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Sample records for balaenoptera borealis embryos

  1. Attempts at in vitro fertilization and culture of in vitro matured oocytes in sei ( Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's ( B. edeni) whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M M U; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, H; Matsuoka, K; Fujise, Y; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2009-02-01

    The cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.

  2. Endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (Balaenoptera musculus, B. physalus, B. borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Kleinertz, Sonja; Prieto, Rui; Silva, Monica A; Taubert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. Here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. In total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (B. physalus); n = 4 (P. macrocephalus); n = 2 (B. musculus); n = 1 (B. borealis)] were collected from free-swimming animals as part of ongoing studies on behavioral ecology. Furthermore, skin biopsies were collected from sperm whales (n = 5) using minimally invasive biopsy darting and tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti DNA via PCR. Overall, more than ten taxa were detected in whale fecal samples. Within protozoan parasites, Entamoeba spp. occurred most frequently (64.7%), followed by Giardia spp. (17.6%) and Balantidium spp. (5.9%). The most prevalent metazoan parasites were Ascaridida indet. spp. (41.2%), followed by trematodes (17.7%), acanthocephalan spp., strongyles (11.8%), Diphyllobotrium spp. (5.9%), and spirurids (5.9%). Helminths were mainly found in sperm whales, while enteric protozoan parasites were exclusively detected in baleen whales, which might be related to dietary differences. No T. gondii, N. caninum, or B. besnoiti DNA was detected in any skin sample. This is the first record on Giardia and Balantidium infections in large baleen whales.

  3. Corona Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  4. Nebula around R Corona Borealis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara

    2011-01-01

    The star R Corona Borealis (R CrB) shows forbidden lines of [O II], [N II], and [S II] during the deep minimum when the star is fainter by about 8 to 9 magnitudes from normal brightness, suggesting the presence of nebular material around it. We present low and high spectral resolution observations of these lines during the ongoing deep minimum of R CrB, which started in July 2007. These emission lines show double peaks with a separation of about 170 km/s. The line ratios of [S II] and [O II] suggest an electron density of about 100 cm$^{-3}$. We discuss the physical conditions and possible origins of this low density gas. These forbidden lines have also been seen in other R Coronae Borealis stars during their deep light minima and this is a general characteristic of these stars, which might have some relevance to their origins.

  5. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  6. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

    2007-01-01

    Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable F I lines.

  7. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  8. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  9. Distribution and abundance of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus in the Northeast and Central Atlantic as inferred from the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys 1987-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS is a series of large scale international cetacean line transect surveys, conducted in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001, that covered a large part of the central and eastern North Atlantic. Target species were fin (Balaenoptera physalus, common minke (B. acutorostrata, pilot (Globicephala melas and sei (B. borealis whales. Here we present new estimates of abundance for fin whales from the 2 most recent surveys and analysis of trends throughout the survey period. Fin whales were found in highest densities in the Irminger Sea between Iceland and Greenland. Abundance of fin whales in the survey area of the Icelandic and Faroese vessels (Central North Atlantic was estimated as 19,672 (95% C.I. 12,083-28,986 animals in 1995 and 24,887 (95% C.I. 18,186-30,214 in 2001. The estimates are negatively biased because of whales diving during the passage of vessels, and whales being missed by observers, but these and other potential biases are likely small for this species. The abundance of fin whales increased significantly over the survey period. For all areas combined the estimated annual growth rate was 4%. An estimated annual increase of 10% in the area between Iceland and Greenland was responsible for most of this overall increase in numbers of fin whales in the area. Although high, the estimated rates of increase are not out of bounds of biological plausibility and can thus be viewed as recovery of a depleted population. However, the apparent pattern of population growth and the whaling history in the area indicate that fin whales made a significant recovery during the first half of the 20th century and that the recent observed high growth rates cannot be explained solely by recovery after overexploitation.

  10. Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Suk; Lim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ik-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2014-01-23

    Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128.

  12. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  13. Isolamento do vírus rábico de morcego insetívoro , Lasyurus borealis Rabies virus isolation in insectivorous bat Lasyurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Fatima Alves Martorelli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de raiva em morcego insetívoro, Lasyurus borealis, na região urbana, em bairro residencial, no Município de Jundiaí, SP (Brasil.A case of rabies in an insectivorous bat, Lasyurus borealis , in a residential suburb in an urban area in the southern region of Brazil, is reported.

  14. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis and Extreme Helium Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

    2007-01-01

    Neutral fluorine lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable neutral fluorine lines.

  15. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  16. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  17. Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX): A Planeterrella for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Michael; Carpe, Andy; Zwicker, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Planeterrella is an experiment invented by Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble in France designed to simulate aurorae of various planets. It is done by placing two differently sized aluminum spheres in a bell jar with a pressure of approximately 75 mTorr. Each sphere has magnets inside and is electrically biased. An electrode with the opposite electrical bias is inserted into the bell jar so that the voltage between them is on the order of 300 V. A plasma is then created and an aurora is formed around the magnetic poles of the spheres or near the edge of the electrode. We have made a modified version of the planeterrella, called the Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX), based upon Lilensten's plans. We will present the technical details of the experiment and preliminary results of its use with a variety of different audiences.

  18. WHAT IS THE SHELL AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Marcello, Dominic C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Lockman, Felix J., E-mail: emonti2@lsu.edu, E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: dmarce1@tigers.lsu.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are known for being prolific producers of dust which causes their large iconic declines in brightness. Several RCB stars, including R Coronae Borealis (R CrB), itself, have large extended dust shells seen in the far-infrared. The origin of these shells is uncertain but they may give us clues to the evolution of the RCB stars. The shells could form in three possible ways. (1) They are fossil Planetary Nebula (PN) shells, which would exist if RCB stars are the result of a final, helium-shell flash, (2) they are material left over from a white-dwarf (WD) merger event which formed the RCB stars, or (3) they are material lost from the star during the RCB phase. Arecibo 21 cm observations establish an upper limit on the column density of H I in the R CrB shell implying a maximum shell mass of ≲0.3 M{sub ☉}. A low-mass fossil PN shell is still a possible source of the shell although it may not contain enough dust. The mass of gas lost during a WD merger event will not condense enough dust to produce the observed shell, assuming a reasonable gas-to-dust ratio. The third scenario where the shell around R CrB has been produced during the star’s RCB phase seems most likely to produce the observed mass of dust and the observed size of the shell. But this means that R CrB has been in its RCB phase for ∼10{sup 4} years.

  19. AFSC/ABL: Rockfish allozyme species identification (Sebastes aleutianus and borealis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rougheye rockfish (Sebastes aleutianus) and shortraker rockfish (Sebastes borealis) were collected from the Washington coast, the Gulf of Alaska, the southern Bering...

  20. Necropsy report of a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded in Denmark in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Hedayat, Abdi; Jensen, Trine Hammer;

    2013-01-01

    There is little detailed information on stranded fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the scientific literature (Notarbartolo di Sciara et al., 2003). In Denmark, at least eight fin whales stranded between the years 1603 and 1958 (Kinze, 1995). On 16 June 2010, a live subadult or adult male fin...... whale stranded in the Bay of Vejle (55º 69' N, 9º 58' E), Denmark. Despite several attempts, it was not possible to rescue the fin whale, which was only partially exposed by the water. The fin whale succumbed after 5 d stranded in shallow water. The dead fin whale was transported to a nearby pier...

  1. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to

  2. Age determination and reproduction of female Fin Whales Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), with special regard to baleen plates and ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht-Cock, van C.N.

    1965-01-01

    1. From Antarctic female Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, a collection, consisting of baleen plates and the parts of these plates embedded in the gum, ovaries, and a number of earplugs was examined, in order to determine the age of these animals and to get a better insight in some characteristics

  3. The grand aurorae borealis seen in Colombia in 1859

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Cárdenas, Freddy; Cristancho Sánchez, Sergio; Vargas Domínguez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9°N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia allowed the identification of a narrative from Montería, Colombia (8° 45‧N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling glares, and the appearance of an immense S-like shape in the sky. The very low latitude of the geomagnetic north pole in 1859, the lowest value in over half a millennia, is proposed to have allowed the observations of auroral events at locations closer to the equator, and supports the historical description found in Colombia. The finding of such chronicle represents one of the most complete descriptions of low-latitude sightings of aurorae caused by the Carrington Event.

  4. What is the Shell Around R Coronae Borealis?

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, Edward J; Marcello, Dominic C; Lockman, Felix J

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are known for being prolific producers of dust which causes their large iconic declines in brightness. Several RCB stars, including R CrB, itself, have large extended dust shells seen in the far-infrared. The origin of these shells is uncertain but they may give us clues to the evolution of the RCB stars. The shells could form in three possible ways. 1) they are fossil Planetary Nebula (PN) shells, which would exist if RCB stars are the result of a final, helium-shell flash, 2) they are material left over from a white-dwarf merger event which formed the RCB stars, or 3) they are material lost from the star during the RCB phase. Arecibo 21-cm observations establish an upper limit on the column density of H I in the R CrB shell implying a maximum shell mass of $\\lesssim$0.3 M$_{\\odot}$. A low-mass fossil PN shell is still a possible source of the shell although it may not contain enough dust. The mass of gas lost during a white-dwarf merger even...

  5. The Grand Aurorae Borealis Seen in Colombia in 1859

    CERN Document Server

    Cárdenas, Freddy Moreno; Domínguez, Santiago Vargas

    2015-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9$^\\circ$ N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia, allowing the identification of a narrative from Monter\\'ia, Colombia (8$^\\circ$ 45' N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling ...

  6. Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

    2004-12-01

    The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

  7. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  8. The Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. in the northern part of the Południowopodlaska Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciosek Marek Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Linnaea borealis, the twinflower, is considered a critically endangered species in the Południowopodlaska Lowland. The disappearance of the twinflower is mainly caused by habitat changes resulting from forest management, but also light deficiency due to the increase in canopy cover and growth of the shrub layer (processes of succession.

  9. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  10. Phytophthora borealis and Phytophthora riparia, new species in Phytophthora ITS Clade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everett M; Reeser, Paul W; Sutton, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora borealis and Phytophthora riparia, identified in recent Phytophthora surveys of forest streams in Oregon, California and Alaska, are described as new species in Phytophthora ITS Clade 6. They are similar in growth form and morphology to P. gonapodyides and are predominantly sterile. They present unique DNA sequences, however, and differ in temperature/growth relations and geographic distribution.

  11. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Michael C.; Virginia Andrews-Goff; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Laverick, Sarah M.; Branch, Trevor A; Nicholas J. Gales

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...

  12. DNA barcoding of the Bryde’s Whale Balaenoptera edeni Anderson (Cetacea: Balaenopteridae washed ashore along Kerala coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bijukumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Three whales washed ashore along Kerala coast of southwest India were identified as Bryde’s Whale Balaenoptera edeni Anderson based on sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b genes. The results of mtDNA sequencing in the present study confirm the presence of B. edeni species of ‘Bryde’s Whale complex’ in the coastal waters of India.

  13. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.: genetic evidence for revision of subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick I Archer

    Full Text Available There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus: B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ~16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic--including the Mediterranean Sea--and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12 form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42. The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species.

  14. Genomic and structural investigation on dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) in Mediterranean fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffagna, Giorgia; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Franzo, Giovanni; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Mazzariol, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has been deemed as one of the most relevant threats for fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) being responsible for a mortality outbreak in the Mediterranean Sea in the last years. Knowledge of the complete viral genome is essential to understand any structural changes that could modify virus pathogenesis and viral tissue tropism. We report the complete DMV sequence of N, P/V/C, M, F and H genes identified from a fin whale and the comparison of primary to quaternary structure of proteins between this fin whale strain and some of those isolated during the 1990–‘92 and the 2006–‘08 epidemics. Some relevant substitutions were detected, particularly Asn52Ser located on F protein and Ile21Thr on N protein. Comparing mutations found in the fin whale DMV with those occurring in viral strains of other cetacean species, some of them were proven to be the result of diversifying selection, thus allowing to speculate on their role in host adaptation and on the way they could affect the interaction between the viral attachment and fusion with the target host cells. PMID:28134317

  15. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  16. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  17. White dwarf mergers and the origin of R Coronae Borealis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lorén-Aguilar, P; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 solar masses helium white dwarf with a 0.8 solar masses carbon-oxygen white dwarf, coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

  18. Does the Corona Borealis Supercluster form a giant binary-like system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiesi Pillastrini, Giovanni C.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of local gravitational potentials generated by a complete volume-limited sample of galaxy groups and clusters filling the Corona Borealis region has been derived to search for new gravitational hints in the context of clustering analysis unrevealed by alternative methodologies. Mapping such a distribution as a function of spatial positions, the deepest potential wells in the sample trace unambiguously the locations of the densest galaxy cluster clumps providing the physical keys to bring out gravitational features connected to the formation, composition and evolution of the major clustered structures filling that region. As expected, the three deepest potential wells found at Equatorial coordinates: (˜230°, ˜28°, z ˜ 0.075), (˜240°, ˜27°, z ˜ 0.09) and, (227°, 5.8°, z ˜ 0.0788) correspond to massive superclusters of galaxy groups and clusters identified as the Corona Borealis, A2142 and Virgo-Serpent, respectively. However, the deepest isopotential contours around the Corona Borealis and A2142 superclusters seem to suggest a gravitational feature similar to a giant binary-like system connected by a filamentary structure. To a first approximation, it seems unlikely that this hypothesized system could be gravitationally bound.

  19. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  20. Omura's whales (Balaenoptera omurai) off northwest Madagascar: ecology, behaviour and conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchio, Salvatore; Andrianantenaina, Boris; Lindsay, Alec; Rekdahl, Melinda; Andrianarivelo, Norbert; Rasoloarijao, Tahina

    2015-10-01

    The Omura's whale (Balaenoptera omurai) was described as a new species in 2003 and then soon after as an ancient lineage basal to a Bryde's/sei whale clade. Currently known only from whaling and stranding specimens primarily from the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans, there exist no confirmed field observations or ecological/behavioural data. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first genetically confirmed documentation of living Omura's whales including descriptions of basic ecology and behaviour from northwestern Madagascar. Species identification was confirmed through molecular phylogenetic analyses of biopsies collected from 18 adult animals. All individuals shared a single haplotype in a 402 bp sequence of mtDNA control region, suggesting low diversity and a potentially small population. Sightings of 44 groups indicated preference for shallow-water shelf habitat with sea surface temperature between 27.4°C and 30.2°C. Frequent observations were made of lunge feeding, possibly on zooplankton. Observations of four mothers with young calves, and recordings of a song-like vocalization probably indicate reproductive behaviour. Social organization consisted of loose aggregations of predominantly unassociated single individuals spatially and temporally clustered. Photographic recapture of a female re-sighted the following year with a young calf suggests site fidelity or a resident population. Our results demonstrate that the species is a tropical whale without segregation of feeding and breeding habitat, and is probably non-migratory; our data extend the range of this poorly studied whale into the western Indian Ocean. Exclusive range restriction to tropical waters is rare among baleen whale species, except for the various forms of Bryde's whales and Omura's whales. Thus, the discovery of a tractable population of Omura's whales in the tropics presents an opportunity for understanding the ecological factors driving potential convergence of life

  1. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exp...

  2. Population genetic structure of North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Cortez fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus 1758) : Analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bérubé, Martine; Aguilar, Alex; Dendanto, Dan; Larsen, Finn; Notarbartolo di Sciara, Guiseppe; Sears, Richard; Sigurjónsson8, Johan; Urban-R, Jorge; Palsboll, Per

    1998-01-01

    Samples were collected from 407 fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus, at four North Atlantic and one Mediterranean Sea summer feeding area as well as the Sea of Cortez in the Pacific Ocean. For each sample, the sex, the sequence of the first 288 nucleotides of the mitochondrial (mt) control region and

  3. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  4. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBadet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  5. AURORA BOREALIS - Development of a New Research Icebreaker with Drilling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, J.; Biebow, N.; Egerton, P.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Lembke-Jene, L.

    2007-12-01

    Polar research both on land and in the sea cannot achieve the needed progress without novel and state of the art technologies and infrastructure. In addition, we have the obligation to equip the upcoming young and courageous generation of polar researchers with the most modern and safest research platforms the 21st century can provide. This effort will require major investments, both in terms of generating new tools, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. There are many different novel tools under development for polar research, we will concentrate on the presently largest one, the planning for a new type of research icebreaker, the AURORA BOREALIS with an all-season capability of operations in permanently ice-covered waters and with the possibility to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Polar Research Vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35 to 40 years. The vessel is planned as a large research icebreaker with 44,000 tons displacement and a length of up to 196 m, with about 50 Megawatt propulsion power. Advanced technological features will include azimuth propulsion systems, extensive instrumental and airborne ice- management support, and the routine operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from two moon-pools. An unique feature of this icebreaker will be the drilling rig that will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea down to 5000 m water depth and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory and supply containers, and the variable arrangement of other modular infrastructure (in particular, winches, cranes, etc.), free deck- space, and separate protected deck areas, will allow the planned

  6. Characterization of phospholipase A2 from the pyloric ceca of two species of starfish, Coscinasterias acutispina and Plazaster borealis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimura, Hideki; Hayashi, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Phospholipase A (PLA) activities in the pyloric ceca and viscera from seven species of marine invertebrates (four starfish, one sea urchin, and two shellfish) were determined. Relatively high PLA specific activities were found in the pyloric ceca of two species of starfish (Coscinasterias acutispina and Plazaster borealis). Phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) were partially purified from the pyloric ceca of the starfish, C. acutispina PLA2 (C-PLA2) and P. borealis PLA2 (P-PLA2). The C-PLA2 and P-PLA2 m...

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara

    2007-01-01

    Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K ...

  8. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected betwe

  9. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Polar oceans are characterized by extreme environmental conditions for humans and materials, and have remained the least accessible regions to scientists of the IODP. DSDP and ODP have for long faced specific technical and logistical problems when attempting to drill in ice-covered polar deep-sea basins. The Arctic Ocean and large areas of the high-latitude Southern Ocean remained largely un-sampled by ODP and remain one of the major scientific and technological challenges for IODP. Drilling in these regions has been discussed and anticipated for decades and the scientific rationales are reflected in the science plans of the international Nansen Arctic Drilling Program (NAD) or the Arctic Program Planning Group (APPG) of ODP/IODP, amongst others. More recently, the rationale to investigate the polar oceans in a holistic approach has been outlined by workshops, leading to strategic assessments of the scientific potential and new drilling proposals. The European Polar Board took the initiative to develop a plan for a novel and dedicated research icebreaker with technical capabilities hitherto unrealised. This research icebreaker will enable autonomous operations in the central Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, even during the severest ice conditions in the deep winter, serving all marine disciplines of polar research including scientific drilling: The European Research Icebreaker and Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel AURORA BOREALIS. AURORA BOREALIS is presently planned as a multi-purpose vessel. The ship can be deployed as a research icebreaker in all polar waters during any season of the year, as it shall meet the specifications of the highest ice-class attainable (IACS Polar Code 1) for icebreakers. During the times when it is not employed for drilling, it will operate as the most technically advanced multi-disciplinary research vessel in the Arctic or polar Southern Ocean. AURORA BOREALIS will be a "European scientific flagship facility" (fully open to non

  10. Hybrid Origins of Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, Two Problematic Taxa in Carex Section Vesicariae (Cyperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Pedersen, A. Tiril; Nowak, Michael D.; Brysting, Anne K.; Elven, Reidar; Bjorå, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of “pure” species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C. rostrata var. borealis has received very little attention in the years since its first description in the 19th century. By performing an extensive sampling of relevant taxa from a broad distribution range, and analyzing data from fifteen microsatellite loci developed specifically for our study together with pollen stainability measures, we resolve the hybrid origins of C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis and provide new insights into this taxonomically challenging group of sedges. Our results are in accordance with previous findings suggesting that C. stenolepis is a hybrid between C. vesicaria and C. saxatilis. They are also in accordance with a previous proposition that C. rostrata var. borealis is a hybrid between C. rostrata and C. rotundata, and furthermore suggest that both hybrids are the result of multiple, recent (i.e., postglacial) hybridization events. We found little evidence for successful sexual reproduction within C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, but conclude that the common and recurrent, largely predictable occurrence of these taxa justifies accepting both hybrids as hybrid species with binomial names. There are, however, complications as to types and priority names, and we therefore choose to address these problems in a separate paper. PMID:27780239

  11. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  12. Aurora Borealis – Development of a New Research Icebreaker with Drilling Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Thiede

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The International Polar Year (IPY, with its attempts to coordinate and foster cooperation on an international level in an unprecedented way, offers a unique chance for a leap of progress in our understanding of polar processes and their dynamics with their influence on the adjacent continents and the global environment. However, polar research both on land and in the sea cannot achieve the progress needed without novel and state of the art technologies and infrastructure.There are many novel tools presently being developed for polar research. In this report we will concentrate on the planning for a new research icebreaker, Aurora Borealis (Fig. 1, with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters and with the possibility to carry out deepsea drilling in ice-covered basins.

  13. Aurora borealis: a new European combined research icebreaker and drilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, Willy; Delius, Albrecht [Wartsila Ship Design Germany, Hamburg (Germany)], email: willy.doelling@wartsila.com, email: albrecht.delius@wartsila.com; Lembke-Jene, Lester [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)], email: Lester.Lembke-Jene@awi.de

    2010-07-01

    Aurora Borealis is a new European polar research and scientific drilling vessel whose distinguishing feature is dynamical positioning capability in drifting ice. It will be designed to break continuously multiyear ice over 2.5 meters thick at a speed of 3 knots, and ice ridges 15 meters high or more. It will be able to perform research and scientific drilling missions all year in polar waters without assisting support vessels. She will perform scientific drilling of core samples in ice-covered waters 100 to 5000 meters deep and will be able to drill more than 1000 meters deep into the seabed. It will also be able to travel from Arctic to Antarctic regions and to perform missions lasting a whole winter. This paper gives a detailed description of all the main features, especially how to keep the ship stable in rough seas and amidst drifting ice during the core drilling operations.

  14. Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Pallé, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 45 000 auroral events with more than 160 000 observations. They were analysed separately for three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to distinguish between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. We find significant long-term variations in the space-time distribution of auroras. We mainly identify these with four Gleissberg solar activity cycles whose overall characteristics we examine. The Asian observations are crucial in this context, and therefore merit further studies and verifications.

  15. Echinococcus canadensis, E. borealis, and E. intermedius. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences.

  16. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  17. Millimetric observation of the SZ effect in the Corona Borealis supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Battistelli, E S; Davis, R J; De Gregori, S; Genova-Santos, R; Grainge, K; Hobson, M P; Lamagna, L; Luzzi, G; Melchiorri, F; Petris, M D; Rebolo, R; Rubi~no-Martin, J A; Saunders, R D E; Scott, P F; Watson, R A

    2006-01-01

    We have observed the Corona Borealis Supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa grigia Observatory (MITO), located in the Italian Alps, at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measurements, data analysis, and results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer situated at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife-Spain). Observations have been made in the direction of the supercluster towards one Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described in detail, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. From a first level of data analysis we find evidence in MITO data of primary anisotropy, however still with room for the presence of secondary anisotropy, especially when VSA results are included. With a second level of data analysis using map-making and...

  18. Caryospora uptoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1986-10-01

    Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni n. sp. were described from the feces of red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis borealis. Sporulated oocysts were spherical or subspherical and measured 28.1 by 26.4 micron. The oocyst wall was composed of a yellowish outer layer and brownish inner layer and was about 1.5 micron thick. Neither micropyle, polar granules, nor oocyst residuum were present. A single, spherical sporocyst 18.2 by 17.9 micron was present; a Stieda body was absent. A spherical eccentrically located sporocyst residuum was present in many sporocysts, but it degenerated to form a dispersed granular residuum in other sporocysts. Eight randomly arranged sporozoites, 12.6 by 4.2 micron, were present in each sporocyst; they contained a centrally or slightly posteriorly located nucleus.

  19. Caryospora uptoni and Frenkelia sp.-like coccidial infections in red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1989-07-01

    The feces from 16 red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis) were examined by fecal flotation for the presence of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni were found in five (31%), sporocysts of a Frenkelia sp.-like coccidium were found in eight (50%), and mixed infections with both species of coccidia were found in three (19%) red-tailed hawks. Neither oocysts nor sporocysts were found in six (38%) red-tailed hawks. Sexual stages of C. uptoni were found in the duodenum and jejunum of a naturally infected red-tailed hawk. Sexual stages were located in enterocytes on the distal three-fourths of the villi. This study shows that over 60% of red-tailed hawks may be passing coccidial oocysts/sporocysts in their feces and provides morphological information for diagnosing C. uptoni infections in histological sections.

  20. Nucleosynthesis during the Merger of White Dwarfs and the Origin of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, R; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

    2011-01-01

    Many hydrogen deficient stars are characterised by surface abundance patterns that are hard to reconcile with conventional stellar evolution. Instead, it has been suggested that they may represent the result of a merger episode between a helium and a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. In this Letter, we present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 M_sol helium white dwarf with a 0.8 M_sol carbon-oxygen white dwarf, by coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

  1. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo

  2. morphology of kaloula rugifera and k.borealis tadpoles (anura:microhylidae:kaloula verrucosa group)in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    the external morphology and internal oral features of the tadpoles of kaloula rugifera and k.borealis are described in this paper.similarities between these two larvae include external morphology,oral disc,internal oral features (floor and roof),terminal mouth,lateral eyes,single midventral spiracle,absence of keratinized jaw sheaths and labial teeth,absence of lingual papillae and postnarial arena,while the body of k.rugifera is bigger than that of k.borealis at stages from 36 to 39 and the number of papillae in the buccal cavity is 12-19 and 9-16,respectively in the two species.all the similarities and differences of the two species illustrate that the tadpoles within the family microhylidae could be attributed to assistance in clarifying a certain taxonomic treatment in microhylidae.

  3. Discovery of a Previously Unrecognised Allusion to the Aurora Borealis in Paradise Lost, and Implications for Edmund Halley Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2014-11-01

    This research reveals that John Milton employed an allusion to the aurora borealis in the epic poem Paradise Lost which has not been recognised in more than three centuries of scholarly analysis. It further disproves the long-held belief, made popular by the astronomer Edmund Halley, that no notable aurora was visible in England in the seventeenth century. A study of the personal Latin diary of the Elizabethan historian William Camden shows that the famous aurora of 1621 was visible in England. While Pierre Gassendi has been credited with creation of the term 'aurora borealis' based on his report of the 1621 aurora, this study reaffirms a neglected analysis from 1986 that established the term originated with Galileo in 1619.

  4. The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L D; Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Jones, B N; Gurd, F R

    1977-02-22

    The complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the Arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at the two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage of the methylacetimidated apomyoglobin at the three arginine residues with trypsin. The further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin and S. aureus strain V8 protease enabled the determining of the remainder of the covalent structure. This myoglobin differs from that of the dwarf sperm whale, Kogia simus, at 16 positions, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, at 14 positions, from that of the common porpoise, Phocaena phocaena, and the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus at 13 positions, from that of the Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, at 10 positions, and from that of California gray whale, Eschrichtius gibbosus, at 3 positions- All of the substitutions observed in this sequence fit easily into the three-dimensional structure of the sperm whale myoglobin.

  5. Are baleen whales exposed to the threat of microplastics? A case study of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Guerranti, Cristiana; Coppola, Daniele; Giannetti, Matteo; Marsili, Letizia; Minutoli, Roberta

    2012-11-01

    Baleen whales are potentially exposed to micro-litter ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity. However, the impacts of microplastics on baleen whales are largely unknown. In this case study of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), we explore the toxicological effects of microplastics on mysticetes. The study included the following three steps: (1) the collection/count of microplastics in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea), (2) the detection of phthalates in surface neustonic/planktonic samples, and (3) the detection of phthalates in stranded fin whales. A total of 56% of the surface neustonic/planktonic samples contained microplastic particles. The highest abundance of microplastics (9.63 items/m(3)) was found in the Portofino MPA (Ligurian Sea). High concentrations of phthalates (DEHP and MEHP) were detected in the neustonic/planktonic samples. The concentrations of MEHP found in the blubber of stranded fin whales suggested that phthalates could serve as a tracer of the intake of microplastics. The results of this study represent the first warning of this emerging threat to baleen whales.

  6. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding.

  7. Morphology of the tracheobronchial tree and the route of the pulmonary artery in the fetal minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, M Y

    1998-12-01

    Molecular and statistical studies support the close phylogenetic relation between Cetacea and Artiodactyla. The presence of the tracheal bronchus has been pointed out as one of the common traits between only these groups. Nakakuki (1980) has investigated the mammalian tracheobronchial trees in 50 species based on his new nomenclature, and his study has consequently demonstrated the above-mentioned indication. Therefore, comparative anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree based on the nomenclature seems to be useful for investigations of the cetacean phylogeny. Three pairs of fetal lungs of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were supplied from the Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo (1991) to observe their tracheobronchial trees and the ramification of the pulmonary artery. The fetal tracheobronchial tree consisted of one tracheal, four lateral, four dorsal and one medial secondary bronchi in the right lung, and five or six lateral and four or five dorsal secondary bronchi in the left, using the new nomenclature. The right pulmonary artery crossed the right axial bronchus from the ventral side to the dorsal over the third lateral bronchus. The tracheal bronchus in the fetal minke whale seems to belong to the type II of Nakakuki's nomenclature, and this type is seen in one species of the river dolphins. The other conspicuous traits of the fetal lungs are the defect of the second lateral broncus and the route of the pulmonary artery in the right side. This route is very different from that of many other mammals.

  8. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with

  9. Improvement on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, M; Tetsuka, M; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2001-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to improve in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of minke whale oocytes. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) of fetal whale serum (FWS) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation, morphological grade (A or B) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) obtained from prepubertal and adult minke whales. Grade A (> or = 5 layers of cumulus cells) COC collected from the adult whales and cultured in the medium with 20% FWS had a higher (P whales and COC grades were not significantly affected by M-II oocytes. When in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes was performed in the presence of 20% FWS or 0.6% BSA in the fertilization medium, the proportions of sperm penetration and two-pronuclei formation in matured oocytes were not significantly different. Grade A COC cultured in a culture medium supplemented with 10% FWS cleaved at a higher rate (15.4%, P develop to morula (4.2%) compared with that of the oocytes from Grade B COC (2.5% and 0%). Coculture with granulosa cells during in vitro culture did not significantly affect cleavage and development to the morula stage. These results indicate that FWS addition in the maturation medium improved the rate of in vitro maturation and cleavage after insemination of minke whale oocytes. The BSA supplementation in fertilization medium was as effective as FWS supplementation for in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes. In vitro embryo production beyond the morula stage of minke whale oocytes could be possible, if Grade A COC was selected and cultured in the maturation medium supplemented with 10% or 20% FWS.

  10. Double white dwarf mergers and elemental surface abundances in extreme helium and R Coronae Borealis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, C Simon; Saio, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    The surface abundances of extreme helium (EHe) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are discussed in terms of the merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a helium white dwarf. The model is expressed as a linear mixture of the individual layers of both constituent white dwarfs, taking account of the specific evolution of each star. In developing this recipe from previous versions, particular attention has been given to the inter-shell abundances of the asymptotic giant branch star which evolved to become the carbon-oxygen white dwarf. Thus the surface composition of the merged star is estimated as a function of the initial mass and metallicity of its progenitor. The question of whether additional nucleosynthesis occurs during the white dwarf merger has been examined. The high observed abundances of carbon and oxygen must either originate by dredge-up from the core of the carbon-oxygen white dwarf during a cold merger or be generated directly by alpha-burning during a hot merger. The presence of large quantiti...

  11. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS IN M31 FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Sumin; Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Cao Yi; Bellm, Eric; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics and the Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2013-04-20

    We report the discovery of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). RCB stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variables, most likely the merger products of two white dwarfs. These new RCBs, including two confirmed ones and two candidates, are the first to be found beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. All of M31 RCBs showed >1.5 mag irregular declines over timescales of weeks to months. Due to the limiting magnitude of our data (R Almost-Equal-To 21-22 mag), these RCB stars have R Almost-Equal-To 19.5-20.5 mag at maximum light, corresponding to M{sub R} = -4 to -5, making them some of the most luminous RCBs known. Spectra of two objects show that they are warm RCBs, similar to the Milky Way RCBs RY Sgr and V854 Cen. We consider these results, derived from a pilot study of M31 variables, as an important proof-of-concept for the study of rare bright variables in nearby galaxies with the PTF or other synoptic surveys.

  12. R Coronae Borealis Stars in M31 from the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Sumin; Bildsten, Lars; Nugent, Peter; Bellm, Eric; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Laher, Russ; Levitan, David; Masci, Frank; Ofek, Eran O; Prince, Thomas A; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). RCB stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variables, most likely the merger products of two white dwarfs. These new RCBs, including two confirmed ones and two candidates, are the first to be found beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. All of M31 RCBs showed >1.5 mag irregular declines over timescales of weeks to months. Due to the limiting magnitude of our data (R~21-22 mag), these RCB stars have R~19.5 to 20.5 mag at maximum light, corresponding to M_R= -4 to -5, making them some of the most luminous RCBs known. Spectra of two objects show that they are warm RCBs, similar to the Milky Way RCBs RY Sgr and V854 Cen. We consider these results, derived from a pilot study of M31 variables, as an important proof-of-concept for the study of rare bright variables in nearby galaxies with the PTF or other synoptic surveys.

  13. Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700 - 1905

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analyzed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated auroras correlate differently with the solar-activity cycle.

  14. The ongoing pursuit of R Coronae Borealis stars: ASAS-3 survey strikes again

    CERN Document Server

    Tisserand, P; Welch, D L; Pilecki, B; Wyrzykowski, L; Kilkenny, D

    2012-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variable stars that are likely the evolved merger products of pairs of CO and He white dwarfs. Only 55 RCB stars are known in our galaxy and their distribution on the sky is weighted heavily by microlensing survey field positions. A less-biased wide-area survey would provide the ability to test competing evolutionary scenarios, understand the population or populations that produce RCBs and constraint their formation rate. The ASAS-3 survey monitored the sky south of declination +28 deg since 2000 to a limiting magnitude of V=14. We searched ASAS-3 for RCB variables using a number of different methods to ensure that the probability of RCB detection was as high as possible and to reduce selection biases based on luminosity, temperature, dust production activity and shell brightness. Candidates whose light curves were visually inspected were pre-selected based on their infrared excesses due to warm dust in their circumstellar sh...

  15. An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of $\\sigma^2$ Coronae Borealis

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, J A; Güdel, M; Paerels, F B S

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) We present results of XMM-Newton observations of the RS CVn binary $\\sigma^2$ Coronae Borealis. The RGS and EPIC MOS2 spectra were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in $\\sigma^2$ CrB show a complex pattern as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of $\\sigma^2$ CrB with a different methodology (Osten et al. 2003). Low-FIP elements ($<10$ eV) have their abundance ratios relative to Fe consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have their abundance ratios increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating tha...

  16. R Coronae Borealis Stars are Viable Factories of Pre-solar Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Karakas, Amanda I; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be $\\approx$ 25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon-oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate ($1.8 \\times 10^{-3}$ yr$^{-1}$) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180--540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graph...

  17. The Largest Gravitationally Bound Structures: The Corona Borealis Supercluster - Mass and Bound Extent

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, David W; Batuski, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations of the densest portion of the Corona Borealis supercluster (A2061, A2065, A2067, and A2089) have shown virtually no possibility of extended gravitationally bound structure without inter-cluster matter (Pearson & Batuski). In contrast, recent analyses of the dynamics found that the clusters had significant peculiar velocities towards the supercluster centroid (Batiste & Batuski). In this paper we present the results of a thorough investigation of the CSC: we determine redshifts and virial masses for all 8 clusters associated with the CSC; repeat the analysis of Batiste & Batuski with the inclusion of A2056 and CL1529+29; estimate the mass of the supercluster by applying the virial theorem on the supercluster scale (e.g. Small et al.), the caustics method (e.g. Reisenegger et al.), and a new procedure using the spherical collapse model (SCM) with the results of the dynamical analysis (SCM+FP); and perform a series of simulations to assess the likelihood of the CSC being a gravitat...

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Watabe, Shugo

    2003-04-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis (NsCtB). Nucleotide sequence of the isolated clone encoded a preproenzyme of 328 amino acids, comprising a 15-residue putative signal peptide, a 60-residue propeptide and the 253-residue mature enzyme. The mature NsCtB was 53% identical to human cathepsin B and conserved all the structural features characteristic of cysteine protease. The presence of an occluding loop in the mature region, a unique feature of cathepsin B, suggested the shrimp protein to be cathepsin B. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of NsCtB transcripts exclusively in the hepatopancreas tissues, suggesting a possible digestive role of this enzyme. An interesting feature of NsCtB was its remarkably high negative charge in comparison with other cysteine proteases, which was predicted to effectively locate and guide the positively charged residues of a substrate into the binding cleft. We also observed a repertoire of cysteine protease activities in the acidic milieu of shrimp hepatopancreas using synthetic substrates specific to various cathepsins. The activity profile revealed cathepsin B as the single most dominant enzyme with a specific activity comparable to that attributable to combined activities of other cathepsins. This activity could be blocked by E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, but not by Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-CHN(2), a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L.

  19. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East...... caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  20. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Double

    Full Text Available In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day. Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km. Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  1. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  2. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  3. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney L. Pylant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations.

  4. THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2011-12-10

    In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

  5. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stefan

    Full Text Available According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil, we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a

  6. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  7. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylant, Cortney L.; Keller, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair) and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip) at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations. PMID:25337458

  8. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  9. Does population genetic structure support present management regulations of the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Skagerrak and the North Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco;

    2015-01-01

    Population structuring in the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the North Sea area (including Fladen and Skagerrak) was studied by microsatellite DNA analyses. Screening 20 sample locations in the open ocean and Skagerrak fjords for nine loci revealed low but significant genetic heterogeneity....... The spatial genetic structure among oceanic samples of Skagerrak and the eastern North Sea was weak and non-significant, consistent with the current management regime of one single stock. However, Skagerrak fjord samples generally displayed elevated levels of genetic differentiation, and significantly so...

  10. The first scientific description of aurora borealis: the 10 September 1580 event in Transylvania, recorded by Marcello Squarcialupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Timár, Gábor

    2016-12-01

    The first scientific treatise on aurora borealis was published by Marcello Squarcialupi, an Italian medical doctor working in the court of the Hungarian Prince of Transylvania. His book, De coelo ardore, described the aurora of 10 September 1580 in great detail, providing exact data from his personal observations on the time, direction, shape, colour, and variability. He invoked a rational explanation, bringing up only natural causes, and confronted these with the ruling Aristotelian view. The original Latin text describing the aurora is provided, with an English translation.

  11. Population structure and maturity stages of Fritillaria borealis (Appendicularia, Tunicata: seasonal cycle in Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Presta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFritillaria borealis is a cosmopolitan species, very frequent in sub-antarctic and antarctic waters. The objective of this paper was to analyze its size structure and maturity stages at two sites in Ushuaia Bay: a coastal site exposed to anthropogenic pressure (E1 and a reference site (E2 located in the external zone of the bay. Zooplankton was collected during the 2012 seasonal cycle. The sampling method involved the use of a 67 µm-mesh net. Appendicularians were classified in four maturity stages: I undifferentiated gonads, II testis and ovary differentiated, III expanded testis, IV discharged testis, expanded ovary. Our results showed that the highest densities of F. borealisoccurred in spring and summer at both sites; coinciding with high values of chlorophyll-a. The percentage of juveniles (I and II exhibited a spatial and temporal pattern similar to that observed for chlorophyll-a values. During spring-summer, juveniles and mature specimens (III and IV showed a greater gonadal development than those individuals found in autumn-winter. In conclusion, the mismatching in the population structure and the pattern of densities of F. borealis between coastal and external zones would suggest the existence of two sub-populations susceptible to the influence of the anthropogenic impact in the bay.

  12. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  13. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic period, the embryos

  14. Geometric Comparisons of Selected Small Topographically Fresh Volcanoes in the Borealis and Elysium Planitia Volcanic Fields, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mitchell, D.

    2002-01-01

    MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from small, topographically fresh volcanoes from the Elysium and Borealis regions were gridded and analyzed using GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) programs. Results compare eruptive styles of the two regions, and draw conclusions about the different volcanic regions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  16. Infrared Space Observatory Spectra of R Coronae Borealis Stars; 1, Emission Features in the Interval 3 - 25 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, D L; Pandey, G; Ivans, I I; Lambert, David L.; Pandey, Gajendra; Ivans, Inese I.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared Space Observatory 3 - 25 $\\mu$m spectra of the R Coronae Borealis stars V854 Cen, R CrB, and RY Sgr are presented and discussed. Sharp emission features coincident in wavelengths with the well known Unidentified Emission Features are present in the spectrum of V854 Cen but not of R CrB or RY Sgr. Since V854 Cen is not particularly H-poor and has a 1000 times more H than the other stars, the emission features are probably from a carrier containing hydrogen. There is a correspondence between the features and emission from laboratory samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. A search for C$_{60}$ in emission or absorption proved negative. Amorphous carbon particles account for the broad emission features seen between 6 - 14 $\\mu$m in the spectrum of each star.

  17. Report on Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event UMESE0501Sp: Multispecies Mass Stranding of Pilot Whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and Dwarf Sperm Whales (Kogia sima) in North Carolina on 15-16 January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta A. Hohn; Rotstein, David S.; Harms, Craig A.; Southall, Brandon L.

    2006-01-01

    On 15-16 January 2005, three offshore species of cetaceans (33 short-finned pilot whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus, one minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, and two dwarf sperm whales, Kogia sima) stranded alive on the beaches of North Carolina. The pilot whales stranded near Oregon Inlet, the minke whale in northern North Carolina, and the dwarf sperm whales near Cape Hatteras. Live strandings of three species in one weekend was unique in North Carolina and qualified as an Unusual Mort...

  18. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  19. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  20. [Total Peroxidase and Catalase Activity of Luminous Basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in Comparison with the Level of Light Emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil'naya, O A; Ronzhin, N O; Medvedeva, S E; Bondar, V S

    2015-01-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities in the mycelium of luminous basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in normal conditions and under stress were compared. An increase in the luminescence level was observed under stress, as well as an increase in peroxidase and catalase activities. Moreover, the peroxidase activity in extracts of A. borealis mycelium was found to be almost one and a half orders of magnitude higher, and the catalase activity more than two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the N. nambi mycelium. It can be suggested that the difference between the brightly luminescent and dimly luminescent mycelium of N. nambi is due to the content of H2O2 or other peroxide compounds.

  1. Nucleolar Dominance and Repression of 45S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Hybrids between Xenopus borealis and X. muelleri (2n = 36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, Sebastian; Michalak, Katarzyna; Kale, Shiv D; Michalak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar dominance is a dramatic disruption in the formation of nucleoli and the expression of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, characteristic of some plant and animal hybrids. Here, we report that F1 hybrids produced from reciprocal crosses between 2 sister species of Xenopus clawed frogs, X. muelleri and X. borealis, undergo nucleolar dominance somewhat distinct from a pattern previously reported in hybrids between phylogenetically more distant Xenopus species. Patterns of nucleolar development, 45S rRNA expression, and gene copy inheritance were investigated using a combination of immunostaining, pyrosequencing, droplet digital PCR, flow cytometry, and epigenetic inhibition. In X. muelleri × X. borealis hybrids, typically only 1 nucleolus is formed, and 45S rRNA genes are predominantly expressed from 1 progenitor's alleles, X. muelleri, regardless of the cross-direction. These changes are accompanied by an extensive (∼80%) loss of rRNA gene copies in the hybrids relative to their parents, with the transcriptionally underdominant variant (X. borealis) being preferentially lost. Chemical treatment of hybrid larvae with a histone deacetylase inhibitor resulted in a partial derepression of the underdominant variant. Together, these observations shed light on the genetic and epigenetic basis of nucleolar dominance as an underappreciated manifestation of genetic conflicts within a hybrid genome.

  2. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  3. Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH. Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio base on ICM orientation. The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM, the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively. These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos.

  4. Seasonal and Diel Vocalization Patterns of Antarctic Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) in the Southern Indian Ocean: A Multi-Year and Multi-Site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Emmanuelle C; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to provide insights on the ecology of large whales. This approach allows for long-term and species-specific monitoring over large areas. In this study, we examined six years (2010 to 2015) of continuous acoustic recordings at up to seven different locations in the Central and Southern Indian Basin to assess the peak periods of presence, seasonality and migration movements of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia). An automated method is used to detect the Antarctic blue whale stereotyped call, known as Z-call. Detection results are analyzed in terms of distribution, seasonal presence and diel pattern of emission at each site. Z-calls are detected year-round at each site, except for one located in the equatorial Indian Ocean, and display highly seasonal distribution. This seasonality is stable across years for every site, but varies between sites. Z-calls are mainly detected during autumn and spring at the subantarctic locations, suggesting that these sites are on the Antarctic blue whale migration routes, and mostly during winter at the subtropical sites. In addition to these seasonal trends, there is a significant diel pattern in Z-call emission, with more Z-calls in daytime than in nighttime. This diel pattern may be related to the blue whale feeding ecology.

  5. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  6. Monitoring fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) acoustic presence by means of a low frequency seismic hydrophone in Western Ionian Sea, EMSO site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the NEMO-SN1 multidisciplinary seafloor platform was deployed in the Gulf of Catania at a depth of 2100 m. By using the low bandwidth seismic hydrophone SMID DT405D (1Hz whales (Balaenoptera physalus) acoustic activity in the area. The presence of a genetically isolated population of fin whales has been confirmed in recent years in highly productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The species acoustic activity has also been monitored in the past within the Western Mediterranean. Despite this, still very little is known about the routes the population follows seasonally throughout the whole basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The most common vocalizations attributed to this population are known as "20Hz pulses" and they are grouped in two main types of calls: type "A", downsweep (17Hz whale acoustic signals, recorded for the first time in the area. Furthermore, our results show a previous unknown acoustic presence of fin whales offshore Eastern Sicily throughout all seasons of the investigated year. The new long-term multidisciplinary projects connected to "KM3NeT" and "EMSO" will give us the chance to better understand the animals' occurrence in the area and to investigate their acoustic behavior and population dynamics.

  7. Seasonal and Diel Vocalization Patterns of Antarctic Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) in the Southern Indian Ocean: A Multi-Year and Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Emmanuelle C.; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to provide insights on the ecology of large whales. This approach allows for long-term and species-specific monitoring over large areas. In this study, we examined six years (2010 to 2015) of continuous acoustic recordings at up to seven different locations in the Central and Southern Indian Basin to assess the peak periods of presence, seasonality and migration movements of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia). An automated method is used to detect the Antarctic blue whale stereotyped call, known as Z-call. Detection results are analyzed in terms of distribution, seasonal presence and diel pattern of emission at each site. Z-calls are detected year-round at each site, except for one located in the equatorial Indian Ocean, and display highly seasonal distribution. This seasonality is stable across years for every site, but varies between sites. Z-calls are mainly detected during autumn and spring at the subantarctic locations, suggesting that these sites are on the Antarctic blue whale migration routes, and mostly during winter at the subtropical sites. In addition to these seasonal trends, there is a significant diel pattern in Z-call emission, with more Z-calls in daytime than in nighttime. This diel pattern may be related to the blue whale feeding ecology. PMID:27828976

  8. Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangling; Hui, Joseph P. M.; Burton, Ian W.; Thibault, Marie-Hélène; Pelletier, Claude; Boudreau, Josée; Tchoukanova, Nadia; Subramanian, Balaji; Djaoued, Yahia; Ewart, Stephen; Gagnon, Jacques; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya; Zhang, Junzeng

    2015-01-01

    Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods. PMID:26096274

  9. A study of the galaxy redshift distribution toward the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubiño-Martín, José Alberto; Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Rebolo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies toward the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of -230 muK, and deviates 4.4-sigma from the Gaussian CMB (G\\'enova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25$^+21_-18% of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a Warm/Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05

  10. Subaru/HDS study of HE 1015-2050: Spectral evidence of R Coronae Borealis light decline

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline by about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R ~ 50,000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidences for the object being a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features, seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D2 and D1 features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first ti...

  11. Fate of debris from the Borealis basin impact on Mars and from the formation of the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Jackson, Alan P.; Gabriel, Travis; Minton, David A.; Hesselbrock, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Giant planet-forming collisions can inject significant amounts of debris into the inner solar system. Dynamically the fate of this debris is primarily to re-impact the target body and the other terrestrial planets, defining a post-giant-impact epoch. Giant impact debris leave signatures on the surfaces of terrestrial bodies, influencing and perhaps dominating their early cratering record, and for the largest giant impacts, to intensive surface evolution and even changes in bulk crustal material composition. We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the fate of debris released by specific giant impacts suggested to have formed the Borealis basin on Mars, and compare it to the fate of debris released by giant impact scenarios for Earth's Moon. We consider how the velocity dependence of Earth-Moon accretion leads to differing velocity distributions of debris-impactors for Earth and Moon, and thus different crater distributions, and study how different assumptions on the size distribution of debris effects these results. We also investigate the influence of collisional grinding within the debris distribution, and the possibility of trapped populations.

  12. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in superclusters of galaxies using gasdynamical simulations: the case of Corona Borealis

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Cacho, I; Luzzi, G; Rebolo, R; De Petris, M; Yepes, G; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S; Battistelli, E S; Coratella, R; Gottlöber, S

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged] We study the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect associated with superclusters of galaxies using the MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation. We consider superclusters similar to the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC). This paper is motivated by the detection at 33GHz of a strong temperature decrement in the CMB towards the core of this supercluster. Multifrequency observations with VSA and MITO suggest the existence of a thermal SZ effect component in the spectrum of this cold spot, which would account for roughly 25% of the total observed decrement. We identify nine regions containing superclusters similar to CrB-SC, obtain the associated SZ maps and calculate the probability of finding such SZ signals arising from hot gas within the supercluster. Our results show that WHIM produces a thermal SZ effect much smaller than the observed value. Neither can summing the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups in the region explain the amplitude of the SZ signal. When we take into ...

  13. Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700--1905

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, M; Gallego, M C

    2013-01-01

    Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analysed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated aurorae correlate differe...

  14. Constraints on the pre-impact orbits of Theia, the Borealis impactor and the progenitor of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan P.; Gabriel, Travis; Asphaug, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Many aspects of the current dynamical and compositional configuration of the inner Solar System, such as Mercury's large core mass fraction, the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and the reorientation of Mars, have been achieved through the effects of giant impacts. It is possible to relate the impact conditions, especially the velocity, to the pre-impact orbits. This in turn provides insight into the source regions for the terrestrial planets for comparison with N-body accretion models. For example, in the case of the canonical model for the formation of the Moon, previous studies have investigated regions in which the Mars-size impactor, Theia, could be quasi-stable for millions of years. We can however obtain constraints on the orbit of an impactor immediately prior to collision simply by knowing the impact velocity. We consider the canonical Moon formation model, as well as the models of Cuk & Stewart (2012), Canup (2012) and Reufer et al. (2012), to derive from each model its constraints on the pre-impact orbit of Theia. We also consider Mars, and provide constraints on the pre-impact orbit of the impactor suggested to have formed the Borealis basin, and Mercury, namely the Benz et al. (2007) scenario for the formation of Mercury. We discuss the implication of these pre-impact orbits for the origin of the bodies and their compositions.

  15. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Vonhof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1 evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2 estimate effective population size (Ne, and (3 assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  16. Three-dimensional Doppler Tomogram of Gas Flows in the Algol-Type Binary U Coronae Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, Michail; Richards, Mercedes; Sharova, Olga

    2006-12-01

    The reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) Doppler tomograms based on observational data has been accomplished for the first time. The distribution of the Hα emission intensity I(Vx,Vy,Vz) of the interacting Algol binary system U Coronae Borealis has been restored in 3D velocity space with resolutions of 30 km s-1 in Vx and Vy and 110 km s-1 in Vz. The reconstruction was based on 47 Hα spectra from 1994 by applying the developed radioastronomical approach (RA) to few-projections tomography. The comparison between the previous 2D and our 3D Doppler tomograms shows similarities with the main structural features of the gas flows in the orbital plane. Specifically, the gas stream along the ballistic trajectory and equatorial emission centered on the primary star are displayed on the 3D Doppler tomogram as distinct emission sources. A high-velocity stream (Vz~200 km s-1) with strong emission intensity has also been discovered moving in the direction across the orbital plane of the system.

  17. Offshore observations of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in the Mid-Atlantic United States using multiple survey methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylyn K Hatch

    Full Text Available Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur.

  18. Physical influences on embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C; Rowlett, K; Simkiss, K

    1987-01-01

    There is a critical period between 3 and 7 days of incubation when the absence of turning in eggs of the domestic fowl leads to increased mortality and decreased embryo growth. This critical period coincides with the time of subembryonic fluid formation, and it is suggested that the absence of turning leads to the presence of unstirred layer effects in fluid secretion. This fluid deficiency persists throughout the subsequent development of the embryo. Experiments on shell-less culture systems support this interpretation in preference to other explanations of embryo death in unturned eggs, which usually refer to chorion adhesion to shell membranes.

  19. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  20. 75 FR 22119 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14245

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... cetacean species, including endangered blue (Balaenoptera musculus), sei (B. borealis), fin (B. physalus... mammals in the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans to monitor cetaceans for scientific and... various methods to investigate cetacean movements and habitat use. Beluga whales, Dall's...

  1. Baleen Whale Acoustic Activity in the North Pacific: Historical Analysis and Current Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), and North Pacific right...Research Collective Olympia, WA Julie Rivers Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Pearl Harbor, HI Jenny Marshall Naval Facilities

  2. DAPI Staining of Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Wendy F; Sullivan, William

    2007-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONDrosophila embryos can be stained with specific fluorescent probes or antibodies through either direct or indirect immunofluorescence. In particular, several effective probes exist for visualizing DNA. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is a commonly used DNA-binding dye. Because it is specific for double-stranded DNA, no prior RNase treatment is required. While the embryo staining method described here uses DAPI, other fluorescent DNA probes can be processed similarly.

  3. Phaseolus immature embryo rescue technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Pascal; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Predominant among the production constraints of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris are infestation of Ascochyta blight, Bean Golden Mosaic virus (BGMV), and Bean Fly. Interbreeding with Phaseolus -coccineus L. and/or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm has been shown to provide P. vulgaris with greater resistance to these diseases. For interspecific crosses to be successful, it is important to use P. coccineus and P. polyanthus as female parents; this prevents rapid reversal to the recurrent parent P. vulgaris. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, early hybrid embryo abortion limits the success of F1 crosses. While rescue techniques for globular and early heart-shaped embryos have improved in recent years, -success in hybridization remains very low. In this study, we describe six steps that allowed us to rescue 2-day-old P. vulgaris embryos using a pod culture technique. Our methods consisted of (i) pod culture, (ii) extraction and culture of immature embryos, (iii) dehydration of embryos, (iv) germination of embryos, (v) rooting of developed shoots, and (vi) hardening of plantlets.

  4. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polluted minke whalte (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J.;

    2014-01-01

    conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber......Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are known to disrupt steroidogenesis and subsequent concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones. This is also suspected to occur in Arctic predatory species, such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and a study was therefore...

  5. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  6. Lessons from Embryos: Haeckel's Embryo Drawings, Evolution, and Secondary Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, developmental biologist Michael Richardson compared his research team's embryo photographs to Ernst Haeckel's 1874 embryo drawings and called Haeckel's work "noncredible". "Science" soon published "Haeckel's Embryos: Fraud Rediscovered," and Richardson's comments further reinvigorated criticism of Haeckel by…

  7. SUBARU/HDS STUDY OF HE 1015-2050: SPECTRAL EVIDENCE OF R CORONAE BOREALIS LIGHT DECLINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Aruna [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Aoki, Wako, E-mail: aruna@iiap.res.in [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of {approx}1.7% for this object.

  8. Molecular and enzymatic properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase with distinct substrate specificity from northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Ahsan, M N; Watabe, S

    2004-01-01

    We purified a cathepsin L-like proteinase to homogeneity from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis by several chromatographic procedures. The purified proteinase showed the highest specificity for leucine residue at P2, a specificity pattern similar to cathepsins S and K whereas proline and arginine residues were not suitable as P2 substrates. However, unlike these proteinases, it accepted valine almost equally to the phenylalanine residue at P2. The shrimp cathepsin was strongly inhibited by E-64, leupeptin and antipain, while benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Tyr(t-Bu)-CHN2, a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L, remained largely ineffective. Next, we determined the primary structure of the shrimp enzyme by molecular cloning and investigated the residues constituting the S2 subsite, which is possibly involved in its unusual substrate specificity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the shrimp proteinase shared the highest identity of 65% with a cathepsin L-like proteinase from lobster, but its identity to the well-characterized mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K fell within narrower ranges of 52-55%. However, the shrimp proteinase differed from these cathepsins in some key residues including, for example, the unique occurrence of cysteine and glutamine residues at the structurally important S2 subsite. Interestingly, transcripts of this proteinase were exclusively detected in the shrimp gut coinciding with its broad pH activity and stability profiles, which is also unusual as a cysteine proteinase. These results suggest that the shrimp enzyme is homologous to mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K, but is distinct from each of these proteinases in both enzymatic and structural properties.

  9. Datasets of Odontocete Sounds Annotated for Developing Automatic Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    corpus on CDROM. Technical Report PB91-100354, National Inst. Standards Tech., Gaithersburg, MD. Hirsch, H. G., and D. Pearce. 2000. The AURORA ...CIMRS western tropical Pacific 29 Biowaves, Inc. Balaenoptera borealis Sei whale western tropical Pacific 4 Biowaves, Inc. Balaenoptera edeni

  10. What is the preimplantation embryo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Tanja; Schlüter, Elmar; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    We present results from our 'bioethical field studies', which explore and compare the views of experts, patients and the general public on the beginning of human life and the status of the preimplantation embryo in Germany. Using a qualitative and quantitative multi-method approach, we found crucial differences in the categorization of the beginning of human life within the expert group (representative samples of human geneticists n=104, ethicists n=168, midwives n=294, obstetricians n=147, paediatricians n=166), and between expert and lay samples (IVF couples n=108, high genetic risk couples n=324, general population n=1017). The majority of lay respondents as well as paediatricians and obstetricians chose nidation, the moment when the implantation of the fertilized egg into the uterus takes place, as the crucial boundary that marks the beginning of human life, whereas the majority of (female) human geneticists, ethicists and midwives voted for conception as the decisive point in time. The views of all groups on the status of the preimplantation embryo differed from the assumptions underlying German legislation (Embryo Protection Act). Religiousness and religious affiliation, gender, attitudes towards disabled people, post-material values and a present desire for a child were identified as independent factors influencing attitudes towards the preimplantation embryo in the population sample. The results are discussed within a broader philosophical and social science perspective of constructivism versus essentialism, proposing a truly interdisciplinary approach to such bioethical core issues as new reproductive technologies and the status of the preimplantation embryo.

  11. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

  12. Cell adhesion in embryo morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vanessa; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2012-02-01

    Visualizing and analyzing shape changes at various scales, ranging from single molecules to whole organisms, are essential for understanding complex morphogenetic processes, such as early embryonic development. Embryo morphogenesis relies on the interplay between different tissues, the properties of which are again determined by the interaction between their constituent cells. Cell interactions, on the other hand, are controlled by various molecules, such as signaling and adhesion molecules, which in order to exert their functions need to be spatiotemporally organized within and between the interacting cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of cell adhesion functioning at different scales to organize cell, tissue and embryo morphogenesis. We will specifically ask how the subcellular distribution of adhesion molecules controls the formation of cell-cell contacts, how cell-cell contacts determine tissue shape, and how tissue interactions regulate embryo morphogenesis.

  13. In amnio MRI of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Roberts

    Full Text Available Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px. To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community.

  14. Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C

    2001-01-01

    Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.

  15. Embryo temperature during incubation: practice and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.

    2008-01-01

    (Key words: incubation, embryo temperature, embryonic development, heat production, heat loss) Until recently, all incubator studies were performed using a constant machine temperature (MT). But it is embryo temperature (ET) that is of importance to the embryo, and not MT. In practice, MT is often

  16. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  17. AcEST: DK950971 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GN=... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis ... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS3|B1ACS3...todon GN=DM... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACT4|B1ACT4_LISBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Lissodelphis borealis ... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACS2|B...SSSEEEIQSKNTEMESRRLTVDAY 160 >tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis GN=DMP1 PE=4 S

  18. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) at West Greenland: temperature and density-dependent effects at released predation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai

    2005-01-01

    was carried out oil a spatially disaggregated basis in order to account for the latitudinal differences in bottom temperature and shrimp density. Changes in recruitment and, with a lag of 2 years, in stock biomass were most pronounced in the northern part of its distributional range, while bottom temperature...... increased in all survey regions since the mid-1990s. Length-at-age was positively correlated with temperature in general, but a trend towards slower growth was observed in areas with the highest stock densities in the most recent years. It is concluded that the moderate increase in temperature above a lower......Stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters has been fairly stable from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. Thereafter, survey estimates of biomass increased substantially, and the exploitation rate declined slightly in the most recent years. The present analysis...

  19. Electroporation into Cultured Mammalian Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masanori; Osumi, Noriko

    Over the last century, mammalian embryos have been used extensively as a common animal model to investigate fundamental questions in the field of developmental biology. More recently, the establishment of transgenic and gene-targeting systems in laboratory mice has enabled researchers to unveil the genetic mechanisms under lying complex developmental processes (Mak, 2007). However, our understanding of cell—cell interactions and their molecular basis in the early stages of mammalian embryogenesis is still very fragmentary. One of the major problems is the difficulty of precise manipulation and limited accessibility to mammalian embryos via uterus wall. Unfortunately, existing tissue and organotypic culture systems per se do not fully recapitulate three-dimensional, dynamic processes of organogenesis observed in vivo. Although transgenic animal technology and virus-mediated gene delivery are useful to manipulate gene expression, these techniques take much time and financial costs, which limit their use.

  20. The enzyme and the cDNA sequence of a thermolabile and double-strand specific DNase from Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge W Nilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously isolated a thermolabile nuclease specific for double-stranded DNA from industrial processing water of Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis and developed an application of the enzyme in removal of contaminating DNA in PCR-related technologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 43 kDa nuclease with a high specific activity of hydrolysing linear as well as circular forms of DNA was purified from hepatopancreas of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis. The enzyme displayed a substrate preference that was shifted from exclusively double-stranded DNA in the presence of magnesium to also encompass significant activity against single-stranded DNA when calcium was added. No activity against RNA was detected. Although originating from a cold-environment animal, the shrimp DNase has only minor low-temperature activity. Still, the enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by moderate heating with a half-life of 1 min at 65 degrees C. The purified protein was partly sequenced and derived oligonucleotides were used to prime amplification of the encoding cDNA. This cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 404 amino acid protein containing a signal peptide. By sequence similarity the enzyme is predicted to belong to a family of DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases even though this shrimp DNase lacks RNase activity and is highly double-strand specific in some respects. These features are in agreement with those previously established for endonucleases classified as similar to the Kamchatka crab duplex-specific nuclease (Par_DSN. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Northern shrimp nuclease resembles the Par_DSN-like nucleases and displays a more distant relationship to the Serratia family of nucleases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shrimp nuclease contains enzyme activity that may be controlled by temperature or buffer compositions. The double-stranded DNA specificity, as well as the thermolabile feature

  1. Distribution and physiological effects of B-type allatostatins (myoinhibitory peptides, MIPs) in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab Cancer borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Theresa M; Chen, Ruibing; Goeritz, Marie L; Maloney, Ryan T; Tang, Lamont S; Li, Lingjun; Marder, Eve

    2011-09-01

    The crustacean stomatogastric ganglion (STG) is modulated by a large number of amines and neuropeptides that are found in descending pathways from anterior ganglia or reach the STG via the hemolymph. Among these are the allatostatin (AST) B types, also known as myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs). We used mass spectrometry to determine the sequences of nine members of the AST-B family of peptides that were found in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab Cancer borealis. We raised an antibody against Cancer borealis allatostatin-B1 (CbAST-B1; VPNDWAHFRGSWa) and used it to map the distribution of CbAST-B1-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in the stomatogastric nervous system. CbAST-B1-LI was found in neurons and neuropil in the commissural ganglia (CoGs), in somata in the esophageal ganglion (OG), in fibers in the stomatogastric nerve (stn), and in neuropilar processes in the STG. CbAST-B1-LI was blocked by preincubation with 10(-6) M CbAST-B1 and was partially blocked by lower concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings of the effects of CbAST-B1, CbAST-B2, and CbAST-B3 on the pyloric rhythm of the STG showed that all three peptides inhibited the pyloric rhythm in a state-dependent manner. Specifically, all three peptides at 10(-8) M significantly decreased the frequency of the pyloric rhythm when the initial frequency of the pyloric rhythm was below 0.6 Hz. These data suggest important neuromodulatory roles for the CbAST-B family in the stomatogastric nervous system.

  2. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  3. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  4. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza

    2013-12-01

    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Four Isosphaeraceae Planctomycetes: A Common Pool of Plasmids and Glycoside Hydrolase Genes Shared by Paludisphaera borealis PX4T, Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and Strain SH-PL62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia A.; Naumoff, Daniil G.; Miroshnikov, Kirill K.; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2017-01-01

    The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4T that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1BT, Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658T, and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62. The complete genome of P. borealis PX4T consists of a 7.5 Mb chromosome and two plasmids, 112 and 43 kb in size. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed 5802 potential protein-coding genes of which 2775 could be functionally assigned. The genes encoding metabolic pathways common for chemo-organotrophic bacteria, such as glycolysis, citrate cycle, pentose-phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were identified. Several genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan as well as N-methylated ornithine lipids were present in the genome of P. borealis PX4T. A total of 26 giant genes with a size >5 kb were detected. The genome encodes a wide repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including 44 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 83 glycosyltransferases (GT) affiliated with 21 and 13 CAZy families, respectively. The most-represented families are GH5, GH13, GH57, GT2, GT4, and GT83. The experimentally determined carbohydrate utilization pattern agrees well with the genome-predicted capabilities. The CAZyme repertoire in P. borealis PX4T is highly similar to that in the uncharacterized planctomycete SH-PL62 and S. acidiphila DSM 18658T, but different to that in the thermophile I. pallida IS1BT. The latter strain has a strongly reduced CAZyme content. In P. borealis PX4T, many of its CAZyme genes are organized in clusters. Contrary to most other members of the order Planctomycetales, all four analyzed

  6. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  7. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    the developmental potential of embryos originating from varied nuclear transfer protocols. In bovine in vivo developed embryos, functional ribosome-synthesizing nucleoli become structurally distinct toward the end of the 4th post-fertilization cell cycle. In embryonic cell nuclear transfer embryos, fully developed...... nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...... is completed toward the end of the 4th cell cycle. A substantial proportion of bovine embryos produced by nuclear transfer of embryonic or somatic cells to bovine ooplasts display aberrations in protein localization in one or more blastomers. This information is indicative of underlying aberrations in genomic...

  8. Evaluation of Bovine Embryo Biopsy Techniques according to Their Ability to Preserve Embryo Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cenariu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate three embryo biopsy techniques used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in cattle and to recommend the least invasive one for current use, especially when PGD is followed by embryo cryopreservation. Three hundred bovine embryos were biopsied by either one of the needle, aspiration or microblade method, and then checked for viability by freezing/thawing and transplantation to recipient cows. The number of pregnancies obtained after the transfer of biopsied frozen/thawed embryos was assessed 30 days later using ultrasounds. The results were significantly different between the three biopsy methods: the pregnancy rate was of 57% in cows that received embryos biopsied by needle, 43% in cows that received embryos biopsied by aspiration, and 31% in cows that received embryos biopsied by microblade. Choosing an adequate biopsy method is therefore of great importance in embryos that will undergo subsequent cryopreservation, as it significantly influences their viability after thawing.

  9. Embryo forming cells in carrot suspension cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Somatic cells of many plant species can be cultured in vitro and induced to form embryos that are able to develop into mature plants. This process, termed somatic embryogenesis, was originally described in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Somatic embryos develop through the same characteristic morphological stages, i.e. the globular-, heartand torpedo-stage respectively, as their zygotic counterparts. Due to the different cellular origin of somatic embryos, it is less clear to what extent the earli...

  10. Facial Transplants in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jacox, Laura A.; Dickinson, Amanda J.; Sive, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo ...

  11. 9 CFR 98.16 - The embryo collection unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The embryo collection unit. 98.16... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.16 The embryo collection unit. Ruminant and swine embryos may...

  12. Generation and developmental characteristics of porcine tetraploid embryos and tetraploid/diploid chimeric embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Shi, Yongqian; Xie, Bingteng; Jiao, Mingxia; Huang, Tianqing; Guo, Shimeng; Hu, Kui; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize electrofusion conditions for generating porcine tetraploid (4n) embryos and produce tetraploid/diploid (4n/2n) chimeric embryos. Different electric field intensities were tested and 2 direct current (DC) pulses of 0.9 kV/cm for 30 μs was selected as the optimum condition for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce 4n embryos. The fusion rate of 2-cell embryos and the development rate to blastocyst of presumably 4n embryos, reached 85.4% and 28.5%, respectively. 68.18% of the fused embryos were found to be 4n as demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Although the number of blastomeres in 4n blastocysts was significantly lower than in 2n blastocysts (P0.05), suggesting that the blastocyst forming capacity in 4n embryos is similar to those in 2n embryos. Moreover, 4n/2n chimeric embryos were obtained by aggregation of 4n and 2n embryos. We found that the developmental rate and cell number of blastocysts of 4-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n) chimeric embryos were significantly higher than those of 2-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/8-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/2-cell (2n) chimeric embryos (P<0.05). Consistent with mouse chimeras, the majority of 4n cells contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), while the 2n cells are mainly present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of porcine 4n/2n chimeric embryos. Our study established a feasible and efficient approach to produce porcine 4n embryos and 4n/2n chimeric embryos.

  13. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  14. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  15. Supplement of autologous ooplasm into porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos does not alter embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jeon, R-H; Jang, S-J; Lee, S-C; Park, J-S; Lee, S-L; King, W-A; Rho, G-J

    2017-02-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos. They were comparatively evaluated with respect to embryo developmental potential, the number of apoptotic body formation and gene expression including embryonic lineage differentiation, apoptosis, epigenetics and mitochondrial activity in comparison with parthenogenetic, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and SCNT embryos. Although AOT embryos showed perfect fusion of autologous donor ooplasm with recipient SCNT embryos, the supplement of autologous ooplasm could not ameliorate embryo developmental potential in regard to the rate of blastocyst formation, total cell number and the number of apoptotic body. Furthermore, overall gene expression of AOT embryos was presented with no significant alterations in comparison with that of SCNT embryos. Taken together, the results of AOT demonstrated inability to make relevant values improved from the level of SCNT embryos to their IVF counterparts.

  16. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  17. Estrutura populacional da Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae nas áreas de reprodução do Oceano Atlântico Sul Minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae population structure in the breeding grounds off South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alineide Lucena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo da composição dos grupos de baleias minke, Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867, capturadas nas águas de Costinha, Paraíba, Brasil, na época da caça comercial, foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a dinâmica dos principais parâmetros biológicos, assim como aspectos do comportamento reprodutivo desta espécie. Foram analisados dados da caça coletados pela Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento da Pesca e Companhia de Pesca Norte do Brasil acerca do tamanho e composição dos grupos, proporções sexuais e grau de maturidade das baleias capturadas entre os anos de 1975 a 1985. Os grupos encontrados nas águas de Costinha foram em geral de pequeno tamanho e compostos de animais de ambos os sexos, com predominância de fêmeas e animais maturos sexualmente. Os filhotes, as fêmeas lactantes e prenhes foram raramente encontrados. Esta população de baleias encontrava-se em maior número na costa da Paraíba entre os meses de setembro e outubro, principal período de concepção para a espécie, devendo ocorrer grande número de fecundações nesta área e período. A ausência de fêmeas prenhes ou lactantes e filhotes nesta população demonstra que os nascimentos não ocorrem nesta área. O encalhe e a avistagem de filhotes da baleia minke na costa leste da América do Sul (entre 25ºS e 40ºS sugere o nascimento dos filhotes em médias latitudes desta região, onde a temperatura da água é inferior à encontrada na costa do nordeste brasileiro. Desta forma há indícios de que existam distintas áreas para o nascimento de filhotes e o acasalamento da baleia minke nas águas do Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental. A poligamia é um comportamento reprodutivo apresentado pela baleia minke, tendo sido observado através da proporção sexual das capturas e da composição dos grupos formados apenas por animais maturos sexualmente nesta área de acasalamento.A group composition study of the minke whale, Balaenoptera

  18. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  19. Embryo culture and rapid propagation of Syringa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; SU Bao-ling

    2003-01-01

    Embryo of lilacs (Syringa L) culture in vitro and the rapid propagation were studied. The orthogonal experiments, including the selection of basal medium, embryo age and other factors such as sugar, benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and glutamine (Gln), were carried out. The results indicated that the optimal medium for embryo culture was Monnier medium supplemented with NAA (0.001 mg@L-1), BA (0.1 mg@L-1), sugar (50 g@L-1), and Gln (400 mg@L-1), with a germination rate of 91.7% at least; the optimal embryo age was 50 d; and Gln had significant effects on the germination rate of embryo. Moreover, the optimal medium for subculture was MS+BA (2 mg@L-1)+NAA (0.001 mg@L-1)+Gln (0.5 mg@L-1), with the propagation coefficient of 3.6 at least.

  20. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  1. 北极蒿与中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分比较%Chemical comparison of Artemisia borealis and three Chinese Artemisia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 刘丽; 窦德强; 康廷国; Smith David

    2007-01-01

    目的 比较北极蒿与三种中药常用蒿属植物的化学成分并对北极蒿的化学成分进行初步研究.方法 采用薄层色谱及GC-MS比较小极性成分及挥发油的区别;采用HPLC指纹图谱对极性较大成分进行比较.结论 从北极蒿挥发油中分离出52个色谱峰,共鉴定了48个成分,占挥发油总成分的92%以上,其主要成分为香木兰烷-4-醇(24.73%).经HPLC指纹图谱分析,北极蒿与其他三种植物主要成分相似,但北极蒿的化学成分集中且含量高.青蒿、北极蒿、艾叶、茵陈中绿原酸含量分别是0.065%,0.617%,0.178%,0.192%,北极蒿中绿原酸含量是其它三种植物的六倍之多,提示有较高研究价值.%Aim To compare the chemical constituents of A rtemisia borealis with three other A rtemisia plants which are generally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Method The chemical components of essential oil from the leaves of A. borealis were analyzed by GCMS and the chemical components of water extracts of the four plants were compared by HPLC fingerprint method. Conclusion From the essential oil of A. borealis, 52 peaks were separate, 48 of them were identified by GC-MS analysis, indicative that aromadendrane-4-ol is the highest constituent, which made up 24.73% of the total essential oil. In addition the chief constituents of the leaves of A.borealis are similar to the three other plants but its pattern of HPLC fingerprint is different. The content of chlorogenic acid in aerial part of A.annus and A. scapillaries, leaves of A. borealis and A. argyi are 0.065, 0.192, 0.617and 0.178 % respectively.

  2. 中国大陆沿岸水域首次发现布氏鲸%A First Record of Bryde's Whale,Balaenoptera brydei in the Coastal Waters of Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丕烈; 韩家波; 孙玉忠; 侯和要; 马志强

    2011-01-01

    Bryde's whale has a global distribution in the tropical and subtropical zones of the Atlantic,Pacific,and Indian Oceans. The two species Balaenoptera brydei and Balaenoptera edeni are similar in shape and their nomenclature remains unresolved. Earlier reports of Bryde's whale in the Yellow Sea,East China Sea,and South China Sea have been confirmed to be B.edeni.On Jan.19,2011,a female baleen whale was found stranded on the foreshore in Donggang District,Rizhao City, Shandong Province that was initially reported by the media to be a fin whale(Balaenoptera physalus).However after our careful skeleton measurements,we confirmed it to be a Bryde's whale(B.brydei).The distinguishing characters were its different body shape from that of a fin whale and its nasal bone,premaxilla,and ascending processes in the distal maxilla were also different from B.edeni and B.physalus.The specimen was an adult female.It had a body length of 13.40 m,a condylobasal length of 330 cm,and a vertebral formula of C7 + T 13 + L 14 + Ca 21 = 55.This is the first report of B.brydei in coastal waters of mainland China.We report here on its main external morphology and skeletal characters.%布氏鲸主要分布在太平洋、大西洋和印度洋的暖温水域。布氏鲸与鳀鲸因其外形极其相似,以往没有将其严格区分,中国黄海、东海、南海海域发现的主要是鳀鲸。2011年1月19日在山东日照市东港区一海滩搁浅1头雌性须鲸,媒体曾报道为长须鲸。我们根据其外形特征不同于长须鲸,其头骨顶部的鼻骨、前颌骨和上颌骨末端额鼻突形状不同于鳀鲸和长须鲸,而鉴定为布氏鲸,是中国大陆沿岸水域首次发现。该标本体长13.40 m,系成体,颅基长330 cm,脊椎式为C7+T 13+L 14+Ca 21=55。本文主要报道了布氏鲸的外部形态和骨骼特征。

  3. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the succ ess of an embryo freezing and thawing program. Method: The relationship betwee n the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thawing program and the following factors was analyzed: maternal age, E2 level at the time of HCG trigg er, embryo storage time, number of thawed embryos transferred, presence of spons oring embryos and intact embryos. And the survival rate of thawed embryos with d ifferent morphology, cell stage and storage time was evaluated. Result: Tra nsfer with three or more than three thawed embryos resulted in pregnancy rates o f 38.5% and 35.7%, respectively, compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer th an t hree embryos. The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantl y increases pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program. No other fact or examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome. The survival rate of good morph ology embryos was higher than poor ones, but was not influenced by cell stage an d storage time. Conclusion: Embryo morphology before freezing, number of thaw ed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the o utcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  4. The Dust Properties of Two Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: in Search of a Possible Link

    CERN Document Server

    Clayton, Geoffrey C; Whitney, B A; Babler, B; Gallagher, J S; Nordhaus, J; Speck, A K; Wolff, M J; Freeman, W R; Camp, K A; Lawson, W A; Roman-Duval, J; Misselt, K A; Meade, M; Sonneborn, G; Matsuura, M; Meixner, M

    2011-01-01

    We present new Spitzer/IRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the LMC, HV 2671. These two objects may constitute a link between the RCB stars and the late Wolf-Rayet ([WCL]) class of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPNe) such as CPD -56 8032 that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but sharing the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPNe star, CPD -56 8032, displays evidence for dual-dust chemistry showing both PAHs and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but shows no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from those of CPD -56 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is not present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission c...

  5. Biofluid Flow Simulations of Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W. P.; Ding, D. L.

    2011-09-01

    The investigation of the fluid flow for embryo transfer (ET) procedure may find the way to increase the success rate of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, the transferred liquid flow in the uterine cavity during ET procedure is simulated by a two dimensional multiphase flow model, and the discrete phase model is adopted to trace the embryo motion. Through the investigation on the transferred liquid outline and the track of each embryo in ET cases with different parameters, we summarize the effect of transferred liquid viscosity and distance between catheter tip and uterine fundus. According to the numerical results, we recommend the optimizing standard to perform the ET procedure.

  6. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David Martin

    2008-05-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have towards future persons.

  7. Association between Number of Formed Embryos, Embryo Morphology and Clinical Pregnancy Rate after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Giorgi, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti; Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Infertility has a high prevalence in the general population, affecting ∼ 5 to 15% of couples in reproductive age. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) include in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos and are an important treatment indicated to these couples. It is well accepted that the implantation rate is positively influenced by the morphology of transferred embryos. However, we question if, apart from the assessment of embryo morphology, the number of produced embryos per cycle is also related to pregnancy rates in the first fresh transfer cycle. Purpose To evaluate the clinical pregnancy rate according to the number of formed embryos and the transfer of top quality embryos (TQEs). Methods In a retrospective cohort study, between January 2011 and December 2012, we evaluated women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), aged < 40 years, and with at least 1 formed embryo fresh transferred in cleavage stage. These women were stratified into 3 groups according to the number of formed embryos (1 embryo, 2-3 and ≥ 4 embryos). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence or not of at least 1 transferred TQE (1 with TQE; 1 without TQE; 2-3 with TQE, 2-3 without TQE; ≥ 4 with TQE; ≥ 4 without TQE). The clinical pregnancy rates were compared in each subgroup based on the presence or absence of at least one transferred TQE. Results During the study period, 636 women had at least one embryo to be transferred in the first fresh cycle (17.8% had 1 formed embryo [32.7% with TQE versus 67.3% without TQE], 42.1% of women had 2-3 formed embryos [55.6% with TQE versus 44.4% without TQE], and 40.1% of patients had ≥ 4 formed embryos [73.7% with TQE versus 26.3% without TQE]). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the subgroup with ≥ 4 formed embryos with at least 1 transfered TQE (45.2%) compared with the subgroup without TQE (28.4%). Conclusions Having at

  8. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    development. The zona pellucida (ZP) in all three types of embryos became thinner and ZP pores in both GC and GG embryos showed an increased rate of development, especially for GC embryos, while in vivo-produced embryos had smooth ZP. The Golgi apparatus (Gi) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the two...

  9. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and Ihawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the sucess of an ernbryo freezing and thawing program.Method: The relationship between the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thewing program and the following factors was analyzed;matermal age,E2 level at the time of HCG trigger,embryo storage time,number of thawed embryos transferred,presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos.And the suvival rate of thawed embryos with different morphology,cell stage and storage time was evaluated.Result:Transfer with three of more than three thawed embryos resulted in pragnancy rates of 38.5% and 35.7%,respectively.compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer than three embryos.The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantly incresses pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program .No other factor examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome.The survival rate of good morphology embryos was higher than poor ones,but was not influenced by cell stage and storage time.Conclusion:Embryo morphology before freezing , number of thawed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  10. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  11. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  12. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros...... and cons of FER versus fresh-embryo transfer with regard to both single-cycle and cumulative pregnancy and delivery rates. The review discusses the obvious advantages of FER: minimizing the proportion of pharmacological and surgical treatments, and lowering the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome...... and multiple pregnancies, thereby increasing the safety for mother and child. Finally the article describes the accumulating literature on perinatal and long-term child outcome after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos, including a discussion on the concerns regarding cryo techniques and their possible roles...

  13. Bovine in vitro embryo production : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Suthar

    Full Text Available Dairy industry perfected the application of the first reproductive biotechnology, i.e. artificial insemination (AI - a great success story and also remains the user of embryo transfer technology (ETT. In addition, recently the researchers taking interest to embraced the field of Transvaginal OocyteRecovery (TVOR and in vitro production (IVEP of embryos. IVF provides the starting point for the generation of reproductive material for a number of advanced reproduction techniques including sperm microinjection and nuclear transfer (cloning. In several countries commercial IVF facilities are already being employed by cattle ET operators. Various research groups have reported on modification of TVOR technique to give greater efficiency. Much research is still needed in domestic animal (Especially Indian species on mechanisms controlling embryo development and on development of totally in vitro system for embryo culture. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 478-479`

  14. Steroidal alkaloid toxicity to fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L; Kocan, R M

    1993-02-01

    Embryos of two species of fish were evaluated for their suitability as model systems for steroidal alkaloid toxicity, the Japanese rice fish, medaka (Oryzius latipes) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the equine neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone repin, was also tested. A PROBIT program was used to evaluate the EC1, EC50 and EC99 as well as the associated confidence limits. The steroidal alkaloids tested were the Solanum potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, the aglyclones solanidine and solasodine and the Veratrum alkaloid, jervine. Embryo mortality, likely due to structural or functional abnormalities in the early development stages of the embryo, were the only response observed in both species. The rainbow trout exhibited a toxic response to chaconine, solasidine, repin and solanine but the medaka embryos were only affected by the compounds, chaconine and solanine. Rainbow trout may indeed serve as a good lower vertebrate model for studying the toxicity of steroidal alkaloids.

  15. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  16. The fate of the mosaic embryo : chromosomal constitution and development of Day 4, 5 and 8 human embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Margarida Avo; Teklenburg, Gijs; Macklon, Nick S.; Van Opstal, Diane; Schuring-Blom, G. Heleen; Krijtenburg, Pieter-Jaap; de Vreeden-Elbertse, Johanna; Fauser, Bart C.; Baart, Esther B.

    2010-01-01

    Post-zygotic chromosome segregation errors are very common in human embryos after in vitro fertilization, resulting in mosaic embryos. However, the significance of mosaicism for the developmental potential of early embryos is unknown. We assessed chromosomal constitution and development of embryos f

  17. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  18. Culture systems: embryo culture and monozygotic twinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of monozygotic twinning in pregnancies achieved with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is significantly higher than spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The factors associated with ART that predispose the embryos to splitting are not well-characterized. Assisted hatching and extended embryo culture are two ART laboratory methods that have been risk factors for monozygotic twinning. The methods and strategies that may be employed to avoid monozygotic twinning are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Zebrafish embryo model of Bartonella henselae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amorce; Cha, Byeong J; Amin, Jahanshah; Smith, Lisa K; Anderson, Burt

    2014-10-01

    Bartonella henselae (Bh) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including bacillary angiomatosis that is characterized by vasoproliferative tumor-like lesions on the skin of some immunosuppressed individuals. The study of Bh pathogenesis has been limited to in vitro cell culture systems due to the lack of an animal model. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether the zebrafish embryo could be used to model human infection with Bh. Our data showed that Tg(fli1:egfp)(y1) zebrafish embryos supported a sustained Bh infection for 7 days with >10-fold bacterial replication when inoculated in the yolk sac. We showed that Bh recruited phagocytes to the site of infection in the Tg(mpx:GFP)uwm1 embryos. Infected embryos showed evidence of a Bh-induced angiogenic phenotype and an increase in the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory factors and pro-angiogenic markers. However, infection of zebrafish embryos with a deletion mutant in the major adhesin (BadA) resulted in little or no bacterial replication and a diminished host response, providing the first evidence that BadA is critical for in vivo infection. Thus, the zebrafish embryo provides the first practical model of Bh infection that will facilitate efforts to identify virulence factors and define molecular mechanisms of Bh pathogenesis.

  20. Manipulation and imaging of Kryptolebias marmoratus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourabit, Sulayman; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is an upcoming model species for a range of biological disciplines. To further establish this model in the field of developmental biology, we examined several techniques for embryonic manipulation and for imaging that can be used in an array of experimental designs. These methodological approaches can be divided into two categories: handling of embryos with and without their chorionic membrane. Embryos still enclosed in their chorion can be manipulated using an agarose bed or a methyl cellulose system, holding them in place and allowing their rotation to more specific angles and positions. Using these methods, we demonstrate microinjection of embryos and monitoring of fluorescent yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) using both stereo and compound microscopes. For higher magnification imaging using compound microscopes as well as time-lapse analyses, embryos were dechorionated and embedded in low-melting-point agarose. To demonstrate this embedding technique, we further examined fluorescent YSN and also analyzed the yolk surface of K. marmoratus embryos. The latter was observed to provide an excellent imaging platform for study of the behavior and morphology of cells during embryonic development, for various types of cells. Our data demonstrate that K. marmoratus is an excellent model species for research in developmental biology, as methodological approaches for the manipulation and imaging of embryos are efficient and readily available.

  1. Miniaturized embryo array for automated trapping, immobilization and microperfusion of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Akagi

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has recently emerged as a powerful experimental model in drug discovery and environmental toxicology. Drug discovery screens performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy the tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and fish embryo toxicity assay (FET is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, automated in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos is still deeply in its infancy. This is mostly due to the inherent limitations of conventional techniques and the fact that metazoan organisms are not easily susceptible to laboratory automation. In this work, we describe the development of an innovative miniaturized chip-based device for the in-situ analysis of zebrafish embryos. We present evidence that automatic, hydrodynamic positioning, trapping and long-term immobilization of single embryos inside the microfluidic chips can be combined with time-lapse imaging to provide real-time developmental analysis. Our platform, fabricated using biocompatible polymer molding technology, enables rapid trapping of embryos in low shear stress zones, uniform drug microperfusion and high-resolution imaging without the need of manual embryo handling at various developmental stages. The device provides a highly controllable fluidic microenvironment and post-analysis eleuthero-embryo stage recovery. Throughout the incubation, the position of individual embryos is registered. Importantly, we also for first time show that microfluidic embryo array technology can be effectively used for the analysis of anti-angiogenic compounds using transgenic zebrafish line (fli1a:EGFP. The work provides a new rationale for rapid and automated manipulation and analysis of developing zebrafish embryos at a large scale.

  2. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2α) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results.

  3. Analysis on Journal Major Evaluating Indexes of ACTA AGRICULTURAE BOREALI-SINICA during 2003 -2010%《华北农学报》2003-2010年期刊主要评价指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡景辉; 孙丽敏

    2011-01-01

    以中国科学技术信息研究所和万方数据股份有限公司联合发布的“中国期刊引证报告”数据及万方数据库期刊统计与评价数据为基础,从期刊来源指标、被引指标及高被引指标三方面,对《华北农学报》2003 -2010年期刊主要评价指标进行了分析评价,旨在探寻《华北农学报》近几年发展概况及规律,找出制约学报发展的主要障碍因素,并就进一步提高学报的整体办刊水平提出建议.%Based on the data of Chinese Journal Citation Reports and that of periodical statistics and evaluation from Wanfang database, which were co-issued by Institute of Scientific&Technical Information of China and Wan fang Data Corporation Ltd, analysis on the major evaluating indexes of the journal during 2003 - 1010 for ACTA AGRICULTURAE BOREALI-SINICA was conducted through source index, citation index and highly quoted index to find out the conditions and laws of development for ACTA AGRICULTURAE BOREALI-SINICA in recent years, . Pinpoint the main obstacle factors that hamper the growth of our Journal and propose suggestions on further improve ment of the overall proformance for ACTA AGRICULTURAE BOREALI-SINICA.

  4. Meanings of the embryo in Japan: narratives of IVF experience and embryo ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.; Sleeboom-Faulkner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the sociocultural meanings of the embryo implied in the narratives of 58 women who have undergone in vitro fertilisation in Japan over a period from 2006 to 2008. We argue that a lack of sufficient analysis of the sociocultural meanings of the embryo result in a situation where

  5. Attempt at intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) captured during the Kushiro Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yutaka; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Taiki; Nagai, Hiroki; Koma, Noriko; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Hidehiro; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted during the Kushiro Coast Survey in an attempt to produce common minke whale embryos. In Experiment 1, we attempted to determine the appropriate culture duration (30 or 40 h) for in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes using the Well of the Well method. In Experiment 2, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was applied to matured oocytes from prepubertal and adult common minke whales after IVM culture (40 or 48 h), and then their embryonic development was assessed. In Experiment 1, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured for 40 h (30.4%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 30 h (6.8%; Pwhales, respectively, were cultured for 40 or 48 h. The maturation rate in the oocytes from the adult whales (34.2%) tended to be higher than that of the oocytes from the prepubertal whales (19.6%), but there was no significant difference. Following ICSI, 3 out of the 10 inseminated and cultured oocytes from the adult whales cleaved (2-, 8-, and 16-cell stages); all of these oocytes had been matured for 40 in culture. However, these oocytes did not develop to further stages. Only one of the 6 oocytes derived from the prepubertal whales, IVM cultured for 40 h and inseminated, developed to the 4-cell stage. The present results indicate that a 40 h IVM culture produces significantly higher rates of in vitro maturation than a 30 h IVM culture for common minke whale oocytes. Following ICSI, some oocytes cleaved to the 16-cell stage, but no further development was observed.

  6. Comparison of the major malformation rate of children conceived from cryopreserved embryos and fresh embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-zhen; QIAO Jie; CHI Hong-bin; CHEN Xin-na; LIU Ping; MA Cai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryopreserved embryo transfer has become indispensable in reproductive technology. More and more children are conceived from frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). The risk of birth defects associated with frozen-thawed embryo transfer has been evaluated and conflict results are obtained. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of major malformations in children conceived from cryopreserved embryos with that of children from fresh embryos. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on children conceived from frozen-thawed embryos and fresh embryos between January 2005 and December 2008 at the Reproduction Center of the Third Hospital, Peking University.The major malformation rates were compared between two groups for all children, as well as singletons or twins,separately. The frequencies of different subtypes of malformations classified according to different organ system were also compared.Results Thirty-four of 3125 children from cryopreserved embryos had a major malformation. The malformation rate was 1.09%, which was comparable to that for children after fresh embryos transfer (1.53%(55/3604), OR:0.71, 95% CI; 0.46-1.09). The malformation rate was also similar when the analysis was limited to children from cryopreserved embryos resulted from in vitro fertilization (IVF)(1.39%)and fresh IVF(1.3%). However, children from cryopreserved embryos resulted from intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) had much lower malformation rate than from fresh ICSI(0.63% vs.1.83%, OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16-0.75). No difference was found in the incidence of major malformations in singletons from cryo ICSI (0.73%) and fresh ICS1(1.9%), or from cryo IVF(1.49%) and fresh IVF(1.67%). Similar malformation rate was found in multiples from cryo ICSI(0.52%) and fresh ICSI(1.76%), or cryo IVF(1.30%) and fresh IVF(0.90%). The distribution and risk of the subtype of malformations, such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neural tube, urogenital, rnusculoskeletal and facial

  7. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  8. Development of interspecies cloned embryos in yak and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Otoi, Takeshige; Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Agung, Budiyanto; Sambuu, Rentsenkhand; Suzuki, Tatsuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies nuclear transfer (NT) could be an alternative to replicate animals when supply of recipient oocytes is limited or in vitro embryo production systems are incomplete. In the present study, embryonic development was assessed following interspecies NT of donor cumulus cells derived from yak and dog into the recipient ooplasm of domestic cow. The percentages of fusion and subsequent embryo development to the eight-cell stage of interspecies NT embryos were comparable to those of intraspecies NT embryos (cow-cow NT embryos). The percentage of development to blastocysts was significantly lower (p dog-cow NT embryos, only one embryo (0.4%) developed to the blastocyst stage. These results indicate that interspecies NT embryos possess equally developmental competence to the eight-cell stage as intraspecies NT embryos, but the development to blastocysts is very low when dog somatic cells are used as the donor nuclei.

  9. Cryopreservation of manipulated embryos: tackling the double jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnyes, A; Nedambale, T L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to provide information to researchers and practitioners concerning the reasons for the altered viability and the medium- and long-term consequences of cryopreservation of manipulated mammalian embryos. Embryo manipulation is defined herein as the act or process of manipulating mammalian embryos, including superovulation, AI, IVM, IVF, in vitro culture, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsy or splitting, somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning, the production of sexed embryos (by sperm sexing), embryo cryopreservation, embryo transfer or the creation of genetically modified (transgenic) embryos. With advances in manipulation technologies, the application of embryo manipulation will become more frequent; the proper prevention and management of the resulting alterations will be crucial in establishing an economically viable animal breeding technology.

  10. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  11. Bovine pretransfer endometrium and embryo transcriptome fingerprints as predictors of pregnancy success after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Hölker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Ghanem, Nasser; Ulas-Cinar, Mehmet; Peippo, Jaana; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2010-07-07

    Aberrant gene expression in the uterine endometrium and embryo has been the major causes of pregnancy failure in cattle. However, selecting cows having adequate endometrial receptivity and embryos of better developmental competence based on the gene expression pattern has been a greater challenge. To investigate whether pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression pattern has a direct relation with upcoming pregnancy success, we performed a global endometrial and embryo transcriptome analysis using endometrial and embryo biopsy technology and the pregnancy outcome information. For this, endometrial samples were collected from Simmental heifers at day 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle, one cycle prior to embryo transfer. In the next cycle, blastocyst stage embryos were transferred to recipients at day 7 of the estrous cycle after taking 30-40% of the blastocyst as a biopsy for transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that at day 7 of the estrous cycle, the endometrial gene expression pattern of heifers whose pregnancy resulting in calf delivery was significantly different compared with those resulting in no pregnancy. These differences were accompanied by qualitative and quantitative alteration of major biological process and molecular pathways. However, the transcriptome difference was minimal between the two groups of animals at day 14 of the estrous cycle. Similarly, the transcriptome analysis between embryos biopsies that resulted in calf delivery and those resulted in no pregnancy revealed a total of 70 differentially expressed genes. Among these, the transcript levels of 32 genes including SPAG17, PF6, UBE2D3P, DFNB31, AMD1, DTNBP1, and ARL8B were higher in embryo biopsies resulting in calf delivery. Therefore, the present study highlights the potential of pretransfer endometrial and embryo gene expression patterns as predictors of pregnancy success in cattle.

  12. ROCK inhibition prevents early mouse embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-08-01

    ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is important for actin assembly and is involved in various cellular functions, including cell contraction, migration, motility, and tumor cell invasion. In this study, we investigated ROCK expression and function during early mouse embryo development. Inhibiting ROCK by Y-27632 treatment at the zygote stage resulted in first cleavage failure, and most embryos failed to develop to the 8-cell stage. When adding Y-27632 at the 8-cell stage, embryos failed to undergo compaction and could not develop into blastocysts. In addition, fluorescence staining intensity analysis indicated that actin expression at blastomere membranes was significantly reduced. After ROCK inhibition, two or more nuclei were observed in a cell, which indicated possible cytokinesis failure. Moreover, after ROCK inhibition with Y-27632, the phosphorylation levels of LIMK1/2, a downstream molecule of ROCK, were decreased at blastomere membranes. Thus, our results showed conserved roles for ROCK in this mammalian embryo model and indicated that a ROCK-LIMK1/2-actin pathway might regulate cleavage and blastocyst formation during early mouse embryo development.

  13. Biosensors for detecting stress in developing embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdey, Malcolm S.; Saini, Avishkar; McLennan, Hanna J.; Pullen, Benjamin J.; Schartner, Erik P.; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2016-12-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) cause DNA damage and defective function in sperm and also affects the developmental competence of embryos. It is therefore critical to monitor ROS in sperm, oocytes and developing embryos. In particular, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ROS important to normal cell function and signalling as well as its role in oxidative stress. Here we report the development of a fluorescent sensor for H2O2 using carboxyperoxyfluor-1 (CPF1) in solution and attached to a glass slide or multi-mode optical fibre. CPF1 increases in fluorescence upon reaction with H2O2 to non-invasively detect H2O2 near developing embryos. These probes are constructed by immobilising CPF1 to the optical fibre tip a polyacrylamide layer. Also reported is a new dual optical fibre sensor for detecting both H2O2 and pH that is functional at biologically concentrations of H2O2 and can sense pH to 0.1 units. This research shows promise for the use of optical fibre sensors for monitoring the health of developing embryos. Furthermore, these sensors are applicable for use beyond embryos such as detecting stress in endothelial cells involved in cardiovascular dysfunction.

  14. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L; Gardner, David K

    2017-02-15

    Single embryo culture is suboptimal compared with group culture, but necessary for embryo monitoring, and culture systems should be improved for single embryos. Pronucleate mouse embryos were used to assess the effect of culture conditions on single embryo development. Single culture either before or after compaction reduced cell numbers (112.2 ± 3.1; 110.2 ± 3.5) compared with group culture throughout (127.0 ± 3.4; P media volume from 20 µl to 2 µl increased blastocyst cell numbers in single embryos cultured in 5% oxygen (84.4 ± 3.2 versus 97.8 ± 2.8; P media to single embryos increased hatching rate and blastocyst cell number (91.5 ± 4.7 versus 113.1 ± 4.4; P media volume and microwells influence single embryo development; and embryo-conditioned media may substitute for group culture.

  15. Accuracy of a combined score of zygote and embryo morphology for selecting the best embryos for IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-li QIAN; Ying-hui YE; Chen-ming XU; Fan JIN; He-feng HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the accuracy of a scoring system combining zygote and embryo morphology in predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization(IVF)treatment.Methods:In a study group,117 consecutive IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI) cycles with embryo transfer were carried out and 312 embryos were scored Using a combmed scoring system(CSS)of zygote and embryo morphology before transplantation.In a control group,a total of 420 IVF or ICSI cycles were carried out and 1176 embryos were scored using a cumulative embryo score(CES).The effects of the combined scoring system on the embryo implantation rate and pregnancy rate per cycle were analyzed.Results:Using the combined scoring system,the embryo implantation rate(27.6%)and the clinical pregnancy rate(48.7%)were significantly higher than those in the control group(20.8%and 38.6%,respectively).Also,the implantation rate of embryos scoring≥70 (38.5%:82 sacs/213 embryos)was significantly higher (P<0.001)than that of embryos scoring<70(4%:4 sacs/99 embryos).The pregnancy rate of patients with embryos scoring≥70 using the combined scoring system(66.7%)Was significantly higher(P<0.001)than that of patients with embryos scoring≥20 using the cumulative embryo score(59.0%).Conclusion:The results suggest that selecting embryos with a high Score(≥70)using the combined scoring system could inerease the implantation rate and pregnancy rate,and that using a scoring system combining assessments of human zygotes and pre-implantation embryos might predict IVF outcomes more accurately than using a cumulafive embryo score.

  16. Efficacy of in vitro embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows using fresh or vitrified embryos produced in a novel embryo culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2010-11-01

    Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or

  17. Wide crossing in lentil through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Richard; Ruiz, Maria L

    2011-01-01

    Lentil seeds have provided an appreciated source of protein, carbohydrates and fibre to the diet of humans since the dawn of agriculture. Low amounts of variation have been detected in the cultivated lentil germplasm collections. Interspecific crosses allow for the introgression of important alleles of agricultural interest from wild species, such as the resistance or tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Interspecific crosses within the genus Lens generally abort and embryo rescue techniques are necessary to recover hybrids. The in vitro culture procedure to rescue interspecific hybrids of Lens consists of at least four different stages: (1) in ovulo embryo culture (2), embryo culture, (3) plantlet development and finally, (4) the gradual habituation to ex vitro conditions of the recovered interspecific hybrid plantlets. In this chapter, the approach to rescue interspecific hybrids in the genus Lens is outlined.

  18. Human embryos in the original position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Russell

    2005-06-01

    Two different discussions in John Rawls' A Theory of Justice lead naturally to a rather conservative position on the moral status of the human embryo. When discussing paternalism, he claims that the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves in case they end up as incapacitated or undeveloped human beings when the veil of ignorance is lifted. Since human embryos are examples of such beings, the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves from their embryonic stages onward. When discussing the basis of equality, Rawls claims that the parties in the original position would guarantee basic rights for all those with the capacity to take part in this original position. To guarantee the basic rights of infants and young children, he goes on to interpret this capacity as a "potentiality that is ordinarily realized in due course." Since human embryos have this potentiality, they too should have basic rights.

  19. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  20. Laser confers less embryo exposure than acid tyrode for embryo biopsy in preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles: a randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Marcelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We compared two methods of zona pellucida drilling. 213 embryos were biopsied with acid Tyrode. Each biopsy took 3 minutes and the entire procedure ~29 minutes. 5% of blastomeres lysed, 49% of embryos became blastocyst and 36% of patients became pregnant. 229 embryos were biopsied with laser. Each biopsy took 30 seconds and the entire procedure ~7 minutes. 2.5% of blastomeres lysed, 50.6% of embryos became blastocyst and 47% of patients became pregnant. We can conclude that laser can be used for embryo biopsy. Reduction of embryo exposure and of removed blastomeres is associated with increased blastocysts available for transfer and a better clinical outcome.

  1. RECYCLING OF CATHETER FOR EMBRYO RECOVERY: A TOOL FOR COSTS REDUCTION IN EQUINE EMBRYO TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lopes Gusmao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is becoming a widespread practice.Most embryos are collected from spontaneous single ovulatingmares and result in 50% of embryo recovery, increasing the costsof production. To illustrate, the price of a catheter for embryosrecovery range from US$ 194.00 to US$ 250.00 (R$ 350.00 to R$450.00. Therefore, the aim of this work was to verify if catheterwith damaged balloon can be recuperated and reused withoutaltering its efficiency. For this study, two groups were used: acontrol group (GI, n=10, on which the nonsurgical recovery of theembryos of mares was performed with the catheter with originalballoon; and another group (GII, n=20, in which a restored catheterwas utilized. The mares of GI had an embryo recovery rate of60%, and GII mares had an embryo recovery rate of 55%. Therewas not statistical difference between groups I and II (P>0.05.Considering that the material used to restore the catheter costsUS$16.66 (R$30.00, this data show that the recuperation of thecatheters for embryo recovery in mares may reduce costs withoutcompromising the rates of embryo recovery.

  2. Lipoxins: A Novel Regulator in Embryo Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation is essential for mammalian pregnancy, which involves intricate cross-talk between the blastocyst and the maternal endometrium. Recent advances have identified various molecules crucial to implantation and endometrial receptivity, including leukemia inhibitory factor, calcitonin, and homeobox A10. There is a close relationship between implantation and inflammation. Lipoxins, important in the resolution of inflammation, may be a potential regulator in implantation. Here we discuss the hypothesis that lipoxins may work as a novel regulator in embryo implantation and the possible molecular mechanisms.

  3. Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162187.html Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice Putting stem cells ... were able to halt development of early mouse embryos for up to a month in the lab ...

  4. Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163262.html Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo One goal of this stem cell research is ... have successfully used human stem cells to create embryos that are part-human, part-pig. Scientists said ...

  5. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs , sperm , or embryos that have been donated by a ... the requisite screening and testing required of all egg and sperm donors. For embryos that are created specifically for ...

  6. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  7. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  8. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  9. Research Progress on Technique of Frozen Embryo Transfer in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Qiu-sheng; HU Jian-ye; LOU Peng-yan; TAO Jing; XIE Zhao-hui

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the research progress on the technique of frozen embryo transfer in sheep, illustrated selection of donors and receptors, superovulation, synchronization of estrus, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transplantation. Frozen embryo transfer in sheep is another breakthrough in the high-quality sheep raising, and this technique in China is in its infancy recommendation stage, but it will be comprehensively popularized in the future.

  10. On the possibility of embryo donation in Hispanic America

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto; Médico sexólogo clínico, magíster en bioética. Doctorando en el Programa de Ciencias Sociosanitarias y Humanidades Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid- España. Becario del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), México.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies regarding embryo donation in developed countries show that the most probable action would be to discard surplus embryos and, if they would donate them, the preferred option would be for research, and eventually to other couples. There are not enough studies in Hispanic America about the opinions of those who have participated in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) regarding embryo disposition of surplus embryos. Moreover, there are scarce specific laws regulating ART in...

  11. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szczuka; Irena Gielwanowska

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae) at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the sus...

  12. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  13. Correlation between embryo morphology and development and chromosomal complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Phan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Embryo development rate and morphological parameter such as degree, type of fragmentation and the symmetry of the blastomeres to a large extent reflect the cytogenetic status of the embryo and thus are important in the selection of embryos with the highest implantation potential.

  14. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  15. Direct visualization of replication dynamics in early zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Okochi, Nanami; Hattori, Kaede; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Tamaru, Yutaka; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed DNA replication in early zebrafish embryos. The replicating DNA of whole embryos was labeled with the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and spatial regulation of replication sites was visualized in single embryo-derived cells. The results unveiled uncharacterized replication dynamics during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

  16. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  17. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  18. The endometrial factor in human embryo implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to explore the role of the endometrium in the implantation process. At present, embryo implantation is the major rate-limiting step for success in fertility treatment. Clinicians have sought to develop clinical interventions aimed at enhancing implantation

  19. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  20. A simple and rapid flow cytometry-based assay to identify a competent embryo prior to embryo transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Pallinger, Eva; Bognar, Zoltan; Bodis, Jozsef; Csabai, Timea; Farkas, Nelli; Godony, Krisztina; Varnagy, Akos; Buzas, Edit; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a risk for prematurity and preterm birth. The goal of assisted reproduction is to achieve a single pregnancy, by transferring a single embryo. This requires improved methods to identify the competent embryo. Here, we describe such a test, based on flow cytometric determination of the nucleic acid (PI+) containing extracellular vesicle (EV) count in day 5 embryo culture media. 88 women undergoing IVF were included in the study. More than 1 embryos were transferred to most...

  1. LIF and TNF alpha concentrations in embryo culture media are predictive for embryo implantation in IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula Zollner; Sonja Bischofs; Irena Lalic; Klaus-Peter Zollner

    2012-01-01

    Objective:There is strong evidence that the cytokines leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha are related to embryo development and implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of LIF and TNF alpha in embryo culture media and to assess its relationship to the outcome of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Methods:A total of 99 patients were included in this prospective trial and underwent either IVF or ICSI procedure. A total of 865 oocytes were collected. Embryos were cultured in sequential media until day 5. A standardized morphology evaluation of all embryos, including a detailed pronuclear scoring, was performed daily during this period followed by the replacement of one or two selected embryos. Collected embryo culture fluids of days 3 and 5 were analysed for LIF and TNF alpha on days 3 and 5. Results:Mean TNF alpha concentration in culture media on day 3 was 0.54 and 0.37 pg/mL on day 5 and was significantly lower in women conceiving than in not conceiving (0.43 pg/mL versus 0.59 pg/mL on day 3). Mean LIF concentration on day 3 was 31.5 pg/mL and 35.5 pg/mL on day 5 and was significantly higher in women conceiving (56.2 pg/mL versus 22.2 pg/mL on day 3). Conclusions:The results indicate that LIF could have a function in early embryogenesis and as a factor required for embryo implantation. High TNF alpha concentrations seem to be predictive of implantation failure.

  2. The fate of the mosaic embryo: Chromosomal constitution and development of Day 4, 5 and 8 human embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Santos; G. Teklenburg (Gijs); N.S. Macklon (Nick); D. van Opstal (Diane); G.H. Schuring-Blom (Heleen); P-J. Krijtenburg (Pieter-Jaap); J. de Vreeden-Elbertse (Johanna); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); E.B. Baart (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Post-zygotic chromosome segregation errors are very common in human embryos after in vitro fertilization, resulting in mosaic embryos. However, the significance of mosaicism for the developmental potential of early embryos is unknown. We assessed chromosomal constitution and

  3. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling;

    2008-01-01

    and dispered gradually from the 4-cell period. The nucleolus of GC and GG embryos changed from electron dense to a fibrillo-granular meshwork at the 16-cell stage, showing that nucleus function in the reconstructed embryos was activated. The broken nuclear envelope and multiple nucleoli in one blastomere......- and intraspecies reconstructed embryos have a similar pattern of developmental change to that of in vivo-produced embryos for ZP, rough ER, Gi and nucleolus, but differ for mitochondria, LD, vesicles, nucleus and gap junction development. In particular, the interspecies cloned embryos showed more severe...

  4. Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A W; Dominko, T; Luetjens, C M; Neuber, E; Martinovich, C; Hewitson, L; Simerly, C R; Schatten, G P

    2000-01-14

    Primates that are identical in both nuclear and cytoplasmic components have not been produced by current cloning strategies, yet such identicals represent the ideal model for investigations of human diseases. Here, genetically identical nonhuman embryos were produced as twin and larger sets by separation and reaggregation of blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. A total of 368 multiples were created by the splitting of 107 rhesus embryos with four pregnancies established after 13 embryo transfers (31% versus 53% in vitro fertilization controls). The birth of Tetra, a healthy female cloned from a quarter of an embryo, proves that this approach can result in live offspring.

  5. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  6. Turtle embryos move to optimal thermal environments within the egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Teng; Shine, Richard; Du, Wei-Guo

    2013-08-23

    A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from dangerously high temperatures as well as towards warm temperatures? and (ii) is such embryonic movement due to active thermoregulation, or (more simply) to passive embryonic repositioning caused by local heat-induced changes in viscosity of fluids within the egg? Our experiments with an emydid turtle (Chinemys reevesii) show that embryos avoid dangerously high temperatures by moving to cooler regions of the egg. The repositioning of embryos is an active rather than passive process: live embryos move towards a heat source, whereas dead ones do not. Overall, our results suggest that behavioural thermoregulation by turtle embryos is genuinely analogous to the thermoregulatory behaviour exhibited by post-hatching ectotherms.

  7. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  8. In vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in domestic and non-domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gomez, M C; Dresser, B L

    2006-10-01

    Over a 5-year interval, multiple laparoscopic oocyte retrievals were done in fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), caracals (Caracal caracal) and domestic cats after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. From 21 retrievals in five fishing cats, 579 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 27.6) were recovered and 348 embryos were produced in vitro (mean = 16.6). A total of 452 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 25.1) were recovered from 18 of 24 retrievals in six caracals and 297 (mean = 16.6) embryos were produced. An additional 16 caracal embryos (19%) were produced after in vitro maturation of 83 oocytes, 59 of which came from six retrievals producing only immature oocytes. The presence of corpora lutea at oocyte retrieval occurred in each species (1) at a similar frequency (33%) and (2) more frequently during January through May (11 of 15 retrievals) than during the latter half of the year (4 of 30 retrievals). Of the 12 embryo transfer procedures done in fishing cats, one pregnancy (8%) was obtained and one live kitten born after the auto-transfer of 10 Day-6 embryos. In caracals, a total of 46 Day-4 or Day-5 embryos were auto-transferred to six recipients, one of which delivered two live kittens. Then, 109 caracal embryos were cryopreserved before thawing and transferring to nine recipients (mean = 12.1) on Days 5 or 6. From three pregnancies established (33%), a total of three kittens were born. Two to six gonadotropin treatments/oocyte retrievals were done in domestic cats during 1999 through 2003; an average of 24.9, 23.5, 22.0, 23.1, 23.5 and 40.9 oocytes (P > 0.05) were recovered at the first through the sixth treatment cycles from 138, 138, 97, 49, 22, and seven retrievals, respectively.

  9. A simple and rapid flow cytometry-based assay to identify a competent embryo prior to embryo transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallinger, Eva; Bognar, Zoltan; Bodis, Jozsef; Csabai, Timea; Farkas, Nelli; Godony, Krisztina; Varnagy, Akos; Buzas, Edit; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a risk for prematurity and preterm birth. The goal of assisted reproduction is to achieve a single pregnancy, by transferring a single embryo. This requires improved methods to identify the competent embryo. Here, we describe such a test, based on flow cytometric determination of the nucleic acid (PI+) containing extracellular vesicle (EV) count in day 5 embryo culture media. 88 women undergoing IVF were included in the study. More than 1 embryos were transferred to most patients. In 58 women, the transfer resulted in clinical pregnancy, whereas in 30 women in implantation failure. In 112 culture media of embryos from the “clinical pregnancy” group, the number of PI+ EVs was significantly lower than in those of 49 embryos, from the “implantation failure” group. In 14 women, transfer of a single embryo resulted in a singleton pregnancy, or, transfer of two embryos in twin pregnancy. The culture media of 19 out of the 20 “confirmed competent” embryos contained a lower level of PI+ EVs than the cut off level, suggesting that the competent embryo can indeed be identified by low PI+ EV counts. We developed a noninvasive, simple, inexpensive, quick test, which identifies the embryos that are most likely to implant. PMID:28057937

  10. Microspore-derived embryos from Quercus suber anthers mimic zygotic embryos and maintain haploidy in long-term anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Maria A; Gomez, Arancha; Sepulveda, Federico; Seguí, José M; Testillano, Pilar S; Manzanera, José A; Risueño, Maria-Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Microspore-derived embryos produced from cork oak anther cultures after long-term incubations (up to 10-12 months) were analysed in order to determine the genetic variability and ploidy level stability, as well as morphology, developmental pattern and cellular organisation. Most of the embryos from long-term anther cultures were haploid (90.7%), corresponding to their microspore origin. The presence of a low percentage of diploid embryos (7.4%) was observed. Microsatellite analysis of haploid embryos, indicated different microspores origins of the same anther. In the diploid embryos, homozygosity for different alleles was detected from anther wall tissues, excluding the possibility of clonal origin. The maintenance of a high proportion of haploid embryos, in long-term anther cultures, is similar in percentage to that reported in embryos originating after 20 days of plating (Bueno et al. 1997). This suggests that no significant alterations in the ploidy level occurred during long incubations (up to 12 months). These results suggest that ploidy changes are rare in this in vitro system, and do not significantly increase during long-term cultures. Microscopical studies of the microspore embryos in various stages revealed a healthy and well developed anatomy with no aberrant or chimeric structures. The general morphology of embryos appearing at different times after plating, looked similar to that of earlier embryos, as well as the zygotic embryos, indicating that they represent high quality material for cork oak breeding.

  11. Photobiomodulation of early mouse embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridova-Chailakhyan, T. A.; Fakhranurova, L. I.; Simonova, N. B.; Khramov, R. N.; Manokhin, A. A.; Paskevich, S. I.; Chailakhyan, L. M.

    2008-04-01

    The effect of artificial sunlight (AS) from a xenon source and of converted AS with an additional orange-red luminescent (λ MAX=626 nm) component (AS+L) on the development of mouse zygotes was investigated. A plastic screen with a photoluminophore layer was used for production of this orange-red luminescent (L) component. A single short-term (15 min) exposure produced a long-term stable positive effect on early embryo development of mice, which persisted during several days. After exposure to AS+L, a stimulating influence on preimplantation development was observed, in comparison with the control group without AS exposure. The positive effects were as follows: increase in percent of embryos (P <= 0.05) developed to the blastocyst stage (96.2 %) with hatching from the zona pellucida (80.8 %) within 82-96 hours in vitro compared to the control (67.1 % and 28.8 %, respectively).

  12. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa;

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non...... and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  13. Developmental toxicity of cartap on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengli; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Li, Shaonan; Guo, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Guonian

    2009-12-13

    Cartap is a widely used insecticide which belongs to a member of nereistoxin derivatives and acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor site. Its effects on aquatic species are of grave concern. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of cartap, zebrafish embryos were continually exposed, from 0.5 to 144h post-fertilization, to a range of concentrations of 25-1000microg/l. Results of the experiment indicated that cartap concentrations of 100microg/l and above negatively affected embryo survival and hatching success. Morphological analysis uncovered a large suite of abnormalities such as less melanin pigmentation, wavy notochord, crooked trunk, fuzzy somites, neurogenesis defects and vasculature defects. The most sensitive organ was proved to be the notochord which displayed defects at concentrations as low as 25microg/l. Both sensitivity towards exposure and localization of the defect were stage specific. To elucidate mechanisms concerning notochord, pigmentation, and hatching defects, enzyme assay, RT Q-PCR, and different exposure strategies were performed. For embryos with hatching failure, chorion was verified not to be digested, while removing cartap from exposure at early pre-hatching stage could significantly increase the hatching success. However, cartap was proved, via vitro assay, to have no effect on proteolytic activity of hatching enzyme. These findings implied that the secretion of hatching enzyme might be blocked. We also revealed that cartap inhibited the activity of melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase and matrix enzyme lysyl oxidase and induced expression of their genes. These suggested that cartap could impaired melanin pigmentation of zebrafish embryos through inhibiting tyrosinase activity, while inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was responsible for notochord undulation, which subsequently caused somite defect, and at least partially responsible for defects in vasculature and neurogenesis.

  14. Rape embryogenesis. II. Development of embryo proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was found in the continued studies on rape embryogenesis, started by the description of the proembryo (Tykarska, 1976 that the development of embryo is extremely regular and based on differentiating divisions. It appeared that the transverse segmentation boundary and cell walls separating the mother cells of the histogens in the proembryo can be distinguished in all the later stages of the embryo. The border between the cytoledons and epicotyl part of the embryonal axis, and the hypocotyl corresponds to the segmentation boundary between layer l and layer l' at the octant stage. As border between the hypocotyl and radicle was assumed the upper boundary of the root cap reaching usually to the level of the boundary between segments II and III of dermatogen and periblem. The apical meristem of the shoot forms from dermatogen and the periaxial cells of the globular embryo subepidermis. The promeristem of the radicle constists of 3 layers of initial cells surrounding on all sides the inactive layer of central binding cells.

  15. Toxicity of metal mixtures to chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, W.J.; Roberts, O.W.; Black, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    The toxic effects of mercury/selenium and certain other metal mixtures on the chick embryo are examined to determine whether antagonistic, additive or synergistic interactions occur. White Plymouth Rock chicken eggs were treated by yolk injection with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, zinc chloride and sodium selenate. Test aliquots were injected prior to incubation using the needle track procedure. Using a sample size of 200, percent survival was determined as hatchability of experimental eggs/controls. Metal mixtures used included mercury/cadmium, mercury/selenium, mercury/zinc, cadmium/selenium, and cadmium/zinc. Except for mercury/selenium, all other metal mixtures gave actual values that were within 5% of those for additive toxic effects. Actual hatchability frequencies for test concentrations of mercury/selenium indicated a moderate degree of synergism. Results indicate that the strong mercury/selenium synergism which affects embryonic development in the carp does not apply for the chick embryo; that most two-way combinations of cadmium, mercury, selenium and zinc exert purely additive effects on chick hatchability; and that these metal mixtures give no discernible antagonistic interactions which affect survival of chick embryos. (MFB)

  16. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  17. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  18. Blastocyst development potential of D3 low quality embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Jing-ran; Sun Zhen-yi; Yu Qi; Deng Cheng-yan; Zhou Yuan-zheng; He Fang-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential of blastocyst development of D3 low quality embryos for blastocyst culturing and freezing.Methods:Two thousand one hundred and eighty embryos of 398 IVF/ICSI patients' were observed after D3 embryo transfer.The low-quality embryos were cultured by sequential micro-drops and continuously observed blastocyst formation from D3 to D6.Results:(1) A total of 1,546 low-quality embryos were collected,and 426 blastocysts formed in DS-D6.Total blastocyst formation rate (BFR) was 27.56%,of which embryos with grade 6 Ⅲ/Ⅳ were 40.87 % (318/778),5 Ⅰ /Ⅱ 28.85% (30/104),4Ⅰ/Ⅱ 8.88% (16/180),4Ⅲ/IV 19.72% (56/284),2-3 Ⅰ/Ⅱ 3% (6/200).(2) Embryos with more blastomeres had a higher blastocyst formation rate.The lower qualities of embryos resulted in lower blastocyst formation rate.Conclusions:Low-quality embryos still have the potential to develop into blastocysts.Therefore,they should not be discarded on D3.They should be continually cultured to D6 in order to reduce embryo wastage and get good clinical results.

  19. Microfluidic system with integrated microinjector for automated Drosophila embryo injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delubac, Daniel; Highley, Christopher B; Witzberger-Krajcovic, Melissa; Ayoob, Joseph C; Furbee, Emily C; Minden, Jonathan S; Zappe, Stefan

    2012-11-21

    Drosophila is one of the most important model organisms in biology. Knowledge derived from the recently sequenced 12 genomes of various Drosophila species can today be combined with the results of more than 100 years of research to systematically investigate Drosophila biology at the molecular level. In order to enable automated, high-throughput manipulation of Drosophila embryos, we have developed a microfluidic system based on a Pyrex-silicon-Pyrex sandwich structure with integrated, surface-micromachined silicon nitride injector for automated injection of reagents. Our system automatically retrieves embryos from an external reservoir, separates potentially clustered embryos through a sheath flow mechanisms, passively aligns an embryo with the integrated injector through geometric constraints, and pushes the embryo onto the injector through flow drag forces. Automated detection of an embryo at injection position through an external camera triggers injection of reagents and subsequent ejection of the embryo to an external reservoir. Our technology can support automated screens based on Drosophila embryos as well as creation of transgenic Drosophila lines. Apart from Drosophila embryos, the layout of our system can be easily modified to accommodate injection of oocytes, embryos, larvae, or adults of other species and fills an important technological gap with regard to automated manipulation of multicellular organisms.

  20. Preimplantation embryo programming: transcription, epigenetics, and culture environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranthon, Veronique; Watson, Andrew J; Lonergan, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Preimplantation development directs the formation of an implantation- or attachment-competent embryo so that metabolic interactions with the uterus can occur, pregnancy can be initiated, and fetal development can be sustained. The preimplantation embryo exhibits a form of autonomous development fueled by products provided by the oocyte and also from activation of the embryo's genome. Despite this autonomy, the preimplantation embryo is highly influenced by factors in the external environment and in extreme situations, such as those presented by embryo culture or nuclear transfer, the ability of the embryo to adapt to the changing environmental conditions or chromatin to become reprogrammed can exceed its own adaptive capacity, resulting in aberrant embryonic development. Nuclear transfer or embryo culture-induced influences not only affect implantation and establishment of pregnancy but also can extend to fetal and postnatal development and affect susceptibility to disease in later life. It is therefore critical to define the basic program controlling preimplantation development, and also to utilize nuclear transfer and embryo culture models so that we may design healthier environments for preimplantation embryos to thrive in and also minimize the potential for negative consequences during pregnancy and post-gestational life. In addition, it is necessary to couple gene expression analysis with the investigation of gene function so that effects on gene expression can be fully understood. The purpose of this short review is to highlight our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling preimplantation development and report how those mechanisms may be influenced by nuclear transfer and embryo culture.

  1. Propylthiouracil is teratogenic in murine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria C Benavides

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is treated with the antithyroid drugs (ATD propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI. PTU currently is recommended as the drug of choice during early pregnancy. Yet, despite widespread ATD use in pregnancy, formal studies of ATD teratogenic effects have not been performed. METHODS: We examined the teratogenic effects of PTU and MMI during embryogenesis in mice. To span different periods of embryogenesis, dams were treated with compounds or vehicle daily from embryonic day (E 7.5 to 9.5 or from E3.5 to E7.5. Embryos were examined for gross malformations at E10.5 or E18.5 followed by histological and micro-CT analysis. Influences of PTU on gene expression levels were examined by RNA microarray analysis. RESULTS: When dams were treated from E7.5 to E9.5 with PTU, neural tube and cardiac abnormalities were observed at E10.5. Cranial neural tube defects were significantly more common among the PTU-exposed embryos than those exposed to MMI or vehicle. Blood in the pericardial sac, which is a feature indicative of abnormal cardiac function and/or abnormal vasculature, was observed more frequently in PTU-treated than MMI-treated or vehicle-treated embryos. Following PTU treatment, a total of 134 differentially expressed genes were identified. Disrupted genetic pathways were those associated with cytoskeleton remodeling and keratin filaments. At E 18.5, no gross malformations were evident in either ATD group, but the number of viable PTU embryos per dam at E18.5 was significantly lower from those at E10.5, indicating loss of malformed embryos. These data show that PTU exposure during embryogenesis is associated with delayed neural tube closure and cardiac abnormalities. In contrast, we did not observe structural or cardiac defects associated with MMI exposure except at the higher dose. We find that PTU exposure during embryogenesis is associated with fetal loss. These observations suggest that PTU has

  2. Pavia symposium on embryos and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boiani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells occur in very small numbers in adult tissues, in higher numbers in the fetus and its annexes and they can be derived from whole embryos or parts thereof. For a couple of years, stem cells can also be derived straight from somatic cells by retrovirus-mediated transfer of selected genes in culture. Stem cells have varying capacities for self-renewal and differentiation according to their origin, up to the point that they can be propagated in vitro for years and give rise to a wide range of cell types. This makes them suitable means for cell and tissue-replacement therapies. Gaining access to stem cells involves manipulation of living organisms i.e. human beings or animal models. The extent of manipulation ranges from the mere biopsy and culture of body cells in vitro, to their genetic manipulation and back-grafting in vivo.This raises bioethical issues as to whether we should manipulate animal and in particular human life. Many scientific meetings have been organized to present research findings on stem cells and on their potency, differentiation and therapeutic applications for treating disease. In many of these meetings, the ‘mother’ of all stem cells - the embryo - has often been ignored, because embryonic stem cells do not exist as such in the embryo and because the manipulation of the embryo brings up ethical concerns.To make up for this omission, the theme of our meeting was ‘Pluripotency and differentiation in embryos and stem cells’.With a strong sense of purpose and commitment, we managed to hold a two-day symposium concerned with three major topics: 1 natural and induced pluripotency; 2 mechanisms of cell fate control; 3 adult and cancer stem cells. The meeting took place on January 17th-18th 2008 in the beautiful, frescoed halls of Collegio Ghislieri and Borromeo, two foremost colleges in the Pavia campus. A small but prominent group of scientists took part in the meeting – James Adjaye (Germany, Anne Grete Byskov

  3. Optimizing the culture environment and embryo manipulation to help maintain embryo developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jason E; Carrell, Doug; Cobo, Ana; Meseguer, Marcos; Rubio, Carmen; Smith, Gary D

    2016-03-01

    With increased use of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS), the question remains as to why some practices do not experience the same high levels of clinical success after implementation of the approach. Indeed, the debate surrounding the efficacy and usefulness of blastocyst biopsy and CCS continues. Importantly, several variables impact the success of an assisted reproductive technology cycle. Transfer of a euploid embryo is but one factor in an intricate system that requires numerous steps to occur successfully. Certainly, the culture environment and the manipulations of the embryo during its time in the laboratory can impact its reproductive potential. Environmental stressors ranging from culture media to culture conditions and even culture platform can impact biochemical, metabolic, and epigenetic patterns that can affect the developing cell independent of chromosome number. Furthermore, accompanying procedures, such as biopsy and vitrification, are complex and, when performed improperly, can negatively impact embryo quality. These are areas that likely still carry room for improvement within the IVF laboratory.

  4. Embryo quality and impact of specific embryo characteristics on ongoing implantation in unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van Echten-Arends, Janny; Arts, Eus G. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the implantation potential of unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle IVF according to their morphological characteristics. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic department of reproductive medicine. Patient(S): A series of 449 single embryo transfers derived from

  5. Effects of embryo-derived exosomes on the development of bovine cloned embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengxiang; Qing, Suzhu; Liu, Ruiqi; Qin, Hongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Qiao, Fang; Ge, Hui; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC) embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE), as well as following development to term. Existence and function of SCNT embryo-derived exosomes were then investigated to reveal the cause of impaired development induced by culture medium replacement. Exosomes were successfully isolated through differential centrifugation and identified by both electron microscopy and immunostaining against exosomal membrane marker CD9. Supplementation of extracted exosomes into freshly renewed medium significantly rescued not only blastocyst formation and quality (in vitro development), but also following growth to term (in vivo development). Notably, ratio of ICM/TE and calving rate were enhanced to a similar level as that in nonrenewal group. In conclusion, our results for the first time indicate that 1: bovine SCNT embryos can secrete exosomes into chemically defined culture medium during IVC; 2: secreted exosomes are essential for SCNT blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality, and following development to term; 3: removal of exosomes induced by culture medium replacement impairs SCNT embryo development, which can be avoided by nonrenewal culture procedure or markedly recovered by exosome supplementation. PMID:28350875

  6. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , but rather choosing and prioritising between the available embryos. Data suggest that only approximately 5% of aspirated human oocytes have the competence to implant and develop into a child and that, in most treatment cycles, there is no oocyte capable of implanting. The most likely outcome is a negative......Morphometric and morphokinetic approaches toward embryo quality assessment have for many years been difficult due to technical limitations. Today, with improvements in laboratory techniques and subsequent quality, we have a better understanding of the morphometric and kinetics of embryo development....... Fertility clinics are moving from "sensing" embryo quality to measuring embryo quality--and this is happening every day in fertility clinics all over the world. However, we cannot select for something that is not there. In daily clinical life it is almost never a question of selecting the optimal embryo...

  7. Serial Nuclear Transfer of Goat-Rabbit Interspecies Reconstructed Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; CHENG Li-zi; ZHANG Xiao-rong; LIU Ya; JING Ren-tao; WANG Cun-li; ZHAO Huan; LI Bin; CAO Chen-chong; LI Dong-wei

    2005-01-01

    The experiments of serial nuclear transfer were conducted between Boer goat and rabbit. The enucleated oocytes of rabbit were used as recipients while the blastomeres of goat morula was used as nuclear donor. The reconstructed embryos developing to morula were used as donor for serial cloning. As a result, two generations of reconstructed embryos were obtained, including 58 first generation reconstructed embryos and 14 second generation reconstructed embryos. The fusion rates were 79.5 and 70%, respectively. and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The cleavage rates were 75.9 and 28.6% respectively with significant difference (P<0.01). No blastocyst was obtained from the second generation reconstructed embryos while 13.8% of first generation reconstructed embryos developed to blastocyst.

  8. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  9. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the suspensor remained nonfluorescent. The fluorescing cutin layer occurred on the apical and side surface of the embryo, undergoing differentiation into the shoot axis and root initials. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by presence of the cuticle.

  10. In vitro culture of embryos of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Ulrike; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2006-03-01

    The rich variation in adult color patterns of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) has attracted the attention of geneticists and ecologists for almost a century. Studies on their embryogenesis, however, have been limited by the fact that guppies are live bearers. We have observed normal development after explantation of guppy embryos from the ovary of pregnant females at various times after last parturition, and found that development of each batch of eggs is slightly asynchronous, most likely due to asynchronous fertilization. We have cultured explanted embryos in vitro and continuously observed their development. Although embryos explanted a few days after fertilization survived up to 4 weeks in culture, they did not complete their development. In contrast, embryos explanted at late stages of gestation could hatch and develop to fertile adults. Our embryo culture techniques overcome some of the limitations of using livebearers as study objects, and they allow continuous observation of and accessibility to live embryos at all stages.

  11. In vitroembryo outgrowth is a bioassay ofin vivo embryo implantation and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalie K. Binder; Natalie J. Hannan; David K. Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the efficacy of embryo outgrowth on fibronectin as a low cost, high throughput alternative to embryo transfer to model embryo attachment and the initial stages of implantation.Methods:Following in vitro embryo culture, embryo quality was assessedviaembryo transfer or embryo outgrowth with metabolic assessment.Results:This study shows that blastocysts attach to fibronectin at the same rate that they implantin vivo, and that the carbohydrate utilisation of embryos that successfully outgrow is comparable to those that are able to develop into a fetus.Conclusions:Embryo outgrowth is a suitable alternative endpoint to embryo transfer.

  12. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Pyne

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  13. The DNA methylation events in normal and cloned rabbit embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoChen; Yan-LingZhang; YanJiang; Shu-ZhenLiu; HeideSchatten; Da-YuanChen; Qing-YuanSun

    2005-01-01

    To study the DNA methylation events in normal and cloned rabbit embryos, we investigated the methylation status of a satellite seqnence and the promoter region of a single-copy gene using bisulfite-sequencing technology. During normal rabbit embryo development, both sequences maintained hypermethylation status until the 8- to 16-cell stage when progressive demethylation took place. In cloned embryos, the single-copy gene promoter sequence was rapidly demethylated and preco-ciously de novo methylated, while the satellite sequence mainrained the donor-type methylation status in all examined stages. Our results indicate that unique sequences as well as satellitesequences may have aberrant methylation patterns in cloned embryos.

  14. Correlation between embryo morphology and development and chromosomal complement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vy Phan; Eva Littman; Dee Harris; Antoine La

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlation between embryo morphology and the chromosomal status using the array comparative genomic hybridization [array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH)] technique for screening 23 chromosome pairs in a single blastomere biopsy from Day 3 embryos. Methods: One thousand five hundred and fifty seven embryos were included from 203 cycle ICSI patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening. The 23 chromosome pairs were analyzed by blastomere biopsy from day 3 embryos using a-CGH array method. Embryo development rate, fragmentation rate and chromosome status of the analyzed blastomeres were recorded and correlated with the aCGH results. Results: The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in slow-and fast cleaving embryos at day 3 after insemination. The incidence of fragmentation and the type of fragmentation was associated with an increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities. The symmetry of the blastomeres also correlated with the aneuploidy rates. Conclusions:Embryo development rate and morphological parameter such as degree, type of fragmentation and the symmetry of the blastomeres to a large extent reflect the cytogenetic status of the embryo and thus are important in the selection of embryos with the highest implantation potential.

  15. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Liu, Ying;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time......-lapse monitored for 24 h or analyzed by diffential staining. After warming, the embryos had to be cultured for at least 8 h before their survival rates were stabilized. Both the survival rate and 8 h and the hatching rate at 24 h of Day 4 embryos were significantly higher than those vitrified on Day5 or Day 6 (P...

  16. Mouse embryos' fusion for the tetraploid complementation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsenstein, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Production of the germline-competent chimeras using genetically modified ES cell lines is an essential step in the establishment of novel mouse models. In addition chimeras provide a powerful tool to study the cell lineage and to analyze complex phenotypes of mutant mice. Mouse chimeras with tetraploid embryos are used to rescue extraembryonic defects, to analyze an impact of gene function on specific lineage, to study the interaction between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, and to produce mutant embryos and mice for the phenotype analysis. Tetraploid embryos are generated by the fusion of two blastomeres of the mouse embryo. The applications of tetraploid complementation assay and the protocol are described below.

  17. [Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

    2014-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage.

  18. Cryopreservation of Byrsonima intermedia embryos followed by room temperature thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Coutinho Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima intermedia is a shrub from the Brazilian Cerrado with medicinal properties. The storage of biological material at ultra-low temperatures (-196°C is termed cryopreservation and represents a promising technique for preserving plant diversity. Thawing is a crucial step that follows cryopreservation. The aim of this work was to cryopreserve B. intermedia zygotic embryos and subsequently thaw them at room temperature in a solution rich in sucrose. The embryos were decontaminated and desiccated in a laminar airflow hood for 0-4 hours prior to plunging into liquid nitrogen. The embryo moisture content (% MC during dehydration was assessed. Cryopreserved embryos were thawed in a solution rich in sucrose at room temperature, inoculated in a germination medium and maintained in a growth chamber. After 30 days, the embryo germination was evaluated. No significant differences were observed between the different embryo dehydration times, where they were dehydrated for at least one hour. Embryos with a MC between 34.3 and 20.3% were germinated after cryopreservation. In the absence of dehydration, all embryos died following cryopreservation. We conclude that B. intermedia zygotic embryos can be successfully cryopreserved and thawed at room temperature after at least one hour of dehydration in a laminar airflow bench.

  19. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  20. Wound healing ability of Xenopus laevis embryos. I. Rapid wound closure achieved by bisectional half embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yasuko; Noda, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Ihara, Setsunosuke

    2005-10-01

    We examined wound closure in 'half embryos' produced by the transverse bisection of Xenopus laevis embryos at the primary eye vesicle stage. Both the anterior- and posterior-half embryos survived for more than 6 days, and grew into 'half tadpoles'. Histology and videomicroscopy revealed that the open wound in the half embryo was rapidly closed by an epithelial sheet movement in the wound marginal zone. The time-course of wound closure showed a downward convex curve: the wound area decreased to one-fifth of the original area within 30 min, and the wound continued to contract slowly thereafter. The rapidity of closure of the epidermis as well as the absence of inflammatory cells are typical features of an embryonic type of wound healing. There was a dorso-ventral polarity in the motility of the epidermis: the wound was predominantly closed by the ventral and lateral epidermis. The change in the contour of the wound edge with time suggested a complex mechanism involved in the wound closure that could not be explained only by the purse-string theory. The present experimental system would be a unique and useful model for analyses of cellular movements in the embryonic epithelia.

  1. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  2. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all... actions. The ESA requires the development of recovery plans for each listed species unless such a...

  3. 75 FR 39916 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and requests... ``Sei Whale Recovery Plan Information'' 3. Mail: National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of...

  4. Precocious germination and its regulation in embryos of triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale var. Lasko embryos, isolated from grain gathered at milk ripeness, the beginning of wax ripeness and at full ripeness, were allowed to germinate for 48 h on agar with glucose. The highest incorporation of tritiated adenosine into polyribosomal RNA during germination was found in the ribosome fractions from embryos of grain gathered at full ripeness, lower incorporation was in preparations from embryos of milk ripe grain and the lowest in preparations from embryos of wax ripe grain. Different tendencies were observed in respect to the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. The highest incorporation of 14C-amino acids into ribosomal proteins was found in preparations of ribosome fractions from embryos of milk ripe grain, lower in preparations of embryos from fully ripe grain, the lowest in preparations of embryos from wax ripe grain. ABA (10-4 M completely inhibited the external symptoms of germination of immature embryos, while its inhibition of the synthesis of polyribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins was greater the more mature the embryos that were germinated. The greatest stimulation of precocious germination by exogenous BA and GA3 was demonstrated in the least mature embryos isolated from milk ripe grain. Under the influence of both stimulators, an increase of the proportion of polyribosomes in the total ribosome fraction occurred in this sample, as did a rise in the intensity of ribosomal protein synthesis. The incorporation of 3H-adenosine into polyribosomal RNA, however, was lower than in the control sample. The results obtained suggest that the regulation of precocious germination of triticale embryos by phyto-hormones is not directly related to transcription.

  5. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  6. Sex and PRNP genotype determination in preimplantation caprine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, F; Perreau, C; Cavarroc, C; Touzé, J-L; Pougnard, J-L; Dupont, F; Beckers, J-F; Rémy, B; Babilliot, J-M; Bed'Hom, B; Lamorinière, J M; Mermillod, P; Baril, G

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the accuracy of genotype diagnosis after whole amplification of DNA extracted from biopsies obtained by trimming goat embryos and to evaluate the viability of biopsied embryos after vitrification/warming and transfer. Whole genome amplification (WGA) was performed using Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA). Sex and prion protein (PRNP) genotypes were determined. Sex diagnosis was carried out by PCR amplification of ZFX/ZFY and Y chromosome-specific sequences. Prion protein genotype determination was performed on codons 142, 154, 211, 222 and 240. Embryos were collected at day 7 after oestrus and biopsied either immediately after collection (blastocysts and expanded blastocysts) or after 24 h of in vitro culture (compacted morulae). Biopsied embryos were frozen by vitrification. Vitrified whole embryos were kept as control. DNA of biopsies was extracted and amplified using MDA. Sex diagnosis was efficient for 97.4% of biopsies and PRNP genotyping was determined in 78.7% of biopsies. After embryo transfer, no significant difference was observed in kidding rate between biopsied and vitrified control embryos, whereas embryo survival rate was different between biopsied and whole vitrified embryos (p = 0.032). At birth, 100% of diagnosed sex and 98.2% of predetermined codons were correct. Offspring PRNP profiles were in agreement with parental genotype. Whole genome amplification with MDA kit coupled with sex diagnosis and PRNP genotype predetermination are very accurate techniques to genotype goat embryos before transfer. These novel results allow us to plan selection of scrapie-resistant genotypes and kid sex before transfer of cryopreserved embryo.

  7. Cryopreservation of coffee zygotic embryos: dehydration and osmotic rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa de Siqueira Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Conservation of plant genetic resources is important to prevent genetic erosion. Seed banks are the most common method of ex situ conservation; however, coffee seeds can not be stored by conventional methods. Cryopreservation is a viable alternative for long-term conservation of species that produce intermediate or recalcitrant seeds, as coffee. The aim of this work was to cryopreserve Coffea arabica L. cv Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 zygotic embryos, and analyse the effects of dehydration prior cryopreservation and osmotic rehydration after thawing, in embryos germination and seedlings formation after cryopreservation. Prior to cryopreservation, different dehydration times (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min were tested. Dehydrated embryos were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for 1 hour, and after thawing were rehydrated by osmotic solutions. Dehydrated and non-cryopreserved embryos were also analysed. The test with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC was used to evaluate the embryos viability. Non-dehydrated embryos did not survive after freezing. Embryos that were dehydrated until 20% of the moisture content did not germinate when osmotic rehydration was not performed. In contrast, cryopreserved embryos with the same moisture content presented 98% germination when they were rehydrated slowly in osmotic solution. According to tetrazolium tests, embryos presented maximum viability (75% after dehydration for 60 minutes (23% moisture content. Therefore, coffee zygotic embryos (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho can be successfully cryopreserved using physical dehydration in silica gel for 60 minutes (23% moisture content, followed by osmotic rehydration after thawing. This method allowed a germination of 98% of cryopreserved zygotic embryos.

  8. Tracking individual nanodiamonds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, David A; Kowarsky, Mark; Zeeshan, Nida F; Barson, Michael S J; Hall, Liam; Yan, Yan; Kaufmann, Stefan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Scholten, Robert; Saint, Robert B; Murray, Michael J; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2013-01-01

    Tracking the dynamics of fluorescent nanoparticles during embryonic development allows insights into the physical state of the embryo and, potentially, molecular processes governing developmental mechanisms. In this work, we investigate the motion of individual fluorescent nanodiamonds micro-injected into Drosophila melanogaster embryos prior to cellularisation. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and wide-field imaging techniques are applied to individual fluorescent nanodiamonds in blastoderm cells during stage 5 of development to a depth of ~40 \\mu m. The majority of nanodiamonds in the blastoderm cells during cellularisation exhibit free diffusion with an average diffusion coefficient of (6 $\\pm$ 3) x 10$^{-3}$ \\mu m$^2$/s, (mean $\\pm$ SD). Driven motion in the blastoderm cells was also observed with an average velocity of 0.13 $\\pm$ 0.10 \\mu m/s (mean $\\pm$ SD) \\mu m/s and an average applied force of 0.07 $\\pm$ 0.05 pN (mean $\\pm$ SD). Nanodiamonds in the periplasm between the nuclei and yolk were also...

  9. Embryo cryopreservation and in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos in Campbell's hamster (Phodopus campbelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei; Brusentsev, Eugeny; Kizilova, Elena; Igonina, Tatyana; Abramova, Tatyana; Rozhkova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to compare different protocols of Campbell's hamster (Phodopus campbelli) embryos freezing-thawing and to explore the possibilities of their in vitro culture. First, the embryos were flushed from the reproductive ducts 2 days post coitum at the two-cell stage and cultured in rat one-cell embryo culture medium (R1ECM) for 48 hours. Most (86.7%) of the two-cell embryos developed to blastocysts in R1ECM. Second, the embryos at the two- to eight-cell stages were flushed on the third day post coitum. The eight-cell embryos were frozen in 0.25 mL straws according to standard procedures of slow cooling. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used either as a single cryoprotectant or in a mixture with sucrose. The survival of frozen-thawed embryos was assessed by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. The use of EG as a single cryoprotectant resulted in fewer alive embryos when compared with control (fresh embryos), but combined use of EG and sucrose improved the survival rate after thawing. Furthermore, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor rat (2 ng/mL) improved the rate of the hamster frozen-thawed embryo development in vitro by increasing the final cell number and alleviating nuclear fragmentation. Our data show the first attempt in freezing and thawing Campbell's hamster embryos and report the possibility of successful in vitro culture for this species in R1ECM supplemented with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

  10. Expression of connexins in human preimplantation embryos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leese Henry J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercellular communication via gap junctions is required to coordinate developmental processes in the mammalian embryo. We have investigated if the connexin (Cx isoforms known to form gap junctions in rodent preimplantation embryos are also expressed in human embryos, with the aim of identifying species differences in communication patterns in early development. Using a combination of polyA PCR and immunocytochemistry we have assessed the expression of Cx26, Cx31, Cx32, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 which are thought to be important in early rodent embryos. The results demonstrate that Cx31 and Cx43 are the main connexin isoforms expressed in human preimplantation embryos and that these isoforms are co-expressed in the blastocyst. Cx45 protein is expressed in the blastocyst but the protein may be translated from a generally low level of transcripts: which could only be detected in the PN to 4-cell embryos. Interestingly, Cx40, which is expressed by the extravillous trophoblast in the early human placenta, was not found to be expressed in the blastocyst trophectoderm from which this tissue develops. All of the connexin isoforms in human preimplantation embryos are also found in rodents pointing to a common regulation of these connexins in development of rodent and human early embryos and perhaps other species.

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns in cultured mouse embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian; CUI Xiuhong; LEI Tinghua; LIU Lei; AN Xiaorong; CHEN Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    Mouse early embryos undergo genome-wide demethylation and remethylation events during pre-implantation development. Abnormal methylation reprogramming is thought to be associated with development arrest. Using immunofiuorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), we examined the genome methylation patterns of mouse embryos cultured in vitro. The results did not show the difference in staining patterns between development-blocked two-cell embryos that cultured in vitro and the two-cell embryos that were freshly collected from the donor mice. But in vitro-arrested morulae displayed a strong positive staining when compared to the morulae freshly collected from the donor mice. At the blastocyst stage, although most embryos showed the expected methylation patterns, with highly stained inner cell mass (ICM) and weekly stained trophectoderm (TE), a proportion of embryos were dimly stained in both ICM and TE. These results indicated that the methylation profile of the embryos could be changed by culturing in vitro when the embryos were in the transition from morulae to blastocyst.

  12. Oocyte-to-embryo transition: kinase cabal plots regime change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, David; Lee, Laura A

    2006-02-07

    The transition from oocyte to embryo is among the most enthralling events in developmental biology. Recent studies of this transition in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed how conserved kinases administer the destruction of key oocyte meiotic regulators to create an embryo.

  13. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  14. Embryo implantation: A time for recalling and forwarding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qi; PENG HongYing; ZHANG Ying; LEI Li; CAO YuJing; Duan EnKui

    2009-01-01

    The success of embryo implantation is a critical step towards further embryo development and pregnancy outcome.The observations and investigations on embryo implantation have been over a century.A huge body of knowledge has been accumulated in anatomy,histology,ultrastructure and hormonal regulation; as well as recently in depth information about molecular signaling pathways got from studies of genomic wide gene screening and specific gene deletion.The knowledge from basic research has also substantially helped to initiate and improve the Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) in clinical applications.Now we've known that the normal embryo implantation involves the embryo's development into an implantation-competent blastocyst and the synchronized transformation of uteri into a receptive stage.The interdependent relationship between the blastocyst and uterus involves complicated hormonal regulation and local paracrine,juxtacrine interactions.In this paper,we review some important historical findings regarding uterine receptivity and blastocyst activation,as well as some less discussed topics such as embryo spacing,embryo orientation.Further understandings on detailed mechanisms during the process of embryo implantation will help cure women infertility as well as develop new generation of non-steroids contraceptives.

  15. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echten-Arends, J. van; Mastenbroek, S.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Heineman, M.J.; Veen, F. van der; Repping, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  16. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  17. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  18. Development of hematopoietic stem cell activity in the mouse embryo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Müller (Albrecht); A. Medvinsky; J. Strouboulis (John); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe precise time of appearance of the first hematopoietic stem cell activity in the developing mouse embryo is unknown. Recently the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the developing mouse embryo has been shown to possess hematopoietic colony-forming activity (CFU-S) in irradiated recipie

  19. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Margot E.; Weijers, Dolf

    2015-01-01

    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mec

  20. The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation.

  1. Microfluidic protocol for in vitro culture of human embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Zhenxia; Kieslinger, D.C.; Vergouw, C.; Kostelijk, H.; Lambalk, C.B.; Le Gac, S.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro culture of pre-implantation embryos is a key-step in Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) protocols. In present work we examine the potential of microfluidic devices for pre-implantation human embryo culture, in comparison with conventional droplet-based culture (control). Donated froze

  2. The human embryo in the Christian tradition: a reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A

    2005-12-01

    Recent claims that the Christian tradition justifies destructive research on human embryos have drawn upon an article by the late Professor Gordon Dunstan which appeared in this journal in 1984. Despite its undoubted influence, this article was flawed and seriously misrepresented the tradition of Christian reflection on the moral status of the human embryo.

  3. Abnormal Structure of Embryo Sac in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hai-bin; FENG Jiu-huan; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong

    2006-01-01

    The structures of mature embryo sacs in 13 genetic stock lines of autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa L.), including indica,japonica and javanica, were studied by using the whole-mount stain-clearing laser scanning confocal microscopy (WCLSM).Among the 13 autotetrapioid rice, the majority of ovaries possess normal polygonum-type embryo sacs, while a few ovaries were characterized by abnormal embryo sacs. The abnormalities of embryo sacs could be classified into six categories, i. e. no female The frequency of abnormal embryo sac in japonica (26.6%) was higher than that in indica (19.34%). In addition, the major abnormalities in each autotetraploid line varied, suggesting that the abnormalities may be related to the genotypes of the varieties.

  4. Toxicity test of xanthone from mangosteen on zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Muhammad Akram Mohd; Noor, Mahanem Mat; Kamaruddin, Wan Mohd Aizat Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2016-11-01

    Xanthone is a chemical compound identified in mangosteen pericarp. A previous study showed that xanthone has anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study we investigate the toxicity level of xanthone in zebrafish embryo to for future reference on other animal model. We employed Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) assay to determine the toxicity level of different concentrations of xanthone. Embryos were observed at 24, 48 and 72 hours post fertilization (hpf) under microscope at 4× magnification. The extract showed toxicity effect on embryo at concentrations of 250, 125 and 62.5 µg/mL. Concentrations at 15.63, 7.81 and 3.91 µg / mL of xanthone did not harm the embryos and showed 100% of survival.

  5. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Christopher R; Morris, Melissa M

    2016-01-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo's eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adia...

  6. Short latency vestibular evoked potentials in the chicken embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were recorded in chicken embryos incubated for 19 or 20 days (E19/E20). Responses occurred within the first 16 ms following the stimulus onset. The evoked potentials disappeared following bilateral labyrinthectomy, but persisted following cochlear destruction alone, thus demonstrating that the responses were vestibular. Approximately 8 to 10 response peaks could be identified. The first 4 positive and corresponding negative components (early peaks with latencies embryos was -15.9dBre 1.0 g/ms, which was significantly higher (P embryos and 2-week-old animals, but amplitude/intensity functions for embryos were significantly shallower than those for 2-week-old birds (P embryo and, as such, the method shows promise as an investigative tool. The results of the present study form the definitive basis for using vestibular evoked potentials in the detailed study of avian vestibular ontogeny and factors that may influence it.

  7. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  8. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajini, K K; Karun, A; Amamath, C H; Engelmann, F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of preculture conditions, vitrification and unloading solutions on survival and regeneration of coconut zygotic embryos after cryopreservation. Among the seven plant vitrification solutions tested, PVS3 was found to be the most effective for regeneration of cryopreserved embryos. The optimal protocol involved preculture of embryos for 3 days on medium with 0.6 M sucrose, PVS3 treatment for 16 h, rapid cooling and rewarming and unloading in 1.2 M sucrose liquid medium for 1.5 h. Under these conditions, 70-80 survival (corresponding to size enlargement and weight gain) was observed with cryopreserved embryos and 20-25 percent of the plants regenerated (showing normal shoot and root growth) from cryopreserved embryos were established in pots.

  9. Splitting embryos on the slippery slope: ethics and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    1994-09-01

    Neither the George Washington University embryo splitting experiment nor the technique of embryo splitting itself has ethical flaws. The experiment harmed or wronged no one, and the investigators followed intramural review procedures for the experiment, although some might fault them for failing to seek extramural consultation or for not waiting until national guidelines for research on preembryos were developed. Ethical objections to such cloning on the basis of possible loss of individuality, possible lessening of individual worth, and concern about potential harm to the resulting children are discussed and challenged, as are objections to the creation of embryos for the purpose of genetic diagnosis. Many of the ethical questions raised by the George Washington experiment are similar to those posed by existing reproductive technologies that allow the simultaneous production of several embryos. A multidisciplinary group should consider whether regulation of cloning is needed, and laws should be enacted to prohibit a commercial market for all frozen embryos.

  10. Inoculation of somatic embryos of sweet potato with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus improves embryo survival and plantlet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, W; de Carvalho, C H; Sylvia, D M

    2000-08-01

    Responses of somatic embryos of sweet potato (Ipomoea batata (L.) Poir., cv. White Star) at different developmental stages to in vitro inoculation with Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) (isolate INVAM FL329) were evaluated. Somatic embryos were grown in glass tubes containing sterilized vermiculite and sand. A layer of natrosol plus White's medium was used as a carrier for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores. Survival of embryos inoculated with AM fungi was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of noninoculated embryos at the rooted-cotyledonary-torpedo and rooted-elongated-torpedo developmental stages. Mycorrhizae significantly (P < 0.05) increased plantlet formation only when inoculation occurred at the rooted-elongated-torpedo developmental stage. The growth stage at which the embryos were inserted into the glass tubes exerted a significant influence upon plantlet formation, and plantlet formation was further enhanced by inoculation with G. etunicatum. Plantlet formation was greatest at the rooted-elongated-torpedo stage. These results demonstrate that inoculation of somatic embryos with AM fungi improves embryo survival and plantlet formation, and could enhance use of somatic embryos as synthetic seeds.

  11. Developmental sequence of Cambrian embryo Markuelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XiPing

    2007-01-01

    Based on more exquisitely preserved specimens of Markuelia hunanensis recently recovered from Middle and Upper Cambrian in western Hunan and in the light of Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, the developmental sequence from cleavage through organogenesis to the pre-hatching of Cambrian embryo Markuelia, especially the developmental sequence during the pre-hatching stage, i.e. from the earliest period when the scalids and tail spines only took shape to the latest period (just about hatching), is established. This developmental sequence provides a pattern of embryonic development during the pre-hatching stage, which has not been established in the living scalidophorans (priapulids, Ioriciferans and kinorhynchs). Thus, it not only enriches our knowledge on the embryonic development of the extant descendants of Markuelia, but also opens a new window to the evolution and development of the animal.

  12. Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in embryo neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K Yaragudri; Cao, Jin; Xie, Shan; Hyson, Richard L; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; He, Weimin; Cooper, Thomas B; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Finnell, Richard H

    2012-04-01

    In utero exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental defects in the offspring by interfering with the functioning of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. At the present time, it is not clearly known whether the eCB system is present before neurogenesis. Using an array of biochemical techniques, we analyzed the levels of CB1 receptors, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG), and the enzymes (NAPE-PLD, DAGLα, DAGLβ, MAGL, and FAAH) involved in the metabolism of the eCBs in chick and mouse models during development. The findings demonstrate the presence of eCB system in early embryo before neurogenesis. The eCB system might play a critical role in early embryogenesis and there might be adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to marijuana and other drugs of abuse during this period.

  13. Natural selection of human embryos: decidualizing endometrial stromal cells serve as sensors of embryo quality upon implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Teklenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is widely viewed as dependent upon an intimate dialogue, mediated by locally secreted factors between a developmentally competent embryo and a receptive endometrium. Reproductive success in humans is however limited, largely because of the high prevalence of chromosomally abnormal preimplantation embryos. Moreover, the transient period of endometrial receptivity in humans uniquely coincides with differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs into highly specialized decidual cells, which in the absence of pregnancy invariably triggers menstruation. The role of cyclic decidualization of the endometrium in the implantation process and the nature of the decidual cytokines and growth factors that mediate the crosstalk with the embryo are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a human co-culture model, consisting of decidualizing ESCs and single hatched blastocysts, to identify the soluble factors involved in implantation. Over the 3-day co-culture period, approximately 75% of embryos arrested whereas the remainder showed normal development. The levels of 14 implantation factors secreted by the stromal cells were determined by multiplex immunoassay. Surprisingly, the presence of a developing embryo had no significant effect on decidual secretions, apart from a modest reduction in IL-5 levels. In contrast, arresting embryos triggered a strong response, characterized by selective inhibition of IL-1beta, -6, -10, -17, -18, eotaxin, and HB-EGF secretion. Co-cultures were repeated with undifferentiated ESCs but none of the secreted cytokines were affected by the presence of a developing or arresting embryo. CONCLUSIONS: Human ESCs become biosensors of embryo quality upon differentiation into decidual cells. In view of the high incidence of gross chromosomal errors in human preimplantation embryos, cyclic decidualization followed by menstrual shedding may represent a mechanism of natural embryo selection that limits

  14. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %.

  15. From embryo sac to oil and protein bodies: embryo development in the model legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ding; Song, Youhong; Sheahan, Michael B; Garg, Manohar L; Rose, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    • The cell and developmental biology of zygotic embryogenesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula has received little attention. We studied M. truncatula embryogenesis from embryo sac until cotyledon maturation, including oil and protein body biogenesis. • We characterized embryo development using light and electron microscopy, measurement of protein and lipid fatty acid accumulation and by profiling the expression of key seed storage genes. • Embryo sac development in M. truncatula is of the Polygonum type. A distinctive multicellular hypophysis and suspensor develops before the globular stage and by the early cotyledon stage, the procambium connects the developing apical meristems. In the storage parenchyma of cotyledons, ovoid oil bodies surround protein bodies and the plasma membrane. Four major lipid fatty acids accumulate as cotyledons develop, paralleling the expression of OLEOSIN and the storage protein genes, VICILIN and LEGUMIN. • Zygotic embryogenesis in M. truncatula features the development of a distinctive multicellular hypophysis and an endopolyploid suspensor with basal transfer cell. A clear procambial connection between the apical meristems is evident and there is a characteristic arrangement of oil bodies in the cotyledons and radicle. Our data help link embryogenesis to the genetic regulation of oil and protein body biogenesis in legume seed.

  16. Heterogeneity of dormancy in apple embryos. [Pyrus malus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine, B.; Camille, B.

    1986-04-01

    This study concerns the heterogeneity of embryo dormancy with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between chlorophyllogenesis and dormancy. Dormant embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv. Golden delicious were cultivated on water-agar (agar 6 g/l). They were placed flat with one cotyledon in contact with the medium. After 6 days of culture at 23/sup 0/C under fluorescent light the non-germinated embryos (99% of the total) were classified in three main categories on the basis of the state of greening of their cotyledons. By application of partial dormancy releasing treatments (chilling, anaerobiosis, GA/sub 7/), it was shown that the three categories of embryos were characterized by different depths of dormancy. Germination was most difficult for the embryos which were non pigmented after the initial culture, whereas high germination percentages were rapidly reached by embryos exhibiting high degree of greening. Evaluation of ABA by radioimmunoassay shows that the three categories of embryos also differ in their ABA and ABA-GE levels. A good correlation was thus observed between depth of dormancy and levels of ABA and ABA-GE.

  17. Calciumreleasing activity induced by nuclei of mouse fertilized early embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    At fertilization, repetitive transient rises of intracellular calcium concentration occur in all mammals studied so far. It has been shown that calcium rises could be induced when mouse fertilized 1-, 2-cell nuclei were transplanted into unfertilized eggs and that the reconstituted embryo could be activated. However, whether the capability of inducing calcium rises occurs in all stages of mammalian embryos remains unknown. In this study, by using the nuclear transplantation technique and measurement of intracellular calcium rises in living cells, we showed that only the nuclei from mouse fertilized 1-cell and 2-cell embryos, neither the nuclei from 4-, 8-cell and ethanol activated parthenogenetic embryos nor 2 or 3 nuclei of electrofused 4-cell stage syncytium, have calcium-releasing activity when they were transferred into unfertilized mature oocytes. Our results indicate that the calcium-releasing activity in nuclei of 1-, 2-cell embryos is produced during fertilization and exists at the special stage of fertilized early embryos. These suggested that the capacity of inducing calcium release activity in fertilized early embryos is important for normal embryonic development.

  18. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  19. Automatic Blastomere Recognition from a Single Embryo Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of blastomeres of human day 3 embryos is one of the most important criteria for evaluating embryo viability. However, due to the transparency and overlap of blastomeres, it is a challenge to recognize blastomeres automatically using a single embryo image. This study proposes an approach based on least square curve fitting (LSCF for automatic blastomere recognition from a single image. First, combining edge detection, deletion of multiple connected points, and dilation and erosion, an effective preprocessing method was designed to obtain part of blastomere edges that were singly connected. Next, an automatic recognition method for blastomeres was proposed using least square circle fitting. This algorithm was tested on 381 embryo microscopic images obtained from the eight-cell period, and the results were compared with those provided by experts. Embryos were recognized with a 0 error rate occupancy of 21.59%, and the ratio of embryos in which the false recognition number was less than or equal to 2 was 83.16%. This experiment demonstrated that our method could efficiently and rapidly recognize the number of blastomeres from a single embryo image without the need to reconstruct the three-dimensional model of the blastomeres first; this method is simple and efficient.

  20. Shaping the norms that regulate international commerce of embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Julie A; Stringfellow, David A

    2014-01-01

    As various embryo technologies in livestock were developed and evolved to a state of usefulness over the past 40 years, scientists with a specific interest in infectious diseases sought to determine the epidemiologic consequences of movement, especially international movement, of increasing numbers of embryos. Many of the foundational studies in this area were reported in Theriogenology, beginning in the 1970s and especially throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Unquestionably, Theriogenology has been a widely used venue for dissemination of basic information on this subject, which ultimately led to the development of the now universally accepted techniques for certification of embryo health. Today it is well-recognized that movement in commerce of embryos, especially in vivo-derived embryos, is a very low-risk method for exchange of animal germ plasm. This paper chronicles the evolution of strategies for health certification of embryos. An overview is provided of the calculated efforts of practitioners, scientists, and regulators to organize, forge necessary partnerships, stimulate needed research, provide purposeful analysis of the results, and, through these processes, guarantee the universal acceptance of efficient protocols for certifying the health of embryos intended for movement in international commerce.

  1. Enhancement of NMRI Mouse Embryo Development In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the systematic studies used in the development of human embryo culture media have been done first on mouse embryos. The general use of NMRI outbred mice is a model for toxicology, teratology and pharmacology. NMRI mouse embryo exhibit the two-cell block in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of four kinds of culture media on the development of zygotes (NMRI after embryo vitrification. One-cell mouse embryos were obtained from NMRI mice after superovulation and mating with adult male NMRI mice. And then randomly divided into 4 groups for culture in four different cultures media including: M16 (A, DMEM/Ham, F-12 (B, DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with Vero cells(C and DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with MEF cells (D. Afterward all of the embryos were vitrified in EFS40 solution and collected. Results of our study revealed, more blastocysts significantly were developed with co-culture with MEF cells in DMEM/Ham's F-12 medium. More research needed to understand the effect of other components of culture medium, and co-culture on NMRI embryo development.

  2. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha in preimplantation mice embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in preimplantation mice embryos.Methods:Mice zygotes were collected from superovulated Kunming mice and cultured in vitro.Embryos at different developmental stages were collected at 0,24,36,48,72 and 96hours after cultivation.The expression of ERα in early mice embryos was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry.Results:The expression of ERα mRNA was detected in all of the examined embryonic stages.The relative amount of ERα mRNA showed no significant difference between 1-cell stage embryos and 4-cell stage embryos (P>0.05).However,the relative level of ERα mRNA significantly decreased (P<0.05) at 2-cell stage and was the lowest at this stage.Over 2-cell stage,the ERα mRNA relative level would increase and achieve the peak level at blastocyst stage.The location of immunocytochemistry showed that ERα immunopositive cells could be firstly detected at 8-cell stage,after which they are consistently detected until blastocyst stage.In addition,the intensity of ERα positive staining was higher at blastocyst stage compared with that at 8-cell stage and morula stage.Conclusion:ERα is expressed in preimplantation mice embryos in a temporal and spatial pattern and may be involved in regulating the development of early mice embryos,which probably plays crucial roles in early embryonic development.

  3. Evaluating the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for pesticide hazard screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Padilla, Stephanie; Barron, Mace G

    2016-10-04

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r(2 ) = 0.28; p zebrafish embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r(2)  = 0.64; p pesticide mode of action was factored into an analysis of covariance. This discrepancy is partly explained by the large number of neurotoxic pesticides in the dataset, supporting previous findings that commonly used fish embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test for routine pesticide hazard assessment, although embryo testing could be used with other screening tools for testing prioritization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-6. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  5. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  6. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  7. The avian embryo responding to microgravity of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Ronald L.

    1993-01-01

    Of all the many potential and real microenvironmental influences, only gravity would appear to have remained relatively constant and ubiquitous for developing organisms. Histo- and organogenesis as well as differential growth of the embryo and fetus may have evolved with a constant environmental factor of gravity. Chick embryos of 2-day and 9-day stages of incubation were flown in an incubator on the Space Shuttle during a 9-day mission. Significant differences in embryo response to this microgravity environment were observed. This paper offers an analysis and suggests mechanisms which may contribute to these results.

  8. Definition and characterization of data needs to describe the potential effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on marine fisheries from the northeast Pacific Ocean. [Theragra chalcogramma; Clupea harengus pallasi; Pandalus borealis; Limanda aspera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, R.M.; Grosse, D.J.; Stubin, A.I.; Ostrander, G.K.; Sibley, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    Four northeast Pacific region case study species were studied to determine individual fishery responses to climate change. These fishes (Alaska pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis; and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera) represent a spectrum of habitats and life cycles among commercially important species, and the northeast Pacific (including the eastern Bering Sea) is relatively well-studied and representative of subpolar continental shelf areas that also are important in the North Atlantic. In addition to the general effects of climate, these fisheries have specific climate-related environmental sensitivities: (a) pollock sensitivity to ice extent, cannibalism, and bird and mammal predation in the Bering Sea, and to coastal currents in the Gulf of Alaska; (b) sensitivity of herring to waves, dessication, and probably currents in the immediate vicinity of discrete spawning beaches along the British Columbia coast; (c) the relative insensitivity of bottom-dwelling shrimp to temperature changes; and (d) the probable sensitivity of yellowfin sole to ice extent and to associated changes in food supply caused by alterations in plankton species composition. It is difficult to extrapolate from the results of the present case studies to other fisheries. These results are particularly inapplicable to other major categories of fisheries, including open-ocean, upwelling, and tropical and subtropical shelf fisheries. Such fisheries should be the focus of additional case studies. Possible temperature effects on the incidence of disease and parasitism in fish also should be investigated.

  9. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern.

  10. Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2014-08-01

    Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. The effect of sevoflurane on developing A/J strain mouse embryos using a whole-embryo culture system--the incidence of cleft lip in culture embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Morimasa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ohgami, Saori; Kanazawa, Mayuko; Harada, Jun; Ohno, Norikazu; Natsume, Nagato

    2014-03-01

    A/J strain mice have a high spontaneous incidence of cleft lip (ICL) and/or palate. The primary palate-related effects of sevoflurane on developing A/J strain mouse embryos (embryos) were studied using a whole-embryo culture (WEC) system. This system could separate the direct effects of sevoflurane from those that are maternally mediated. A total of 205 10.5-d embryos were cultured for 24 h in either a control group (control gas: 95% O2 and 5% CO2) or sevoflurane-administered groups (1/4, 1/2, and 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) with control gas) for 8 h. After 16 h, 11.5-d culture embryos were examined in terms of crown-rump length, number of somites, and protein content. Crown-rump length in the 1 MAC was significantly shorter than in the control group (p < 0.05). Protein content in the 1/2 MAC (p < 0.05) and 1 MAC (p < 0.001) was significantly lower than in the control group. The ICL showed no significant differences between each group. (The ICL rose with an increase in the sevoflurane concentration, but this was not significant). The positive findings in this study indicate that a WEC system is useful for studying the mechanisms of ICL (teratogenicity) associated with sevoflurane.

  14. Alpha-particle-induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Nikezic, D. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    Dechorionaed embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at 1.5 h post-fertilization (hpf) were irradiated with alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 mum were used as support substrates for holding the embryos and recorded alpha-particle hit positions, and thus enabled calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryos. The irradiated embryos were subsequently incubated with naive (unirradiated) embryos in such a way that the irradiated and naive embryos were spatially separated but the medium was shared. Acridine orange was used to perform in vital staining to show cell deaths in the naive embryos at 24 hpf. Our results gave evidence in supporting the existence of alpha-particle-induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos in vivo, and a general positive correlation between the cell death signals in the naive embryos and the alpha-particle dose absorbed by the irradiated embryos.

  15. New mechanism for neural stem cell maintenance in early embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teamning up with co-workers from Japan, UK and US,CAS biochemists have revealed a novel mechanism for maintaining neural stem cells in early embryos. Their work was published on the 6 August issue of Cell Development.

  16. Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-03-01

    Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources.

  17. Targeted mutagenesis in sea urchin embryos using TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Sayaka; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been reported in various animals. We previously described ZFN-mediated targeted mutagenesis and insertion of reporter genes in sea urchin embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that TALENs can induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci of sea urchin embryos. Injection of TALEN mRNAs targeting the HpEts transcription factor into fertilized eggs resulted in the impairment of skeletogenesis. Sequence analyses of the mutations showed that deletions and/or insertions occurred at the HpEts target site in the TALEN mRNAs-injected embryos. The results suggest that targeted gene disruption using TALENs is feasible in sea urchin embryos.

  18. SSR markers for Quercus suber tree identification and embryo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Pintos, B; Aguiriano, E; Manzanera, J A; Bueno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Three Quercus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nuclear DNA extracts of trees and in vitro-induced haploid embryos from anther cultures of Quercus suber L. These markers were sufficiently polymorphic to identify 10 of 12 trees located in two Spanish natural areas. The same loci have been analyzed in anther-derived haploid embryos showing the parental tree allele segregation. All the alleles were present in the haploid progeny. The presence of diverse alleles in embryos derived from the same anther demonstrated that they were induced on multiple microspores or pollen grains and they were not clonally propagated. Also, diploid cultures and mixtures of haploid-diploid tissues were obtained. The origin of such cultures, either somatic or gametic, was elucidated by SSR markers. All the embryos showed only one allele, corroborating a haploid origin. Allelic composition of the haploid progeny permitted parental identification among all analyzed trees.

  19. The moral status of the embryo post-Dolly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Catherine; Harris, John

    2005-04-01

    Cameron and Williamson have provided a provocative and timely review of the ethical questions prompted by the birth of Dolly. The question Cameron and Williamson seek to address is "In the world of Dolly, when does a human embryo acquire respect?". Their initial discussion sets the scene by providing a valuable overview of attitudes towards the embryo, summarising various religious, scientific, and philosophical viewpoints. They then ask, "What has Dolly changed?" and identify five changes, the first being that fertilisation is no longer required to create an embryo. Following this analysis they then ask when an embryo created other than by fertilisation begins to acquire respect. This paper explores the ethical and legal issues highlighted by Cameron and Williamson's paper.

  20. Cell adhesion in zebrafish embryos is modulated by March 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ha; Rebbert, Martha L; Ro, Hyunju; Won, Minho; Dawid, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    March 8 is a member of a family of transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases that have been studied mostly for their role in the immune system. We find that March 8 is expressed in the zebrafish egg and early embryo, suggesting a role in development. Both knock-down and overexpression of March 8 leads to abnormal development. The phenotype of zebrafish embryos and Xenopus animal explants overexpressing March 8 implicates impairment of cell adhesion as a cause of the effect. In zebrafish embryos and in cultured cells, overexpression of March 8 leads to a reduction in the surface levels of E-cadherin, a major cell-cell adhesion molecule. Experiments in cell culture further show that E-cadherin can be ubiquitinated by March 8. On the basis of these observations we suggest that March 8 functions in the embryo to modulate the strength of cell adhesion by regulating the localization of E-cadherin.

  1. [A method for DNA template preparation using a single embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Feng; Li, Hai-Feng; Song, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Jia-Hua

    2005-09-01

    We established a simple method for the preparation of DNA template from a single oocyte or early embryo by KOH/DTT-Triton X disintegration. The PCR amplification efficiency of DNA template prepared by this method was compared with that prepared by TE-proteinase K. Single oocyte, 2-cell embryo, 8-cell embryo, morula or blastocyst were separately treated by KOH/DTT-Triton X, then the DNA template was directly used to amplify mitochondrial DNA segment by PCR. The overall PCR success rate of the 3 pairs of primers was 100% (70/70), while the overall PCR success rate of single oocyte treated by TE-proteinase K was 92.9% (65/70). Difference between the two results was significant (PDNA template of a single early embryo. It needed only one cycle of PCR amplification to get clear aimed DNA stripe and the efficiency was high enough to meet the need of early embryonic genetic material detection.

  2. Immature seeds and embryos of Medicago truncatula cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochatt, Sergio J

    2011-01-01

    Legumes are an important source of proteins and lipids for food and feed. In addition, they are -environmentally friendly because of their capacity to fix nitrogen through a symbiosis with Rhizobium that permits them to produce abundant proteins even in the absence of nitrogen fertilization. Seed development in plants follows three chronological steps (1) seed coat differentiation, embryo morphogenesis and endosperm development; (2) embryo maturation with storage accumulation and (3) dehydration and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Finally, germination occurs when the environmental conditions become favourable. Working with the model legume Medicago truncatula, an in vitro protocol was developed for the culture of immature embryos that permits their development in a way comparable to that observed in plants.In this chapter, the usefulness of this system for investigating embryo development in legumes is outlined.

  3. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  4. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo mo...

  5. [Preimplantation embryo development: current status and perspectives in clinical embryology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, D; Guérif, F

    2008-11-01

    Preimplantation embryo development is one of the key features with implantation itself to achieve a pregnancy. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) both in human and animal have improved our knowledge on these events, although predicting embryo potential to give a baby remains elusive. However data from the last 10 years have allowed either to hierarchize the available parameters or to open some new perspectives to predict embryo developmental potential. Both kinetics and morphological parameters belong to noninvasive quality embryo assessment for many years, although recent data on microvideographic analysis and multivariate analysis led to reduce their biological meaning. Moreover, new technical detection of meiotic spindle birefringency or zona pellucida anisotropy has improved the oocyte quality assessment with a deep impact for countries with restrictive legislation. Beyond such morphological criteria, more functional approaches concerned the oocyte (embryo) or its environment. Direct transcriptomic analysis, while invasive and therefore experimental, brought important data on embryo "quality". However, noninvasive metabolomic or proteomic analysis of embryo media gave promising results as well as respirometry. The environment of the oocyte has focused a specific attention, either based on regulatory proteins or cytokines present in follicular fluid, or involving genes or proteins from cumulus cells, as oocyte-cumulus dialog is a key factor in oocyte maturation. Whereas it is not possible for the time being to predict which parameter(s) will be implemented routinely, all data obtained underline that the ability to develop and implant is not based on embryo superlatives (more rapid, expressing more genes or proteins, larger metabolites uptake) but rather on a quiet state, as claimed by Leese some years ago, where a lot of resources would not be mobilized by any stressful situation.

  6. Endodcytic labelling of visceral endoderm of mouse perigastrulation embryos

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yoh Wada, Minako Aoyama, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Nobuyuki Kawamura & Hiroyuki Tabata ### Abstract In this protocol we describe methods for observation endocytic activity in the mouse embryos. The methods are optimised for mouse embryos at E5.5~E7.2 pregastrulation/gastrulation stages. We optimise three different experimental schemes for tracing the embryonic endocytosis. In utero labelling scheme, an endocytic tracer is introduced into circulation of a pregnant mother to follow...

  7. [The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    The possiblity of cloning human beings introduced a lot of issues in our ethical and legal frameworks. In this paper, we will put the focus into the necessary changes in the concept of embryo that our legal systems will have to implement in order to face the new situation. The description of the embryo as a group of cells able to develop into a human being will be defended here as the best way of doing so.

  8. The effects of experimentally induced adelphophagy in gastropod embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10-30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids.

  9. The effects of experimentally induced adelphophagy in gastropod embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Thomsen

    Full Text Available Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula, to answer the following 3 questions: (1 Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2 Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3 Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10-30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across

  10. Investigation of DNA repair in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroudi, S.

    2010-01-01

    DNA repair genes are expressed in mammalian embryos and in human germinal vesicles, however, little is known about DNA repair in human preimplantation embryos. This project had three aims: 1) to produce a DNA repair profile of human MII oocytes and blastocysts using expression arrays and identify repair pathways that may be active before and after embryonic genome activation; 2) to design an in vitro functional assay that targeted mismatch repair and which could be applied to human oocytes...

  11. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. III. Ultrastructure of dry embryo axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature dry winter rape (Brassica napus L., var. oleifera, cv. Górczański embryos were studied in the light and the electron microscope. Considerable modifications and regression of the cell ultrastructure were noted in the resting embryo as compared with the metabolically active cells. The degree of regression of the ultrastructure differed in the particular organs and tissues of the embryo. Of most regressed character are the cells of the storage organs - the hypocotyl and cotyledones. They are almost completely filled with protein and lipid bodies. The small spaces between them are filled with dense cytoplasm with a lobular nucleus and not numerous, difficult to identify, plastids and mitochondria. The cells of the shoot primordium and radicle, particularly of the protoderm at the boundary of the hypocotyl and root and columella of root cap have a less regressed ultrastructure. They contain less storage material, a less dense cytoplasm and nearly all cell organelles with a normal appearance. The mitochondria are quite numerous with rather large cristae. Plastids are large with characteristic infolds filled with cytoplasm and some lamellae and a few agglomerations of plastoglobules. The nucleus is lobular with distinctly double and porous nuclear envelope and uniformly dense nucleolus. These cells do not contain dictyosomes and the ER is reduced to short, mostly rough cisternae and vesicles. Cells within the columella itself are also differentiated. The least regression of ultrastructure is seen in the cells of external layers containing the most numerous and most active looking mitochondria and more ER structures. The promeristem cells are similar to those of the deeper columella layers but their mitochondria are more regressed. The cells of the lateral parts of the cap and radicle cells, distant from the promeristem are more similar to the hypocotyl cells.

  12. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  13. Angiogenic factors in relation to embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bagheri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in uterine blood supply are associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by preterm delivery, preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Adaptation of the uterine vasculature to the rising needs of the fetus occurs through both vasodilation and development of new vessels. Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from pre-existing blood vessels in response to hypoxic condition of tissues. The endometrium, decidua and placenta are rich sources of angiogenic growth factors. In general, the angiogenic process is initiated by growth factors such as VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF or bFGF. Through a complex signal transduction machinery mediated by respective receptor-tyrosine kinases, an increase in the permeability of the maternal vessels is achieved to permit growth and invasion of endothelial cells. Their chemotactic migration, formation of a vessel lumen, and functional maturation of new capillaries complete the angiogenic process that involves the expression of specific adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix-degrading proteases. During vasculogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells--angioblasts--form a primitive vascular network. This process occurs mainly during fetal development, although recruitment of angioblasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood in response to ischemic insult have been described in adults. In this review article we have described a recent complication related to angiogenic involvement in embryo implantation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 872-879

  14. Neutron induced bystander effect among zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Kong, E. Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Uchihori, Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Konishi, T.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper reported the first-ever observation of neutron induced bystander effect (NIBE) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as the in vivo model. The neutron exposure in the present work was provided by the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. Two different strategies were employed to induce NIBE, namely, through directly partnering and through medium transfer. Both results agreed with a neutron-dose window (20-50 mGy) which could induce NIBE. The lower dose limit corresponded to the threshold amount of neutron-induced damages to trigger significant bystander signals, while the upper limit corresponded to the onset of gamma-ray hormesis which could mitigate the neutron-induced damages and thereby suppress the bystander signals. Failures to observe NIBE in previous studies were due to using neutron doses outside the dose-window. Strategies to enhance the chance of observing NIBE included (1) use of a mono-energetic high-energy (e.g., between 100 keV and 2 MeV) neutron source, and (2) use of a neutron source with a small gamma-ray contamination. It appeared that the NASBEE facility used in the present study fulfilled both conditions, and was thus ideal for triggering NIBE.

  15. Expression of TRAIL in Mouse Uterine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-mei TAN; Ming-zhong HE; Qi CHEN; Guo-qi LAI; Li-zhi WANG; Yi TAN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of TRAIL in mouse uterine endometrium during embryo implantation and its role in the apoptosis of decidual cells.Methods Expression of TRAIL in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was detected with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Results The expressed level of TRAIL mRNA in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was higher during embryo implantation than that prior to embryo implantation (P<0. 05). No expression of TRAIL protein in mouse utrine endometrium was detected through d 1 to d 3. However, TRAIL protein was found in the luminal epithelial cells to which embryos attached on d 4. Moreover, TRAIL was expressed solely in decidual cells around invadting embryos through d 5 to d 6 while in trophoblastic cells adjacent to decidua through d 7 to d 8.Conclusion Apoptosis of luminal epithelial cells of endometrium induced by TRAIL could be one of mechanisms with which embryos penertrated the epithelial barrier,and apoptosis of both decidual cells and trophoblastic cells induced by TRAIL may play an important role during accruate invasion of trophoblastic cells.

  16. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.

  17. Maximum embryo absorbed dose from intravenous urography: interhospital variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K. [University of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics; Koukourakis, M. [University of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Radiology; Gourtsoyiannis, N. [University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum embryo dose during intravenous urography (IVU) examinations, when inadvertent irradiation of a pregnant woman occurs, and to investigate the variation of doses received from different institutions. Doses at average embryo depth from IVU examinations have been measured in four institutions using a Rando phantom and thermoluminescent crystals. In order to estimate the maximum range of embryo doses, radiologists were asked to carry out the examinations with the same technique as in female patients with acute ureteral obstruction. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for the institutions participating in this study was 5.77 to 35.2 mGy. The considerable interhospital variation found in dose can be explained by different equipment and techniques used. A simple method of estimating embryo dose from pelvic radiographs reported previously was found to be also applicable to IVU examinations. Absorbed dose at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, was found significantly less than 50 mGy. (Author).

  18. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  19. Embryo mechanics: balancing force production with elastic resistance during morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lance A

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis requires the spatial and temporal control of embryo mechanics, including force production and mechanical resistance to those forces, to coordinate tissue deformation and large-scale movements. Thus, biomechanical processes play a key role in directly shaping the embryo. Additional roles for embryo mechanics during development may include the patterning of positional information and to provide feedback to ensure the success of morphogenetic movements in shaping the larval body and organs. To understand the multiple roles of mechanics during development requires familiarity with engineering principles of the mechanics of structures, the viscoelastic properties of biomaterials, and the integration of force and stress within embryonic structures as morphogenesis progresses. In this chapter, we review the basic engineering principles of biomechanics as they relate to morphogenesis, introduce methods for quantifying embryo mechanics and the limitations of these methods, and outline a formalism for investigating the role of embryo mechanics in birth defects. We encourage the nascent field of embryo mechanics to adopt standard engineering terms and test methods so that studies of diverse organisms can be compared and universal biomechanical principles can be revealed.

  20. EMBRYO RESCUE Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. USING IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Yuni Astriani Dewi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyse germination percentage, effect of coconut water addition in the media to number of last stage embryos and development of final stage D. anosmum Lindl. embryo. Research was conducted at Plant Structure and Development of Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Udayana and UPT. Balai Benih Induk Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Provinsi Bali from February 2015 to July 2015. Three type of media were employed, i.e. PDA, Organic, MS. Three different concentration of coconut was added to media, i.e. 0 ml/L 50 ml/L, 100 ml/L. Results showed that seed D. anosmum Lindl. on PDA, Organic and MS has not germinated yet on all media, only swollen cells observed. Seed dormancy and maturity of seed were the main factors affecting seed germination. Addition of 100 ml / L coconut water in MS showed that media is capable to increase the formation of final stages embryos (> 32 cells. Embryo development on PDA and Organic largely showed cell stage embryos 1 to 8 cells, while MS media already showed embryo development stages of > 32 cells.

  1. In vitro culture of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Florent; Malaurie, Bernard; N'Nan, Oulo

    2011-01-01

    Coconut is a very important crop for millions of people in tropical countries. With coconut, in vitro culture protocols have been developed with two main objectives, viz. the large scale production of particular types of coconuts and the international exchange and conservation of coconut germplasm. The methods described in this chapter have been developed in the framework of collaborative activities between research institutes in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Two coconut embryo in vitro collecting protocols have been established, one consisting of storing the disinfected embryos in a KCl solution until they are brought back to the laboratory, where they are re-disinfected and inoculated in vitro under sterile conditions, and the other including in vitro inoculation of the embryos in the field. For international germplasm exchange, zygotic embryos inoculated in vitro in plastic test tubes or endosperm cylinders containing embryos in plastic bags are used. For in vitro culture, embryos are inoculated on semi-solid medium supplemented with sucrose and activated charcoal and placed in the dark, and then transferred to light conditions with the same (solid or liquid) medium once the first true leaf is visible and the root system has started developing.

  2. Parthenogenetic activation of rhesus monkey oocytes and reconstructed embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, S M; Nusser, K D; Wolf, D P

    2001-07-01

    This study determines the efficiency of sequential calcium treatments (electroporation or ionomycin) combined with protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or phosphorylation inhibitors (6-dimethylaminopurine) or the specific maturation promoting factor (MPF) inhibitor, roscovitine, in inducing artificial activation and development of rhesus macaque parthenotes or nuclear transfer embryos. Exposure of oocytes arrested at metaphase II (MII) to ionomycin followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine or to electroporation followed by cycloheximide and cytochalasin B induced pronuclear formation and development to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to control embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Parthenotes did not complete meiosis or extrude a second polar body, consistent with their presumed diploid status. In contrast, oocytes treated sequentially with ionomycin and roscovitine extruded the second polar body and formed a pronucleus at a rate higher than that observed in controls. Following reconstruction by nuclear transfer, activation with ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in embryos that contained a single pronucleus and no polar bodies. All nuclear transfer embryos activated with ionomycin/roscovitine contained one large pronucleus. However, a third of these embryos emitted one or two polar bodies, clearly containing chromatin material. In summary, we have identified simple yet effective methods of oocyte or cytoplast activation in the monkey, ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine, electroporation/cycloheximide/cytochalasin B, and ionomycin/roscovitine, which are applicable to parthenote or nuclear transfer embryo production.

  3. A cutin fluorescence pattern in developing embryos of some angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cuticle visualized by auramine O fluorescence appears on the developing embryos of 9 species belonging to Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantaginaceae, Linaceae and Papilionaceae. In the investigated species the formation and extent of fluorescing and non-fluorescing embryonic areas follow a similar pattern. At first the cutin fluorescing layer is formed on the apical part of the proembryo without delimited protoderm. This layer extends and at the late globular stage envelops the embryo proper, except for a cell adjoining the suspensor. Fluorescing cutin persists during the heart stage but disappears from the torpedo embryo. During these stages there is no cutine fluorescence on suspensorial cells. Continuous cutin fluorescence appears again on the surface of the whole embryo by the late torpedo stage. Then fluorescence disappears from the radicular part of U-shaped embryos, but persists on the shoot apex, cotyledons and at least on the upper part of hypocotyl. It is assumed that polarization and nutrition of the embryo may be influenced by cuticular changes.

  4. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  5. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  6. Co-Culture of Early Embryo with Human Decidual Stromal Cells in vitro by Improvement of Early Embryo Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jie; ZHU Guijin; LIU Jianxin; AI Jihui

    2000-01-01

    An early embryo co-culture system with human decidual stromal cells was established to study its effect on early embryonic cleavage and growth in vitro. Three hundred and eight 2-cell mouse embryos were co-cultured with human decidual stromal cell monolayer in MEM+0.4%bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 163 embryos cultured in MEM+15 % FCS alone as control. Among the mouse 2-cell embryos co-cultured with human decidual stromal cells, 72.73% developed to the morula stage and 67.21% cavitated to blastocysts with 59.74 % hatching, as compared with 61.34% to morula stage, 48.47% to blastocysts and none hatching in the controls,respectively. Co-cultured embryos cleaved slightly faster than controls and showed no or less fragmentation than those in the control. These results suggested that human decidual stromal cells can support early embryonic development and yield a reasonable number of embryos with good quality up to blastocyst stage.

  7. Outcomes of elective cryopreserved single or double embryo transfers following failure to conceive after fresh single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Mirisola, R J; Gonçalves, S P; Baracat, Edmund C; Serafini, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    The main adverse effect of IVF is the high multiple pregnancy rate resulting from the transfer of two or more embryos. The objective was to evaluate pregnancy rates in infertile women with a good prognosis who failed to conceive in a fresh elective single embryo transfer (eSET) and had a second cycle with elective double vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (eDFET) compared with elective single vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (eSFET). A total of 142 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using a conventional protocol were evaluated. Good-prognosis patients underwent eSET in a fresh cycle, and those who failed to conceive underwent a second vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: eDFET (n = 102) or eSFET (n = 40). Embryos were transferred and vitrified on day 5 of development. Patients who received eDFET had fewer implantations (30.9%) than eSFET (52.5%; P = 0.004); pregnancy rates were similar (eDFET: 35.3%, eSFET: 42.5%). Patients with the eSFET had one monozygotic twin (5.9%), and 22.2% of eDFET patients had multiple pregnancies. Patients with a good prognosis who failed to conceive in the first fresh eSET did not have an advantage when receiving eDFET in the second cycle, as pregnancy rates were similar; 22.2% of patients in the eDFET group had multiple pregnancies.

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques for embryo and oocyte classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Pappalardo, Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in the capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. This work concentrates the efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the local binary patterns). The proposed system was tested on two data sets of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they show an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in our capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. In this work, we concentrate our efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology

  9. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  10. Effect of different methods of cryopreservation on the cytoskeletal integrity of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Schoevers, E; Stout, T A E

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of different methods of cryopreservation on the cytoskeletal integrity of camel embryos. A total of 32 embryos were recovered on Days 6 and 7 after ovulation and measured before being frozen using either a conventional slow-cooling technique (n=12: six Day 6 and six Day 7 embryos) or vitrification (n=12: four Day 6 and eight Day 7). The remaining 8 'control' embryos (four Day 6 and four Day 7) were not cryopreserved but instead incubated in holding medium for 30 min. After thawing, warming or incubation, the embryos were stained with 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) to identify dead cells. Subsequently, the embryos were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, permeabilized and labelled with Alexa Fluor 488-Phalloidin to enable assessment of cytoskeleton integrity. Vitrified-warmed embryos contained a significantly higher percentage of dead cells than either conventionally frozen embryos or controls (P or =0.07). Whereas embryo size did not affect the number of dead cells in conventionally frozen embryos, vitrified-warmed embryos >300 microm in diameter had a significantly higher percentage of dead cells than embryos < or =300 microm (P=0.01). Cytoskeleton integrity was also affected by both freezing method and embryo diameter. All 8 control embryos had a Grade I cytoskeleton, compared with only 2/24 (8.3%) frozen or vitrified embryos. Of the 8 slow-frozen or vitrified embryos with a Grade III cytoskeleton post-thaw, 7 had been vitrified and 6 were larger (Day 7) embryos. These results indicate that while both slow-freezing and vitrification of camel embryos lead to cytoskeleton disruption and cell death, embryo quality is better preserved by slow-freezing.

  11. Forebrain neurogenesis: From embryo to adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Daniel; Picketts, David; Slack, Ruth S.; Schuurmans, Carol

    2017-01-01

    A satellite symposium to the Canadian Developmental Biology Conference 2016 was held on March 16–17, 2016 in Banff, Alberta, Canada, entitled Forebrain Neurogenesis: From embryo to adult. The Forebrain Neurogenesis symposium was a focused, high-intensity meeting, bringing together the top Canadian and international researchers in the field. This symposium reported the latest breaking news, along with ‘state of the art’ techniques to answer fundamental questions in developmental neurobiology. Topics covered ranged from stem cell regulation to neurocircuitry development, culminating with a session focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying causes of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great interest as diagnoses of these conditions are climbing at alarming rates. For instance, in 2012, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the prevalence rate of ASD in the U.S. was 1 in 88; while more recent data indicate that the number is as high as 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR Surveillance Summaries. Vol. 63. No. 2). Similarly, the incidence of ASD is on the rise in Canada, increasing from 1 in 150 in 2000 to 1 in 63 in 2012 in southeastern Ontario (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Currently very little is known regarding the deficits underlying these neurodevelopmental conditions. Moreover, the development of effective therapies is further limited by major gaps in our understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate forebrain development and adult neurogenesis. The Forebrain Neurogenesis satellite symposium was thus timely, and it played a key role in advancing research in this important field, while also fostering collaborations between international leaders, and inspiring young researchers.

  12. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  13. Relevance of LIF and EGF on Mouse Preimplantation Embryo Development

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    Iraj Amiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent evidence suggests that Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF, a member ofinterleukin-6 family, has biological actions on preimplantation embryo development. Alsoit is established that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, a strong mitosis-promoting agent,improves the preimplantation embryo development by increasing the cell metabolism andproliferation. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of these factors,alone and in combination together, on preimplantation and development of the embryo.Materials and Methods: Six to eight weeks old NMRI mice were super ovulated by injectionof 10IU PMSG and 10IU hCG, then the mated mice were killed 46 hours later. Theiroviducts were flushed, two-cell embryos collected and divided randomly to the four groupsas following: Control, treatment 1 (LIF, treatment 2 (EGF, treatment 3 (LIF+EGF. In eachgroup, the embryos were cultured in an incubator at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 90% humidityfor 72hrs. The state of embryo development was evaluated in 24,36,48,60 and 72hrsfollowing the embryos cultures. By the end of the cultures, cell apoptosis was studiedby the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferas-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNELtechnique.Results: Significant difference was detected in the rate of hatching in the LIF and LIF+EGFgroups. This difference was also seen in the rate of blastocyst formation after 36hrs(p<0.05 and in the average of the total cell number (p<0.05 after 72hrs. In comparison tothe apoptotic index, there was no significant difference between the control and treatmentgroups.Conclusion: The findings in this study show a beneficial effect of LIF and EGF on theblastocyst formation, hatching and its total cell numbers in vitro.

  14. Relationship between Pronuclear Scoring and Embryo Quality and Implantation Potential in IVF-ET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun LIU; Guijin ZHU; Juan HU; Yulan WEI; Xinling REN; Hanwang ZHANG; Yufeng LI; Lei JIN; Jing YUE

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between pronuclear scoring and day-3 embryo quality and pregnancy outcome and to determine the clinical value of pronuclear stage scoring system in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (WF-ET) program, a pronuclear scoring system was used to score zygotes 16-20 h after insemination during conventional WF or intracytoplasmic sperm injec- tion (ICS1). The embryos were classified into groups Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4. Comparisons were made of the rates of arrested embryos and excellent embryos on day 3. Comparisons of pregnancy outcome were made only in those patients in whom cohorts of similarly Z-scored embryos were transferred. The results showed that there were less arrested embryos and more excellent embryos on day 3 in groups Z1 and Z2 than those in group Z3 and Z4. More embryos arrested and less excellent embryos developed in group Z4 than group Z3. The clinical pregnancy rates resulting from the transfer of single pronuclear score homologous embryo types were similar among groups Z1, Z2 and Z3. Implanta- tion rates of group Z1 were higher (P<0.05) than that of group Z3. These findings suggests that pro- nuclear scoring can predict developmental ability on day 3 and implantation potential. A evaluation that combines the Z-score and day 3 embryo morphology is useful in the determination of the most viable embryos and the number of embryos for transfer.

  15. Characterization of somatic embryo attached structures in Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra M; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2010-06-01

    The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected by culture media composition. Histological and ultrastructural analysis indicated that the attached structures of somatic embryos displayed a great morphological diversity ranging from a few cells to massive and columnar structures. This contrast with the simple suspensors observed in zygotic embryos which were only formed by five cells. As well as the suspensor of zygotic embryos, somatic embryo attached structures undergo a process of degeneration in later stages of embryo development. Other characteristic shared by zygotic suspensors and somatic embryo attached structures was the presence of thick cell walls surrounding the cells. Elongated thin filaments were often associated with the structures attached to somatic embryos, whereas in other cases, tubular cells containing starch grains connected the embryo to the supporting tissue. These characteristics associated with the presence of plasmodesmata in the cells of the attached structures seem to indicate a role on embryo nutrition. However, cell proliferation in the attached structures resulting into new somatic embryos may also suggest a more complex relationship between the embryo and the structures connecting it to the supporting tissue.

  16. Creating and selling embryos for "donation": ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Sauer, Mark V

    2015-02-01

    The commercial creation and sale of embryos has begun, which poses a series of ethical questions that have received little scholarly attention. Some of the concerns that arise are similar to those posed by the sale of gametes, while other issues differ markedly. Questions emerge, first, regarding the rights of the unborn children and their ability to know their biological parents. Companies that create human embryos de novo may wish to keep gamete providers anonymous. Many of these offspring thus will never learn that their parents are not their biologic parents. Yet, such disclosures, regarding not only one but both of these biologic parents, may be important for these individuals; and a lack of this knowledge may impede their physical and psychological health. Second, questions surface regarding the fees that providers should charge for embryos and whether these amounts should vary based on the traits of 1 or both of the gamete donors. Some prospective parents may seek specific traits in a baby (eg, height or eye/hair coloring), which prompts the creation of embryos from 2 gamete donors who possess these characteristics. Third, ownership of embryos created without an advanced directive by patients poses dilemmas (eg, disposition of any remaining embryos). Fourth, guidelines do not yet exist to limit the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors. Hence, unbeknownst to each other, full siblings could potentially meet, get married, and procreate. This discussion has several critical implications for future practice and professional education and policy. Patients with diseases associated with genetic tests may well ask obstetricians, gynecologists, and other physicians about these techniques and practices. Clinicians can refer such patients to assisted reproductive technology specialists; however, familiarity with the basic aspects of the issues and complexities involved could aid these providers and their patients Several of these issues can be

  17. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Successful embryo transfer in Tianzhu white yak using standard protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; SiJiu; JU; XiangHong; WANG; LiBin; FAN; JiangFeng

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of superovulation, oestrus synchronization, and embryo recovery in Tianzhu white yaks and also to confirm the pregnancy rate of black yaks, to which embryos collected from white yaks were transplanted. Forty-seven yaks were selected from different experiment groups, including 10 Tianzhu white female yaks (donor, group A) and 37 black female yaks (recipient, groups B and C). Superovulation of the donor was induced by the application procedure of CIDR-B + FSH + PG. Oestrus synchronization of recipients was induced using two methods: group B was given the same treatment as group A, except that the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) injection was not administered, whereas group C was injected with cloprostenol only once when corpus luteum (corpora lutea) was (were) palpated. The results showed that the oestrous rates in group A were higher (80%) than those in group B (60%) and group C (44.5%). As for the efficiency of superovulation, it was indicated that the mean numbers (±SD) of total corpora lutea, follicles, viable (transferable), and degenerated embryos were 4.75 ± 2.19, 1.13 ± 0.83, 2.50 ± 1.31, and 1.38 ± 0.92, respectively. The mean embryo recovery rates were 55.6%. All together, 18 viable embryos of Tianzhu white yak were obtained and 12 of them were transplanted to 10 recipients. The pregnancy rate was 50% and the delivery rate was 40%.

  19. Presence of Meiotic Spindles Indicates Early Cleavage of Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the detection of the meiotic spindle could anticipate the appearance of early cleavage.Methods Oocytes were obtained from stimulated ovaries of consenting patients undergoing oocytes retrieval for ICSI.Spindles were imaged with the Polscope.After ICSI,oocytes with or without spindles were cultured for examination of early cleavage and embryo development.A total of 328 oocytes from 50 cycles were examined with the Polscope and inseminated by ICSI.Results Spindles were imaged in 81.7% of oocytes.After ICSI,more oocytes with spindles (78.4%) fertilized normally than oocytes without spindles (53.3%)(P<0.001).At 25-27 h post ICSI.more fertilized oocytes developed from oocytes with spindles (81.9%) were detected early cleavage than those from oocytes without spindles(28.1%)(P<0.001).Significantly more embryos with early cleavage (82.2%) developed to high quality embryos at d 3 compared with the embryos without early cleavage(48.3%)(P=0.001).The value of rs related to the relationship between spindles and early cleavage was 0.420(P<0.0001).Conclusion The existing of the early cleavage may have a predictive value on the opportunity of high quality embryos and the existing of the spindle may have a predictive value in the appearance of early cleavage.

  20. Effect of Semen Quality on the Embryo Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the influences of sperm quality on the zygotes and embryos development,as the role of the paternal factor in early human embryogenesis is gaining more attention because of the application of techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of men infertility, 136 infertility couples with men factors (Group Ⅰ ) were included from May 2002 to January 2004. One hundred and seventy two infertility couples with tube factors (Group Ⅱ ) served as controls. The sperm parameters, gemmates and embryos quality, implantation rate and pregnant rate in both groups were analyzed. It was found that there was no significant differences in the number of oocytes retrieved, the fertilization rate and number of embryos transferred between two groups. Sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm and percentage of sperm with normal morphology were significantly lower in group Ⅰ than in group Ⅱ (P<0.01). The proportion of good quality zygotes and good quality embryos were significantly lower in the male infertility group than in the tubal disease group (P<0.05). Implantation rate and pregnancy rate were similar in two groups. It was concluded that spermatozoa is involved in the embryo quality, even in the early stages of development, which limited the treatment potency of IVF procedure.

  1. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  2. Biolistic techniques for transfection of mosquito embryos (Anopheles gambiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialhe, E; Miller, L H

    1994-05-01

    To compensate for the extremely low rates of transformation by DNA microinjection into mosquito embryos of Anopheles gambiae, biolistic techniques were evaluated for introduction of DNA into large numbers of mosquito embryos. Biolistic experiments were first performed with a commercially available instrument intended for this purpose, according to the recommended procedure. The amount of DNA delivered was measured by the expression of luciferase under the control of the Drosophila heat shock protein (hsp) 70 promoter. Despite attempts to optimize biolistic parameters, the level of luciferase activity was low and highly variable. Two other methods of biolistic delivery of DNA-coated particles in aqueous suspension were then evaluated. One method used the gas explosion of the commercially available instrument (mentioned above) to drive an aqueous suspension of DNA-coated particles at high pressure. This method reproducibly increased the level of expression about 100-fold without greatly reducing embryo viability. Another method, which was recently described for plant transfection, uses lower pressure to deliver the aqueous suspension of DNA-coated particles. The level of expression of luciferase and the survival of embryos were equivalent to that obtained with the instrument modified for aqueous delivery of particles. Thus, both aqueous methods offer the advantages of reproducibly delivering more DNA to the embryos. Moreover, these methods could be suitable for delivering DNA mixed with proteins, such as restriction endonucleases and integrases, that may be destroyed by ethanol precipitation used in the standard PDS-1000/He method.

  3. Modeling embryo transfer into a closed uterine cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Sarit; Jaffa, Ariel J; Elad, David

    2012-11-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is the last manual intervention after extracorporeal fertilization. After the ET procedure is completed, the embryos are conveyed in the uterus for another two to four days due to spontaneous uterine peristalsis until the window time for implantation. The role of intrauterine fluid flow patterns in transporting the embryos to their implantation site during and after ET was simulated by injection of a liquid bolus into a two-dimensional liquid-filled channel with a closed fundal end via a liquid-filled catheter inserted in the channel. Numerical experiments revealed that the intrauterine fluid field and the embryos transport pattern were strongly affected by the closed fundal end. The embryos re-circulated in small loops around the vicinity where they were deposited from the catheter. The transport pattern was controlled by the uterine peristalsis factors, such as amplitude and frequency of the uterine walls motility, as well as the synchronization between the onset of catheter discharge and uterine peristalsis. The outcome of ET was also dependent on operating parameters such as placement of the catheter tip within the uterine cavity and the delivery speed of the catheter load. In conclusion, this modeling study highlighted important parameters that should be considered during ET procedures in order to increase the potential for pregnancy success.

  4. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C Y P; Cheng, S H; Yu, K N

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  5. Development in vitro and mitochondrial fate of interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L-B; Yang, L; Hua, S; Cao, J-W; Li, J-X; Zhang, Y

    2008-06-01

    Although the technique of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer can be used to increase the population size of endangered mammals, the mitochondrial heteroplasmy in cloned embryos and animals makes this idea doubtful. In present study, goat-sheep cloned embryos were constructed by fusing goat foetal fibroblasts (GFFs) into sheep oocytes and then cultured in vitro to investigate the capability of sheep oocyte dedifferentiating GFF nucleus. Moreover, at each stage of 1- (immediately after fused), 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell, morula and blastocyst, the copy number of mtDNA from GFF and sheep oocyte was examined using real-time PCR. The results showed that: 7.4% of the fused cloned embryos can develop to the blastocyst stage; in the process of one cell to the morula stage, the copy number of two kinds of mtDNA was stable relatively; however, in the process of morula to the blastocyst stage, the decreasing in the copy number of GFF-derived mtDNA, while the increasing in sheep oocyte-derived, resulted in their ratio of decreasing sharply from 2.0 +/- 1.0% to 0.012 +/- 0.004%. This study demonstrates that: (i) the goat-sheep cloned embryos have the ability to develop to blastocyst in vitro; (ii) from the morula stage to the blastocyst stage of goat-sheep cloned embryos, goat derived mitochondria can be gradually replaced with those from sheep oocyte.

  6. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  7. Cadmium-induced ectopic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Po Kwok; Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced developmental toxicity was mediated via ectopic occurrence of apoptosis during embryonic development. We employed confocal microscopy to acquire images of whole-mount staining of apoptotic cells in zebrafish embryo exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium from 5 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 28 hpf. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the images was performed and the spatial and temporal distributions of apoptotic cells in the embryos were compared. In cadmium-treated embryos with varying degrees of gross developmental malformations, significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells were detected with this method. In order to detect the precise locations of apoptotic cells, we performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay in sectioned embryos. In the degenerating neural tube of cadmium-treated embryos apoptotic cells were detected, while in the healthy neural tube of the untreated controls no apoptotic cells were found. We then employed flow cytometry to investigate whether cadmium exposure would affect the dynamics of apoptosis or induce any abnormalities in cell-cycle progression. It appeared that cadmium did not induce cell-cycle arrest. The percentages of apoptotic cells did not differ in the two groups at 13, 16 or 19 hpf. At 28 hpf, however, a significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells were found in the cadmium-treated group. Exposure to cadmium, therefore, induced ectopic apoptosis at 28 hpf without affecting the dynamics of apoptosis at earlier developmental stages. (orig.)

  8. Metabolomics: approaches to assessing oocyte and embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Sinclair, K D

    2007-09-01

    Morphological evaluation remains the primary method of embryo assessment during IVF cycles, but its modest predictive power and inherent inter- and intra-observer variability limits its value. Low-molecular weight metabolites represent the end products of cell regulatory processes and therefore reveal the response of biological systems to a variety of genetic, nutrient or environmental influences. It follows that the non-invasive quantification of oocyte and embryo metabolism, from the analyses of follicular fluid or culture media, may be a useful predictor of pregnancy outcome following embryo transfer, a potential supported by recent clinical studies working with specific classes of metabolites such as glycolytic intermediates and amino acids. Such selective approaches, however, whilst adhering closely to known cellular processes, may fail to harness the full potential of contemporary metabolomic methodologies, which can measure a wider spectrum of metabolites. However, an important technical drawback with many existing methodologies is the limited number of metabolites that can be determined by a single analytical platform. Vibrational spectroscopy methodologies such as Fourier transform infrared and near infrared spectroscopy may overcome these limitations by generating unique spectral signatures of functional groups and bonds, but their application in embryo quality assessment remains to be fully validated. Ultimately, a combination of evaluation criteria that include morphometry with metabolomics may provide the best predictive assessment of embryo viability.

  9. A Review of the Teratogenic Factors Effect on Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzarbanoo Shojaei fard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Teratology is a branch of embryology science that studies causes, mechanisms and abnormal pattern development. Embryo growth traumatic factors during pregnancy are called teratogens that some teratogens pass the placental barrier and cause adverse effect during development stages and malformation, however a drug may improve general health of the mother, but it might be poisonous for embryo and cause diverse malformation. Since study of embryo health and risk factor in this stage is important, the aim of this review article was the investigation of some types of teratosgens (such as radiation, infectious agents, heat disorders, maternal conditions and particularly the effect of teratogenic drugs on embryo including some legal drugs (such as acetaminophen, thalidomide, acyclovir, sedatives and anticonvulsants and illegal drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. Conclusion: In general, teratogens depending on the type and duration of exposure in pregnancyperiod, adversely affect embryo and cause various disorders. A better understanding of these teratogens can contribute to prevent these defects, since many other drugs with similar effects and lower teratogenicity can be used to improve mothers’ health.

  10. Plant regeneration from somatic embryos ofTaxus brevifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, P P

    1996-12-01

    Taxusbrevifolia is the source of paclitaxel (Taxol®), an anticancer drug. A method for regeneration ofTaxus brevifolia from immature zygotic embryos via somatic embryogenesis is described. Embryogenic callus tissues were obtained by culturing immature zygotic embryos on Lloyd and McCown medium (MCM) supplemented with 160 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 5 μM benzylaminopurine (BA) + 5 μM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for 4 weeks. Putative embryoids were obtained following transfer of cultures to MCM medium supplemented with 4 μM BA + 5 μM kinetin + 1 μM NAA for 6 to 8 weeks. Conversion of embryos was obtained on MCM medium supplemented with 40 μM abscisic acid (ABA) + 1% activated charcoal. Development of bipolar structures with recognizable shoot and root apices was observed in somatic embryos. Five percent of somatic embryos were regenerated into plantlets on half-strength growth regulator-free MCM medium.

  11. Use of "excess" human embryos for stem cell research: protecting women's rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C B

    2000-01-01

    Proposed National Institutes of Health guidelines for stem cell research are too narrowly drawn and do not adequately protect the freedom of choice and health of women who donate embryos. They need to be expanded to cover not only the point of embryo donation, but also that of embryo creation. Guidelines are provided to ensure that donors undergoing hyperstimulation and egg retrieval gave voluntary informed consent to the production of embryos that might later prove in excess. A standard for determining when embryos have been overproduced is presented to address the possibility that additional embryos will be created for stem cell research in violation of the guidelines and at risk to women's health.

  12. Noninvasive Metabolomic Profiling of Human Embryo Culture Media Using a Simple Spectroscopy Adjunct to Morphology for Embryo Assessment in in Vitro Fertilization (IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryo quality is crucial to the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF; however, the ability to precisely distinguish the embryos with higher reproductive potential from others is poor. Morphologic evaluation used to play an important role in assessing embryo quality, but it is somewhat subjective. The culture medium is the immediate environment of the embryos in vitro, and a change of the substances in the culture medium is possibly related to the embryo quality. Thus, the present study aims to determine whether metabolomic profiling of the culture medium using Raman spectroscopy adjunct to morphology correlates with the reproductive potential of embryos in IVF and, thus, to look for a new method of assessing embryo quality. Fifty seven spent media samples were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Combined with embryo morphology scores, we found that embryos in culture media with less than 0.012 of sodium pyruvate and more than −0.00085 phenylalanine have a high reproductive potential, with up to 85.7% accuracy compared with clinical pregnancy. So, sodium pyruvate and phenylalanine in culture medium play an important role in the development of the embryo. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool that provides a new and accurate assessment of higher quality embryos.

  13. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured.

  14. Temperature and photoperiod responses of soybean embryos cultured in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Patterson, R. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Temperature and photoperiod each have direct effects on growth rate of excised embryos of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). To determine if the effects of photoperiod are altered by temperature, embryos of 'Ransom II' were cultured in vitro at 18, 24, and 30 degrees C under photoperiod durations of 12 and 18 h at an irradiance of 9 W m-2 (700 to 850 nm) and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 58 micromoles m-2 s-1 (400 to 700 nm). Accumulation rates of fresh and dry weight were greater under 18-h than 12-h photoperiods over the entire range of temperature. Water content of the culture embryos was not affected by photoperiod but was greater at 18 and 30 than 24 degrees C. The accumulation rate of dry weight increased from 18 to 26 but declined at 30 degrees C.

  15. Live-cell imaging of mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, James A

    2010-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a wonderful model system for live imaging studies of mitosis. A huge collection of research tools is readily available to facilitate experimentation. For imaging, C. elegans embryos provide large clear cells, an invariant pattern of cell division, only six chromosomes, a very short cell cycle, and remain healthy and happy at room temperature. Mitosis is a complicated process and the types of research questions being asked about the mechanisms involved are continuously expanding. For each experiment, the details of imaging methods need to be tailored to the question. Specific imaging methods will depend on the microscopy hardware and software available to each researcher. This article presents points to consider when choosing a microscope, designing an imaging experiment, or selecting appropriate worm strains for imaging. A method for mounting C. elegans embryos and guidelines for fluorescence and differential interference contrast imaging of mitosis in live embryos are presented.

  16. Embryo-scale tissue mechanics during Drosophila gastrulation movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzi, Matteo; Krzic, Uros; Saunders, Timothy E.; Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož; Hufnagel, Lars; Leptin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis of an organism requires the development of its parts to be coordinated in time and space. While past studies concentrated on defined cell populations, a synthetic view of the coordination of these events in a whole organism is needed for a full understanding. Drosophila gastrulation begins with the embryo forming a ventral furrow, which is eventually internalized. It is not understood how the rest of the embryo participates in this process. Here we use multiview selective plane illumination microscopy coupled with infrared laser manipulation and mutant analysis to dissect embryo-scale cell interactions during early gastrulation. Lateral cells have a denser medial–apical actomyosin network and shift ventrally as a compact cohort, whereas dorsal cells become stretched. We show that the behaviour of these cells affects furrow internalization. A computational model predicts different mechanical properties associated with tissue behaviour: lateral cells are stiff, whereas dorsal cells are soft. Experimental analysis confirms these properties in vivo. PMID:26497898

  17. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanray, Nathalie; Marée, Raphaël; Pruvot, Benoist; Stern, Olivier; Geurts, Pierre; Wehenkel, Louis; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  18. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Jeanray

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  19. Whole mount nuclear fluorescent imaging: convenient documentation of embryo morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Lisa L; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Here, we describe a relatively inexpensive and easy method to produce high quality images that reveal fine topological details of vertebrate embryonic structures. The method relies on nuclear staining of whole mount embryos in combination with confocal microscopy or conventional wide field fluorescent microscopy. In cases where confocal microscopy is used in combination with whole mount nuclear staining, the resulting embryo images can rival the clarity and resolution of images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescent nuclear staining may be performed with a variety of cell permeable nuclear dyes, enabling the technique to be performed with multiple standard microscope/illumination or confocal/laser systems. The method may be used to document morphology of embryos of a variety of organisms, as well as individual organs and tissues. Nuclear stain imaging imposes minimal impact on embryonic specimens, enabling imaged specimens to be utilized for additional assays.

  20. The syncytial Drosophila embryo as a mechanically excitable medium

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Timon; Manning, M Lisa; Nelson, Philip C; Liu, Andrea J

    2013-01-01

    Mitosis in the early syncytial Drosophila embryo is highly correlated in space and time, as manifested in mitotic wavefronts that propagate across the embryo. In this paper we investigate the idea that the embryo can be considered a mechanically-excitable medium, and that mitotic wavefronts can be understood as nonlinear wavefronts that propagate through this medium. We study the wavefronts via both image analysis of confocal microscopy videos and theoretical models. We find that the mitotic wavefront can be resolved into two distinct wavefronts in each cycle, corresponding to metaphase and anaphase, respectively. The two wavefronts have the same speed and are separated by a time interval that is independent of cycle, supporting the idea that they are two different markers for the same process. To understand the wavefronts theoretically we analyze wavefront propagation in excitable media. We study two classes of models, one with biochemical signaling and one with mechanical signaling. We find that the depende...

  1. Altered development of Xenopus embryos in a hypogeomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wei-Chuan; Liu, Ying; Cooper, Helen M; He, Rong-Qiao

    2012-04-01

    The hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF; magnetic fields HGMF exposure on living systems remains unclear. In this article, we examine the biological effects of HGMF on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog). A decrease in horizontal third cleavage furrows and abnormal morphogenesis were observed in Xenopus embryos growing in the HGMF. HGMF exposure at the two-cell stage, but no later than the four-cell stage, is enough to alter the third cleavage geometry pattern. Immunofluorescent staining for α-tubulin showed reorientation of the spindle of four-cell stage blastomeres. These results indicate that a brief (2-h) exposure to HGMF is sufficient to interfere with the development of Xenopus embryos at cleavage stages. Also, the mitotic spindle could be an early sensor to the deprivation of the geomagnetic field, which provides a clue to the molecular mechanism underlying the morphological and other changes observed in the developing and/or developed embryos.

  2. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Margot E; Weijers, Dolf

    2015-12-01

    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mechanisms interact to generate local auxin accumulation in the early embryo. New auxin-dependent reporters help identifying these sites, while atomic structures of transcriptional response mediators help explain the diverse outputs of auxin signaling. Key auxin outputs are control of cell identity and cell division orientation, and progress has been made towards understanding the cellular basis of each. Importantly, a number of studies have combined computational modeling and experiments to analyze the developmental role, genetic circuitry and molecular mechanisms of auxin-dependent cell division control.

  3. Partridge embryo pathology in relation to gentamicin-induced lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the macroscopic and microscopic lesions of various dosages of gentamicin in the partridge embryo. Methods: Fertile chukar partridge eggs were allocated into four groups. Group 1: salineinjected group whose individuals were administered by sterile physiological saline solution of 0.2 mL/egg inserted into yolk sac. Groups 2, 3 and 4 whose individuals were similarly administered by gentamicin sulfate at a dosage of 80 mg/kg egg-weight once, twice and three times, respectively. Results: Results showed that the embryos were congested and stunted in the gentamicininjected groups. Defects in feet, wings and feather development were accompanied by microscopic lesions in brain, meninges, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. Histopathological lesions were noticed as edema, undeveloped tissues, necrosis and degeneration in the affected organs. Conclusions: Based on acquired results, it is concluded that gentamicin at above-described dosages causes toxicopathological effects to the partridge embryo in a dose dependent manner.

  4. Embryo research--why the Cardinal is wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton

    1990-12-01

    Reasons are given for suggesting that individuation of the human embryo does not begin until the primitive streak forms at about the fourteenth day after conception; this view, though contested by many, is held by very many committed Christians of all denominations. In the conceptus or pre-embryo, after the formation of a blastocyst at about four-five days after fertilisation, biopsy of a single cell from the outer layer of cells (which later can form the membranes and placenta) can be used to determine the sex of the conceptus and will ultimately be used to detect the presence of an abnormal gene such as that for Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy, without detriment to development of the basal cell mass from which the embryo forms. The potential benefits in the prevention of inherited disease are profound.

  5. The science, fiction, and reality of embryo cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacques; Tomkin, Giles

    1994-09-01

    Although many scientists view cloning as a useful procedure for scientific research into early embryo development -- one that cannot currently be used to produce multiple copies of humans -- the popular literature has led some individuals to view it as sinister. To address the concerns of the public, various conceptions of cloning are distinguished and their basis in fact analyzed. The possible uses, benefits, and detriments of both embryo splitting and nuclear transplantation are explained. Once the nature and purposes of cloning are understood, and the distinctive ethical dilemmas created by embryo splitting and nuclear transplantation are sorted out, these procedures should be clinically implemented to assist in vitro fertilization treatment for those who are infertile and to further other therapeutic and investigational efforts in medicine.

  6. Research on Growth Behavior of Embryos for Bovine and Murine on Primary Murine Embryos Fibroblast Cell Feeder Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai; YANG Qi; LEI An-min; YANG Chun-rong; GAO Zhi-min

    2002-01-01

    The difference in growth behavior between bovine embryos and murine embryos was studied on PMEF(primary murine embryos fibroblast)feeder layer. The results showed as follows: With embryos having attached, bovine embryonic trophoblast formed a transparent membranous structure covering on inner cell mass (ICM), however, murine embryonic trophoblast formed disc structure. Bovine embryos formed four kinds of ICM colonies with different morphology including the mass-like, the net-like, the stream-like and the mixture-like colonies. Compared with Murine ICM, the bovine ICM grew more fast. So, the bovine ICM was passaged at first after a culture of approximately 5 - 6 days in vitro, but murine ICM was passaged at first after an attachment of 3 - 4 days on PMEF feeder layer. The mixture colonies of bovine ICM differentiated very early, while the others differentiated very late. Most ICM-like mass of Bovine grew in a defined spot, but bovine ICMs like stream and ICMs like net proliferated fast and dispersed quickly. We found that the single blastomeres derived from late bovine morula and late murine morula formed sub-blastophere; moreover, the bovine ICM cell would differentiate rapidly if the trophoblast was removed.

  7. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  8. Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J D; Kilburn, K H

    2001-01-01

    C-14 formaldehyde crosses the placenta and enters fetal tissues. The incorporated radioactivity is higher in fetal organs (i.e., brain and liver) than in maternal tissues. The incorporation mechanism has not been studied fully, but formaldehyde enters the single-carbon cycle and is incorporated as a methyl group into nucleic acids and proteins. Also, formaldehyde reacts chemically with organic compounds (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleosides, nucleotides, proteins, amino acids) by addition and condensation reactions, thus forming adducts and deoxyribonucleic acid-protein crosslinks. The following questions must be addressed: What adducts (e.g., N-methyl amino acids) are formed in the blood following formaldehyde inhalation? What role do N-methyl-amino adducts play in alkylation of nuclear and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, as well as mitochondrial peroxidation? The fact that the free formaldehyde pool in blood is not affected following exposure to the chemical does not mean that formaldehyde is not involved in altering cell and deoxyribonucleic acid characteristics beyond the nasal cavity. The teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in the English literature has been sought, beginning on the 6th day of pregnancy (i.e., rodents) (Saillenfait AM, et al. Food Chem Toxicol 1989, pp 545-48; Martin WJ. Reprod Toxicol 1990, pp 237-39; Ulsamer AG, et al. Hazard Assessment of Chemicals; Academic Press, 1984, pp 337-400; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile of Formaldehyde; ATSDR, 1999 [references 1-4, respectively, herein]). The exposure regimen is critical and may account for the differences in outcomes. Pregnant rats were exposed (a) prior to mating, (b) during mating, (c) or during the entire gestation period. These regimens (a) increased embryo mortality; (b) increased fetal anomalies (i.e., cryptochordism and aberrant ossification centers); (c) decreased concentrations of ascorbic acid; and (d) caused abnormalities in enzymes of

  9. Extended Culture of Early Stage Embryos in Frozen-thawed Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bo WANG; Yan-hui LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of extended culture of early stage embryos on pregnancy outcome of frozen embryo transfer (FET).Methods The survival rates of embryos after thawing and pregnancy outcome following FET were compared retrospectively between zygote and cleavage embryos which cultured to cleavage stage or extended cultured to blastocysts. Results A total of 425 zygote embryos in 67 cycles were thawed. After thawing, the survival rate was 94.4% and with an average transfer of 2.8 embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate was 55.2% (37/67). In 222 FET cycles, totally 1 270 cleavage stage embryos were thawed and the overall survival rates were 80.3%. With an average transfer of 2.7 embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate was 55.4% (123/222). A significantly lower percentage of degenerated embryos were found for zygotes (5.6%) than that for cleavage stage embryos (19.7%) (P0.05). Conclusion Although the clinical pregnancy rate was not different between patients with freeze-thaw zygote and cleavage stage embryo transfer, higher survival rate for zygote was shown compared with that for cleavage stage embryo. However, the present studies did not demonstrate that extended culture thawing embryos to blastocyst could achieve favor clinical outcome.

  10. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and peroxidase activity of desiccation toler-ant mature somatic embryos of loblolly pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was initiated from the mature zygotic embryos explants on callus induction medium with 2,4-D, BA, and kinetin in the 3-9th week of culture. This type of callus induction occurred at a lower frequency with either a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or IBA (both 8 mg/L). White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was embryogenic and mainly developed from the cotyledons of the mature zygotic embryo. Somatic embryos were formed on differentiation medium. Desiccation tolerance can be induced by culturing somatic embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on medium supplemented with 50 mm abscisic acid (ABA) and/or 8.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Scanning electron microscopy of desiccated somatic embryos showed that the size and external morphology of the desiccation tolerant somatic embryos recov-ered to the pre-desiccation state within 24-36 h, whereas the sensitive somatic embryos did not recover and remained shriveled, after the desiccated somatic embryos had been rehydrated. Peroxidase activity of desiccated somatic embryos increased shar-ply after 3 days of desiccation treatment, and desiccation tolerant somatic embryos had higher peroxidase activity compared to sensitive somatic embryos. Higher peroxidase activity of desiccation tolerant somatic embryos was possibly advantage of cata-lyzing the reduction of H2O2 which was produced by drought stress, and protecting somatic embryos from oxidative damage.

  12. Effect of donor cell type on nuclear remodelling in rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J; Song, J; Li, H; Yang, D; Li, X; Ouyang, H; Lai, L

    2012-08-01

    Cloned rabbits have been produced for many years by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The efficiency of cloning by SCNT, however, has remained extremely low. Most cloned embryos degenerate in utero, and the few that develop to term show a high incidence of post-natal death and abnormalities. The cell type used for donor nuclei is an important factor in nuclear transfer (NT). As reported previously, NT embryos reconstructed with fresh cumulus cells (CC-embryos) have better developmental potential than those reconstructed with foetal fibroblasts (FF-embryos) in vivo and in vitro. The reason for this disparity in developmental capacity is still unknown. In this study, we compared active demethylation levels and morphological changes between the nuclei of CC-embryos and FF-embryos shortly after activation. Anti-5-methylcytosine immunofluorescence of in vivo-fertilized and cloned rabbit embryos revealed that there was no detectable active demethylation in rabbit zygotes or NT-embryos derived from either fibroblasts or CC. In the process of nuclear remodelling, however, the proportion of nuclei with abnormal appearance in FF-embryos was significantly higher than that in CC-embryos during the first cell cycle. Our study demonstrates that the nuclear remodelling abnormality of cloned rabbit embryos may be one important factor for the disparity in developmental success between CC-embryos and FF-embryos.

  13. Bessel beam fluorescence lifetime tomography of live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Peng, Leilei

    2016-03-01

    Optical tomography allows isotropic 3D imaging of embryos. Scanning-laser optical tomography (SLOT) has superior light collecting efficiency than wide-field optical tomography, making it ideal for fluorescence imaging of live embryos. We previously reported an imaging system that combines SLOT with a novel Fourier-multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) technique named FmFLIM-SLOT. FmFLIM-SLOT performs multiplexed FLIM-FRET readout of multiple FRET sensors in live embryos. Here we report a recent effort on improving the spatial resolution of the FmFLIM-SLOT system in order to image complex biochemical processes in live embryos at the cellular level. Optical tomography has to compromise between resolution and the depth of view. In SLOT, the commonly-used focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focal plane, making it impossible to achieve high resolution imaging in a large volume specimen. We thus introduce Bessel beam laser-scanning tomography, which illuminates the sample with a spatial-light-modulator-generated Bessel beam that has an extended focal depth. The Bessel beam is scanned across the whole specimen. Fluorescence projection images are acquired at equal angular intervals as the sample rotates. Reconstruction artifacts due to annular-rings of the Bessel beam are removed by a modified 3D filtered back projection algorithm. Furthermore, in combination of Fourier-multiplexing fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) method, the Bessel FmFLIM-SLOT system is capable of perform 3D lifetime imaging of live embryos at cellular resolution. The system is applied to in-vivo imaging of transgenic Zebrafish embryos. Results prove that Bessel FmFLIM-SLOT is a promising imaging method in development biology research.

  14. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency - in contrast to all other GPx family members - leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis on

  15. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devjak R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  16. Sulfated polysaccharides and cell differentiation in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvtrup-Rein, H; Løvtrup, S

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides during the embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus has been investigated by incorporation of radioactive sulfate, glucose, glucosamine and fucose. The following substances become labelled: fucan sulfate (approximately 60%), heparan sulfate (approximately 20%) and dermatan sulfate (approximately 20%), and possibly a very slight amount of chondroitin sulfate. In animalized and vegetalized embryos, the rate of incorporation is significantly reduced, and furthermore dermatan sulfate is almost absent in animalized embryos. It is concluded that this substance is associated with the differentiation of vegetative cells, possibly the mesenchyme cells.

  17. ‘Vanishing embryo syndrome’ in IVF/ICSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a Danish population-based cohort study assessing the risk of cerebral palsy in children bornafter IVF, we made some interesting observations regarding ‘vanishing co-embryos’. METHODS andRESULTS: All live-born children born in Denmark from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2000 were...... found indications of an increasedrisk of cerebral palsy in those children resulting from pregnancies, where the number of embryos transferred washigher than the number of children born. CONCLUSIONS: The association between vanishing embryo syndromeand incidence of cerebral palsy following IVF requires...

  18. Reconstruction of human embryos derived from somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Changfu; LIN Ge; XIE Changqing; GONG Fei; ZHOU Hong; TAN Yueqiu; LU Guangxiu

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction of human nuclear transfer embryos is a necessary step of therapeutic cloning. In this study we injected somatic cell nuclei into MⅡ oocytes and activated reconstructed oocytes with calcium ionophore A23187 (CaA) and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). After oocyte activation and 2PN formation, we removed the female PN. By using this method, we avoided the application of DNA fluorescent stain and ultraviolet light for oocyte enucleation, and over elimination of ooplasm was also mitigated. Some reconstructed embryos developed into theblastocyst stage in vitro.

  19. Visualizing Vertebrate Embryos with Episcopic 3D Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Geyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of highly detailed, three-dimensional (3D computer models is essential in order to understand the evolution and development of vertebrate embryos, and the pathogenesis of hereditary diseases. A still-increasing number of methods allow for generating digital volume data sets as the basis of virtual 3D computer models. This work aims to provide a brief overview about modern volume data–generation techniques, focusing on episcopic 3D imaging methods. The technical principles, advantages, and problems of episcopic 3D imaging are described. The strengths and weaknesses in its ability to visualize embryo anatomy and labeled gene product patterns, specifically, are discussed.

  20. Cloning in cattle: from embryo splitting to somatic nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Y; Vignon, X; Chesné, P; Le Bourhis, D; Marchal, J; Renard, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ability to obtain genetically identical offspring in cattle (clones) is useful for research and for potential applications to breeding schemes. Experimental possibilities for generating such animals have evolved considerably in the last two decades. Embryo splitting has become a relatively simple technique but is limited to twinning. Embryonic nuclear transfer has improved and is associated with sexing to generate sets of clones despite a great variability of results between parent embryos. The factors of progress are reviewed here. Recently, somatic cells used as a source of nuclei in bovine nuclear transfer has been demonstrated. Here we present the results of the developmental potential of nuclei from skin and muscle cells.

  1. [Embryo initiation from Pinus sibirica megagametophytes in in vitro culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tret'iakova, I N; Voroshilova, E V

    2014-01-01

    Megagametophytes of Siberian pine were cultured on an in vitro culture medium 1/2 LV supplemented with growth regulators 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) to form embryos. The competency of somatic cell of explants to embryogenesis manifested itself in an organized growth and polarity. A coenocyte consisting of long vacuolated cells was formed in the megagametophyte culture. Then, the migration of the nuclei to one of the poles of the cell, their division, and formation of embryoids was observed. The megagametophyte culture of the Siberian pine differed from the zygotic embryo culture by the absence of asymmetric division in the vacuolated cell.

  2. Improving production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Adu, Robert Ohene

    2011-01-01

    in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap...... within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50-60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained....

  3. [Controversy in ART: should we cryopreserve oocytes or embryos? Do prefer oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, P

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of IVF, cryopreservation concern spermatozoa or embryos due to the poor efficiency of oocyte freezing. To date, oocyte vitrification allows changing our practice privileging female gamete vitrification instead of human embryo freezing.

  4. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  5. Effect of Eggshell Temperature During Incubation on Embryo Development, Hatchability, and Posthatch Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Brand, van den H.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different eggshell temperature (EST) profiles during incubation on embryo mortality, hatchability, and embryo development. Furthermore, chicks from different EST profiles were reared under low and high housing temperatures to investigate subsequent

  6. Effect of eggshell temperature and oxygen concentration on survival rate and nutrient utilization in chicken embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions during incubation such as temperature and O2 concentration affect embryo development that may be associated with modifications in nutrient partitioning. Additionally, prenatal conditions can affect postnatal nutrient utilization. Using broiler chicken embryos, we studied the

  7. OpenSource lab-on-a-chip physiometer for accelerated zebrafish embryo biotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Cooper, Jonathan M; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2014-01-02

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo assays have recently come into the spotlight as convenient experimental models in both biomedicine and ecotoxicology. As a small aquatic model organism, zebrafish embryo assays allow for rapid physiological, embryo-, and genotoxic tests of drugs and environmental toxins that can be simply dissolved in water. This protocol describes prototyping and application of an innovative, miniaturized, and polymeric chip-based device capable of immobilizing a large number of living fish embryos for real-time and/or time-lapse microscopic examination. The device provides a physical address designation to each embryo during analysis, continuous perfusion of medium, and post-analysis specimen recovery. Miniaturized embryo array is a new concept of immobilization and real-time drug perfusion of multiple individual and developing zebrafish embryos inside the mesofluidic device. The OpenSource device presented in this protocol is particularly suitable to perform accelerated fish embryo biotests in ecotoxicology and phenotype-based pharmaceutical screening.

  8. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response.

  9. 75 FR 69717 - In the Matter of: Edentify, Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc., Enesco Group, Inc... securities of Embryo Development Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  10. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  11. Elective transfer of two embryos: Reduction of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling-Lacey, Donna; Jones, Estella; Mayer, Jacob; Bocca, Silvina; Stadtmauer, Laurel; Oehninger, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the elective transfer of two embryos reduced the incidence of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates. Methods: IVF patients and recipients of oocyte donation with an elective day-3 transfer of 2 or 3 embryos were studied. Result(s): In IVF, the elective transfer of 2 embryos resulted in similar pregnancy rate but significantly reduced the overall incidence of multiple gestations (20% versus 39%) when compared to the elective transfer of 3 embryos. ...

  12. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    by using a statistical programme (STATA) to random choose half of the embryos from each patient, generating group 2 consisting of 98 IVF embryos from 21 patients and group 3 consisting of 109 ICSI embryos from 38 patients. Automated image recording was performed every 20 min. Key events such as time...

  13. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... embryo inoculation test. 113.37 Section 113.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1)...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  15. A microfluidic system supports single mouse embryo culture leading to full-term development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Telma Cristina; Rossem, van Fleur; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele; Le Gac, Séverine

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the feasibility of application of a microfluidic system for in vitro culture of pre-implantation mouse embryos, with subsequent development to full-term upon embryo transfer. Specifically, embryos cultured in groups in nL volume chambers achieve pre-implantation develo

  16. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  17. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  18. METHOXYCHLOR ACCELERATES EMBRYO TRANSPORT THROUGH THE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is known to reduce implantation, and, in our previous work, this reduction has been attributed to a direct effect on uterine function. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of MXC on embryo transport rate, another phe...

  19. Comparative phosphoproteomics of zebrafish Fyn/Yes morpholino knockdown embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeer, Simone; Jopling, Chris; Gouw, Joost; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; Slijper, Monique; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2008-11-01

    The coordinated movement of cells is indispensable for normal vertebrate gastrulation. Several important players and signaling pathways have been identified in convergence and extension (CE) cell movements during gastrulation, including non-canonical Wnt signaling. Fyn and Yes, members of the Src family of kinases, are key regulators of CE movements as well. Here we investigated signaling pathways in early development by comparison of the phosphoproteome of wild type zebrafish embryos with Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos that display specific CE cell movement defects. For quantitation we used differential stable isotope labeling by reductive amination of peptides. Equal amounts of labeled peptides from wild type and Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos were mixed and analyzed by on-line reversed phase TiO(2)-reversed phase LC-MS/MS. Phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides were quantified, and significant changes in protein expression and/or phosphorylation were detected. We identified 348 phosphoproteins of which 69 showed a decrease in phosphorylation in Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos and 72 showed an increase in phosphorylation. Among these phosphoproteins were known regulators of cell movements, including Adducin and PDLIM5. Our results indicate that quantitative phosphoproteomics combined with morpholino-mediated knockdowns can be used to identify novel signaling pathways that act in zebrafish development in vivo.

  20. Microspore embryogenesis: reprogramming cell fate from pollen to embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui Li,

    2014-01-01

    Microspore embryogenesis is an expression of plant cell totipotency that leads to the production of haploid embryos. Besides being a widely exploited plant breeding tool, microspore embryogenesis is also a fascinating system that can be used to obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of plant toti

  1. Chromosomal aneuploidy in embryos conceived with unstimulated cycle IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoest, W.; Fauser, B. C.; Papanikolaou, E.; Staessen, C.; Van Landuyt, L.; Donoso, P.; Tournaye, H.; Liebaers, I.; Devroey, P.

    2008-01-01

    There is an ever increasing trend in reproductive medicine to reduce the intensity of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to restrict the number of embryos that are transferred into the uterine cavity. Recent findings suggest that the magnitude of ovarian stimulation affects the

  2. X chromosome inactivation is initiated in human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Ilse M; Laven, Joop S E; Stevens, Mary; Jonkers, Iris; Galjaard, Robert-Jan; Gribnau, Joost; van Doorninck, J Hikke

    2009-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mammalian mechanism that compensates for the difference in gene dosage between XX females and XY males. Genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms induce transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in female cells. In mouse embryos, XCI is initiated at the

  3. Successful nonsurgical embryo transfer in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M; Alexiev, A; Vlahov, K; Karaivanov, C; Cripe, W S; Leonards, A P; Kacheva, D; Polihronov, O; Nicolov, N; Petrov, M; Dragoev, A

    1988-10-01

    Forty-one Day 5.0 to Day 5.5 embryos and one unfertilized ovum were recovered nonsurgically from 24 superovulated, parous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) and transferred nonsurgically to 28 synchronized recipients by a team of Bulgarian and American scientists. Five pregnancies were established and four live buffalo calves were born at the end of normal gestation periods.

  4. Proteomic analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to simulated-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Ma, Wenwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Cong; Sun, Yeqing

    Microgravity can induce a serial of physiological and pathological changes in human body, such as cardiovascular functional disorder, bone loss, muscular atrophy and impaired immune system function, etc. In this research, we focus on the influence of microgravity to vertebrate embryo development. As a powerful model for studying vertebrate development, zebrafish embryos at 8 hpf (hour past fertilization) and 24 hpf were placed into a NASA developed bioreac-tor (RCCS) to simulate microgravity for 64 and 48 hours, respectively. The same number of control embryos from the same parents were placed in a tissue culture dish at the same temper-ature of 28° C. Each experiment was repeated 3 times and analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Image analysis of silver stained 2-D gels revealed that 64 from total 292 protein spots showed quantitative and qualitative variations that were significantly (Pprotein spots with significant expression alteration (Pproteins, 3 down-regulated proteins were identified as bectin 2, centrosomal protein of 135kDa and tropomyosin 4, while the up-regulated protein was identified as creatine kinase muscle B. Other protein spots showed significant expression alteration will be identified successively and the corresponding genes expression will also be measured by Q-PCR method at different development stages. The data presented in this study illustrate that zebrafish embryo can be significantly induced by microgravity on the expression of proteins involved in bone and muscle formation. Key Words: Danio rerio; Simulated-microgravity; Proteomics

  5. Early Embryo Survival and Development in Sows with Lactational Ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    During lactation, daily separation of sow and piglets, intermittent suckling (IS), can induce lactational oestrus and ovulation. This study examined effects of IS on subsequent early embryo survival and development. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were separated from their piglets for either 12 consecutiv

  6. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  7. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12–30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25 by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation. This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy.

  9. Chromosome remodeling and differentiation of tetraploid embryos during preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Ryung; Lee, Ah-Reum; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Park, Chankyu; Park, Keun-Kyu; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2011-07-01

    Although it is known that the tetraploid embryo contributes only to the placenta, the question of why tetraploid embryos differentiate into placenta remains unclear. To study the effect of electrofusion on the development of mouse tetraploid oocytes, mouse two-cell embryos were fused and cultured in vitro in Chatot-Ziomek-Bavister medium. After electrofusion, two chromosome sets from the tetraploid blastomere were individually duplicated before nuclear fusion. At 8-10 hr after electrofusion, each chromosome set was condensing and the nuclear membrane was breaking down. Around 12-14 hr after electrofusion, the two chromosome sets had combined together and had reached the second mitotic metaphase, at this point with 8n sets of chromosomes. Interestingly, we discovered that expression of OCT4, an inner cell mass cells biomarker, is lost by the tetraploid expanded blastocysts, but that CDX2, a trophectoderm cells biomarker, is strongly expressed at this stage. This observation provides evidence clarifying why tetraploid embryos contribute only to trophectoderm.

  10. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  11. Market share for semen and cloned embryos in dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Use of cloned embryos from desirable genotypes (commercial clone lines) enables faster dissemination of superior genetics to dauy producers. Under optimal purchasing strategies of milk producers, the annual proportion of replacement cows from commercial clone lines indicates the market share of clon

  12. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  13. Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majda, Andrew J. [New York University; Xing, Yulong [ORNL; Mohammadian, Majid [University of Ottawa, Canada

    2010-01-01

    Determining the finite-amplitude preconditioned states in the hurricane embryo, which lead to tropical cyclogenesis, is a central issue in contemporary meteorology. In the embryo there is competition between different preconditioning mechanisms involving hydrodynamics and moist thermodynamics, which can lead to cyclogenesis. Here systematic asymptotic methods from applied mathematics are utilized to develop new simplified moist multi-scale models starting from the moist anelastic equations. Three interesting multi-scale models emerge in the analysis. The balanced mesoscale vortex (BMV) dynamics and the microscale balanced hot tower (BHT) dynamics involve simplified balanced equations without gravity waves for vertical vorticity amplification due to moist heat sources and incorporate nonlinear advective fluxes across scales. The BMV model is the central one for tropical cyclogenesis in the embryo. The moist mesoscale wave (MMW) dynamics involves simplified equations for mesoscale moisture fluctuations, as well as linear hydrostatic waves driven by heat sources from moisture and eddy flux divergences. A simplified cloud physics model for deep convection is introduced here and used to study moist axisymmetric plumes in the BHT model. A simple application in periodic geometry involving the effects of mesoscale vertical shear and moist microscale hot towers on vortex amplification is developed here to illustrate features of the coupled multi-scale models. These results illustrate the use of these models in isolating key mechanisms in the embryo in a simplified content.

  14. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  15. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s-1 are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  16. Rayleigh instability of the inverted one-cell amphibian embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri, Comron; Luppes, Roel; Veldman, Arthur E.P.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Gordon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The one-cell amphibian embryo is modeled as a rigid spherical shell containing equal volumes of two immiscible fluids with different densities and viscosities and a surface tension between them. The fluids represent denser yolk in the bottom hemisphere and clearer cytoplasm and the germinal vesicle

  17. Intersensory Redundancy Educates Selective Attention in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Markham, Rebecca G.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed whether exposure to amodal properties in bimodal stimulation (e.g. rhythm, rate, duration) could educate attention to amodal properties in subsequent unimodal stimulation during prenatal development. Bobwhite quail embryos were exposed to an individual bobwhite maternal call under several experimental and control conditions during the…

  18. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  19. A chemically defined medium for rabbit embryo cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bruyère

    Full Text Available This study evaluates a new synthetic substitute (CRYO3, Ref. 5617, Stem Alpha, France for animal-based products in rabbit embryo cryopreservation solutions. This evaluation was performed using two approaches: a thermodynamic approach using differential scanning calorimetry and a biological approach using rabbit embryo slow-freezing. During the experiment, foetal calf serum (FCS was used as a reference. Because FCS varies widely by supplier, three different FCS were selected for the thermodynamic approach. The rabbit embryo slow-freezing solutions were made from Dulbecco's phosphate buffer saline containing 1.5 M Dimethyl Sulfoxide and 18% (v.v(-1 of CRYO3 or 18% (v.v(-1 of FCS. These solutions were evaluated using four characteristics: the end of melting temperature, the enthalpy of crystallisation (thermodynamic approach and the embryo survival rates after culture and embryo transfer (biological approach. In the thermodynamic approach, the solutions containing one of the three different FCS had similar mean thermodynamic characteristics but had different variabilities in the overall data with aberrant values. The solution containing CRYO3 had similar thermodynamic properties when compared to those containing FCS. Moreover, no aberrant value was measured in the solution containing CRYO3. This solution appears to be more stable than the solutions containing a FCS. In the biological approach, the in vitro embryo survival rates obtained with the solution containing CRYO3 (73.7% and 81.3% and with the solution containing a FCS (77.6% and 71.9% were similar (p = 0.7. Nevertheless, during the in vivo evaluation, the implantation rate (21.8% and the live-foetuses rate (18.8% of the CRYO3 group were significantly higher than the implantation rate (7.1%, p = 0.0002 and the live-foetuses rate (5.3%, p = 0.0002 of the FCS group. The pregnancy rate was also higher in the CRYO3 group compared to the FCS group (81.3% and 43.8%, respectively, p

  20. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  1. [Cryopreservation study on seeds and embryos in Dalbergia odorifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; He, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kui; Wei, Jian-He

    2014-06-01

    The mature seeds and excised embryos of Dalbergia odorifera were used as materials to study the effect of moisture content on their survival, as well as the effect of rapid freezing and vitrification freezing method on seeds and in vitro embryos cryopreservation. The results showed that the germination rate and vigor decreased from 82.67%, 85% to 18.35%, 25% respectively, when the seed moisture content decreased from 15.04% to 8.14%; and the germination rate decreased from 82.67% to 37.50%, 25.37% respectively by vitrification freezing method and rapid freezing method, when the seed moisture content decreased from 15.04% to 9.37%. Among all the moisture content gradient, 12.35% moisture reached the maximal germination rate, which were 63.58% and 50.45% respectively by vitrification freezing and rapid freezing; and when the embryo moisture content was 26.32%, the germination rate decreased from 95.67% to 58.31% and 33.82% respectively by vitrification freezing and rapid freezing. And when the moisture content was in the range of 14.17% -21.34%, the germination rate was a bit of decrease. The experiment results showed that the optimum conditions of seed cryopreservation were: moisture content 12.35%, vitrification freezing; and the optimum conditions of in vitro embryo cryopreservation were: moisture 15.04%, vitrification freezing. In conclusion, the effects of moisture content on germination rate after cryopreservation in D. odorifera seeds and embryo were significant, and vitrification freezing method is much better than rapid freezing method.

  2. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  3. Chick embryo development as influenced by selenium in the egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, R.C.; Phalaraksh, K.; Bragg, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fertile chicken eggs were injected via the air cell with various levels (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 p.p.m.) of sodium selenite before incubation. Embryos were sacrificed at two, three and four days incubation as well as every other day from 6 to 18 days incubation. The accumulative mortality over 18 days of incubation for the controls, the two low levels of selenium and the two high levels of selenium was 8%, 24%, 37% respectively. Over 98% of all mortality occurred before six days of incubation. Embryo weights were depressed considerably at three days of incubation with all four levels of selenium, and at 2, 4 and 6 days when treated with 0.45 and 0.60 p.p.m. Se. Only two abnormal embryos were observed in this study. The supplementation of breeders with various levels of sodium selenite (0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 p.p.m.) was then carried out to determine the relative effect on embryo development through the hen. Dietary levels of 2.0 p.p.m. Se and above clearly depressed hatchability of total eggs set by the end of three weeks. The incidence of embryo abnormalities and malpositions was also quite high in the latter case. Therefore, the toxicity of selenium appears to depend on the mode of accumulation (i.e. injection vs. dietary). It would also appear that the form in which it is laid down in t

  4. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  5. Factors affecting the cryosurvival of mouse two-cell embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1988-01-01

    A series of 4 experiments was conducted to examine factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed 2-cell mouse embryos. Rapid addition of 1.5 M-DMSO (20 min equilibration at 25 degrees C) and immediate, rapid removal using 0.5 M-sucrose did not alter the frequency (mean +/- s.e.m.) of blastocyst development in vitro when compared to untreated controls (90.5 +/- 2.7% vs 95.3 +/- 2.8%). There was an interaction between the temperature at which slow cooling was terminated and thawing rate. Termination of slow cooling (-0.3 degrees C/min) at -40 degrees C with subsequent rapid thawing (approximately 1500 degrees C/min) resulted in a lower frequency of blastocyst development than did termination of slow cooling at -80 degrees C with subsequent slow thawing (+8 degrees C/min) (36.8 +/- 5.6% vs 63.9 +/- 5.7%). When slow cooling was terminated between -40 and -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were achieved with rapid thawing. When slow cooling was terminated below -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were obtained with slow thawing rates. In these comparisons absolute survival rates were highest among embryos cooled below -60 degrees C and thawed slowly. However, when slow cooling was terminated at -32 degrees C, with subsequent rapid warming, survival rates were not different from those obtained when embryos were cooled to -80 degrees C and thawed slowly (52.4 +/- 9.5%, 59.5 +/- 8.6%). These results suggest that optimal cryosurvival rates may be obtained from 2-cell mouse embryos by a rapid or slow thawing procedure, as has been found for mouse preimplantation embryos at later stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A simple method for producing tetraploid porcine parthenogenetic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembon, S; Fuchimoto, D; Iwamoto, M; Suzuki, S; Yoshioka, K; Onishi, A

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to produce porcine tetraploid parthenogenetic embryos using cytochalasin B, which inhibits polar body extrusion. Porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes aspirated from antral follicles were cultured for 51 h, and treated with cytochalasin B from 35 h to 42 h after the start of culture. After maturation culture, 74.7% (2074/2775) of oocytes treated with cytochalasin B did not extrude a polar body (0PB oocytes). In contrast, 80.4% (1931/2403) of control oocytes extruded a polar body (1PB oocytes). The 0PB oocytes were electrically stimulated, treated with cytochalasin B again for 3 h, and then cultured without cytochalasin B. Six days after electrical stimulation, 49.8% (321/644) reached the blastocyst stage. The number of cells in these blastocysts derived from 0PB oocytes was significantly lower than that from 1PB oocytes (0PB: 24.9 ± 10.6; 1PB: 43.0 ± 17.1; mean ± SD). A porcine chromosome 1-specific sequence was detected in parthenogenetic 0PB embryos by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Typical pronucleus-stage samples derived from 0PB embryos had two pronuclei, each with two signals. In two-cell and blastocyst-stage embryos, four signals were detected in each nucleus derived from 0PB embryos. We inferred that 0PB oocytes, which had a tetraploid number of chromosomes, started to develop as tetraploid parthenotes after electrical stimulation, and that tetraploid status was stably maintained during early embryonic development, at least until the blastocyst stage.

  7. Developmental Toxicity of Dextromethorphan in Zebrafish Embryos/Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Williams, Frederick E.; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is widely used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications. Its efficacy and safety for infants and young children remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to use the zebrafish as a model to investigate the potential toxicity of dextromethorphan during the embryonic and larval development. Three sets of zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), 48 hpf, and 72 hpf, respectively, during the embryonic/larval development. Compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set showed much higher mortality rates which increased in a dose-dependent manner. Bradycardia and reduced blood flow were observed for the embryos/larvae treated with increasing concentrations of dextromethorphan. Morphological effects of dextromethorphan exposure, including yolk sac and cardiac edema, craniofacial malformation, lordosis, non-inflated swim bladder, and missing gill, were also more frequent and severe among zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to dextromethorphan at 24 hpf. Whether the more frequent and severe developmental toxicity of dextromethorphan observed among the embryos/larvae in the 24 hpf exposure set, as compared with the 48 and 72 hpf exposure sets, is due to the developmental expression of the Phase I and Phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of dextromethorphan remains to be clarified. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, nevertheless, revealed developmental stage-dependent expression of mRNAs encoding SULT3 ST1 and SULT3 ST3, two enzymes previously shown to be capable of sulfating dextrorphan, an active metabolite of dextromethorphan. PMID:20737414

  8. Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of 2-cell mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Enugu; Wu, Guangming; Ma, Hong; Li, Ying; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Wolf, Don P.; Schöler, Hans; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Summary Successful mammalian cloning employing somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into unfertilized, metaphase II-arrested (MII) oocytes attests to the cytoplasmic presence of reprogramming factors capable of inducing pluripotency in somatic cell nuclei1-3. However, these poorly defined maternal factors presumably decline sharply after fertilization since cytoplasm of pronuclear stage zygotes is reportedly inactive4, 5. Recent evidence suggests that zygotic cytoplasm, if maintained at metaphase (M-phase) can also support derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) following SCNT6-8, albeit at low efficiency. This led to the conclusion that critical oocyte reprogramming factors present in M-phase but not in interphase cytoplasm are “trapped” inside the nucleus during interphase and effectively removed during enucleation9. Here, we investigated the presence of reprogramming activity in the interphase cytoplasm of 2-cell mouse embryos (I2C). First, the presence of candidate reprogramming factors was documented in both intact and enucleated M-phase and interphase zygotes and 2-cell embryos. Consequently, enucleation did not provide a likely explanation for the inability of interphase cytoplasm to induce reprogramming. Then, when we carefully synchronized the cell cycle stage between the transplanted nucleus (ESC, fetal fibroblast or terminally differentiated cumulus cell) and the recipient I2C cytoplasm, the reconstructed SCNT embryos developed into blastocysts and ESCs capable of contributing to traditional germline and tetraploid chimeras. In addition, direct transfer of cloned embryos, reconstructed with ESC nuclei, into recipients resulted in live offspring. Thus, the cytoplasm of I2C supports efficient reprogramming with cell cycle synchronization between the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm as the most critical parameter determining success. The ability to utilize interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could impact efforts to generate autologous human ESCs for

  9. Developmental toxicity evaluation of three hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers on zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Miaomiao [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Dandan; Yan Changzhou [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhang Xian, E-mail: xzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Structural dissimilarities of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers could raise substantial differences in physicochemical, biological and toxicological properties. In order to fully assess the environmental safety and health risk of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the developmental toxicity of individual HBCD diastereoisomers ({alpha}-HBCD, {beta}-HBCD and {gamma}-HBCD). Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of HBCD diastereoisomers (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/l) until 120 hpf. The results showed that exposure to HBCDs can affect the development of zebrafish embryos/larvae in a dose-dependent and diastereoselective manner. The diastereoisomers {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD at 0.01 mg/l had little effect on the development of zebrafish embryos except that exposure to 0.01 mg/l {gamma}-HBCD significantly delayed hatching (P < 0.05). At 0.1 mg/l, {alpha}-HBCD resulted in depressed heart rate of larvae (96 hpf) and delayed hatching, whereas {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD both caused significant hatching delay and growth inhibition (P < 0.05). In addition, a remarkable and significant increase in mortality and malformation rate was noted at 0.1 mg/l {gamma}-HBCD exposure groups (P < 0.05). At 1.0 mg/l, {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD significantly affected all of the endpoints monitored (P < 0.05). Additionally, HBCD diastereoisomers could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that HBCD diastereoisomers could cause developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos through inducing apoptosis by ROS formation. The overall results showed a good agreement confirming that the order of developmental toxicity of HBCD diastereoisomers in zebrafish is {gamma}-HBCD > {beta}-HBCD > {alpha}-HBCD.

  10. A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Amjad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART method of embryo grad- ing is unique, simple, and widely practiced, and its use has been mandatory for SART membership programs since 2010. Developed by SART in 2006, the current embryo grading system categories, “good, fair, and poor,” are limited because they do not describe the best 1-2 embryos in the interest of keeping pace with the shift in clinical practice to be more selective and to transfer fewer embryos. This inspired us to conduct a review on the SART embryo grading system. In this retrospective study, the literature on evaluation of human embryo quality in gen- eral, and the SART method of evaluation in particular, were reviewed for the period of 2000 to 2014. A multifaceted search pertaining to methods of embryo grading and trans- fer using a combination of relevant terms [embryo, mammalian, embryo transfer, grade, grading, morphology, biomarkers, SART, and in vitro fertilization (IVF] was performed. The inclusion and exclusion in this review were dictated by the aim and scope of the study. Two investigators independently assessed the studies and extracted information. A total of 61 articles were reviewed. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of the SART embryo grading method. The present study suggests the necessity for revision of the current SART grading system. The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer. The study foresees heightened descriptive efficiency of the SART system by implementing the proposed changes. Strengths and weaknesses of the SART embryo grading were identified. Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems.

  11. Progestin implants can rescue demi-embryo pregnancies in goats: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, D M; Oppenheim, S M; Moyer, A L; BonDurant, R H; Rowe, J D; Anderson, G B

    1999-06-01

    Survival after transfer of demi-embryos (i.e., half-embryos produced by embryo splitting) to recipients usually is lower than survival after transfer of intact embryos. Reduced survival after demi-embryo transfer could be due to loss of viability after splitting, failure of a viable demi-embryo to prevent corpus luteum (CL) regression in the recipient female, or a combination of factors. From a retrospective analysis of pregnancy and embryo survival rates after demi-embryo transfer in sheep and goats, we report the rescue of caprine demi-embryo pregnancies in which CL regression occurred at the end of diestrus despite the presence of a viable conceptus in the uterus with progestin implants. Day 5 or 6 morulae and blastocysts were flushed from superovulated ewes and does and split into demi-embryos of approximately equal halves. Demi-embryos were either transferred fresh to synchronized recipients of the homologous species or frozen in liquid nitrogen. Approximately half of the recipient does and ewes were treated with norgestomet implants on Day 10 of the embryo transfer cycle and again 2 wk later. Serum collected on Day 25 from recipients with implants was assayed for progesterone to determine if a CL of pregnancy had been maintained. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on Day 35 of gestation. Corpus luteum regression occurred despite the presence of a viable conceptus in the uterus in 6 of 55 progestin-treated caprine demi-embryo recipients and in 0 of 66 ovine demi-embryo recipients. Five of the caprine pregnancies were maintained to term with norgestomet implants and produced 5 live kids. The sixth fetus, which was carried by a progestin implant-treated 8-mo-old doeling, died at approximately 50 d of gestation. These results suggest that, at least in goats, some demi-embryos may provide inadequate signaling for maternal recognition of pregnancy, and such pregnancies can be rescued with progestin treatment to the doe.

  12. Developmental competence of equine oocytes and embryos obtained by in vitro procedures ranging from in vitro maturation and ICSI to embryo culture, cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, C; Colleoni, S; Duchi, R; Lagutina, I; Lazzari, G

    2007-03-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies in horses has been relatively slow compared to other domestic species, namely ruminants and pigs. The scarce availability of abattoir ovaries and the lack of interest from horse breeders and breed associations have been the main reasons for this delay. Progressively though, the technology of oocyte maturation in vitro has been established followed by the application of ICSI to achieve fertilization in vitro. Embryo culture was initially performed in vivo, in the mare oviduct or in the surrogate sheep oviduct, to achieve the highest embryo development, in the range of 18-36% of the fertilised oocytes. Subsequently, the parallel improvement of in vitro oocyte maturation conditions and embryo culture media has permitted high rates of embryo development from in vitro matured and in vitro cultured ICSI embryos, ranging from 5 to 10% in the early studies to up to 38% in the latest ones. From 2003, with the birth of the first cloned equids, the technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer has also become established due to improvement of the basic steps of embryo production in vitro, including cryopreservation. Pregnancy and foaling rates are still estimated based on a small number of in vitro produced equine embryos transferred to recipients. The largest set of data on non-surgical embryo transfer of in vitro produced embryos, from ICSI of both abattoir and in vitro-matured Ovum Pick Up (OPU) oocytes, and from somatic cell nuclear transfer, has been obtained in our laboratory. The data demonstrate that equine embryos produced by OPU and then cryopreserved can achieve up to 69% pregnancy rate with a foaling rate of 83%. These percentages are reduced to 11 and 23%, respectively, for cloned embryos. In conclusion, extensive evidence exists that in vitro matured equine oocytes can efficiently develop into viable embryos and offspring.

  13. Effect of washing mineral oil on development of mouse embryos in vitro and in vivo after embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Li-xuan; Zhong Yu; Zhu Kai; Zhang Tian; Wang Min-kang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish a simple and effective washing procedure for both used and purchased mineral oil,that can be used for embryo culture.Methods:A complete test system has been used for this purpose.There are 3 steps in our new washing proto-col.First,the oil was mixed with 95% ethanol at 1:1,the bottle being shaken by hand for 10 minutes,then sepa-rated.Second,the oil was heated to boiling point with 0.31 mol/L NaCl for 30 minutes.Third,anhydrous Na:SO4 was put into the oil for further treatment.1-cell stage embryos of a KM strain mouse have been collected surgically and cultured.Cleavage and blastocyst stage development were recorded and some embryos were transferred into re-cipients.Results:The results show that recycled oil can promote the development from 2-cell to blastocyst stage(23.3%)when compared with that of control(16.9%).Offspring have been obtained at 44 %(7/16),16 %(3/19)from washed recycled oil and control oil respectively.Conclusion:This washing procedure is safe and effective for the used treatment and for other sources of mineral oil used for embryo culture.

  14. In Vitro Embryo Production and Transfer of Bubaline Embryos using Oocytes Derived from Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Follicular Aspiration (TUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Aquino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (TUFA has become a popular tool for embryo production in vitro due to its high degree of repeatability in terms of recovering oocytes from live animals. In Study 1, the quantity and quality of oocytes from Bulgarian Murrah buffalo cows (n=10 of varying ages (Group 1, 8-12; and Group 2, 13-17 years were assessed. Group 1 buffalo donor cows yielded significantly higher (P<0.05 number of oocytes vs Group 2 buffalo donor cows (71 vs 29 oocytes, respectively, though in terms of oocyte quality, no difference was observed. In Study 2, oocytes collected (n=100 in Study 1 were matured, fertilized in vitro and the resulting zygotes were cultured which developed to blastocyst stage embryos. The maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development rates obtained were 53.0%, 40.0% and 32.5%, respectively. In Study 3, the viability of resulting blastocyst stage embryos was determined by transferring to recipient cows. Of 10 recipients 1 got pregnant and delivered a 35 kg male calf after 310 days gestation period. Overall, the results of the studies conducted demonstrated the potential of TUFA technology in the in vitro production of embryos which eventually could be used in the production of live offspring.

  15. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: importance of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Lenz, Markus; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of nZnO are solely or partly due to dissolved Zn(II). Here we compare potential effects of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/L nZnO and corresponding concentrations of released Zn(II) by water soluble ZnCl2 to two development stages of zebrafish, embryos and eleuthero-embryos, by analysing expressional changes by RT-qPCR. Another objective was to assess uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II). Laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II) were identical for nZnO and ZnCl2 in eleuthero-embryos. Zn(II) was found particularly in the retina/pigment layer of eyes and brain. Both nZnO and dissolved Zn(II) derived from ZnCl2 had similar inhibiting effects on hatching, and they induced similar expressional changes of target genes. At 72hours post fertilization (hpf), both nZnO and Zn(II) delayed hatching at all doses, and inhibited hatching at 1 and 5 mg/L at 96 hpf. Both nZnO and Zn(II) lead to induction of metallothionein (mt2) in both embryos and eleuthero-embryos at all concentrations. Transcripts of oxidative stress related genes cat and Cu/Zn sod were also altered. Moreover, we show for the first time that nZnO exposure results in transcriptional changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. Overall, transcriptional alterations were higher in embryos than eleuthero-embryos. The similarities of the effects lead to the conclusion that effects of nZnO are mainly related to the release of Zn(II).

  16. Stem cell research on other worlds, or why embryos do not have a right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, R

    2006-03-01

    Anxieties about the creation and destruction of human embryos for the purpose of scientific research on embryonic stem cells have given a new urgency to the question of whether embryos have moral rights. This article uses a thought experiment involving two possible worlds, somewhat removed from our own in the space of possibilities, to shed light on whether early embryos have such rights as a right not to be destroyed or discarded (a "right to life"). It is argued that early embryos do not have meaningful interests or any moral rights. Accordingly, claims about the moral rights of embryos do not justify restrictions on stem cell research.

  17. Derivation and characterisation of hESC lines from supernumerary embryos, experience from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rasmussen, Iben Anne; Erb, Karin;

    2010-01-01

    The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting....... Analysis of clinical data showed that the majority of embryos (94.5%) failed to reach the blastocyst stage of development and of all embryos, regardless of developmental status, 248 embryos were needed to create one stem cell line. From the number of embryos (69) which developed to the blastocyst stage 8...

  18. Supravital fluorometric apoptosis detection in a single mouse embryo using lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Śniadek, Patrycja; Dziuban, Jan A; Kluger, Joanna; Soyta, Anna Chełmońska

    2011-10-07

    Detection of apoptosis is one of the main criteria of preimplantation embryo growth potential assessment. Recent developments in lab-on-a-chip techniques has led to apoptosis detection and monitoring on a single cell or embryo level. However, single embryo apoptosis detection without a change in embryo developmental competence and post-examination "recovery" still remains a challenge. In this paper we present a lab-on-a-chip, co-working with miniaturized optical instrumentation, which allows supravital examination of single embryos for the presence of apoptotic blastomers with full after lab-on-a-chip study "recovery" and maintenance of their further developmental capacity.

  19. Embryo quality before and after slow freezing: Viability, implantation and pregnancy rates in 627 single frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles following failure of fresh transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodanno, Francesco; De Feo, Gaetano; Gizzo, Salvatore; Nicoli, Alessia; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Frozen embryo transfer cycles are now common practice, however, various aspects regarding the potential of frozen embryos remain unclear. The main goal of the present study was to assess embryo quality before and after slow freezing procedure, and more specifically blastomere loss and embryo quality as indicator of viability. A single center retrospective analysis of single frozen-thawed embryo replacements (s-FER) was performed. The embryo quality before and after slow freezing and thawing, implantation, and pregnancy rates were recorded. One hundred and twenty seven s-FER were included in the final analysis. The probability of achieving an ongoing pregnancy was significantly associated with embryo quality and the percentage of blastomere loss after thawing. Considering thawed embryos, a non-significant difference in term of implantation rate was observed, regardless to their post-thawing quality and the percentage of blastomeres loss. In conclusion, current data suggest that thawed embryos are capable of implantation regardless of their morphological quality and the degree of cryoinjury sustained.

  20. Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2014-02-28

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer.