing protection and unopposed IL-1R1 signaling providing harm.

  16. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  17. Global warming alters carbon sink and source situation of the Tibetan lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Ni, Q.; Yang, J.; Liu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming would accelerate glacier retreat and permafrost degeneration on the Tibetan Plateau. The carbon stored in permafrost would be released to nearby lakes. However, little is known about how the carbon sink and source situation could be altered and what role the microbial community could play in Tibetan lakes in response to global warming. To fill this knowledge gap, six lakes (Erhai Lake, Qinghai Lake, Tuosu Lake, Gahai Lake, Xiaochaidan Lake and Lake Chaka) on the Tibetan Plateau were studied. In order to compare the seasonal variations in geochemistry and microbial communities, two sampling cruises were performed (May and July of 2015, corresponding to dry and wet seasons, respectively). For each lake, salinity, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll were measured for water samples, and salinity and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured for sediments. Chamber-based greenhouse gas flux measurement were performed on the surface of each lake. Microbial communities were analyzed by using MiSeq sequencing technique. The results showed that in response to seasonal variation (from dry to set season), lake surface increased by 5-20% (calculated on the basis of satellite data) and salinity decreased by 4-30% for the studied lakes, suggesting the studied lakes were diluted by precipitations. The DOC contents of the lake waters were almost stable for the studied lakes, whereas TN increased by more than 70% for the lakes with salinity less than 100g/L. In the meanwhile, chlorophyll content increased by more than 180% for lakes with low salinities (Erhai Lake, Qinghai Lake, and Tuosu Lake) and decreased by 17-94% for lakes with high salinities (Gahai Lake, Xiaoxhaidan Lake, and Lake Chaka. This indicated that desalination (precipitation plus glacier melt) would increase carbon fixation potential in Tibetan lakes. Microbial community analyses showed that microbial diversity increased in response to desalination. All in all

  18. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alam, Denise; Danopoulos, Soula; Schall, Kathy; Sala, Frederic G; Almohazey, Dana; Fernandez, G Esteban; Georgia, Senta; Frey, Mark R; Ford, Henri R; Grikscheit, Tracy; Bellusci, Saverio

    2015-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial cell renewal relies on the right balance of epithelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells consist of absorptive and secretory lineage. The latter is comprised of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays a central role in epithelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in several organs. The expression pattern of FGF10 and its receptors in both human and mouse intestine and their role in small intestine have yet to be investigated. First, we analyzed the expression of FGF10, FGFR1, and FGFR2, in the human ileum and throughout the adult mouse small intestine. We found that FGF10, FGFR1b, and FGFR2b are expressed in the human ileum as well as in the mouse small intestine. We then used transgenic mouse models to overexpress Fgf10 and a soluble form of Fgfr2b, to study the impact of gain or loss of Fgf signaling in the adult small intestine. We demonstrated that overexpression of Fgf10 in vivo and in vitro induces goblet cell differentiation while decreasing Paneth cells. Moreover, FGF10 decreases stem cell markers such as Lgr5, Lrig1, Hopx, Ascl2, and Sox9. FGF10 inhibited Hes1 expression in vitro, suggesting that FGF10 induces goblet cell differentiation likely through the inhibition of Notch signaling. Interestingly, Fgf10 overexpression for 3 days in vivo and in vitro increased the number of Mmp7/Muc2 double-positive cells, suggesting that goblet cells replace Paneth cells. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which Fgf10 alters cell differentiation in the small intestine.

  19. Variations of global and continental water balance components as impacted by climate forcing uncertainty and human water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Portmann, Felix Theodor; Reinecke, Robert; Riedel, Claudia; Song, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Döll, Petra

    2016-07-01

    When assessing global water resources with hydrological models, it is essential to know about methodological uncertainties. The values of simulated water balance components may vary due to different spatial and temporal aggregations, reference periods, and applied climate forcings, as well as due to the consideration of human water use, or the lack thereof. We analyzed these variations over the period 1901-2010 by forcing the global hydrological model WaterGAP 2.2 (ISIMIP2a) with five state-of-the-art climate data sets, including a homogenized version of the concatenated WFD/WFDEI data set. Absolute values and temporal variations of global water balance components are strongly affected by the uncertainty in the climate forcing, and no temporal trends of the global water balance components are detected for the four homogeneous climate forcings considered (except for human water abstractions). The calibration of WaterGAP against observed long-term average river discharge Q significantly reduces the impact of climate forcing uncertainty on estimated Q and renewable water resources. For the homogeneous forcings, Q of the calibrated and non-calibrated regions of the globe varies by 1.6 and 18.5 %, respectively, for 1971-2000. On the continental scale, most differences for long-term average precipitation P and Q estimates occur in Africa and, due to snow undercatch of rain gauges, also in the data-rich continents Europe and North America. Variations of Q at the grid-cell scale are large, except in a few grid cells upstream and downstream of calibration stations, with an average variation of 37 and 74 % among the four homogeneous forcings in calibrated and non-calibrated regions, respectively. Considering only the forcings GSWP3 and WFDEI_hom, i.e., excluding the forcing without undercatch correction (PGFv2.1) and the one with a much lower shortwave downward radiation SWD than the others (WFD), Q variations are reduced to 16 and 31 % in calibrated and non

  20. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part II: Land-characteristic contributions to spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Land water and energy balances vary around the globe because of variations in amount and temporal distribution of water and energy supplies and because of variations in land characteristics. The former control (water and energy supplies) explains much more variance in water and energy balances than the latter (land characteristics). A largely untested hypothesis underlying most global models of land water and energy balance is the assumption that parameter values based on estimated geographic distributions of soil and vegetation characteristics improve the performance of the models relative to the use of globally constant land parameters. This hypothesis is tested here through an evaluation of the improvement in performance of one land model associated with the introduction of geographic information on land characteristics. The capability of the model to reproduce annual runoff ratios of large river basins, with and without information on the global distribution of albedo, rooting depth, and stomatal resistance, is assessed. To allow a fair comparison, the model is calibrated in both cases by adjusting globally constant scale factors for snow-free albedo, non-water-stressed bulk stomatal resistance, and critical root density (which is used to determine effective root-zone depth). The test is made in stand-alone mode, that is, using prescribed radiative and atmospheric forcing. Model performance is evaluated by comparing modeled runoff ratios with observed runoff ratios for a set of basins where precipitation biases have been shown to be minimal. The withholding of information on global variations in these parameters leads to a significant degradation of the capability of the model to simulate the annual runoff ratio. An additional set of optimization experiments, in which the parameters are examined individually, reveals that the stomatal resistance is, by far, the parameter among these three whose spatial variations add the most predictive power to the model in

  1. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  2. Spinning Wheels and Straw: Balancing Content, Process, and Context in Global Teacher Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begler, Elsie

    1993-01-01

    Classroom instructional processes are as critical to successful development of a global perspective as mastery of the substantive content. Teacher education programs must focus on the process-content relationship. A clear conceptualization of global education is central to developing comprehensive, effective teacher education programs in the…

  3. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  4. Biodiversity: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the first installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. It encourages students to weigh a wide range of information from pertinent disciplines and to develop their own opinions in order to make their own…

  5. Research Universities for National Rejuvenation and Global Influence: China's Search for a Balanced Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The search continues for a Chinese research university model that can balance quality and quantity in research and teaching. This paper argues that finding one depends upon deepening internationalization, defining educational sovereignty, and expanding university autonomy. The paper does this by examining selected aspects in the development of the…

  6. The global, the local, and the science curriculum: a struggle for balance in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2002-05-01

    In documenting educational reforms in the science curriculum of developing countries, a number of tensions become apparent as a result of struggles to preserve local values while incorporating global trends. This article describes and analyses these tensions and paradoxes, and discusses the intersections of cultural, economic, administrative and educational history of elementary school science curriculum development in Cyprus since its independence from the British in 1960. Using a combination of methodological tools that range from document analysis, historical research and ethnographic methods of collecting data, it is argued that the global and the local can be viewed spatially in terms of linking people, spaces and diverse knowledges. In order to ensure that local values in science curriculum development can be sustained without being absorbed by globalization curriculum developers in developing countries need to create spaces in which the local can be performed together with the global.

  7. Unique association between global DNA hypomethylation and chromosomal alterations in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshi Nishida

    Full Text Available Global DNA hypomethylation is a characteristic feature of cancer cells that closely associates with chromosomal instability (CIN. However, the association between these characteristics during hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. Herein, we determined the relationship between hypomethylation and CIN in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC by analyzing 179 HCCs, 178 matched non-tumor livers and 23 normal liver tissues. Hypomethylation at three different repetitive DNA (rDNA sequences and hypermethylation of 12 CpG loci, including 11 tumor suppressor gene (TSG promoters, were quantified using MethyLight or combined bisulfite restriction analysis. Fractional allelic loss (FAL was used as a marker for CIN, calculated by analyzing 400 microsatellite markers. Gains and losses at each chromosome were also determined using semi-quantitative microsatellite analysis. The associations between rDNA hypomethylation and FAL, as well as between TSG hypermethylation and FAL were investigated. Significantly more hypomethylation was observed in HCC tissues than in normal liver samples. Progression of hypomethylation during carcinogenesis was more prominent in hepatitis C virus (HCV-negative cases, which was in contrast to our previous reports of significantly increased TSG methylation levels in HCV-positive tumors. Absence of liver cirrhosis and higher FAL scores were identified as independent contributors to significant hypomethylation of rDNA in HCC. Among the chromosomal alterations frequently observed in HCC, loss of 8p, which was unique in the earliest stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, was significantly associated with hypomethylation of rDNA by multivariable analysis (p=0.0153. rDNA hypomethylation was also associated with a high FAL score regardless of tumor differentiation (p=0.0011, well-differentiated; p=0.0089, moderately/poorly-differentiated HCCs. We conclude that DNA hypomethylation is an important cause of CIN in the earliest step of HCC, especially

  8. Remaking macroeconomic policy after the global financial crisis: A balance-sheet approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Christopher S.; Vines, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the origins of the global financial crisis and how the prevailing New Keynesian macroeconomic orthodoxy failed to anticipate its severity. This failure, we argue, stemmed from an incomplete understanding of the pivotal role of financial institutions in the amplification of the crisis and its transmission to the wider economy. Low global interest rates and a consequent 'search for yield' in the pre-crisis period encouraged financial institutions to build highly leveraged b...

  9. The global financial crisis and its transmission to New Zealand – an external balance sheet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Bedford

    2008-01-01

    Recent global events have underscored how instability in the international financial system can have a pervasive impact on the world economy. Starting in the middle of 2007, deteriorating credit quality in the US residential mortgage market served as the catalyst for a systemic financial crisis that has spread far beyond its original source, including to New Zealand. This article aims to shed light on the channels through which these global developments have affected the domestic financial sy...

  10. Resource constrained flux balance analysis predicts selective pressure on the global structure of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abedpour, Nima; Kollmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background A universal feature of metabolic networks is their hourglass or bow-tie structure on cellular level. This architecture reflects the conversion of multiple input nutrients into multiple biomass components via a small set of precursor metabolites. However, it is yet unclear to what extent this structural feature is the result of natural selection. Results We extend flux balance analysis to account for limited cellular resources. Using this model, optimal structure of metabolic networ...

  11. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-01

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  12. Global evapotranspiration over the past three decades: estimation based on the water balance equation combined with empirical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied a land water mass balance equation over 59 major river basins during 2003–9 to estimate evapotranspiration (ET), using as input terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) data from the GRACE satellites, precipitation and in situ runoff measurements. We found that the terrestrial water storage change cannot be neglected in the estimation of ET on an annual time step, especially in areas with relatively low ET values. We developed a spatial regression model of ET by integrating precipitation, temperature and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, and used this model to extrapolate the spatio-temporal patterns of changes in ET from 1982 to 2009. We found that the globally averaged land ET is about 604 mm yr−1 with a range of 558–650 mm yr−1. From 1982 to 2009, global land ET was found to increase at a rate of 1.10 mm yr−2, with the Amazon regions and Southeast Asia showing the highest ET increasing trend. Further analyses, however, show that the increase in global land ET mainly occurred between the 1980s and the 1990s. The trend over the 2000s, its magnitude or even the sign of change substantially depended on the choice of the beginning year. This suggests a non-significant trend in global land ET over the last decade. (letter)

  13. Glaciers in a changing global climate: first results of worldwide glacier mass balance measurements 2000/2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, R.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2003-04-01

    Glacier signals from mountain areas are key elements of early detection strategies for dealing with possible man-induced climate change. The IPCC Third Assessment Report indeed defines mountain glaciers as one of the best natural indicators of atmospheric warming with the highest reliability ranking. In the chain of processes linking climate and glacier fluctuations, glacier length variation is the indirect/delayed response, whereas glacier mass change is the direct/undelayed reaction. Internationally coordinated long-term monitoring of glaciers started in 1894. The responsibility to collect and publish standardized data has been assumed since 1986 by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). This work is primarily being carried out under the auspices of the International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI/IAHS) and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (FAGS/ICSU). The WGMS maintains data exchange with the ICSU World Data Center A (WDC-A) for Glaciology in Boulder, Colorado. Corresponding data bases and measurement networks form an essential part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G: operated by the WGMS) as a pilot project within the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS/GCOS). A network of 60 glacier mass balance observations provides information on presently observed rates of change in glacier mass, corresponding acceleration trends and regional distribution patterns. A preliminary calculation of the mass balance observations in 2000/2001 relating to 23 selected data sets provide a mean specific (annual) net balance of -367 mm w.e., 26 % of the observed balances were positive. The corresponding mean in six mountain ranges was -571 mm w.e. Such values indicate that mass losses in 2000/2001 have been less extreme than in the extraordinary years before but are still strongly negative. Over the past two decades glacier melt appears to continue at a considerable and possibly even an accelerating rate. The observed average

  14. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  15. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part I: The land dynamics (LaD) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of large-scale land (continental) water and energy balances is presented. The model is an extension of an earlier scheme with a record of successful application in climate modeling. The most important changes from the original model include 1) introduction of non-water-stressed stomatal control of transpiration, in order to correct a tendency toward excessive evaporation: 2) conversion from globally constant parameters (with the exception of vegetation-dependent snow-free surface albedo) to more complete vegetation and soil dependence of all parameters, in order to provide more realistic representation of geographic variations in water and energy balances and to enable model-based investigations of land-cover change; 3) introduction of soil sensible heat storage and transport, in order to move toward realistic diurnal-cycle modeling; 4) a groundwater (saturated-zone) storage reservoir, in order to provide more realistic temporal variability of runoff; and 5) a rudimentary runoff-routing scheme for delivery of runoff to the ocean, in order to provide realistic freshwater forcing of the ocean general circulation model component of a global climate model. The new model is tested with forcing from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative I global dataset and a recently produced observation-based water-balance dataset for major river basins of the world. Model performance is evaluated by comparing computed and observed runoff ratios from many major river basins of the world. Special attention is given to distinguishing between two components of the apparent runoff ratio error: the part due to intrinsic model error and the part due to errors in the assumed precipitation forcing. The pattern of discrepancies between modeled and observed runoff ratios is consistent with results from a companion study of precipitation estimation errors. The new model is tuned by adjustment of a globally constant scale factor for non

  16. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs—Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Timothy; Ben Amor, Yanis

    2016-01-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of ...

  17. Global Justice and Intellectual Property Rights: Reforming the International IPR Regime for Balanced Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salokannel, Marjut

    2006-01-01

    Today it is widely recognized that a uniform global intellectual property (IP) system requiring a high level of protection is inherently unjust and affects countries differently depending upon their level of technological and economic development. This article analyzes the functioning of the current international treaty framework having…

  18. National innovation policy and global open innovation: Exploring balances, tradeoffs and complementarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Carter Walter; Sverre, Herstad; Ebersberger, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a framework for examining the way national policy mixes are responding to the challenges and opportunities of globally distributed knowledge networks, cross-sectoral technology flows and consequently open innovation processes occurring on an international scale...

  19. Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes, including long-term average flows, seasonality, low flows, high flows and other types of flow variability, play an important role for freshwater ecosystems. Thus, climate change affects freshwater ecosystems not only by increased temperatures but also by altered river flow regimes. However, with one exception, transferable quantitative relations between flow alterations and ecological responses have not yet been derived. While discharge decreases are generally considered to be detrimental for ecosystems, the effect of future discharge increases is unclear. As a first step towards a global-scale analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems, we quantified the impact of climate change on five ecologically relevant river flow indicators, using the global water model WaterGAP 2.1g to simulate monthly time series of river discharge with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. Four climate change scenarios based on two global climate models and two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios were evaluated.

    We compared the impact of climate change by the 2050s to the impact of water withdrawals and dams on natural flow regimes that had occurred by 2002. Climate change was computed to alter seasonal flow regimes significantly (i.e. by more than 10% on 90% of the global land area (excluding Greenland and Antarctica, as compared to only one quarter of the land area that had suffered from significant seasonal flow regime alterations due to dams and water withdrawals. Due to climate change, the timing of the maximum mean monthly river discharge will be shifted by at least one month on one third on the global land area, more often towards earlier months (mainly due to earlier snowmelt. Dams and withdrawals had caused comparable shifts on less than 5% of the land area only. Long-term average annual river discharge is predicted to significantly increase on one half of the land area, and to significantly decrease on one quarter

  20. Impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems: a global-scale analysis of ecologically relevant river flow alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes, including long-term average flows, seasonality, low flows, high flows and other types of flow variability, play an important role for freshwater ecosystems. Thus, climate change affects freshwater ecosystems not only by increased temperatures but also by altered river flow regimes. However, with one exception, transferable quantitative relations between flow alterations and ecosystem responses have not yet been derived. While discharge decreases are generally considered to be detrimental for ecosystems, the effect of future discharge increases is unclear. As a first step towards a global-scale analysis of climate change impacts on freshwater ecosystems, we quantified the impact of climate change on five ecologically relevant river flow indicators, using the global water model WaterGAP 2.1g to simulate monthly time series of river discharge with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. Four climate change scenarios based on two global climate models and two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios were evaluated.

    We compared the impact of climate change by the 2050s to the impact of water withdrawals and dams on natural flow regimes that had occurred by 2002. Climate change was computed to alter seasonal flow regimes significantly (i.e. by more than 10% on 90% of the global land area (excluding Greenland and Antarctica, as compared to only one quarter of the land area that had suffered from significant seasonal flow regime alterations due to dams and water withdrawals. Due to climate change, the timing of the maximum mean monthly river discharge will be shifted by at least one month on one third on the global land area, more often towards earlier months (mainly due to earlier snowmelt. Dams and withdrawals had caused comparable shifts on less than 5% of the land area only. Long-term average annual river discharge is predicted to significantly increase on one half of the land area, and to significantly decrease on one quarter

  1. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E.; Garrett, J. C.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of grazing on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures and thus on the climate system is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global carbon storage. We investigated how cattle grazing affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique over two complete wet-dry seasonal cycles. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing consistently decreased gross primary productivity (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015) and reduced ecosystem respiration (Re, 20% and 38% in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Lower Re in grazed (GP) than in ungrazed pasture (UP) was also explained by decreased soil and heterotrophic respiration and root biomass. Grazing increased the net CO2 sink strength of the pasture (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -118 ± 9 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +142 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 UP in 2014-2015). Over both wet-dry seasonal cycles, both ecosystems were net sources of CH4, and variations in fluxes without cattle present were driven by changes in soil wetness and temperature. The presence of cattle and greater soil moisture cased by the removal of aboveground biomass, caused greater total net ecosystem CH4 emissions from GP than from UP (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Wetter soils under GP were responsible for 21-56% of the difference in net CH4 emissions between pastures, suggesting that enhanced CH4 production from wetter soils due to cattle presence can be a major contributor to annual CH4 fluxes. Combining CO2 and CH4 to calculate a C budget revealed that grazing increased the net C sink strength of the pasture (-72 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -66 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -114 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +144 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2014-2015). Accounting for NEE and the radiative forcing of CH4, grazing increased the net global warming potential (GWP) of

  2. Illustrating a new approach to estimating potential reduction in fish species richness due to flow alteration on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yoshikawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in river discharge due to human activities and climate change would affect the sustainability of freshwater ecosystem. In order to globally assess the future status of freshwater ecosystem under regime shifts in river discharge, global-scale hydrological simulations need to be connected with a model to estimate the soundness of freshwater ecosystem. However, the explicit combination of those two on a global scale is still in its infancy. A couple of statistical models are introduced here to link flow regimes to fish species richness (FSR: one based on a linear relationship between FSR and mean river discharge, and the other based on a relationship between FSR and ecologically relevant flow indices involving other several flow characteristics as well as mean river discharge. The former one has been sometimes used in global simulation studies, but the latter one is newly introduced here in the context of global simulation. These statistical models for estimating FSR were combined with a set of global river discharge simulations to evaluate the potential impact of flow alterations due to climate change on FSR changes. Generally, future reductions in FSR by the latter method are larger and much more scattered rather than by the former method. In arid regions, both models provide reductions in FSR because mean discharge is projected to decrease from past to future, although the magnitude of reduction in FSR is different. On the other hand, large reductions in FSR only by the latter model are detected in heavy-snow regions due to the increases of mean discharge and frequency of low and high flows. Although we need further research to conclude which is more relevant, this study demonstrates that the new model could show a considerably different behavior in assessing the global impact of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystem change.

  3. A Global Registry for Scientific Collections: Striking a Balance Between Disciplinary Detail and Interdisciplinary Discoverability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E.; Schindel, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Registry of Scientific Collections (GRSciColl) is an online information resource developed to gather and disseminate basic information on scientific collections. Building on initiatives started for biological collections, GRSciColl expands this framework to encompass all scientific disciplines including earth and space sciences, anthropology, archaeology, biomedicine, and applied fields such as agriculture and technology. The goals of this registry are to (1) provide a single source of synoptic information about the repositories, their component collections, access and use policies, and staff contact information; and (2) facilitate the assignment of identifiers for repositories and their collections that are globally unique across all disciplines. As digitization efforts continue, the importance of globally unique identifiers is paramount to ensuring interoperability across datasets. Search capabilities and web services will significantly increase the web visibility and accessibility of these collections. Institutional records include categorization by governance (e.g., national, state or local governmental, private non-profit) and by scientific discipline (e.g., earth science, biomedical, agricultural). Collection-level metadata categorize the types of contained specimens/samples and modes of preservation. In selecting the level of granularity for these categories, designers sought a compromise that would capture enough information to be useful in searches and inquiries and would complement the detailed archives in specimen-level databases such (which are increasingly digital) hosted by discipline-specific groups (e.g. SESAR) or the repositories themselves (e.g. KE EMu).

  4. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs-Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy; Ben Amor, Yanis

    2016-03-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of new drugs, we propose 1) expanding/strengthening the capacity for drug susceptibility testing, beginning with countries with a high TB burden; 2) regulating prescribing practices by banning over-the-counter sale of TB drugs and enacting an accreditation system whereby providers must be certified to prescribe new drugs; and 3) decentralizing MDR TB care in rural communities by employing trained community health workers, using promising mobile technologies, and enlisting the aid of civil society organizations. PMID:26889711

  5. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs—Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of new drugs, we propose 1) expanding/strengthening the capacity for drug susceptibility testing, beginning with countries with a high TB burden; 2) regulating prescribing practices by banning over-the-counter sale of TB drugs and enacting an accreditation system whereby providers must be certified to prescribe new drugs; and 3) decentralizing MDR TB care in rural communities by employing trained community health workers, using promising mobile technologies, and enlisting the aid of civil society organizations. PMID:26889711

  6. Experiments on the effects of global force balance and local reconnection physics on magnetic reconnection with a guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Sciortino, F.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Na, B.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.

    2015-11-01

    In many plasma environments ranging from astrophysics to fusion, magnetic reconnection occurs with a finite guide field ranging from a fraction to many times the upstream reconnecting component. Theory and simulation yields a range of predictions of scaling of the rate of reconnection with guide field. Recent experiments on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment observed a systematic decrease in reconnection rates with increasing guide field. Here we present a new set of experimental results on MRX with a controlled applied guide magnetic field ranging from 0 to approximately 3 times the upstream reconnection field, where we observe both global and local processes which affect the reconnection rate in the guide field regime. First, we observe and quantify the effects of global force balance, in particular global back pressure due to pileup of magnetic field in the downstream, which decreases the outflow of plasma from the current sheet and hence the reconnection rate. Second, we study the role of electron pressure in the generalized Ohm's law in the guide field regime and its role in setting the reconnection rate.

  7. Energy Balance of Global CO_2 Recycling and Amounts of Reduction of CO_2 Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, K; Akiyama, E.; Habazaki, H.; Kawashima, A.; Komori, M.; Shimamura, K.; Kumagai, N.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of tailoring of amorphous alloy electrodes for seawater electrolysis to form H_2 and amorphous alloy catalysts for conversion of CO_2 to CH_4, we are proposing global CO_2 recycling : At deserts; power generation by solar energy, at coasts close to the deserts; production of H_2 by electrolysis of seawater, production of CH_4 by the reaction of H_2 and CO_2 transported, and at energy consuming districts; combustion of CH_4, recovery of CO_2 and transportation of liquefied CO_2 to...

  8. Role of alteration in Treg/Th17 cells’ balance in nephropathic patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Sameh; Sherif, Nevine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the adaptive immune system drives systemic inflammation, promoting insulin resistance and related complications, such as diabetic nephropathy. Increased infiltration of activated T lymphocytes has been found in patients with diabetic nephropathy. T-cell influx and accumulation are the factors that aggravate diabetic nephropathy and link with glomerular filtration surface and albumin excretion. An appropriate balance between pro-inflammatory (T helper ...

  9. Global and Regional Surface Nitrogen Balances in Intensive Agricultural Production Systems for the Period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.F.BOUWMAN; G.Van DRECHT; K.W.Van der HOEK

    2005-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) budgets for intensive agricultural systems were compiled for a 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution. These budgets include N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric N deposition) and outputs (N removal from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals, ammonia volatilization,denitrification and leaching). Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and a projection for 2030 were used to study changes in the recovery of N and the different loss terms for intensive agricultural systems. The results indicate that the overall system N recovery and fertilizer use efficiency slowly increased in the industrialized countries between 1970 and 1995, the values for developing countries have decreased in the same period. For the coming three decades our results indicate a rapid increase in both the industrialized and developing countries. High values of > 80% for fertilizer use efficiency may be related to surface N balance deficits, implying a depletion of soil N and loss of soil fertility. The projected intensification in most developing countries will cause a gradual shift from deficits to surpluses in the coming decades.The projected fast growth of crop and livestock production, and intensification and associated increase in fertilizer inputs will cause a major increase in the surface N balance surplus in the coming three decades. This implies increasing losses of N compounds to air (ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide), and groundwater and surface water (nitrate).

  10. A Parallel Interval Computation Model for Global Optimization with Automatic Load Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wu; Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a decentralized parallel computation model for global optimization using interval analysis.The model is adaptive to any number of processors and the workload is automatically and evenly distributed among all processors by alternative message passing.The problems received by each processor are processed based on their local dominance properties,which avoids unnecessary interval evaluations.Further,the problem is treated as a whole at the beginning of computation so that no initial decomposition scheme is required.Numerical experiments indicate that the model works well and is stable with different number of parallel processors,distributes the load evenly among the processors,and provides an impressive speedup,especially when the problem is time-consuming to solve.

  11. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  12. The internet and contemporary visual culture: balancing aesthetics and politics in museums during the global era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bernier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at the use made by several museums of highly advanced technological and communication tools. An examination of a number of recent media events highlights the important place assigned by museums to new exhibition platforms and techniques, such as virtual exhibitions and extremely high-resolution reproductions. Through an analysis of several recent cases that illustrate how controversies sparked by contemporary artworks are handled, I consider how museums deal with politics and aesthetics in their mediation of artworks in the global era. Particular attention is paid to the Internet presentation of a work by the contemporary artist Chris Ofili entitled No Woman, No Cry , which was selected by Tate Britain to be part of the Google Art Project. A review of several other events dating from 2011 reveals how in the context of the Internet museums pursue the same principles they have long been applying in their exhibition galleries and communications with the public. This essay also casts light on the fundamentally new methods that can be employed by websites in the presentation of images in general and artworks in particular.

  13. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public

  14. Conceptional Considerations to Energy Balance and Global Warming Potential of Soil Bioengineering Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Thannen, Magdalena; Paratscha, Roman; Smutny, Roman; Lampalzer, Thomas; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. In this context soil bioengineering techniques are often used as standalone solutions or in combination with conventional engineering structures. It is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. In general it pursues the same objectives as conventional civil engineering structures. Currently the used assessment methods for soil bioengineering structures are referencing technically, ecologically and socio-economically. In a modern engineering approach additionally, environmental impacts and potential added values should be considered. The research project E-Protect aims at developing Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models for this special field of alpine protective constructions. Both, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) should be considered in an Environmental LCA over the whole life cycle of an engineering structure. The life cycle itself can be divided into three phases: the construction phase, the use phase and the end of life phase. The paper represents a concept to apply an Environmental LCA model for soil bioengineering structures. Beside the construction phase of these structures particular attention will be given to the use phase. It is not only important in terms of engineering effects but also plays an important role for positive carbon footprint due to the growing plants of soil bioengineering structures in contrast to conventional structures. Innovative Environmental LCA models will be applied to soil bioengineering structures which provide a new transparency for the responsible planners and stakeholders, by pointing out the total consumption of resources in all construction phases and components.

  15. Evaporation induced 18O and 13C enrichment in lake systems: A global perspective on hydrologic balance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Travis W.; Defliese, William F.; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Oze, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure on sustainable water resource allocation in the context of global development and rapid environmental change demands rigorous knowledge of how regional water cycles change through time. One of the most attractive and widely utilized approaches for gaining this knowledge is the analysis of lake carbonate stable isotopic compositions. However, endogenic carbonate archives are sensitive to a variety of natural processes and conditions leaving isotopic datasets largely underdetermined. As a consequence, isotopic researchers are often required to assume values for multiple parameters, including temperature of carbonate formation or lake water δ18O, in order to interpret changes in hydrologic conditions. Here, we review and analyze a global compilation of 57 lacustrine dual carbon and oxygen stable isotope records with a topical focus on the effects of shifting hydrologic balance on endogenic carbonate isotopic compositions. Through integration of multiple large datasets we show that lake carbonate δ18O values and the lake waters from which they are derived are often shifted by >+10‰ relative to source waters discharging into the lake. The global pattern of δ18O and δ13C covariation observed in >70% of the records studied and in several evaporation experiments demonstrates that isotopic fractionations associated with lake water evaporation cause the heavy carbon and oxygen isotope enrichments observed in most lakes and lake carbonate records. Modeled endogenic calcite compositions in isotopic equilibrium with lake source waters further demonstrate that evaporation effects can be extreme even in lake records where δ18O and δ13C covariation is absent. Aridisol pedogenic carbonates show similar isotopic responses to evaporation, and the relevance of evaporative modification to paleoclimatic and paleotopographic research using endogenic carbonate proxies are discussed. Recent advances in stable isotope research techniques present unprecedented

  16. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  17. Altered energy balance and cytokine gene expression in a murine model of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, D; Girardier, L; Seydoux, J; Chang, H R; Dulloo, A G

    1997-05-01

    The temporal pattern of changes in energy balance and cytokine mRNA expression in spleen and brain were examined in a mouse model of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. During days 1-7 postinfection, food intake was unaltered, but energy expenditure was significantly increased, and this was associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-5, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The hypermetabolic state persisted during subsequent anorexia, whose onset coincided with elevated IL-2, and at the end of the acute phase of cachexia, the dual anorexic and hypermetabolic states were associated with the cytokines examined: TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In the chronic phase of the infection, the mice showed either partial weight recovery (gainers) or no weight regain (nongainers). The infected gainers, though still hypophagic, were no longer hypermetabolic, and their cytokine mRNA was no longer elevated, except for TNF-alpha and IL-10. In contrast, the infected nongainers continued to show both anoroxia and hypermetabolism, which were associated with elevations in all cytokines examined and particularly those of the TH2 profile (IL-4 and IL-5) and IL-6. Taken together, these studies reveal a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA expression underlying 1) hypermetabolism vs. anorexia, 2) acute vs. chronic cachexia, and 3) stable weight loss vs. partial weight recovery. PMID:9176193

  18. Will Global Climate Change Alter Fundamental Human Immune Reactivity: Implications for Child Health?

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    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immune system is an interface across which many climate change sensitive exposures can affect health outcomes. Gaining an understanding of the range of potential effects that climate change could have on immune function will be of considerable importance, particularly for child health, but has, as yet, received minimal research attention. We postulate several mechanisms whereby climate change sensitive exposures and conditions will subtly impair aspects of the human immune response, thereby altering the distribution of vulnerability within populations—particularly for children—to infection and disease. Key climate change-sensitive pathways include under-nutrition, psychological stress and exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation, with effects on susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Other climate change sensitive exposures may also be important and interact, either additively or synergistically, to alter health risks. Conducting directed research in this area is imperative as the potential public health implications of climate change-induced weakening of the immune system at both individual and population levels are profound. This is particularly relevant for the already vulnerable children of the developing world, who will bear a disproportionate burden of future adverse environmental and geopolitical consequences of climate change.

  19. In vivo evidence of global and focal brain alterations in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghi, Andrea; Sterpone, Sara; Sales, Stefano; D'Agata, Federico; Bradac, Gianni Boris; Zullo, Giuseppina; Munno, Donato

    2011-06-30

    Brain alterations are known to be associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and tend to be distributed across brain structures, with only a few reports describing focal damage. Magnetic resonance images of 21 anorexic patients with different disease duration and 27 control subjects were acquired and compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients had a significant reduction of total white matter (WM) volume and focal gray matter (GM) atrophy in cerebellum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus and frontal, parietal and temporal areas. The cerebellum was more affected in patients with longer disease duration, whereas the hypothalamic alterations were more pronounced in patients with shorter food restriction. A correlation with body mass index (BMI) and GM was found in the hypothalamus. Our data demonstrate a diffuse reduction of WM together with focal areas of GM atrophy in AN. The finding of a hypothalamic focal atrophy points to hormonal dysfunction and opens the possibility for a central dysregulation of homeostasis. The involvement of temporoparietal areas could account for body image distortion. Finally, the cerebellar GM atrophy confirms previous findings and seems to be a late consequence of AN that could play a role in the chronic phase of the disease.

  20. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  1. Moderate long-term modulation of neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces energy balance alterations in adult rats.

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    Lígia Sousa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY produced by arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons has a strong orexigenic effect on target neurons. Hypothalamic NPY levels undergo wide-ranging oscillations during the circadian cycle and in response to fasting and peripheral hormones (from 0.25 to 10-fold change. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a moderate long-term modulation of NPY within the ARC neurons on food consumption, body weight gain and hypothalamic neuropeptides. We achieved a physiological overexpression (3.6-fold increase and down-regulation (0.5-fold decrease of NPY in the rat ARC by injection of AAV vectors expressing NPY and synthetic microRNA that target the NPY, respectively. Our work shows that a moderate overexpression of NPY was sufficient to induce diurnal over-feeding, sustained body weight gain and severe obesity in adult rats. Additionally, the circulating levels of leptin were elevated but the immunoreactivity (ir of ARC neuropeptides was not in accordance (POMC-ir was unchanged and AGRP-ir increased, suggesting a disruption in the ability of ARC neurons to response to peripheral metabolic alterations. Furthermore, a dysfunction in adipocytes phenotype was observed in these obese rats. In addition, moderate down-regulation of NPY did not affect basal feeding or normal body weight gain but the response to food deprivation was compromised since fasting-induced hyperphagia was inhibited and fasting-induced decrease in locomotor activity was absent.These results highlight the importance of the physiological ARC NPY levels oscillations on feeding regulation, fasting response and body weight preservation, and are important for the design of therapeutic interventions for obesity that include the NPY.

  2. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  3. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  4. Rotating wall vessel exposure alters protein secretion and global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Helena; O'Neill, Alex J.; Blake, Katy L.; Walther, Meik; Long, Paul F.; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is routinely recovered from air and surface samples taken aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and poses a health threat to crew. As bacteria respond to the low shear forces engendered by continuous rotation conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the reduced gravitational field of near-Earth flight by altering gene expression, we examined the effect of low-shear RWV growth on protein secretion and gene expression by three S. aureus isolates. When cultured under 1 g, the total amount of protein secreted by these strains varied up to fourfold; under continuous rotation conditions, protein secretion by all three strains was significantly reduced. Concentrations of individual proteins were differentially reduced and no evidence was found for increased lysis. These data suggest that growth under continuous rotation conditions reduces synthesis or secretion of proteins. A limited number of changes in gene expression under continuous rotation conditions were noted: in all isolates vraX, a gene encoding a polypeptide associated with cell wall stress, was down-regulated. A vraX deletion mutant of S. aureus SH1000 was constructed: no differences were found between SH1000 and ΔvraX with respect to colony phenotype, viability, protein export, antibiotic susceptibility, vancomycin kill kinetics, susceptibility to cold or heat and gene modulation. An ab initio protein-ligand docking simulation suggests a major binding site for β-lactam drugs such as imipenem. If such changes to the bacterial phenotype occur during spaceflight, they will compromise the capacity of staphylococci to cause systemic infection and to circumvent antibacterial chemotherapy.

  5. Experimental Periodontitis Results in Prediabetes and Metabolic Alterations in Brain, Liver and Heart: Global Untargeted Metabolomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievski, Vladimir; Kinchen, Jason M; Prabhu, Ramya; Rim, Fadi; Leoni, Lara; Unterman, Terry G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between periodontitis and prediabetes, however, causality is not known. The results from our previous studies suggest that induction of periodontitis leads to hyperinsulinemia glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, all hallmarks of prediabetes. However, global effects of periodontitis on critical organs in terms of metabolic alterations are unknown. We determined the metabolic effects of periodontitis on brain, liver, heart and plasma resulting from Porphyromonas gingivalis induced periodontitis in mice. Periodontitis was induced by oral application of the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis for 22 weeks. Global untargeted biochemical profiles in samples from these organs/plasma were determined by liquid and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared between controls and animals with periodontitis. Oral application of Porphyromonas gingivalis induced chronic periodontitis and hallmarks of prediabetes. The results of sample analyses indicated a number of changes in metabolic readouts, including changes in metabolites related to glucose and arginine metabolism, inflammation and redox homeostasis. Changes in biochemicals suggested subtle systemic effects related to periodontal disease, with increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress most prominent in the liver. Signs of changes in redox homeostasis were also seen in the brain and heart. Elevated bile acids in liver were suggestive of increased biosynthesis, which may reflect changes in liver function. Interestingly, signs of decreasing glucose availability were seen in the brain. In all three organs and plasma, there was a significant increase in the microbiome-derived bioactive metabolite 4-ethylphenylsulfate sulfate in animals with periodontitis. The results of metabolic profiling suggest that periodontitis/bacterial products alter metabolomic signatures of brain, heart, liver, and plasma in the

  6. Global warming alters sound transmission: differential impact on the prey detection ability of echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Koselj, Klemen; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R

    2014-02-01

    Climate change impacts the biogeography and phenology of plants and animals, yet the underlying mechanisms are little known. Here, we present a functional link between rising temperature and the prey detection ability of echolocating bats. The maximum distance for echo-based prey detection is physically determined by sound attenuation. Attenuation is more pronounced for high-frequency sound, such as echolocation, and is a nonlinear function of both call frequency and ambient temperature. Hence, the prey detection ability, and thus possibly the foraging efficiency, of echolocating bats and susceptible to rising temperatures through climate change. Using present-day climate data and projected temperature rises, we modelled this effect for the entire range of bat call frequencies and climate zones around the globe. We show that depending on call frequency, the prey detection volume of bats will either decrease or increase: species calling above a crossover frequency will lose and species emitting lower frequencies will gain prey detection volume, with crossover frequency and magnitude depending on the local climatic conditions. Within local species assemblages, this may cause a change in community composition. Global warming can thus directly affect the prey detection ability of individual bats and indirectly their interspecific interactions with competitors and prey.

  7. Alterations of the global haemostatic function test 'resonance thrombography' in spontaneously traumatised dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, R

    Samples taken from 30 dogs with spontaneously acute trauma were investigated with two different resonance thrombographs (instrument 2: 28 dogs), a global method for examination of the haemostatic system. Reaction time of the resonance thrombogram (RTG-r), fibrin generation time (RTG-f), fibrin amplitude (RTG-F) and parameters of platelet function [amplitude of the platelet leg (RTG-P) and descending time of the platelet leg (RTG-p)] were evaluated statistically and compared with a normal control as well as with the results of individual components of the haemostatic system and other screening tests. Comparison of the results of the RTG of dogs suffering from trauma with the normal control revealed differences only for RTG-r, which was longer when measured with instrument 1 and lower RTG-F values measured with both instruments. Depending on the RTG parameter and instrument, only 1-6 samples showed values outside the reference ranges. Only 4 out of 26 cases (resonance thrombograph 2: 2 out of 24 cases) with mild to moderate deficiency in individual coagulation factor activity showed a prolongation of RTG-r which was significantly less sensitive than activated partial thromboplastin time (p resonance thrombograph are a rare condition in dogs with acute accidental trauma. PMID:15583452

  8. Histopathologic alterations associated with global gene expression due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb and male (18.04 ppb fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption.

  9. An investigation into the sensitivity of the atmospheric chlorine and bromine loading using a globally averaged mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, David C.; Matthews, G. Peter; Wells, Ian

    Two globally averaged mass balance models have been developed to investigate the sensitivity and future level of atmospheric chlorine and bromine as a result of the emission of 14 chloro- and 3 bromo-carbons. The models use production, growth, lifetime and concentration data for each of the halocarbons and divide the production into one of eight uses, these being aerosol propellants, cleaning agents, blowing agents in open and closed cell foams, non-hermetic and hermetic refrigeration, fire retardants and a residual "other" category. Each use category has an associated emission profile which is built into the models to take into account the proportion of halocarbon retained in equipment for a characteristic period of time before its release. Under the Montreal Protocol 3 requirements, a peak chlorine loading of 3.8 ppb is attained in 1994, which does not reduce to 2.0 ppb (the approximate level of atmospheric chlorine when the ozone hole formed) until 2053. The peak bromine loading is 22 ppt, also in 1994, which decays to 12 ppt by the end of next century. The models have been used to (i) compare the effectiveness of Montreal Protocols 1, 2 and 3 in removing chlorine from the atmosphere, (ii) assess the influence of the delayed emission assumptions used in these models compared to immediate emission assumptions used in previous models, (iii) assess the relative effect on the chlorine loading of a tightening of the Montreal Protocol 3 restrictions, and (iv) calculate the influence of chlorine and bromine chemistry as well as the faster phase out of man-made methyl bromide on the bromine loading.

  10. Do convective schemes substantially alter simulated global climate and cloud feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, S. C.; Webb, M.; Lock, A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Bony, S.; Cole, J. N.; Idelkadi, A.; Kang, S. M.; Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Ogura, T.; Roehrig, R.; Shin, Y.; Mauritsen, T.; Vial, J.; Watanabe, M.; Woelfle, M.; Zhao, M.; Cairns, C. W.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate CFMIP-2 AMIP and AMIP+4K experiments with ten climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that parameterized convection may be a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks and other aspects. We find that model biases in 'ConvOff' runs (those with the convective schemes switched off), for example in tropical lapse rate and relative humidity, are generally smaller than intermodel differences in these fields, in spite of the fact that these fields are widely thought to be controlled by convective processes. This suggests that, to a considerable extent, explicitly resolved convection is able to do most of the overall job of convection in modern climate models at least with respect to phenomena at large scales. We find moreover that 'ConvOff' models have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared to the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable sub-tropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution

  11. Grazing alters the net C sink strength and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E. H.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Grazing profoundly affects climate by altering the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2 and CH4) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Little is known about how this disturbance affects the GHG exchange from subtropical pastures although they account for a substantial portion of global grazing lands. Here, we investigated how cattle grazing affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical semi-native pasture using the eddy covariance technique. Soil moisture was greater under grazed than ungrazed pastures but soil temperature was similar between treatments. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing reduced gross primary productivity (GPP, 16%). While ungrazed pastures had higher GPP than grazed pastures, they also had higher ecosystem respiration (Re, 20%) along with higher heterotrophic respiration. As a result, annual sums of NEE were similar in grazed and ungrazed pastures and both systems were net sinks for CO2 (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in grazed pasture, and -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in ungrazed pasture). Including C removal by grazers in the C budget, grazing reduced the C sink strength (250%) and grazed pasture became a net source of C to the atmosphere. Increased soil wetness and CH4 production from enteric ruminant fermentation enhanced net ecosystem CH4 emissions (16%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures. The net global warming potential (GWP) was higher (34%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures, but both systems were net sources of GHGs when accounting for the radiative forcing of CH4. Our results suggest that grazing reduces the net C sink strength and increases the net GWP of subtropical pastures. Improved understanding of how grazing affects ecosystem GHG fluxes is essential to predicting the role of pastures on the global C cycle.

  12. Energy Deregulation Precedes Alteration in Heart Energy Balance in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Non Invasive In Vivo 31P-MR Spectroscopy Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschodt-Arsac, Veronique; Arsac, Laurent; Magat, Julie; Naulin, Jerome; Quesson, Bruno; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gradual alterations in cardiac energy balance, as assessed by the myocardial PCr/ATP-ratio, are frequently associated with the development of cardiac disease. Despite great interest for the follow-up of myocardial PCr and ATP content, cardiac MR-spectroscopy in rat models in vivo is challenged by sensitivity issues and cross-contamination from other organs. Methods Here we combined MR-Imaging and MR-Spectroscopy (Bruker BioSpec 9.4T) to follow-up for the first time in vivo the cardiac energy balance in the SHR, a genetic rat model of cardiac hypertrophy known to develop early disturbances in cytosolic calcium dynamics. Results We obtained consistent 31P-spectra with high signal/noise ratio from the left ventricle in vivo by using a double-tuned (31P/1H) surface coil. Reasonable acquisition time (<3.2min) allowed assessing the PCr/ATP-ratio comparatively in SHR and age-matched control rats (WKY): i) weekly from 12 to 21 weeks of age; ii) in response to a bolus injection of the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol at age 21 weeks. Discussion Along weeks, the cardiac PCr/ATP-ratio was highly reproducible, steady and similar (2.35±0.06) in SHR and WKY, in spite of detectable ventricular hypertrophy in SHR. At the age 21 weeks, PCr/ATP dropped more markedly (-17.1%±0.8% vs. -3,5%±1.4%, P<0.001) after isoproterenol injection in SHR and recovered slowly thereafter (time constant 21.2min vs. 6.6min, P<0.05) despite similar profiles of tachycardia among rats. Conclusion The exacerbated PCr/ATP drop under ß-adrenergic stimulation indicates a defect in cardiac energy regulation possibly due to calcium-mediated abnormalities in the SHR heart. Of note, defects in energy regulation were present before detectable abnormalities in cardiac energy balance at rest. PMID:27622548

  13. Global deletion of MGL in mice delays lipid absorption and alters energy homeostasis and diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John D.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Wu, Amy; Zadrogra, John A.; Gajda, Angela M.; Lackey, Atreju I.; Lang, Wensheng; Chevalier, Kristen M.; Sutton, Steven W.; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M.; Connelly, Margery A.; Storch, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerols (MGs) to yield FFAs and glycerol. MGL contributes to energy homeostasis through the mobilization of fat stores and also via the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. To further examine the role of MG metabolism in energy homeostasis, MGL−/− mice were fed either a 10% (kilocalories) low-fat diet (LFD) or a 45% (kilocalories) high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Profound increases of MG species in the MGL−/− mice compared with WT control mice were found. Weight gain over the 12 weeks was blunted in both diet groups. MGL−/− mice were leaner than WT mice at both baseline and after 12 weeks of LFD feeding. Circulating lipids were decreased in HFD-fed MGL−/− mice, as were the levels of several plasma peptides involved in glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Interestingly, MGL−/− mice had markedly reduced intestinal TG secretion following an oral fat challenge, suggesting delayed lipid absorption. Overall, the results indicate that global MGL deletion leads to systemic changes that produce a leaner phenotype and an improved serum metabolic profile. PMID:25842377

  14. (238)U/(235)U isotope ratios of crustal material, rivers and products of hydrothermal alteration: new insights on the oceanic U isotope mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmann, Janine; Weyer, Stefan; Georg, R Bastian; Jöns, Svenja; Sharma, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    significantly lower δ(238)U (-0.55 and -0.59 ‰) than seawater (-0.38 ‰). These findings, together with the heavier U isotope composition observed for some altered basalts and carbonate veins support a model, in which redox processes mostly drive U isotope fractionation. This may result in a slightly heavier U isotope composition of U that is removed from seawater during hydrothermal seafloor alteration compared to that of seawater. Using the estimated isotope compositions of rivers and all U sinks from the ocean (of this study and the literature) for modelling of the isotopic U mass balance, this gives reasonable results for recent estimates of the oceanic U budget. It furthermore provides additional constraints on the relative size of the diverse U sinks and respective net isotope fractionation during U removal. PMID:26085006

  15. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change. PMID:26255274

  16. Microbial communities on seafloor basalts at Dorado Outcrop reflect level of alteration and highlight global lithic clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Areas of exposed basalt along mid-ocean ridges and at seafloor outcrops serve as conduits of fluid flux into and out of a subsurface ocean, and microbe-mineral interactions can influence alteration reactions at the rock-water interface. Located on the eastern flank of the East Pacific Rise, Dorado Outcrop is a site of low-temperature (<20°C hydrothermal venting and represents a new end-member in the current survey of seafloor basalt biomes. Consistent with prior studies, a survey of 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity using universal primers targeting the V4 hypervariable region revealed much greater richness and diversity on seafloor rocks than in surrounding seawater. Overall, Gamma-, Alpha-, and Deltaproteobacteria, and Thaumarchaeota dominated the sequenced communities, together making up over half of the observed diversity, though bacterial sequences were more abundant than archaeal in all samples. The most abundant bacterial reads were closely related to the obligate chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing Thioprofundum lithotrophicum, suggesting carbon and sulfur cycling as dominant metabolic pathways in this system. Representatives of Thaumarchaeota were detected in relatively high abundance on the basalts in comparison to bottom water, possibly indicating ammonia oxidation. In comparison to other sequence datasets from globally distributed seafloor basalts, this study reveals many overlapping and cosmopolitan phylogenetic groups and also suggests that substrate age correlates with community structure.

  17. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.

  18. BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus in mouse tongue by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tadayoshi; Suga, Takeo; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Morito, Mitsuhiko; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether BMP-2 regulates the oral sulcus formation of mouse embryonic tongue by modifying the expression of TIMP and MMP. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 180% increase in the depth of oral sulcus cavity (P sulcus into the mesenchymal tissues consisting of tongue floor, whereas the recombinant BMP-2 suppressed the process in the organ culture system of mouse embryonic tongue. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% decrease in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA (P sulcus in the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 220% increases in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA and the area of the immunostaining for TIMP-1 around the oral sulcus was larger in the mandibles treated with the recombinant BMP-2 than the vehicle. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% increase in the expression of MMP-13 protein and a marked increase in the staining intensity for MMP-13 was observed in the epithelial region of the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 70% decrease in the expression of MMP-13 mRNA and the decrease was mainly observed in the tissues around oral sulcus. The expressions of BMP-2, TIMP-1, and MMP-13 were verified in the tissues around in vivo developing oral sulcus at E11, 12, and 13 by immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

  19. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, timely and accurate economic and energy data are critical to carry out analysis of energy system changes. An energy balance, characterizing fuels/commodities used in energy supply, transformation and sectoral end uses is an essential tool to calibrate energy system models used for......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used as...... an international benchmark to analyze China’s national energy statistics in detail and identify indicators to establish regional energy balances inside China. Although this methodology includes a range of data uncertainties, it is intended to stimulate the discussion about current and future regional...

  20. Alpine ecosystem vulnerability to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau: Global implications for carbon balance, regional consequences for local pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, K. A.; Klein, J. A.; Hu, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is predicted to undergo climate warming much greater than the global average, as well as shifts in its currently monsoon-dominated precipitation regime. These changes will likely affect the vegetation composition, carbon balance, and nutrient cycling of this alpine, social-ecological system. In 2009 we established a fully factorial experiment to test ecosystem responses to predicted climate changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Our experiment site (4870 m) is located in the foothills of the Nyanchenthanglha Mountains, where local pastoralists graze their livestock. The site is representative of central Tibet’s alpine meadow ecosystems, with the turf-forming sedge, Kobresia pygmaea, as both the dominant species and preferred forage of yaks. Our climate treatments are spring snow addition, which is added at 1-m depth to simulate severe snowstorms, and warming with open top chambers, which elevate air temperatures by an average of 1.2 degrees Celsius. The climate treatments are fully crossed with controlled grazing by yaks, which represents the primary livelihood practice of herders at our study site and throughout Tibet’s grasslands. To better understand the ecosystem shifts that may occur under climate change in this alpine system and to elucidate the drivers of these shifts, we collected data from a suite of measurements in each of our plots. Using a LiCOR 6400 infrared gas analyzer, we measured CO2 fluxes at 4 periods throughout the growing season to obtain values for net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration, and gross primary productivity. We also measured available nitrogen (N) across three distinct moisture regimes (snowmelt, dry-down, and monsoon). Finally, we quantified changes in vegetation composition and recorded air and soil temperature and soil moisture throughout the growing season. After two years of applying treatments, our findings suggest that Tibet’s alpine grasslands are particularly vulnerable to climate change

  1. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  2. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  3. Social Balance Theory: Revisiting Heider’s Balance Theory for many agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on Heider’s social balance theory to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance structure. Seve...

  4. Balance Sheet Network Analysis of Too-Connected-to-Fail Risk in Global and Domestic Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Chan-Lau

    2010-01-01

    The 2008/9 financial crisis highlighted the importance of evaluating vulnerabilities owing to interconnectedness, or Too-Connected-to-Fail risk, among financial institutions for country monitoring, financial surveillance, investment analysis and risk management purposes. This paper illustrates the use of balance sheet-based network analysis to evaluate interconnectedness risk, under extreme adverse scenarios, in banking systems in mature and emerging market countries, and between individual b...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF A WEATHERED TRAINING PROGRAM OF 20 WEEKS IN FINE MOTRICITY, GLOBAL MOTRICITY AND BALANCE IN OLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique de Abreu Araújo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the motor development of active older women, the Open University The Third Aged, ESEFFEGO, Goiânia, GO, before and after the intervention of a resistance exercise program for 20 weeks. Especially the skills of fine motor skills, gross and balance. Methods: The group consisted of 60 elderly with aged 60 and 75 years. To evaluate the group was used EMTI protocol Rosa Neto (2009. Results: The overall motor fitness achieved a significant increase after the interventions, as well as all the surveyed motor skills. Conclusions: interventions were beneficial for the elderly.

  6. A Thyroid Hormone Challenge in Hypothyroid Rats Identifies T3 Regulated Genes in the Hypothalamus and in Models with Altered Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Herwig, Annika; Campbell, Gill; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Boelen, Anita; Richard A. Anderson; Alexander W Ross; Mercer, Julian G.; Barrett, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Background: The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) is known to affect energy balance. Recent evidence points to an action of T3 in the hypothalamus, a key area of the brain involved in energy homeostasis, but the components and mechanisms are far from understood. The aim of this study was to identify components in the hypothalamus that may be involved in the action of T3 on energy balance regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Alteration in the global and regional myocardial strain patterns in patients with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction prior to and after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen-Fang; Zhou, Qing; Guo, Rui-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the alteration on regional and global strains of left and right ventricle (LV, RV) in patients with inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Patients were examined prior to and 7 days after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using speckle-tracking techniques. Fifty-nine patients (36 males and 23 females) and 60 healthy controls (40 males and 20 females) were enrolled in this study. LV strains were measured from three deformations including radial, longitudinal, and circumferential. RV strains were measured only from the longitudinal. Three types of LV global strains were significantly lower in patients than in controls, and LV global longitudinal and circumferential strains were moderately improved by PCI. The LV regional strains reduced significantly in most of the segments (87%) after inferior wall MI and over half of them (60%) were improved by PCI. The RV global longitudinal strains were significantly lower in patients than in controls, and they were moderately improved by PCI. In conclusion, the regional and global strains of LV and RV were reduced in patients with inferior wall MI, and PCI most markedly improved the global strains and regional strains of the infarct and adjacent myocardium in the apical and middle levels.

  8. Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict response to treatment - A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2014-07-28

    In rectal cancer, not all tumours display a response to neoadjuvant treatment. An accurate predictor of response does not exist to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and a potential response predictor is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.

  9. Challenges and opportunities for the Olympic Movement: Balancing the Games lived festival experience and its global media projection

    OpenAIRE

    García, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    After more than one century, the Olympic Games, the most visible dimension of the Olympic Movement, remains the world largest sports mega-event and attracts the largest amount of simultaneous media coverage globally. However, beyond a sports event, the Olympic Games is also a cultural phenomenon that can have considerable influence over local, national and international cultural policy. This cultural dimension tends to be represented by the media via popular ceremonial events, such as the Oly...

  10. The role of nuclear power technology in balancing energy policy objectives - A UK perspective on a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy review aimed to balance the following objectives: Safety Security of supply Environmental acceptability Afford ability With a clear view of UK energy policy objectives, it is possible to assess the performance of new nuclear power technology in terms of its ability to meet these criteria. It is also possible to examine the extent of likely further improvements from nuclear technologies currently under development. Although nuclear appears to be an excellent match for the requirements of UK energy policy, there are currently no plans to build nuclear stations in the UK to replace the current fleet, much of which is scheduled to close over the next two decades. This paper examines in more detail how nuclear power performs in meeting energy policy objectives and identifies the key barriers facing utilities and investors who might be contemplating nuclear power. It also demonstrates how these can all be addressed equitably and without subsidy for the industry

  11. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  12. Using reconstructions of the global peat C balance over the Holocene to constrain the timing and magnitude of anthropogenic land use emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Yu, Zicheng; Massa, Charly; Spahni, Renato; Prentice, Colin; Joos, Fortunat

    2016-04-01

    Major circumpolar peatlands of the northern hemisphere have established over the last 14 kyr, with the majority of peat C sequestered during the Holocene. Today, this C storage amounts to 500-600 GtC. In spite of this substantial impact on the C cycle, independent records of the total terrestrial C balance suggest a small long-term trend over the last 6 kyr. The advent of agriculture, associated land use change, and resulting cumulative CO2 emissions of 50-350 GtC have occurred during a period of continued C sequestration in peatlands. Relatively small variations in the total terrestrial C balance have thus been interpreted to indicate a coincidental timing and a similar magnitude of these compensating fluxes and to lend support for upper-end estimates of preindustrial land use emissions. Here, we test this hypothesis by combining observation-based reconstructions of the terrestrial C balance (ΔC) and peat storage (ΔCpeat) with new results from process-based global land C cycle models that hindcast peat C dynamics and CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use change (ΔCLUC) following a set of contrasting land use reconstructions. Recent data compilations of peat C accumulation histories allow us to provide an improved temporal resolution of observation-based ΔCpeat. We assess the terrestrial C budget ΔC = ΔCpeat+ δ for different periods in the Holocene and in the last millennium and confront ΔCLUC with the budget residual δ. We find that the combination of ΔCpeat and ΔC and their temporal variations provide additional constraints on ΔCLUC estimates that have thus far not been taken into account. Between 11-7 kyr BP, ΔCpeat alone accounts for the majority of ΔC, incompatible with upper-end ΔCLUC estimates. Between 7-5 kyr BP and 5-2 kyr BP, the budget reveals a substantial land C source, but all model-based estimates of ΔCLUC fall short of explaining the magnitude of δ. ΔC reveals a relatively stable overall C balance during the last millennium

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  14. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century. PMID:23904531

  15. Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDonagh, Brian; Giorgos K. Sakellariou; Neil T. Smith; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a...

  16. Cultural encounters in a global age : knowledge, alterity and the world in Mexico-China relations (1972-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio-Alfonso, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Mexico and China established official diplomatic relations in 1972. Since then, their mutual economic, political and social links have been developed in an unprecedented way. However, from the perspective of International Relations, the analytical richness of the relationship is obscured by hegemonic conceptualisations of global power, materiality or teleological truths. The literature dealing with the relation in itself has not prioritised a theoretical or holistic approach. Through an anal...

  17. A novel balanced chromosomal translocation found in subjects with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder: Altered L-serine level associated with disruption of PSAT1 gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ozeki, Yuji; Pickard, Benjamin S; Kano, Shin-ichi; Malloy, Mary P.; Zeledon, Mariela; SUN, DANIEL Q.; Fujii, Kumiko; Wakui, Keiko; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Muir, Walter J; Blackwood, Douglas H; Sawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    L-Serine is required for the synthesis of glycine and D-serine, both of which are NMDA receptor coagonists. Although roles for D-serine and glycine have been suggested in schizophrenia, little is known about the role of the L-serine synthesizing cascade in schizophrenia or related psychiatric conditions. Here we report a patient with schizophrenia carrying a balanced chromosomal translocation with the breakpoints localized to 3q13.12 and 9q21.2. We examined this proband and her son with schiz...

  18. Poor ability to resist tempting calorie rich food is linked to altered balance between neural systems involved in urge and self-control

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; XUE, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L.; Schembre, Susan M.; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background The loss of self-control or inability to resist tempting/rewarding foods, and the development of less healthful eating habits may be explained by three key neural systems: (1) a hyper-functioning striatum system driven by external rewarding cues; (2) a hypo-functioning decision-making and impulse control system; and (3) an altered insula system involved in the translation of homeostatic and interoceptive signals into self-awareness and what may be subjectively experienced as a feel...

  19. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.; F.; Bouwman

    2005-01-01

    ,A.L.,Nitrogen cycling in surface waters and lakes,in Nitrate:Processes,Patterns and Management (eds.Burt,T.P.,Trudgill,S.T.),Chichester:Wiley and Sons,1993,99- 140.[14]Vollenweider,R.A.,Coastal marine eutrophication:Principles and control,Science of the Total Environment,1992,Supplement 1992:1-20.[15]Bouwman,A.F.,Van Drecht,G.Van der Hoek,K.W.,Nitrogen surface balances in intensive agricultural production systems in different world regions for the period 1970-2030,Pedosphere,2005,15(2):137-155.[16]Van der Hoek,K.W.Nitrogen cycling in Asian pastoral livestock production systems:Present and future,Proceedings of the N2004 Conference,Nanjing,2004.[17]Bruinsma,J.E.,World agriculture:Towards 2015/2030.An FAO perspective,London:Earthscan,2003,432.[18]Bouwman,A.F.,Van der Hoek,K.W.,Eickhout,B.et al.,Exploring changes in world ruminant production systems,Agricultural Systems,2005,84(2):121 - 153.[19]IMAGE-team,The IMAGE 2.2 Implementation of the SRES Scenarios.A Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions,Climate Change and Impacts in the 21st Century,CD-ROM Publication 481508018,Bilthoven:National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,2001.[20]FAO,FAOSTAT database collections,http://www.apps.fao.org,Rome:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,2001.[21]Van der Hoek,K.W.,Nitrogen efficiency in global animal production,in Nitrogen,the Confer-N-s (eds.Van der Hoek,K.W.,Erisman,J.W.,Smeulders,S.et al.),Amsterdam:Elsevier,1998,127-132.[22]Smil,V.,Nitrogen in crop production:An account of global flows,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,1999,13:647-662.[23]Collins,W.J.,Stevenson,D.S.,Johnson,C.E.et al.,Tropospheric ozone in a global-scale three-dimensional Lagrangian model and its response to NOx emission controls,Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry,1997,26:223-274.[24]Olivier,J.G.J.,Berdowski,J.M.,Peters,J.A.H.W.et al.,Applications of EDGAR.Including a description of EDGAR V3.0:Reference database with trend data for 1970-1995.,Report 773301001,Bilthoven:National Institute for Public Health

  20. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  1. Regulation of the fear network by mediators of stress: Norepinephrine alters the balance between Cortical and Subcortical afferent excitation of the Lateral Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke R Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning crucially involves the integration of information about and acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. The auditory CS reaches the LA subcortically via a direct connection from the auditory thalamus and also from the auditory association cortex itself. How neural modulators, especially those activated during stress, such as norepinephrine (NE, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in this network is poorly understood. Here we show that NE inhibits synaptic transmission in both the subcortical and cortical input pathway but that sensory processing is biased towards the subcortical pathway. In addition binding of NE to β-adrenergic receptors further dissociates sensory processing in the LA. These findings suggest a network mechanism that shifts sensory balance towards the faster but more primitive subcortical input.

  2. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor.

  3. Over-expression of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL in small intestine alters endocannabinoid levels and whole body energy balance, resulting in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyoun Chon

    Full Text Available The function of small intestinal monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL is unknown. Its expression in this tissue is surprising because one of the primary functions of the small intestine is to convert diet-derived MGs to triacylglycerol (TG, and not to degrade them. To elucidate the function of intestinal MGL, we generated transgenic mice that over-express MGL specifically in small intestine (iMGL mice. After only 3 weeks of high fat feeding, iMGL mice showed an obese phenotype; body weight gain and body fat mass were markedly higher in iMGL mice, along with increased hepatic and plasma TG levels compared to wild type littermates. The iMGL mice were hyperphagic and displayed reduced energy expenditure despite unchanged lean body mass, suggesting that the increased adiposity was due to both increased caloric intake and systemic effects resulting in a hypometabolic rate. The presence of the transgene resulted in lower levels of most MG species in intestinal mucosa, including the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG. The results therefore suggest a role for intestinal MGL, and intestinal 2-AG and perhaps other MG species, in whole body energy balance via regulation of food intake as well as metabolic rate.

  4. Climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica. Alteración del balance de energía natural / Urban climatology by anthropogenic modification. Alteration of the natural energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Pérez, Carlos Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación valora el análisis climático histórico para establecer la temperatura y humedad relativa media, en contraste con la climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica estudio de caso, y su contribución de consigna fijado para invierno y verano que son las estaciones críticas. El procedimiento metodológico a implementar, apoya a los planificadores urbanos a no tener que participar científicamente para evaluar el emplazamiento térmico de sus proyectos y por lo tanto se puede acelerar el proceso de diseño sin comprometer el énfasis en el contexto urbano sustentable. Con base a los resultados se establecen las islas de calor urbano y su huella térmica en el hábitat. El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar la climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica y su alteración a la calidad del hábitat en Tampico, México. The research assesses the historical climate analysis to determine the average temperature and relative humidity, in contrast to urban anthropogenic weather modification case study, and their contribution setpoint set for winter and summer are the season’s criticism. The methodology to implement, procedure supports urban planners will not have to participate to scientifically evaluate the thermal construction projects and therefore can accelerate the design process without compromising the emphasis on sustainable urban context. Based on the results of urban heat islands and thermal footprint habitat established. The objective of this research is to determine the urban climate by anthropogenic modification and alteration of habitat quality in Tampico, Mexico.

  5. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  6. [DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN PRO-AND ANTIOXIDANT BALANCE AND THEIR CORRECTION BY CURCUMIN IN THE NEONATAL RAT CARDIOMYOCYTES CULTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, O O; Drevytska, T I; Gonchar, O O; Chornyy, S A; Kovalyov, O M; Mankovska, I M

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of doxorubicin on the HIF system and the pro-antioxidant balance of neonatal cardiomyocytes as well as the possibility of the oxidative stress correcting using curcumin. It has been revealed that the expression of mRNA HIF-1α using doxorubicin at a dose of 0.5 μM was 2.9 ± 0.8 cu, so it decreased by 20% compared to control--3.6 ± 0.7 cu (P level of expression of the HIF target gene PDK-1 also significantly decreased (4 times). During the incubation with doxorubicin, the number of live cells decreased by 50.4% relative to control. And after using doxorubicin and curcumin together, the percentage of dead cells decreased by 7,7 compared to doxorubicin only. Doxorubicin intoxication led to a significant increase in the secondary products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cardiomyocytes by 3.6 times and hydrogen peroxide by 64%. Prolonged incubation with doxorubicin reduced the enzymatic activity of Mn-SOD by 32%, while catalase activity increased by 72% compared to control. Adding of curcumin to the cardiomyocyte cell culture contributed to increasing of the Mn-SOD activity by 14%, catalase--by 23%. The level of TBARS increased by 1,4 times compared with the control, and the level of H2O2 increased by 20%. The joint use of doxorubicin and curcumin resulted in a significant reduction of free radical oxidation unlike effect of doxorubicin per se. Specifically, there was lessening of TBARS and H2O2 (at 56.7 and 18.4% respectively), while decreasing of the catalase hyperactivation (19%) and rising of the Mn-SOD activity (35%). PMID:26845849

  7. Solar ultraviolet radiation induces biological alterations in human skin in vitro: Relevance of a well-balanced UVA/UVB protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bernerd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous damages such as sunburn, pigmentation, and photoaging are known to be induced by acute as well as repetitive sun exposure. Not only for basic research, but also for the design of the most efficient photoprotection, it is crucial to understand and identify the early biological events occurring after ultraviolet (UV exposure. Reconstructed human skin models provide excellent and reliable in vitro tools to study the UV-induced alterations of the different skin cell types, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using different in vitro human skin models, the effects of UV light (UVB and UVA were investigated. UVB-induced damages are essentially epidermal, with the typical sunburn cells and DNA lesions, whereas UVA radiation-induced damages are mostly located within the dermal compartment. Pigmentation can also be obtained after solar simulated radiation exposure of pigmented reconstructed skin model. Those models are also highly adequate to assess the potential of sunscreens to protect the skin from UV-associated damage, sunburn reaction, photoaging, and pigmentation. The results showed that an effective photoprotection is provided by broad-spectrum sunscreens with a potent absorption in both UVB and UVA ranges.

  8. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. F. Bouwman; G. Van Drecht; K. W. van der Hoek

    2005-01-01

    Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing animals. In most industrialized countries we see a gradual increase of the overall N recovery of the intensive agricultural production systems over the whole 1970-2030 period. In contrast, low N input systems in many developing countries sustained low crop yields for many years but at the cost of soil fertility by depleting soil nutrient pools. In most developing countries the N recovery will increase in the coming decades by increasing efficiencies of N use in both crop and livestock production systems. The surface balance surplus of N is lost from the agricultural system via different pathways, including NH3 volatilization, denitrification,N2O and NO emissions, and nitrate leaching from the root zone. Global NH3-N emissions from fertilizer and animal manure application and stored manure increased from 18 to 34 Tg.yr-1 between 1970 and 1995, and will further increase to 44 Tg.yr-1 in 2030. Similar developments are seen for N2O-N (2.0 Tg.yr-1 in 1970, 2.7 Tg.yr-1 in 1995 and 3.5 Tg.yr-1 in 2030) and NO-N emissions (1.1 Tg.yr-1 in 1970, 1.5 Tg-yr-1 in 1995 and 2.0 Tg.yr-1 in 2030).

  9. GSVD comparison of patient-matched normal and tumor aCGH profiles reveals global copy-number alterations predicting glioblastoma multiforme survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng H Lee

    Full Text Available Despite recent large-scale profiling efforts, the best prognostic predictor of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains the patient's age at diagnosis. We describe a global pattern of tumor-exclusive co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs that is correlated, possibly coordinated with GBM patients' survival and response to chemotherapy. The pattern is revealed by GSVD comparison of patient-matched but probe-independent GBM and normal aCGH datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find that, first, the GSVD, formulated as a framework for comparatively modeling two composite datasets, removes from the pattern copy-number variations (CNVs that occur in the normal human genome (e.g., female-specific X chromosome amplification and experimental variations (e.g., in tissue batch, genomic center, hybridization date and scanner, without a-priori knowledge of these variations. Second, the pattern includes most known GBM-associated changes in chromosome numbers and focal CNAs, as well as several previously unreported CNAs in >3% of the patients. These include the biochemically putative drug target, cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinase-encoding TLK2, the cyclin E1-encoding CCNE1, and the Rb-binding histone demethylase-encoding KDM5A. Third, the pattern provides a better prognostic predictor than the chromosome numbers or any one focal CNA that it identifies, suggesting that the GBM survival phenotype is an outcome of its global genotype. The pattern is independent of age, and combined with age, makes a better predictor than age alone. GSVD comparison of matched profiles of a larger set of TCGA patients, inclusive of the initial set, confirms the global pattern. GSVD classification of the GBM profiles of an independent set of patients validates the prognostic contribution of the pattern.

  10. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  11. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  12. ORAL BISPHENOL A (BPA) GIVEN TO RATS AT MODERATE DOSES IS ASSOCIATED WITH ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, CAVERNOSAL LIPOFIBROSIS, AND ALTERATIONS OF GLOBAL GENE TRANSCRIPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanecz, I; Gelfand, R; Masouminia, M; Gharib, S; Segura, D; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Li, DK; Kannan, K; Gonzalez-Cadavid, NF

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected reproductive biohazard and endocrine disruptor released from plastics is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) in occupationally exposed workers. However, in rats, despite the induction of hypogonadism, apoptosis of the penile corporal smooth muscle, fat infiltration into the cavernosal tissue, and changes in global gene expression with the intraperitoneal administration of high dose BPA, ED was not observed. Aims We investigated whether BPA administered orally rather than intraperitoneally to rats for longer periods and lower doses will lead to ED. Main Outcomes Measures ED, histological, and biochemical markers in rat penile tissues. Methods 2.5-month old rats were given drinking water daily without and with BPA at 1 and 0.1 mg/kg/day. Two months later, erectile function was determined by cavernosometry (DIC) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and serum levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and BPA were measured. Penile tissue sections were assayed by Masson (smooth muscle (SM)/collagen), Oil Red O (fat), TUNEL (apoptosis), immunohistochemistry for Oct 4 (stem cells), and α-SM actin/ calponin (SM and myofibroblasts), applying quantitative image analysis. Other markers were assayed by western blots. DNA microarrays/microRNA assays defined transcription profiles. Results Orally administered BPA did not affect body weight, but: 1) decreased serum T and E2; 2) reduced the EFS response and increased the DIC drop rate; 3) increased within the corporal tissue the presence of fat, myofibroblasts and apoptosis; 4) lowered the contents of SM and stem cells, but not nerve terminals; and 5) caused alterations of the transcriptional profiles for both mRNA and microRNAs within the penile shaft. Conclusions Long-term exposure of rats to oral BPA,caused a moderate corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), possibly due to alterations within the corporal tissue that pose gene transcriptional changes related to

  13. Altered proteostasis in aging and heat shock response in C. elegans revealed by analysis of the global and de novo synthesized proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Vanessa; Ullrich, Milena; Lam, Hong; Chew, Yee Lian; Banister, Samuel; Song, Xiaomin; Zaw, Thiri; Kassiou, Michael; Götz, Jürgen; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2014-09-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation as a consequence of impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis) not only characterizes numerous age-related diseases but also the aging process itself. Functionally related to the aging process are, among others, ribosomal proteins, suggesting an intimate link between proteostasis and aging. We determined by iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis in C. elegans how the proteome changes with age and in response to heat shock. Levels of ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial chaperones were decreased in aged animals, supporting the notion that proteostasis is altered during aging. Mitochondrial enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain were also reduced, consistent with an age-associated energy impairment. Moreover, we observed an age-associated decline in the heat shock response. In order to determine how protein synthesis is altered in aging and in response to heat shock, we complemented our global analysis by determining the de novo proteome. For that, we established a novel method that enables both the visualization and identification of de novo synthesized proteins, by incorporating the non-canonical methionine analogue, azidohomoalanine (AHA), into the nascent polypeptides, followed by reacting the azide group of AHA by 'click chemistry' with an alkyne-labeled tag. Our analysis of AHA-tagged peptides demonstrated that the decreased abundance of, for example, ribosomal proteins in aged animals is not solely due to degradation but also reflects a relative decrease in their synthesis. Interestingly, although the net rate of protein synthesis is reduced in aged animals, our analyses indicate that the synthesis of certain proteins such as the vitellogenins increases with age. PMID:24458371

  14. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  15. Heat-Wave Effects on Oxygen, Nutrients, and Phytoplankton Can Alter Global Warming Potential of Gases Emitted from a Small Shallow Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-06-21

    Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported.

  16. Heat-Wave Effects on Oxygen, Nutrients, and Phytoplankton Can Alter Global Warming Potential of Gases Emitted from a Small Shallow Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-06-21

    Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported. PMID:27266257

  17. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  18. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  19. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  20. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  1. Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed

  2. Informational Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Henrik Høeg

    2011-01-01

    The title of my talk is “Informational balance. Understanding Romance and Germanic Compounding in a lexico-typological perspective”. What I basically mean by informational balance is that semantic content is distributed systematically differently between nouns and verbs in the Romance and Germanic languages, and that this distribution is complementary. I shall explain that in detail in a minute, but first I shall introduce you to the problem, which I believe can be explained on the basis of t...

  3. Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T G

    2016-07-01

    Increased global demand for adequate protein nutrition against a backdrop of climate change and concern for animal agriculture sustainability necessitates new and more efficient approaches to livestock growth and production. Anabolic growth is achieved when rates of new synthesis exceed turnover, producing a positive net protein balance. Conversely, deterioration or atrophy of lean mass is a consequence of a net negative protein balance. During early life and periods of growth, muscle mass is driven by increases in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout life, muscle mass is further influenced by degradative processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Multiple signal transduction networks guide and coordinate these processes alongside quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetics, hormones, and environmental stimuli each influence proteostasis control, altering capacity and/or efficiency of muscle growth. An overview of recent findings and current methods to assess muscle protein balance and proteostasis is presented. Current efforts to identify novel control points have the potential through selective breeding design or development of hormetic strategies to better promote growth and health span during environmental stress. PMID:27345321

  4. An Overview of the New Emerging Balance of Forces-the BRICS, G 20 and G 7 Response to the Global Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhilesh Chandra Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    The USA and the EU economies have just been through a severe recession marked by financial turmoil, large-scale destruction of wealth, and declines in industrial production and global trade. As the result of reduction in the demand of products in the global market, continued falling prices due to lack of demand of their products. The USA economy is not competitive now. The current international financial crisis was an explosion that was the ultimate result of the accumulation of a number of u...

  5. The Maximum Ice Age Glaciation between the Karakorum Main Ridge (K2) and the Tarim Basin and its Influence on Global Energy Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2005-01-01

    A modern research approach and working techniques in hitherto unexamined areas, produced the following results: 1). The tongues of decakilometre long Karakorum glaciers belong to temperate ice-streams with an annual meltwater output. The short Aghil glaciers on the contrary are continental, arid and cold. 2). The present-day oscillations of the Karakorum glaciers are related to their own mass, and are contrary to and independent of the actual climate. Only the short glaciers, with steep tongue fronts, show a present-day positive balance. 3). 14C- dated Late Glacial moraines indicate a 400~800 m thick valley glacier at the former confluence point of the K2-, Sarpo Laggo- and Skamri glaciers. 4). From the evidence of transfluence passes with roches moutonnées, striae and the limits of glacial polishing, as well as moraines and erratics, a High Glacial at least 1200 m thick ice-stream network between the Karakorums and the Kuen Lun north slopes was reconstructed. The Shaksgam and Yarkand valleys were occupied by glaciers coming from west Tibet. The lowest-lying moraines are to be found in the foreland down to 2000 m, indicating a depression of the High Glacial (LGM) snowline (ELA) by 1300 m.5). The approximately 10,000 measurements of the radiation balance at up to heights of 5500 m on K2indicate that with incoming energy near the solar constant the reflection from snow- covered ice is up to 70% greater than from rock and rock waste surfaces.6).These results confirm for the very dry western margins of Tibet an almost complete ice sheet cover in an area with subtropical energy balance, conforming with the Ice Age hypothesis of the author which is based upon the presence of a 2.4 million km2 Tibetan inland ice sheet. This inland ice developed for the first time when Tibet was uplifted over the snowline during the early Pleistocene. As the measured subtropical radiation balance shows, it was able to trigger the Quaternary Ice Ages.

  6. A delicate balance global perspectives on innovation and tradition in the history of mathematics a festschrift in honor of Joseph W. Dauben

    CERN Document Server

    Horng, Wann-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Joseph W. Dauben, a leading authority on the history of mathematics in Europe, China, and North America, has played a pivotal role in promoting international scholarship over the last forty years. This Festschrift volume, showcasing recent historical research by leading experts on three continents, offers a global perspective on important themes in this field.

  7. Three Balances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Since the outbreak of the global financial crisis, the safety of the financial system has become the center of much attention. Wang Huaqing, Disciplinary Secretary of the China Banking Regulatory Commission, delivered his opinion on July 4 at the Global Think Tank Summit held in Beijing. Edited excerpts follow:

  8. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  9. Assessment of the Global and Regional Land Hydrosphere and Its Impact on the Balance of the Geophysical Excitation Function of Polar Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wińska Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of continental hydrological loading from land water, snow and ice on polar motion excitation, calculated as hydrological angular momentum (HAM, is difficult to estimate, and not as much is known about it as about atmospheric angular momentum (AAM and oceanic angular momentum (OAM. In this paper, regional hydrological excitations to polar motion are investigated using monthly terrestrial water storage data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission and from the five models of land hydrology. The results show that the areas where the variance shows large variability are similar for the different models of land hydrology and for the GRACE data. Areas which have a small amplitude on the maps make an important contribution to the global hydrological excitation function of polar motion. The comparison of geodetic residuals and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion shows that none of the hydrological excitation has enough energy to significantly improve the agreement between the observed geodetic excitation and geophysical ones.

  10. Assessment of the Global and Regional Land Hydrosphere and Its Impact on the Balance of the Geophysical Excitation Function of Polar Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Kołaczek, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The impact of continental hydrological loading from land water, snow and ice on polar motion excitation, calculated as hydrological angular momentum (HAM), is difficult to estimate, and not as much is known about it as about atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM). In this paper, regional hydrological excitations to polar motion are investigated using monthly terrestrial water storage data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and from the five models of land hydrology. The results show that the areas where the variance shows large variability are similar for the different models of land hydrology and for the GRACE data. Areas which have a small amplitude on the maps make an important contribution to the global hydrological excitation function of polar motion. The comparison of geodetic residuals and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion shows that none of the hydrological excitation has enough energy to significantly improve the agreement between the observed geodetic excitation and geophysical ones.

  11. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  12. Dynamic Global Trust Evaluation Based on Balance Weight%基于平衡权重的动态综合信任度量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 何泾沙; 黄娜; 张伊璇; 刘若鸿

    2015-01-01

    信任度量是面向开放式网络基于信任的访问控制可信管理中亟待解决的关键问题之一。根据人类社会学中信任的复杂关系,阐述了信任的相关概念,在基于信任的动态访问控制组成架构的基础上,考虑交互历史参数、奖惩因子、推荐实体评价可信度等多影响因子实现信任的计算,引入平衡权重因子解决直接信任和推荐信任的权重分配问题,提出了面向开放式网络基于平衡权重的动态信任综合度量方法。仿真结果与分析结果表明,该信任度量方法具有一定的鲁棒性和更好的动态自适应性。%The trust evaluation is one of the key issues that need to be resolved in credible trust manage-ment for trust-based access control in open networks. Referring to the complexity of trust relationships in human society, some relevant concepts on trust and proposes a dynamic comprehensive trust evaluation method for open networks was introduced. This method establishes a trust-based access control framework and introduces a balanced weight factor in trust evaluation to solve the problem for determining the weights between direct trust which includes historical information to improve accuracy and recommenda-tion trust which includes the bonus-penalty factor as well as the reliability of evaluation to improve relia-bility and efficiency. Experiment shows that the proposed method can achieve certain robustness and bet-ter dynamic self-adaptability.

  13. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  14. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  15. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  16. Gait and balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  17. 中国、拉丁美洲与全球力量平衡%China,Latin America and the Balance of Global Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿尔弗雷多·托罗·哈[委

    2016-01-01

    中国一直在积极推动建立符合自身利益的国际经济新秩序。中国所倡导的全球化是一种平行的全球化,伴随着对西方主导的经济秩序的大幅削弱。与此同时,一种违背美国愿望的地缘政治秩序,也开始显现出来。中俄两国是推动这种秩序的发动机。西方世界对中俄两国的意志和诉求所采取的傲慢态度是导致中俄在地缘政治上联手的根本原因。鉴于中国对大多数发展中国家具有很大影响力,这种政治-经济双重秩序的形成,显然会对发展中国家产生强大的作用力。在此背景下,历史上被视为“美国后花园”的拉美和加勒比国家,可能采取什么态度就显得尤为重要。%China has been actively promoting an international economic order according to its interests.But with impres-sive consistency of purpose,China is givingway to a parallel globalisation that may strongly weaken the economic order dominated by the West.Simultaneously to the above begins to glimpse the emergence of a geopoliticalorder of global out-reach,upstream of the United States.The confluence between China and Russia is the driving force of this process and, like that in the former case,the intrinsicreason is linked to the Western arrogance in relation to the sensitivities and aspi-rations of these two countries.This political-economic duality is likely to generate a major drag inthe developing world force,given the great influence exerted by China over a significant part of this.In this context,the stance that could ar-rive to take the countries of LatinAmerica and the Caribbean,region historically considered by the United States as its "backyard",would be particularly significant.

  18. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  19. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Crescenti

    Full Text Available DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001. Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  20. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg A Krawchuk

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution of wildfire, a complex abiotic process that responds to a variety of spatial and environmental gradients. How future climate change may alter global wildfire activity, however, is still largely unknown. As a first step to quantifying potential change in global wildfire, we present a multivariate quantification of environmental drivers for the observed, current distribution of vegetation fires using statistical models of the relationship between fire activity and resources to burn, climate conditions, human influence, and lightning flash rates at a coarse spatiotemporal resolution (100 km, over one decade. We then demonstrate how these statistical models can be used to project future changes in global fire patterns, highlighting regional hotspots of change in fire probabilities under future climate conditions as simulated by a global climate model. Based on current conditions, our results illustrate how the availability of resources to burn and climate conditions conducive to combustion jointly determine why some parts of the world are fire-prone and others are fire-free. In contrast to any expectation that global warming should necessarily result in more fire, we find that regional increases in fire probabilities may be counter-balanced by decreases at other locations, due to the interplay of temperature and precipitation variables. Despite this net balance, our models predict substantial invasion and retreat of fire across large portions of the globe. These changes could have important effects on terrestrial ecosystems since alteration in fire activity may occur quite rapidly, generating ever more complex environmental challenges for species dispersing and adjusting to new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of climate change on wildfire, suggesting severely altered fire regimes and the need for more explicit inclusion of fire in research

  1. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  2. The cytokine-mediated crosstalk between primary human acute myeloid cells and mesenchymal stem cells alters the local cytokine network and the global gene expression profile of the mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between acute myeloid leukemia (AML blasts and neighboring stromal cells are important for disease development and chemosensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the cytokine-mediated crosstalk between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and AML cells are largely unknown. Leukemic cells derived from 18 unselected AML patients were cultured with bone marrow MSCs derived from healthy donors; the populations then being separated by a semipermeable membrane. Coculture had only minor effects on MSC proliferation. The unique cytokine network in cocultures was determined by high constitutive MSC release of certain cytokines (especially IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor and constitutive release of a wide range of soluble mediators by primary AML cells. However, the AML cell release varied considerably between patients, and these differences between patients were also reflected in the coculture levels even though supra-additive effects were seen for many mediators. These effects on the local cytokine network were dependent on a functional crosstalk between the two cell subsets. The crosstalk altered the global gene expression profile of the MSCs, especially expression of genes encoding proteins involved in downstream signaling from Toll like receptors, NFκB signaling and CCL/CXCL chemokine release. Thus, primary AML cells alter the functional phenotype of normal MSCs.

  3. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  4. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  5. Energy balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  6. The impacts of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; LePage, Y.; Patel, P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that anthropogenic climate change may alter patterns of tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial distribution, which in turn will alter the carbon balance of terrestrial systems in the large regions impacted by these storms. Recent studies project up to a doubling of major storms (Saffir-Simpson Scale 3-5) over the next century. Single large storms have been shown to be capable of causing committed carbon emissions equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink. These changes have the potential to affect climate mitigation strategies, most of which rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink to restrain the accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Altered patterns of disturbances and the resulting changes to the carbon balance of terrestrial systems could impact the magnitude of emissions to mitigate, the economic value of ecosystem carbon storage, and thus future land-use patterns, food prices and energy technology. Here we investigate the potential consequences of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies using a fully integrated model (iED) that links advanced ecological and socio-economic models. The model combines the regional integrated assessment algorithms of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), with the climate- sensitive ecosystem and carbon modeling in the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and the land-use mapping algorithms of the Global Land-use Model (GLM). We explore a range of scenarios of altered future tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial pattern, the resulting effects on the terrestrial carbon balance, and the coupled effects on the food and energy sector under a range of future climate mitigation goals.

  7. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  8. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  9. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl- and NO3- isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4-/NO3- ratios and NO3- isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3-/ClO4- in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3-, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age of the salts and

  10. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl− and NO3−isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4−/NO3− ratios and NO3− isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3−/ClO4− in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3−, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70–200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age

  11. A high multivitamin diet fed to Wistar rat dams during pregnancy increases maternal weight gain later in life and alters homeostatic, hedonic and peripheral regulatory systems of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannia, Emanuela; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Huot, Pedro S P; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Fleming, Alison; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-02-01

    High multivitamin (10-fold, HV) and high folic acid (Fol) diets fed to pregnant Wistar rats increase body weight and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in their offspring. Our objective was to determine the effects of a HV maternal diet on dams and whether methyl vitamins contribute to these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets containing either (1) recommended multivitamins (RV, control), (2) HV, (3) HV with recommended Fol (HVRF; 1-fold Fol), or (4) RV with high methyl group vitamins (HMethyl; 10-fold Fol, vitamin B12 and B6). All groups were fed a RV diet during lactation until weaning and a RV high fat (HF; 60% fat) diet for 16 weeks post-weaning. The HV, HVRF and HMethyl diet fed dams gained 45% more weight from 2 to 15 weeks post-weaning and their weight gain (WG) was positively associated with cumulative post-weaning food intake (FI). However, only HV dams had a reduced preference for a sucrose solution, lower mesolimbic dopamine (DA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and higher expression of several genes involved in FI regulation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Energy conserving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-γ in adipose and -α in liver was also greater in these dams consistent with their WG. In conclusion, HV, HVRF and HMethyl maternal diets exacerbate maternal WG when dams are exposed to a HF diet post-weaning. However, the diets differed in their effects on central and peripheral regulatory systems of energy balance. PMID:25264184

  12. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  13. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  14. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  15. A fine balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Puri, Deepika; Saleh, Amena;

    2015-01-01

    regulators. Knockdown of PRDM2 alters histone methylation at key promoters such as Myogenin and CyclinA2 (CCNA2), and subverts the quiescence program via global de-repression of myogenesis, and hyper-repression of the cell cycle. Further, PRDM2 acts upstream of the repressive PRC2 complex in G0. We identify...... a novel G0-specific bivalent chromatin domain in the CCNA2 locus. PRDM2 protein interacts with the PRC2 protein EZH2 and regulates its association with the bivalent domain in the CCNA2 gene. Our results suggest that induction of PRDM2 in G0 ensures that two antagonistic programs-myogenesis and the cell...

  16. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex chromosome of In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of Drosophila melanogaster is associated with increased acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Kulkarni-Shukla; A. P. Barge; R. S. Vartak; Anita Kar

    2008-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, dosage compensation occurs through hypertranscription of sex-linked genes in males. The hypertranscription involves acetylation of histone 4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) on amale X-chromosome, brought about by a histone acetyltransferase encoded by the dosage compensation gene, males absent on the first (mof). We report a phenomenon in the strain In(1)B$^{M2}$(reinverted) of D. melanogaster where the global structure of the male X-chromosome can be altered at the third instar larval stage through a 4-h cold shock at 12±1°C. We show that the cold shock results in a transient hyperacetylation of H4K16 and an increased expression of MOF. Control proteins H4 acetylated at lysine 5, and the dosage compensation gene msl-2, do not show any change in expression after cold shock. Cytology of the male X-chromosome at different time points during cold shock and recovery, suggests that the hyperacetylation of H4 at lysine 16 causes the X-chromosome to corkscrew into itself, thereby achieving the cold-induced change in the higher order structure of the male polytene X-chromosome. Our studies suggest a role for H4K16 in maintaining the structure of the male X-chromosome in Drosophila.

  17. The need for speed: global optic flow speed influences steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Mole, Callum D; Merat, Natasha; Wilkie, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    How do animals follow demarcated paths? Different species are sensitive to optic flow and one control solution is to maintain the balance of flow symmetry across visual fields; however, it is unclear whether animals are sensitive to changes in asymmetries when steering along curved paths. Flow asymmetries can alter the global properties of flow (i.e. flow speed) which may also influence steering control. We tested humans steering curved paths in a virtual environment. The scene was manipulated so that the ground plane to either side of the demarcated path produced larger or smaller asymmetries in optic flow. Independent of asymmetries and the locomotor speed, the scene properties were altered to produce either faster or slower globally averaged flow speeds. Results showed that rather than being influenced by changes in flow asymmetry, steering responded to global flow speed. We conclude that the human brain performs global averaging of flow speed from across the scene and uses this signal as an input for steering control. This finding is surprising since the demarcated path provided sufficient information to steer, whereas global flow speed (by itself) did not. To explain these findings, existing models of steering must be modified to include a new perceptual variable: namely global optic flow speed. PMID:27293789

  18. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  19. Climate change and balance of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a global climate agreement, countries employ local policies to curb pollution and introduce clean energy. These policies limit domestic consumption of a traded energy source but increase exports thus improving a country’s energy balance and its balance of trade. While focusing on US energy policy, we show this phenomenon for both petroleum products and for coal.

  20. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  1. Human Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  2. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  3. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  4. Challenges of Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, Jose G.; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    One way to analyze the phenomenon of development in the era of globalization is through an approach involving interaction of the economic and the political system. The global economy has altered economic structures and social policies at the level of the nation-state, because the latter limits and impedes the processes of generation and capital accumulation. The purpose of this document is to analyze the emerging phenomenon of the transfer of state governance to global economic corporate gove...

  5. Global nitrogen fertilizer supply and demand outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel; Prud'homme

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the world nitrogen fertilizer demand, high-lights trends in the global and regional developments of production capacity and provides a medium-term perspective of the global nitrogen supply/demand balance.

  6. Proterozoic oxygen rise linked to shifting balance between seafloor and terrestrial weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Benjamin; Lenton, Timothy M; Watson, Andrew J

    2014-06-24

    A shift toward higher atmospheric oxygen concentration during the late Proterozoic has been inferred from multiple indirect proxies and is seen by many as a prerequisite for the emergence of complex animal life. However, the mechanisms controlling the level of oxygen throughout the Proterozoic and its eventual rise remain uncertain. Here we use a simple biogeochemical model to show that the balance between long-term carbon removal fluxes via terrestrial silicate weathering and ocean crust alteration plays a key role in determining atmospheric oxygen concentration. This balance may be shifted by changes in terrestrial weatherability or in the generation rate of oceanic crust. As a result, the terrestrial chemical weathering flux may be permanently altered--contrasting with the conventional view that the global silicate weathering flux must adjust to equal the volcanic CO2 degassing flux. Changes in chemical weathering flux in turn alter the long-term supply of phosphorus to the ocean, and therefore the flux of organic carbon burial, which is the long-term source of atmospheric oxygen. Hence we propose that increasing solar luminosity and a decrease in seafloor spreading rate over 1,500-500 Ma drove a gradual shift from seafloor weathering to terrestrial weathering, and a corresponding steady rise in atmospheric oxygen. Furthermore, increased terrestrial weatherability during the late Neoproterozoic may explain low temperature, increases in ocean phosphate, ocean sulfate, and atmospheric oxygen concentration at this time.

  7. Alterations and Significance of Cytokines and Immune Balance in Patients of Crohn Disease Following Infliximab Therapy%英夫利西单抗治疗克罗恩病中免疫平衡及细胞因子的变化和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芳

    2012-01-01

    生物制剂英夫利西(IFX)单抗被广泛用于治疗克罗恩病(CD).它是一种嵌合型单克隆抗体,可靶向CD发病机制中起重要作用的促炎细胞因子——肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α),IFX通过中和巨噬细胞和T细胞表面的TNF-α发挥治疗作用的同时,机体的Th1和Th2等细胞因子以及免疫平衡也存在着相应的变化.现就上述变化及其与CD治疗中临床应答的关系进行综述.%Biologic agent infliximab(IFX) is applied to treat Crohn disease( CD) widely at present,which is a chimeric ( human-mouse) monoclonal antibody targeted at tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a ) , a proinflam-matory cytokine important in the pathogenesis of CD. IFX works by neutralization of tumor necrosis factor-a on macrophage and T-cell surfaces and results in a variety of changes of Thl and Th2 cytokines and the immune balance in CD concurrently. Here is to make a review on the relationship between IFX application and its therapeutic effects and the corresponding alterations of immune system in CD patients.

  8. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.;

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  9. A nitrogen mass balance for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, ecosystem and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The California Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the current state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of California. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, California is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to California is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in California is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows

  10. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals......' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes involved in both...

  11. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  12. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  13. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  14. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  15. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  16. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  17. Alteration of glass as a possible source of clay minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations show that, under present Martian surface conditions, favorable gas-solid weathering products of feldspar glasses should include beidellites (clays of the montmorillonite series) + carbonates + quartz. The gas-solid weathering of mafic silicate glass ( of volcanic or impact origin) may similarly favor the production of metastable Fe-rich montmorillonite clays. Simple mass-balance calculations suggest that gas-solid weathering of Martian proto-regolith containing 10% glass could conceivably produce a global blanket of clays at a rate of at least 0.4 cm/b.y. The production rate should be expected to increase significantly with the glass content and rate of reworking of the proto-regolith and with the availability of water. Complete extraction of altered glass from a lunar-like proto-regolith might yield a global Martian clay blanket about 10-100 cm in thickness.

  18. Balanced Neural Architecture and the Idling Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent eDoiron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A signature feature of cortical spike trains is their trial-to-trial variability. This variability is large in spontaneous conditions and is reduced when cortex is driven by a stimulus or task. Models of recurrent cortical networks with unstructured, yet balanced, excitation and inhibition generate variability consistent with evoked conditions. However, these models lack the long timescale fluctuations and large variability present in spontaneous conditions. We propose that global network architectures which support a large number of stable states (attractor networks allow balanced networks to capture key features of neural variability in both spontaneous and evoked conditions. We illustrate this using balanced spiking networks with clustered assembly, feedforward chain, and ring structures. By assuming that global network structure is related to stimulus preference, we show that signal correlations are related to the magnitude of correlations in the spontaneous state. In our models, the dynamics of spontaneous activity encompasses much of the possible evoked states, consistent with many experimental reports. Finally, we contrast the impact of stimulation on the trial-to-trial variability in attractor networks with that of strongly coupled spiking networks with chaotic firing rate instabilities, recently investigated by Ostojic (2014. We find that only attractor networks replicate an experimentally observed stimulus-induced quenching of trial-to-trial variability. In total, the comparison of the trial-variable dynamics of single neurons or neuron pairs during spontaneous and evoked activity can be a window into the global structure of balanced cortical networks.

  19. Comprehensive Energy Balance Measurements in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Lee; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    In mice with altered body composition, establishing whether it is food intake or energy expenditure, or both, that is the major determinant resulting in changed energy balance is important. In order to ascertain where the imbalance is, the acquisition of reproducible data is critical. Therefore, here we provide detailed descriptions of how to determine energy balance in mice. This encompasses protocols for establishing energy intake from home cage measurement of food intake, determining energy lost in feces using bomb calorimetry, and using equations to calculate parameters such as energy intake (EI), digested energy intake (DEI), and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) to determine overall energy balance. We also discuss considerations that should be taken into account when planning these experiments, including diet and sample sizes. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  1. Chance for balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sævild, Katariina; Skov Sørensen, Katrine; Kildahl Lauritsen, Louise; Fuglsang, Sofie Olivia; Arnbjerg, Stine Høegh

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates how (im) balance between family and career influences Danish women's desire to have children. In order to answer this question, we have chosen to use qualitative method and our analysis is based on two semi-structured research interviews with two chosen women. Thus these women’s definition of balance and their view on children define the project. We have chosen to use of work-life balance theories, Thomas Hoejrup’s lifeform-analysis and Anthony Giddens’ theories ...

  2. Altered Cerebral Blood Flow Covariance Network in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear how topological properties of CBF network are altered in this disorder. Here, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI was employed to measure resting-state CBF in 96 schizophrenia patients and 91 healthy controls. CBF covariance network of each group was constructed by calculating across-subject CBF covariance between 90 brain regions. Graph theory was used to compare intergroup differences in global and nodal topological measures of the network. Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls had small-world topology in CBF covariance networks, implying an optimal balance between functional segregation and integration. Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed reduced small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the network, suggesting a shift toward randomized network topology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients exhibited altered nodal centrality in the perceptual-, affective-, language-, and spatial-related regions, indicating functional disturbance of these systems in schizophrenia. This study demonstrated for the first time that schizophrenia patients have disrupted topological properties in CBF covariance network, which provides a new perspective (efficiency of blood flow distribution between brain regions) for understanding neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

  3. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  4. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  5. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  6. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  7. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  8. Proterozoic oxygen rise linked to shifting balance between seafloor and terrestrial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Benjamin; Lenton, Timothy M.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    A shift toward higher atmospheric oxygen concentration during the late Proterozoic has been inferred from multiple indirect proxies and is seen by many as a prerequisite for the emergence of complex animal life. However, the mechanisms controlling the level of oxygen throughout the Proterozoic and its eventual rise remain uncertain. Here we use a simple biogeochemical model to show that the balance between long-term carbon removal fluxes via terrestrial silicate weathering and ocean crust alteration plays a key role in determining atmospheric oxygen concentration. This balance may be shifted by changes in terrestrial weatherability or in the generation rate of oceanic crust. As a result, the terrestrial chemical weathering flux may be permanently altered—contrasting with the conventional view that the global silicate weathering flux must adjust to equal the volcanic CO2 degassing flux. Changes in chemical weathering flux in turn alter the long-term supply of phosphorus to the ocean, and therefore the flux of organic carbon burial, which is the long-term source of atmospheric oxygen. Hence we propose that increasing solar luminosity and a decrease in seafloor spreading rate over 1,500–500 Ma drove a gradual shift from seafloor weathering to terrestrial weathering, and a corresponding steady rise in atmospheric oxygen. Furthermore, increased terrestrial weatherability during the late Neoproterozoic may explain low temperature, increases in ocean phosphate, ocean sulfate, and atmospheric oxygen concentration at this time. PMID:24927553

  9. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  10. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  11. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  12. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  13. Energy-balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  14. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  15. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  16. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  17. Balancing the Energy-Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Optimizing the complex tradeoffs in the Energy-Water Nexus requires quantification of energy use, carbon emitted and water consumed. Water is consumed in energy production and is often a constraint to operations. More global attention and investment has been made on reducing carbon emissions than on water management. Review of public reporting by the largest 107 global power producers and 50 companies in the oil/gas industry shows broad accounting on carbon emissions but only partial reporting on water consumption metrics. If the Energy-Water Nexus is to be balanced, then water must also be measured to be optimally managed with carbon emissions.

  18. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  19. BALANCE-SHEET vs. ARBITRAGE CDOs

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIU EDUARD DINCA

    2016-01-01

    During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the balance-sheet and arbitrage CDO securitizations as financi...

  20. HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL BALANCE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a functional design aspects of the economic agent is an economic entity, which aims at producing goods and services, for which exercise economic functions of consumption, distribution, investment and divestiture and financing.Main indicators of functional balance are functional working capital or net working capital globally, need working capital for exploration and exploitation and outside the Treasury functional. Also, to achieve financial equilibrium phases are rendered functional.

  1. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  2. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  3. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  4. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  5. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  6. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Does work/life balance depend on where and how you work?

    OpenAIRE

    Kinman, G.; McDowall, A

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a symposium presented in EAWOP, 2009 that examined work-life balance issues in different occupational contexts. During a global recession where developing work-life balance policies may not be considered organizational priorities; we argue that the need for systematic research into work-life balance has never been greater. The findings of the four papers included in the symposium suggest that work-life balance initiatives that are firmly grounded in workplace context a...

  9. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  10. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  11. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  12. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  13. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  14. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.)

  15. Lives in the Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  16. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  17. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)

  18. FACTORS OF STEADY AND BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidi A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the need of identification and classification of the most relevant factors of the sustainable balanced development of the regional economic system (RES. Substantial filling of the category "sustainable balanced development" which is accepted within the real research is designated. On the basis of the analysis of the classifications of factors of the sustainable balanced development of economy of the region presented in scientific literature their discrepancy modern is established to conditions of globalization of the economy causing increase of a role of foreign economic activity of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in ensuring their long-term competitiveness. Proceeding from the last, within the classification of factors of the sustainable balanced development of RES offered by authors the following their groups are allocated: global, national, regional. For each of the designated groups we substantiated the set of relevant factors

  19. The trade balance and the real exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Enisse Kharroubi

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has affected the relationship between the trade balance and the real exchange rate in two ways. On the one hand, the growth of trade taking place within industries makes the trade balance more sensitive to real exchange movements. On the other hand, a higher degree of vertical specialisation and more global supply chains act to reduce this sensitivity. The relative importance of these two effects varies across countries. According to the estimates presented in this article, chan...

  20. Leapfrogging into hydrogen technology: China's 1990-2000 energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying

    2003-01-01

    As a country beginning its motorization process, China must confront the problems attached to an oil-based car society. In adopting conventional automobile technology, the country would aggravate an already unstable oil balance while pushing up carbon dioxide levels. Not only would domestic problems emerge, but international concerns regarding oil shortage, global pollution, and the energy security balance would also result from erecting a traditional automotive infrastructure. One viable alt...

  1. BALANCED SCORECARD SEBAGAI PENGUKURAN KINERJA MASA DEPAN: SUATU PENGANTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kussetya Ciptani

    2000-01-01

    Performance measurement is an essential thing for a company. To become the winner in this global competition world, the company has to show a performance improvement from period to period. Recently, financial performance measurement is not enough to reflect the real business performance. That why Kaplan developed Balanced Scorecard Concept. The Balanced Scorecard Concept measure the organization's performance through four perspectives that are the financial perspective, customer perspective, ...

  2. Climate and Physical Disturbance Effects on the Spectral Signatures of Biological Soil Crusts: Implications for Future Dryland Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, W. A.; Flagg, C.; Painter, T. H.; Okin, G. S.; Belnap, J.; Reed, S.

    2014-12-01

    Drylands comprise ≈40% of the terrestrial Earth surface and observations suggest they can respond markedly to climate change. A vital component of dryland ecosystems are biological soil crusts (biocrusts) - a network of surface soil lichens, mosses, and cyanobacteria - that perform critical ecosystem functions, such as stabilizing soil and fixing carbon and nitrogen. Yet, our understanding of the role biocrusts play in dryland energy balance remains poor. Changes in climate can rapidly affect biocrust communities and we have long known that biocrusts respond dramatically to physical disturbance, such as human trampling and grazing animals. Associated changes in biocrust cover often result in increased bare soil; creating higher surface reflectance. We used spectral solar reflectance measurements in two manipulative experiments to compare the effects of climate and physical disturbance on biocrusts of the Colorado Plateau We measured reflectance at two heights: at crust surface and 1 m above. The climate disturbance site has four treatments: control, warming (4°C), altered precipitation, and warming plus altered precipitation. The physical disturbance site was trampled by foot annually since 1998. At the climate experiment, the largest change in reflectance was in the altered precipitation treatment (35% increase) at the surface-level, and the smallest difference was in the warmed (17% increase) at the meter-level. Physical disturbance differences were 10% at meter-level and 25% at surface-level. Unexpectedly, these results suggest that, via effects on biocrust communities, climate change could have a larger effect on dryland energy balance relative to physical disturbance, and result in more radiation from drylands returned to the atmosphere. Biocrusts cover large portions of the Earth's surface and, to our knowledge, these are the first data showing climate-induced changes to biocrust reflectance, with negative feedback in the global energy balance.

  3. Does the regulation of local excitation-inhibition balance aid in recovery of functional connectivity? A computational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikonda, Anirudh; Surampudi, Bapi Raju; Banerjee, Arpan; Deco, Gustavo; Roy, Dipanjan

    2016-08-01

    Computational modeling of the spontaneous dynamics over the whole brain provides critical insight into the spatiotemporal organization of brain dynamics at multiple resolutions and their alteration to changes in brain structure (e.g. in diseased states, aging, across individuals). Recent experimental evidence further suggests that the adverse effect of lesions is visible on spontaneous dynamics characterized by changes in resting state functional connectivity and its graph theoretical properties (e.g. modularity). These changes originate from altered neural dynamics in individual brain areas that are otherwise poised towards a homeostatic equilibrium to maintain a stable excitatory and inhibitory activity. In this work, we employ a homeostatic inhibitory mechanism, balancing excitation and inhibition in the local brain areas of the entire cortex under neurological impairments like lesions to understand global functional recovery (across brain networks and individuals). Previous computational and empirical studies have demonstrated that the resting state functional connectivity varies primarily due to the location and specific topological characteristics of the lesion. We show that local homeostatic balance provides a functional recovery by re-establishing excitation-inhibition balance in all areas that are affected by lesion. We systematically compare the extent of recovery in the primary hub areas (e.g. default mode network (DMN), medial temporal lobe, medial prefrontal cortex) as well as other sensory areas like primary motor area, supplementary motor area, fronto-parietal and temporo-parietal networks. Our findings suggest that stability and richness similar to the normal brain dynamics at rest are achievable by re-establishment of balance. PMID:27177761

  4. Energy balances 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark's consumption of energy increased 1,6 % from 2000 to 2001, primarily due to the year 2001 being colder than the year 2000. The production of petroleum decreased from 2000 to 2001, the reason being an accident at the Gorm oil field. The production of renewable energy and natural gas, however, increased. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is presented for households and industry. In the energy balances the energy consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also an account is made of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including calculation of excises on energy, CO2 and SO2. (ln)

  5. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  6. Against globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders; Philipsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts. Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  7. Getting the Balance Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the next five years China will balance economic growth and improving the living standards of its people by Liu Wei IT was widely reported that the chaos in some Middle East and North African countries were results of the inadequate efforts in improving people’s livelihood, a fundamental aspect of social stability. In early March,China held its annual sessions of the National People’s

  8. Ballet Balance Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous...

  9. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  10. France's energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several terminological definitions of words and concepts used for the establishment of France's energy balance (i.e. the supply and utilization of energy) are presented, taken from the Energy dictionary, published in 1992 by the world Energy Council: primary, secondary, final and useful energy. Statistics concerning energy production, importation and exportation, consumption, and costs are discussed, showing the market share evolution of the different energy types; the France's energy independence ratio has increased from 22% in 1973 to 51% in 1995

  11. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  12. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  13. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  14. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  15. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Nicolai, Simone; Zijlstra, Agnes; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Becker, Clemens; Chiari, Lorenzo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with vestibula

  16. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  17. Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects and origins of balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs. In a first step we apply Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades theory to investigate performance effects of a balanced skill set. Second, we investigate potential sources of balanced skills, thereby testing the investment hypothesis against the endowment hypothesis. Analyzing data on high-potential nascent projects, we find support for the notion that balanced skills are important for making progress in the vent...

  18. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  19. Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Bassford, R. P.; Siegert, M.J.; Dowdeswell, J.A.; Oerlemans, J.; A. F. Glazovsky; Macheret, Y.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Due to their remote location within the Russian High Arctic, little is known about the mass balance of ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya now and in the past. Such information is critical, however, to building a global picture of the cryospheric response to climate change. This paper provides a numerical analysis of the climate and mass balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap on October Revolution Island. Mass balance model results are compared with available glaciological and climatological data. A referen...

  20. The gait and balance of patients with diabetes can be improved: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Allet, L.; Armand, S.; de Bie, R.A.; Golay, A.; Monnin, D.; Aminian, K.; Staal, J.B.; de Bruin, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Gait characteristics and balance are altered in diabetic patients. Little is known about possible treatment strategies. This study evaluates the effect of a specific training programme on gait and balance of diabetic patients. Methods This was a randomised controlled trial (n = 71) with an intervention (n = 35) and control group (n = 36). The intervention consisted of physiotherapeutic group training including gait and balance exercises with function-orientated strengthening (...

  1. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  2. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  3. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  4. Governing Global Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    How do professions affect the configuration of political economies worldwide? This study addresses the question through interviews with members of a new transnational profession - wealth management - whose innovations are reshaping the balance of power in global finance. Wealth managers specialize...... in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...... and international policy-making bodies to advance the interests of the profession and its wealthy clients; and 3) by writing the fiscal legislation of some jurisdictions. Through these mechanisms, the profession has reconfigured political and economic power trans-nationally, shifting the world’s financial center...

  5. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  6. Balkans globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela-Sonia Nedea

    2010-01-01

    The following definition is one frequently used about globalization: "Globalization represents the process through which geographical distance becomes a less important factor concerning the development and stability of socio-cultural, political and economic cross border relations". Globalization is considered to be a two way process: the world is integrating, is globalizing but in the same time it becomes more and more differentiated, it becomes regionalized.

  7. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  8. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Triana

    2008-01-01

    Pemanasan global (global warming) pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect) yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2), metana (CH4), dinitrooksida (N2O) dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  9. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  10. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  11. BALANCE-SHEET vs. ARBITRAGE CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU EDUARD DINCA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the balance-sheet and arbitrage CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  12. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  13. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  14. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  15. Historical Changes In The Balance Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Tămaș

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Humanity crosses a period of historical discontinuity on the socio-politic and economic plan. The major changing vector is represented by the emerging economies, whose development high rates made them become the main contributor to the global growth. One of the principal consequences of this transition is the remodeling of the world’s order, the change in the global balance of powers, through the transition from the uni-polar world dominated by the United States of America to the multi-polar world in which emerging powers’ position is, more and more, taken into account. The progress registered by those emerging economies requires the reviewing of some theories, concepts and principles that orientate the economic and political contemporary practice.

  16. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  17. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Stampe, Ian; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    the 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...... efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners...

  18. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  19. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained. PMID:12344702

  20. Variance approximation under balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Jean-Claude; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A balanced sampling design has the interesting property that Horvitz–Thompson estimators of totals for a set of balancing variables are equal to the totals we want to estimate, therefore the variance of Horvitz–Thompson estimators of variables of interest are reduced in function of their correlations with the balancing variables. Since it is hard to derive an analytic expression for the joint inclusion probabilities, we derive a general approximation of variance based on a residual technique....

  1. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  2. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  3. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  4. What is a balanced program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, P C

    1995-06-01

    "Balance" has become the watchword of psychiatry programs. It seems that almost all residency training programs claim to be balanced. But what do we mean by this term? This article summarizes the author's evolving thinking about what makes for a balanced program and suggests that diversity may be a better term. The author advocates that balance is not as simple as teaching both psychodynamics and biological psychiatry. Instead, it entails a considered, intellectual approach that involves long-term vs. other psychotherapies, neuro-science vs. psychopharmacology, theoretical pharmacology vs. practical pharmacology, social psychiatry vs. treating minority patients, representing all viewpoints in psychiatry vs. integrating them. PMID:24442525

  5. Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Stančíková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is to examine the Global Sourcing purchasing strategy as an instrument of reducing the acquisition costs of the company. Globalization has brought increased competition and pressure on reduction of purchase prices in all sectors of the world economy. The use of international trade market is currently an integral part of almost every business strategy. The concept of Global Sourcing consists not only in the use of international markets and the acquisition of...

  6. BALANCED SCORECARD SEBAGAI PENGUKURAN KINERJA MASA DEPAN: SUATU PENGANTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kussetya Ciptani

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement is an essential thing for a company. To become the winner in this global competition world, the company has to show a performance improvement from period to period. Recently, financial performance measurement is not enough to reflect the real business performance. That why Kaplan developed Balanced Scorecard Concept. The Balanced Scorecard Concept measure the organization's performance through four perspectives that are the financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business process perspective and learning and growth perspective. In dead, the Balanced Scorecard Concept is a concept in translating strategy into action to achieve organization's gool in the long term. The action is measured and controlled continually. This article count on the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard Concept in some companies in USA. Many problems a difficulties which occur on the implementation of the concept could became opinion and suggestions for some companies who want to implement the Balanced Scorecard. However, Balanced Scorecard will help organizations (companies to measure their performance more comprehensive and accurate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penilaian kinerja merupakan hal yang esensial bagi perusahan. Untuk memenangkan persaingan global yang semakin ketat ini, kinerja sebuah organisasi haruslah mencerminkan peningkatan dari satu periode ke periode berikutnya. Dewasa ini pengukuran kinerja secara finansial tidaklah cukup mencerminkan kinerja organisasi sesungguhnya, sehingga dikembangkan suatu konsep Balanced Scorecard. Konsep Balanced Scorecard mengukur kinerja suatu organisasi dari empat perspektif yaitu perspektif finansial, perspektif customer, perspektif proses bisnis internal, perspektif pertumbuhan dan pembelajaran. Konsep Balanced Scorecard ini pada dasarnya merupakan penerjemahan strategi dan tujuan yang ingin dicapai oleh suatu perusahaan dalam jangka panjang, yang kemudian diukur dan dimonitor

  7. Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional and Technological Aspects of Culture through Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Pamela Harris

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the benefits of connecting and balancing education in the visual arts and in technology through discussion of actual examples. This balanced connection accomplishes three goals: to further advance and enhance quality of life, to cultivate humane and ethical behaviors, and to initiate global dialogue on issues that matter among…

  8. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  9. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  10. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  11. Balancing "we" and "me".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575

  12. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  13. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  14. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  15. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  16. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  17. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  18. Born globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid......Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid...

  19. Global fordeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2015-01-01

    Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst......Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst...

  20. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  1. The 'island effect' in terrestrial global change experiments: a problem with no solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Fatichi, Simone; Cusens, Jarrod; Körner, Christian; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the currently experienced global environmental changes (rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, warming, altered amount and pattern of precipitation, and increased nutrient load) directly or indirectly affect ecosystem surface energy balance and plant transpiration. As a consequence, the relative humidity of the air surrounding the vegetation changes, thus creating a feedback loop whose net effect on transpiration and finally productivity is not trivial to quantify. Forcedly, in any global change experiment with the above drivers, we can only treat small plots, or 'islands', of vegetation. This means that the treated plots will likely experience the ambient humidity conditions influenced by the surrounding, non-treated vegetation. Experimental assessments of global change effects will thus systematically lack modifications originating from these potentially important feedback mechanisms, introducing a bias of unknown magnitude in all measurements of processes directly or indirectly depending on plant transpiration. We call this potential bias the 'island effect'. Here, we discuss its implications in various global change experiments with plants. We also suggest ways to complement experiments using modelling approaches and observational studies. Ultimately, there is no obvious solution to deal with the island effect in field experiments and only models can provide an estimate of modification of responses by these feedbacks. However, we suggest that increasing the awareness of the island effect among both experimental researchers and modellers will greatly improve the interpretation of vegetation responses to global change. PMID:26216468

  2. Optimal allocation in balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.

  3. H∞ Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In previously obtained balancing methods for nonlinear systems a past and a future energy function are used to bring the nonlinear system in balanced form. By considering a different pair of past and future energy functions that are related to the H∞ control problem for nonlinear systems we define H

  4. Nutrient balance at chain level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Oenema, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A nutrient balance approach is often used to quantify losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that contribute to environmental problems such as eutrophication. A nutrient balance generally is computed at farm level, implying that nutrient losses related to pre-farm processes, such a

  5. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hsieh; S.C. Parker; M.C. van Praag

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on t

  6. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of cu

  7. Global NATO or global partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Koschut, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...

  8. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  9. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  10. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  11. GMI Instrument Spin Balance Method, Optimization, Calibration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Laoucet; Kubitschek, Michael; Ashton, Gunnar; Johnston, Steve; Debevec, Dave; Newell, David; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument must spin at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year mission life. Therefore, GMI must be very precisely balanced about the spin axis and CG to maintain stable scan pointing and to minimize disturbances imparted to the spacecraft and attitude control on-orbit. The GMI instrument is part of the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and is used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The GMI design has to meet a challenging set of spin balance requirements and had to be brought into simultaneous static and dynamic spin balance after the entire instrument was already assembled and before environmental tests began. The focus of this contribution is on the analytical and test activities undertaken to meet the challenging spin balance requirements of the GMI instrument. The novel process of measuring the residual static and dynamic imbalances with a very high level of accuracy and precision is presented together with the prediction of the optimal balance masses and their locations.

  12. Proceedings of the 30. Seminar of global energy balances and utilities; 24. Meeting of the producers and consumers of industrial gases. Energy efficiency for the future; Anais do 30. Seminario de balancos energeticos globais e utilidades; 24. Encontro de produtores e consumidores de gases industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-11

    Papers on energy balance are presented in these proceedings covering the industrial gases consumption, production, technology utilization and energy efficiency. Also presented the graphical and diagrams of the annual energetic balance of the ArcelorMittal Inox Brasil, ArcelorMittal Monlevade, ArcelorMittal Tubarao, CSN, Usiminas, Usiminas Cubatao and V and M do Brasil.

  13. Sagittal Balance Correction in Lateral Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Sheets, Charles; Smith, Benjamin T.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Eure, Megan; Brown, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sagittal balance restoration has been shown to be an important determinant of outcomes in corrective surgery for degenerative scoliosis. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a less-invasive technique which permits the placement of a high lordosis interbody cage without risks associated with traditional anterior or transforaminal interbody techniques. Studies have shown improvement in lumbar lordosis following LIF, but only one other study has assessed sagittal balance in this population. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of LIF to restore sagittal balance in degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent LIF for degenerative thoracolumbar scoliosis from July 2013 to March 2014 by a single surgeon were included. Outcome measures included sagittal balance, lumbar lordosis, Cobb Angle, and segmental lordosis. Measures were evaluated pre-operative, immediately post-operatively, and at their last clinical follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess the differences between pre-operative, first postoperative, and a follow-up visit. Results The average sagittal balance correction was not significantly different: 1.06cm from 5.79cm to 4.74cm forward. The average Cobb angle correction was 14.1 degrees from 21.6 to 5.5 degrees. The average change in global lumbar lordosis was found to be significantly different: 6.3 degrees from 28.9 to 35.2 degrees. Conclusions This study demonstrates that LIF reliably restores lordosis, but does not significantly improve sagittal balance. Despite this, patients had reliable improvement in pain and functionality suggesting that sagittal balance correction may not be as critical in scoliosis correction as previous studies have indicated. Clinical Relevance LIF does not significantly change sagittal balance; however, clinical improvement does not seem to be contingent upon sagittal balance correction in the degenerative scoliosis population. The DUHS IRB has determined this

  14. Sagittal Balance Correction in Lateral Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Sheets, Charles; Smith, Benjamin T.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Eure, Megan; Brown, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sagittal balance restoration has been shown to be an important determinant of outcomes in corrective surgery for degenerative scoliosis. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a less-invasive technique which permits the placement of a high lordosis interbody cage without risks associated with traditional anterior or transforaminal interbody techniques. Studies have shown improvement in lumbar lordosis following LIF, but only one other study has assessed sagittal balance in this population. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of LIF to restore sagittal balance in degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent LIF for degenerative thoracolumbar scoliosis from July 2013 to March 2014 by a single surgeon were included. Outcome measures included sagittal balance, lumbar lordosis, Cobb Angle, and segmental lordosis. Measures were evaluated pre-operative, immediately post-operatively, and at their last clinical follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess the differences between pre-operative, first postoperative, and a follow-up visit. Results The average sagittal balance correction was not significantly different: 1.06cm from 5.79cm to 4.74cm forward. The average Cobb angle correction was 14.1 degrees from 21.6 to 5.5 degrees. The average change in global lumbar lordosis was found to be significantly different: 6.3 degrees from 28.9 to 35.2 degrees. Conclusions This study demonstrates that LIF reliably restores lordosis, but does not significantly improve sagittal balance. Despite this, patients had reliable improvement in pain and functionality suggesting that sagittal balance correction may not be as critical in scoliosis correction as previous studies have indicated. Clinical Relevance LIF does not significantly change sagittal balance; however, clinical improvement does not seem to be contingent upon sagittal balance correction in the degenerative scoliosis population. The DUHS IRB has determined this

  15. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function.......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  16. Robust global motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A global motion estimation method based on robust statistics is presented in this paper. By using tracked feature points instead of whole image pixels to estimate parameters the process speeds up. To further speed up the process and avoid numerical instability, an alterative description of the problem is given, and three types of solution to the problem are compared. By using a two step process, the robustness of the estimator is also improved. Automatic initial value selection is an advantage of this method. The proposed approach is illustrated by a set of examples, which shows good results with high speed.

  17. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original......Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...

  18. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  19. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  20. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  1. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs have been developed over the recent decades. However, few models consider the feedback between water availability and water demand, and even fewer models explicitly incorporate water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources. Here, we integrate a global water demand model into a global water balance model, and simulate water withdrawal and consumptive water use over the period 1979–2010, considering water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources and explicitly taking into account feedbacks between supply and demand, using two re-analysis products: ERA-Interim and MERRA. We implement an irrigation water scheme, which works dynamically with daily surface and soil water balance, and include a newly available extensive reservoir data set. Simulated surface water and groundwater withdrawal show generally good agreement with available reported national and sub-national statistics. The results show a consistent increase in both surface water and groundwater use worldwide, but groundwater use has been increasing more rapidly than surface water use since the 1990s. Human impacts on terrestrial water storage (TWS signals are evident, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability. The alteration is particularly large over the heavily regulated basins such as the Colorado and the Columbia, and over the major irrigated basins such as the Mississippi, the Indus, and the Ganges. Including human water use generally improves the correlation of simulated TWS anomalies with those of the GRACE observations.

  2. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  3. Re-analysis of seasonal mass balance at Abramov glacier 1968–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Barandun; Matthias Huss; Leo Sold; D. Farinotti; Erlan Azisov; Nadine Salzmann; Ryskul Usubaliev; Alexandr Merkushkin; Martin Hoelzle

    2016-01-01

    Abramov glacier, located in the Pamir Alay, Kyrgyzstan, is a reference glacier within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers. Long-term glaciological measurements exist from 1968 to 1998 and a mass-balance monitoring programme was re-established in 2011. In this study we re-analyse existing mass-balance data and use a spatially distributed mass-balance model to provide continuous seasonal time series of glacier mass balance covering the period 1968–2014. The model is calibrated to season...

  4. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control.

  5. An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, H

    2015-01-01

    We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, weak sensitivity to ground vibrations and temperature changes, simple force measuring procedure, small sizes and other useful features offered by the novel approach considerably reduce the complexity of the experimental setup. We formulate the oscillating magnet watt balance principle and establish the measurement procedure for the Planck constant. We discuss the nature of oscillating magnet watt balance uncertainties and give a brief description of the National Metrology Institute (UME) wa...

  6. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  7. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, C.; Parker, S.C.; Praag, van, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on the likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship. Data on Dutch university graduates provides evidence which supports this contention. It thereby raises the possibility that even risk-averse peopl...

  8. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.

  9. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  10. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  11. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  12. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government) so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law lib...

  13. Hatha yoga on body balance

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Tadeu Prado; Vagner Raso; Renata Coelho Scharlach; Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A c...

  14. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    region are classified into a few distinctive flow regime types that are expected to have different ecological characteristics. These river types can be further subclassified according to important geomorphic features that define hydraulic habitat features. Third, the deviation of current-condition flows from baseline-condition flow is determined. Fourth, flow alteration-ecological response relationships are developed for each river type, based on a combination of existing hydroecological literature, expert knowledge and field studies across gradients of hydrologic alteration. 4. Scientific uncertainty will exist in the flow alteration-ecological response relationships, in part because of the confounding of hydrologic alteration with other important environmental determinants of river ecosystem condition (e.g. temperature). Application of the ELOHA framework should therefore occur in a consensus context where stakeholders and decision-makers explicitly evaluate acceptable risk as a balance between the perceived value of the ecological goals, the economic costs involved and the scientific uncertainties in functional relationships between ecological responses and flow alteration. 5. The ELOHA framework also should proceed in an adaptive management context, where collection of monitoring data or targeted field sampling data allows for testing of the proposed flow alteration-ecological response relationships. This empirical validation process allows for a fine-tuning of environmental flow management targets. The ELOHA framework can be used both to guide basic research in hydroecology and to further implementation of more comprehensive environmental flow management of freshwater sustainability on a global scale. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  16. Balanced Scorecard: Organizational performance management instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CONSTANDACHE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a successful strategy, a company must set clear strategic objectives, such as: the desired financial performances, a description of its customers, of the internal processes within the company, and of the employees’ abilities, knowledge and competences. To outline a general image of the organizational performance evaluation, we proposed the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard model, which includes five development directions. By implementing this management model within one organization, we can test the effect of some decisions before their implementation by managing some performance and risk key indicators. All these indicators categories pursue the integrated feature through the insurance the companies’ long-term success, both at global and individual level, which supposes both the vertical and horizontal integration.

  17. Global imbalances in the XIX, XX and the XXI centuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Eugeni, S.

    2016-01-01

    We establish a new stylized fact: while the current account and the trade balances are positively correlated during the second globalization (1990s–2010s), they were negatively correlated during the first globalization (1870s–1910s). We show that the reason behind is that the world interest rate is currently low relatively to the world growth rate due to a “global saving glut”, while this was not the case during the first globalization.

  18. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  19. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  20. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about consumer protection which occur in the field as well as its impact on the general public. The results showed that: 1 a form of value balance in consumer protection legislation lies in the synergy between the rights and obligations the rights and obligations of consumers, businessmen, as well as the duties and responsibilities of the Government, the supporters of both public institutions and private consumers are dispute resolution Efforts, and the use of contract oversight of overall indicators are assessed if merged between the assessment of consumers and businessmen, as well as assessment of the Government then obtained 32 indicators of where the total number of indicators corresponding to the value of the balance of a total of 10 indicators, while the total number of which is not in accordance with the value of the balance as much as 21 indicators and only one indicator that his judgment balanced. So that the efforts made in the framework of the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of consumers and businessmen as well as maximize the task and responsibility of the Government is still having a lot of obstacles or not be able to realize the value of balance

  1. THE NATURE AND PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Janno Reiljan; Ele Reiljan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this working paper is to point out major ways of regulating the global economy in order to increase impact of foreign trade, credits and (foreign) investments on economic growth and welfare. Some basic problems that occur in the process of balancing economic development are studied. The nature of economic globalization is determined at the beginning of the article. After this, the role of international trade, foreign direct investments and development assistance is studied. F...

  2. Dynamic Load Balancing of Samr Applications on Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Lan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic load balancing(DLB for parallel systems has been studied extensively; however, DLB for distributed systems is relatively new. To efficiently utilize computing resources provided by distributed systems, an underlying DLB scheme must address both heterogeneous and dynamic features of distributed systems. In this paper, we propose a DLB scheme for Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement(SAMR applications on distributed systems. While the proposed scheme can take into consideration (1 the heterogeneity of processors and (2 the heterogeneity and dynamic load of the networks, the focus of this paper is on the latter. The load-balancing processes are divided into two phases: global load balancing and local load balancing. We also provide a heuristic method to evaluate the computational gain and redistribution cost for global redistribution. Experiments show that by using our distributed DLB scheme, the execution time can be reduced by 9%- to using parallel DLB scheme which does not consider the heterogeneous and dynamic features of distributed systems.

  3. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  4. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  5. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  6. Work/ Life Balance Implementation Motives, Obstacles and Facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Tramboo, Burhan

    2008-01-01

    The growing competitive business environment has resulted in a situation where organizations are faced with number of strategic decisions in search of growth. The ever increasing pressure of globalization has created a boundary less economy which drives the organizations to adopt the appropriate strategy not only for the growth but also to create sustainable competitive advantage. The push for managing work/ life balance seems to have emerged out of ever increasing diversity as a result of ch...

  7. Synchronization and balancing on the N-torus

    OpenAIRE

    Scardovi, Luca; Sarlette, Alain; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper. we study the behavior of a network of N agents, each evolving on the circle. We propose a novel algorithm that achieves synchronization or balancing in phase models under mild connectedness assumptions on the (possibly time-varying and unidirectional) communication graphs. The global convergence analysis on the N-torus is a distinctive feature of the present work with respect to previous results that have focused on convergence in the Euclidean space. Peer reviewed

  8. Effect of Dorsiflexor Muscle Strengthening Using Russian Currents on Balance and Function in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Singh; N K Multani

    2013-01-01

    Balance difficulties are one of the major causes of altered mobility and functional decline in the elderly. Over the past 20 years, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine the relationship between balance control and motor or sensory system function in order to understand the causes of falling and to create effective strategies to prevent falls in elderly people The present study was done to determine the effectiveness of dorsiflexor muscle strengthening using Russia...

  9. HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadingham Jacqui

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globalisation affects all facets of human life, including health and well being. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has highlighted the global nature of human health and welfare and globalisation has given rise to a trend toward finding common solutions to global health challenges. Numerous international funds have been set up in recent times to address global health challenges such as HIV. However, despite increasingly large amounts of funding for health initiatives being made available to poorer regions of the world, HIV infection rates and prevalence continue to increase world wide. As a result, the AIDS epidemic is expanding and intensifying globally. Worst affected are undoubtedly the poorer regions of the world as combinations of poverty, disease, famine, political and economic instability and weak health infrastructure exacerbate the severe and far-reaching impacts of the epidemic. One of the major reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness of global interventions is historical weaknesses in the health systems of underdeveloped countries, which contribute to bottlenecks in the distribution and utilisation of funds. Strengthening these health systems, although a vital component in addressing the global epidemic, must however be accompanied by mitigation of other determinants as well. These are intrinsically complex and include social and environmental factors, sexual behaviour, issues of human rights and biological factors, all of which contribute to HIV transmission, progression and mortality. An equally important factor is ensuring an equitable balance between prevention and treatment programmes in order to holistically address the challenges presented by the epidemic.

  10. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  11. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  12. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between...... rendering a product globally appreciated and recognizable, and maintaining a cosmopolitan appeal for consumers in search of diversity. Originality/value: The paper introduces global cities as markets in continuous reconstruction, depending heavily on collective cultural interactions. It turns the attention...... of the research community to the collective, reflexive, and experimental aspects of symbolic consumption. It does this by introducing the concept of cultural experimentation. Finally, it shows how arts and cultural products can function as valuable contexts for international marketing research, providing original...

  13. Global Implications of the Indigenous Epistemological System from the East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2016-01-01

    to complex issues in the area of management, in general, and paradoxical issues, in particular. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper with a focus on theory-building. Findings – The author elaborates on the indigenous features of Yin-Yang balancing, in contrast to Aristotle’s formal logic...... available in the Western literature. Built upon the Yin-Yang balancing, a practical tool of Duality Map for paradox management is proposed. Research limitations/implications – The system of Yin-Yang balancing proposed in this paper has the potential to embrace logical systems available in the West......-competition balance (co-opetition), globalization-localization balance (glocalization), institution-agency balance (institutional entrepreneurship), simultaneously positive and negative attitudes toward an entity (ambivalence), and etic-emic balance (geocentric) across all domains of management research. Originality...

  14. Global glance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp Announces Successful Close of Neo Materials Acquisition Molycorp, Inc. announced on 11 June 2012 that its acquisition of Canadian-based Neo Material Technologies Inc. has officially closed, creating a global rare earth leader with a combination of a world-class rare earth resource, ultra-high-purity rare earth processing capabilities, and full 'mine-to-magnetics' vertical integration.

  15. Global Sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mol; R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); P.R. Beije (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s international - or even global - outsourcing of intermediate products from suppliers has been propagated as a key means to improve the performance of firms. It is argued that becoming more lean and internationally focused is beneficial for the buyer as we

  16. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  17. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  18. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure...

  19. Globalizing America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Thomas L.; Boyd, Gavin

    An argument that globalization is an ungoverned integration process in which US firms are agents of structural change. It describes the benefits and costs (for example, generating pressure for protection of US home markets), and reviews the expansion of interdependencies between the US and others....

  20. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  1. Genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer and their relevance to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erina; Takai; Shinichi; Yachida

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer type, for which there are few viable therapeutic options. But, with the advance of sequencing technologies for global genomic analysis, the landscape of genomic alterations in pancreatic cancer is becoming increasingly well understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of genomic alterations in 12 core signaling pathways or cellular processes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of malignancy in the pancreas, including four commonly mutated genes and many other genes that are mutated at low frequencies. We also describe the potential implications of these genomic alterations for development of novel therapeutic approaches in the context of personalized medicine.

  2. 3-D force-balanced magnetospheric configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaharia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving mag-netosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has, however, eluded the community, as most in situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations,by either (a mapping observed data (e.g. in the ionosphere along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model, or (b computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3-D code that solves the 3-D force balance equation ${vec J} times {vec B} = nabla P$ computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as ${vec B} = nabla psi times nabla alpha$. The pressure distribution, $P = P(psi, alpha$, is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for ψ surfaces are imposed using empirical field models

  3. Hydrothermal contributions to global biogeochemical cycles: Insights from the Macquarie Island ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Harris, Michelle; Davidson, Garry J.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Brewer, Timothy S.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental process in the formation and aging of the ocean crust, with the resultant chemical exchange between the crust and oceans comprising a key component of global biogeochemical cycles. Sections of hydrothermally altered ocean crust provide time-integrated records of this chemical exchange. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the nature and extent of hydrothermal exchange is limited by the absence of complete oceanic crustal sections from either submarine exposures or drill core. Sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island comprises ~ 10 Ma ocean crust formed at a slow spreading ridge, and is the only sub-aerial exposure of a complete section of ocean crust in the ocean basin in which it formed. Hydrothermally altered rocks from Macquarie Island therefore provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the chemical changes due to fluid-rock exchange through a complete section of ocean crust. Here we exploit the immobile behavior of some elements during hydrothermal alteration to determine the precursor compositions to altered Macquarie whole rock samples, and evaluate the changes in bulk rock chemistry due to fluid-rock interaction throughout the Macquarie crust. The extent to which elements are enriched or depleted in each sample depends upon the secondary mineral assemblage developed, and hence the modal abundances of the primary minerals in the rocks and the alteration conditions, such as temperature, fluid composition, and water:rock ratios. Consequently the chemical changes vary with depth, most notably within the lava-dike transition zone where enrichments in K, S, Rb, Ba, and Zn are observed. Our results indicate that hydrothermal alteration of the Macquarie crust resulted in a net flux of Si, Ti, Al, and Ca to the oceans, whereas the crust was a net sink for H2O, Mg, Na, K, and S. Our results also demonstrate the importance of including the contribution of elemental uptake by veins for some elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Mg, S). Extrapolation of our

  4. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  5. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  6. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  7. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  8. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Heider balance in human networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, P.; Kułakowski, K.

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a continuous dynamics was proposed to simulate dynamics of interpersonal relations in a society represented by a fully connected graph. The final state of such a society was found to be identical with the so-called Heider balance (HB), where the society is divided into two mutually hostile groups. In the continuous model, a polarization of opinions was found in HB. Here we demonstrate that the polarization occurs also in Barabási-Albert networks, where the Heider balance is not necessarily present. In the second part of this work we demonstrate the results of our formalism, when applied to reference examples: the Southern women and the Zachary club.

  10. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  11. Managing firm competitiveness in global markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2006-01-01

    The globalization profile of US food firms is mixed. US sales from foreign direct investment is now over six times the level of exports, while US processed food trade balance has moved from +$9 billion in 1995 to - $7 billion in 2004. Competitive forces drive firms to seek new areas of growth, with

  12. 成人脊柱侧弯手术前后影像学改变:评价脊柱平衡和健康生活状态的相关性%Radiographic alterations before and after adult scoliosis surgery:correlation between spinal balance and healthy living status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海波; Chun-hui Wu; Amir A. Mehbod; Corky Lick; Ensor E. Transfeldt

    2015-01-01

    parameters and Oswestry Disability Index values was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Folow-up lasted 6 to 14 months. Significant differences in Oswestry Disability Index score were visible between preoperation (50.6±16.8) and postoperation (41.1±19.6) (P≤ 0.001). Mean Cobb angle was reduced from 26° preoperatively to 10.7° postoperatively. Lateral olisthesis was reduced from 4.9 mm to almost zero in most patients. On the sagittal plane, C7plumb line was significantly correlated to Oswestry Disability Index score both preoperatively and postoperatively. On the coronal plane, preoperative Cobb angle and postoperative lumbar lordosis were correlated to Oswestry Disability Index. Pelvic tilt angle change was equal to sacral inclination angle. No changes in pelvic incidence angle were found after the surgery. These data indicated spinal balance was correlated with healthy living status. Gravity line was not better than C7 plumb line. The improvement of the radiographic parameters did not predict the relief of symptoms. Lost sacral slope and retroverted pelvis were commonly seen in adult scoliosis. Surgical treatment could not significantly change sacral slope, retroverted pelvis, lumbar lordosis and sagittal balance.

  13. Global monopoles can change Universe's topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-05-01

    If the Universe undergoes a phase transition, at which global monopoles are created or destroyed, topology of its spatial sections can change. More specifically, by making use of Myers' theorem, we show that, after a transition in which global monopoles form, spatial sections of a spatially flat, infinite Universe becomes finite and closed. This implies that global monopoles can change the topology of Universe's spatial sections (from infinite and open to finite and closed). Global monopoles cannot alter the topology of the space-time manifold.

  14. Global monopoles can change Universe's topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marunović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available If the Universe undergoes a phase transition, at which global monopoles are created or destroyed, topology of its spatial sections can change. More specifically, by making use of Myers' theorem, we show that, after a transition in which global monopoles form, spatial sections of a spatially flat, infinite Universe becomes finite and closed. This implies that global monopoles can change the topology of Universe's spatial sections (from infinite and open to finite and closed. Global monopoles cannot alter the topology of the space-time manifold.

  15. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  16. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  17. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  18. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  19. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people....... The boundaries of firms and countries are increasingly porous and imprecise, because firms use alliances and outsourcing, and countries are rarely technologically self-sufficient. On the other hand, locations remain distinct and idiosyncratic, with innovation systems remaining largely nationally bound. Knowledge...

  20. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  1. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    increased levels of inequality according to absolute and centrist measures are inevitable at today's per capita income levels. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible for absolute inequality to return to 1975 levels without further convergence in mean incomes among countries. Inequality, as captured...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....

  2. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  3. Balancing Covariates via Propensity Score Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fan; Morgan, Kari Lock; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Covariate balance is crucial for an unconfounded descriptive or causal comparison. However, lack of balance is common in observational studies. This article considers weighting strategies for balancing covariates. We define a general class of weights-the balancing weights-that balance the weighted distributions of the covariates between treatment groups. These weights incorporate the propensity score to weight each group to an analyst-selected target population. This class unifies existing we...

  4. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Preston

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system,...

  5. Energy balance invariance for interacting particle systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari, Arash; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the principle of invariance of balance of energy and its consequences for a system of interacting particles under groups of transformations. Balance of energy and its invariance is first examined in Euclidean space. Unlike the case of continuous media, it is shown that conservation and balance laws do not follow from the assumption of invariance of balance of energy under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space. However, the postulate of invariance of balance of ener...

  6. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  7. Global Modeling of Withdrawal, Allocation and Consumptive Use of Surface Water and Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been developed in recent decades. However, few models consider the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes, and human activities and associated water use, and even fewer models distinguish water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Here, we couple a global water demand model with a global hydrological model and dynamically simulate daily water withdrawal and consumptive water use over the period 1979-2010, using two re-analysis products: ERA-Interim and MERRA. We explicitly take into account the mutual feedback between supply and demand, and implement a newly developed water allocation scheme to distinguish surface water and groundwater use. Moreover, we include a new irrigation scheme, which works dynamically with a daily surface and soil water balance, and incorporate the newly available extensive global reservoir data set (GRanD). Simulated surface water and groundwater withdrawals generally show good agreement with reported national and sub-national statistics. The results show a consistent increase in both surface water and groundwater use worldwide, with a more rapid increase in groundwater use since the 1990s. Human impacts on terrestrial water storage (TWS) signals are evident, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability. This alteration is particularly large over heavily regulated basins such as the Colorado and the Columbia, and over the major irrigated basins such as the Mississippi, the Indus, and the Ganges. Including human water use and associated reservoir operations generally improves the correlation of simulated TWS anomalies with those of the GRACE observations.

  8. A Balanced Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  9. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  10. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  11. Balance Scorecard in Hospital Units

    OpenAIRE

    Pu?an Alina; Ivan Oana Raluca

    2014-01-01

    Balance Scorecard (BSC) is a tool for measuring the performance, used mainly in the private sector. Social and economic changes of recent years have given rise to a number of objective needs, particularly in the management of “public money”.

  12. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness.

  13. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  14. Finding Balance in the Winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of and reflections concerning a group workshop facilitated by Michael Tlanusta Garrett of the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Provides information about the Native American teachings and traditions of the four winds, balance, and harmony, and discusses the use of self by group leaders as a powerful therapeutic and…

  15. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  16. Data needs for nutrient balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    2011-01-01

    are not required to report N and P balances for agriculture as part of any international conventions. As a consequence, there is no organisation equivalent to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) or United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) who has responsibility for standardising...

  17. Balancing author and publisher rights

    OpenAIRE

    Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As open access gains momentum, more and more scholarly authors are trying to retain the rights they need to authorize open access. At the same time, many publishers continue to demand transfer of copyright and resist author demands to retain key rights. This article explores the possibility of a balance which gives each side the rights it needs.

  18. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  19. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux–based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.-D.;

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different...

  20. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  1. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  2. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  3. Global Noise and Global Englishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Pennycook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, alluding to Tricia Rose’s US rap-music book, Black Noise, aims to do much more than merely extend the reach of the study of rap and hip-hop beyond the USA, as its subtitle might suggest. While acknowledging the importance of the work of both Rose and Potter, this collection’s editor, Tony Mitchell, contests their respective views that rap and hip-hop are essentially expressions of African-American culture, and that all forms of rap and hip-hop derive from these origins. He argues that these forms have become ‘a vehicle for global youth affiliations and a tool for reworking local iden- tity all over the world’.

  4. Global climate experiment; Globales Klimaexperiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quasching, V. [Deutsche Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Continued greenhouse gas emissions are part of one of our today's largest scientific experiments. Most scientists agree that anthropogenic influences are responsible for already observed climatic changes. Others demand further investigations and justify continued unlimited use of fossil energy sources. This paper describes generally accepted facts on greenhouse gas emissions and climatic change with focus on part and influence of the global energy industry. [German] Mit dem fortgesetzten Ausstoss von Treibhausgasen wird zurzeit ein globales naturwissenschaftliches Experiment betrieben. Viele Wissenschaftler sind sich einig, dass bereits beobachtete Klimaveraenderungen auf den Einfluss des Menschen zurueckzufuehren sind. Andere fordern hingegen weitere Untersuchungen und halten bis dahin eine weitere uneingeschraenkte Verwendung fossiler Energietraeger fuer gerechtfertigt. Dieser Beitrag fasst weitgehend anerkannte Fakten ueber Treibhausgasemissionen und Klimaveraenderungen zusammen und beschreibt die Rolle und den Einfluss der Energiewirtschaft.

  5. What is a global manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

    2003-08-01

    Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires. PMID:12884670

  6. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FLUIDO-COAGULANT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tase

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluidity is controlled by complex physiological systems. Normally, the fine balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis prevents both bleeding and thrombosis. The accelerated urbanization we are living last decades modifies the basic environment, confining the human being to biochemical and metabolic remodeling. The alteration of this balance in favour of coagulation leads to thrombosis, the major challenge of the 21st century medicine. There are interesting changes not only in human’s anthropological evolution, but also from birth to death. The HORUS study performed by american and egyptian researchers investigated the prevalence of atherosclerosis in antique and modern Egyptians. Despite the belief that atherosclerosis is a modern disease, it seems to be evidences of atherosclerosis in Egyptian mummies. Despite multiple differences, between 30 and 60 years, the prevalence of atherosclerosis was quite similar in antique and modern Egyptians, respectively.

  7. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  8. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  9. Basin-scale partitioning of Greenland ice sheet mass balance components (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.L.; Stenseng, Lars; Skourup, Henriette;

    2015-01-01

    of the gate. Using a 1961-1990 reference climatology SMB field from the MAR regional climate model, we quantify ice sheet mass balance within eighteen basins. We find a 2007-2011 mean D of 515±57 Gtyr-1. We find a 2007-2011 mean total mass balance of -262±21 Gtyr-1, which is equal to a 0.73 mm yr-1 global sea...

  10. A synthesis of the Antarctic surface mass balance during the last 800 yr

    OpenAIRE

    Frezzotti, M.; C. Scarchilli; Becagli, S.; Proposito, M.; S. Urbini

    2013-01-01

    Global climate models suggest that Antarctic snowfall should increase in a warming climate and mitigate rises in the sea level. Several processes affect surface mass balance (SMB), introducing large uncertainties in past, present and future ice sheet mass balance. To provide an extended perspective on the past SMB of Antarctica, we used 67 firn/ice core records to reconstruct the temporal variability in the SMB over the past 800 yr and, in greater detail, over the last 200 yr.

  11. A synthesis of the antarctic surface mass balance during the last eight centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Frezzotti, M.; C. Scarchilli; Becagli, S.; Proposito, M.; S. Urbini

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models suggest that Antarctic snowfall should increase in a warming climate and mitigate sea level rise, mainly due to the greater moisture-holding capacity of the warmer atmosphere. Several processes act on snow accumulation or surface mass balance (SMB), introducing large uncertainties in the past, present, and future ice sheet mass balance. To provide an extended past perspective of the SMB of Antarctica, we used 66 firn/ice core records to reconstruct the temporal vari...

  12. Energy and motorization: scenarios for China's 2005-2020 energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying

    2005-01-01

    "As a country beginning its motorization process, China must confront the problems attached to an oil-based car society. In adopting the conventional automobile technology, the country would aggravate an already unstable, domestic oil balance while pushing up increasing carbon dioxide levels. Not only would domestic problems emerge, but international concerns regarding oil shortage, global pollution, and the energy security balance would also result from China erecting a tradit...

  13. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  14. Water balance in the complex mountainous terrain of Bhutan and linkages to land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-01-01

    average wind speed compared to global average conditions. The spatial variation in PM ETo is linked to variation in sunshine hours during the summer season and to temperature in other seasons. Seasonal and annual ETo was mainly affected by elevation and latitude, which is linked to temperature and...... sunshine duration. Comparison with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) provided a positive correlation of both precipitation and water balance to SOI, while there was a negative correlation between ETo and SOI. When testing our models for predicting ETo and water balances versus the global CRU gridded...... data, our models performed clearly better than the global CRU gridded data for Bhutan, indicating that local higher-resolution data and models are preferred in mountainous regions. A positive water balance is found in across east-west belts in southern and northern Bhutan, where mainly broadleaf forest...

  15. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  16. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon...

  17. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  18. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  19. Leveraging Synergiesn in Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Stegmann Mikkelsen, Ole; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    and the need to involve low-interest parties to obtain synergies. The research advances three dimensions of purchasing organisation, namely coordination structure, compliance mechanism and synergy content. It is argued that these dimensions may be combined to yield various hybrid organisational forms, while......Leveraging synergies in global sourcing is not a straightforward task, and requires a balanced approach to organizing, taking into consideration a number of situational factors. These include, but are not limited to, strategic significance, product specificity, market complexity, coherency...

  20. New Views on Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaoying; Yang Xuexiang; Du Xinwei

    2000-01-01

    Many cosmic facts , such as the earth orbit, the activity of the sun, the moon and the planet orbits and so on,may effect on geological processes on the earth including precipitation. It is a serious problem that the human being is facing with water deficiency. Global cooling and tectonic activity are the major factors of desertification and human action aggravates this process. It is time to do something to prevent the acceleration in the mature and artificial hazards. We must keep the balance of nature for sustainable development.

  1. Performance analysis of dynamic load balancing algorithm for multiprocessor interconnection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Bokhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiprocessor interconnection network have become powerful parallel computing system for real-time applications. Nowadays the many researchers posses studies on the dynamic load balancing in multiprocessor system. Load balancing is the method of dividing the total load among the processors of the distributed system to progress task's response time as well as resource utilization whereas ignoring a condition where few processors are overloaded or underloaded or moderately loaded. However, in dynamic load balancing algorithm presumes no priori information about behaviour of tasks or the global state of the system. There are numerous issues while designing an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm that involves utilization of system, amount of information transferred among processors, selection of tasks for migration, load evaluation, comparison of load levels and many more. This paper enlightens the performance analysis on dynamic load balancing strategy (DLBS algorithm, used for hypercube network in multiprocessor system.

  2. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotie Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what are the admissible values assigned to the parameters defining these programs. We call such classes universally balanced. We present characterization and complexity results on the universally balancedness property for some classes of interesting combinatorial optimization games. In particular, we focus on the algorithmic properties for identifying universally balancedness for the games under discussion.

  3. Energy balance in coronal funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    The energy balance in magnetic flux tubes is examined semianalytically for the case in which thermal conduction balances radiation or in which enthalpy transport occurs. Different values are considered for areal constriction, shape, length, and maximum temperature. The overall energy budget of the solar corona is not significantly affected by magnetic constriction. A bowl-shaped funnel with a constriction factor of 4 describes the empirical differential-emission measure for log-T values between approximately 5.3 and 6.0. Loop-scaling relationships are derived for the full range of models to illustrate the dependence of the constant of proportionality on the properties of the magnetic constriction. Constriction can reduce the total energy requirement of the funnel by a factor of 5 and not affect the differential emission in flow-dominated models.

  4. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... during aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  5. Diaphragm Unloading via Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Alters the Gene Expression Profile

    OpenAIRE

    DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Shanely, R Andrew; Akunuri, Nagabhavani; Hamilton, Marc T.; Van Gammeren, Darin; Zergeroglu, A. Murat; McKenzie, Michael; Powers, Scott K.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation results in diaphragmatic inactivity and promotes oxidative injury, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in this important inspiratory muscle. However, the impact of controlled mechanical ventilation on global mRNA alterations in the diaphragm remains unknown.

  6. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaotie Deng; Gabrielle Demange

    2010-01-01

    This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what ar...

  7. Energy balance in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubńiski, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper present the concept of testing energy balance. The test was conducted on the test bench equipped with the alternator, battery and standard mounted current receivers. The course of measurements consisted in recording the indications of three ammeters and a tachometer. On the basis of the recorded current values, it was possible to determine: energy received from the battery, consumed by the receivers and the energy drawn from the alternator.

  8. Balanced Unemployment in Polish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Szymańska

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of balanced unemployment in relation to the Polish economy. This issue with its variety considerations and economic, social and political implications is today one of the most important matter. Author analyses this problem together with its reasons and refer it to the Polish economy. In first and second part of the text there are presented basic assumptions of natural unemployment theory and Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Third part is an a...

  9. Balanced input-output assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  10. Carbon balance in Mediterranean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandra Cristina Pires

    2013-01-01

    Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation as they sequester and store carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The aim of this thesis was to investigate forest carbon balance in its main compartments: tress, understory and soils. We present methods to estimate carbon stock in biomass of stone pine stands in south Portugal. Allometric models, as well as conversion and expansion factors were presented allowing the quantification of stand carbon stocks irrespect...

  11. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  12. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  13. A Greedy Algorithm for Load Balancing Jobs with Deadlines in a Distributed Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian I. Paduraru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues when dealing with distributed networks is the efficiency of jobs load balancing. This paper presents a novel algorithm for load balancing jobs that have a given deadline in a distributed network assuming central coordination. The algorithm uses a greedy strategy for global and local decision making: schedule a job as late as possible. It has an increased overhead over other well-known methods, but the load balancing policy provides a better fit for jobs.

  14. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  15. Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassford, R.P.; Siegert, M.J.; Dowdeswell, J.A.; Oerlemans, J.; Glazovsky, A.F.; Macheret, Y.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Due to their remote location within the Russian High Arctic, little is known about the mass balance of ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya now and in the past. Such information is critical, however, to building a global picture of the cryospheric response to climate change. This paper provides a numerical

  16. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  17. Global Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  18. Global Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Asal, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Alors que la littérature sur le sujet demeure lacunaire en France, les ouvrages en anglais portant sur l’islamophobie se sont multipliés de manière significative ces dernières années. De qualités inégales, ces publications montrent, si ce n’est l’intérêt du public, du moins celui du monde de l’édition pour ce sujet. L’ouvrage collectif Global Islamophobia, Muslims and Moral Panic in the West, dirigé par George Morgan and Scott Poynting, paru aux éditions Ashgate en 2012, se démarque par son a...

  19. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  20. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources