WorldWideScience

Sample records for baking

  1. Pastry Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

  2. Selected Baking Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  3. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  4. Baking in the Backwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

  5. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  6. Bake For The Border

    OpenAIRE

    Bake For The Border

    2014-01-01

    I love to cook, bake and eat. The latter is my downfall. My interest began when I was a tiny girl. My late Mam was a great cook and was always baking and cooking us great food. She loved watching Darina Allen on television when we were children growing up in the ’80s in rural Ireland and I always watched too curled up beside her on the sofa. I would leaf through her cook books and circle the things I wanted her to make for me. Later on in life, when I went to university in Edinburgh, I would ...

  7. Baking Powder Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  8. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  9. Bread Baking Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  10. Natural gas for baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steub, G.

    1983-11-01

    German bakers account for about 11% of the total supply of energy required in the small-shop industry, consuming 13.3 billion kWH. The trade thus represents an attractive group of consumers for the energy supply industry. It is shown at what time of the day the peak requirement for energy occurs in bakeries and what baking ovens and firing systems have been developed for use in bakeries relying on gas as a source of heat.

  11. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  12. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  13. First results on fast baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bvisentin@cea.fr; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  14. First results on fast baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q 0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation

  15. Baking en Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo Aránguez, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    El proyecto Baking en Blender engloba de forma práctica algunos de los aspectos más importantes y novedosos de las tecnologías existentes de creación de imágenes generadas por ordenador (CGI). El renderizado o generación de imágenes 3D por ordenador requiere equipos con una elevada potencia de cálculo así como un gran tiempo de representación en función del detalle de los modelos 3D que se van a generar a pesar de que el hardware de aceleración gráfica hace interactiva la representación en ti...

  16. Baking method for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the heat transmission property to the reactor core structures thereby shortening the baking time for the reactor core in thermonuclear reactors. Constitution: High temperature airs are supplied from a baking system to cooling pipeways disposed within reactor core structures and helium gas is supplied from a helium gas supply system through the reactor core structures to the inside of the reactor core for scavenging. The scavenging operation may be combined with vacuum suction. Further, the inside of the reactor is scavenged while maintaining at such a negative pressure as within a range not degrading the heat conduction property. Since the helium gas is chemically inert and poor in the depositing property, it shows no adsorbability even for the material heated to high temperature. Further, since the diffusion and heat conduction properties are high, the heat conduction property to the materials upon baking can be improved to shorten the baking time. No disadvantages are caused by the introduction of the helium gas upon baking. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  18. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  19. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

  20. Baking technique of JT-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Takashi; Masaki, Kei; Miyachi, Kengo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    It needs to make low ultimate pressure to decrease impurities in a plasma in a nuclear fusion device. Baking technique is very effective method to decrease outgassing rate from first walls and inner surface of the vacuum vessel. However, in such large vacuum vessel, e.g. JT-60, the non-uniform heating and the deformation due to thermal expansion might be very important problems. The baking technique of JT-60 is described. Two baking systems were applied to JT-60 to solve the problem of non-uniform heating. One is a circulation system of the hot nitrogen gas which is located between the inner and outer skins of the double-skin structured vacuum vessel. The other is an electric heater which apply the thick of the vessel. In order to prevent the deformation, the difference of temperature was as small as possible. By both the baking at 300degC and the conditioning such as discharge cleaning, the ultimate pressure was achieved 7.9x10{sup -7} Pa. (author)

  1. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  2. Baking technique of JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Takashi; Masaki, Kei; Miyachi, Kengo

    1998-01-01

    It needs to make low ultimate pressure to decrease impurities in a plasma in a nuclear fusion device. Baking technique is very effective method to decrease outgassing rate from first walls and inner surface of the vacuum vessel. However, in such large vacuum vessel, e.g. JT-60, the non-uniform heating and the deformation due to thermal expansion might be very important problems. The baking technique of JT-60 is described. Two baking systems were applied to JT-60 to solve the problem of non-uniform heating. One is a circulation system of the hot nitrogen gas which is located between the inner and outer skins of the double-skin structured vacuum vessel. The other is an electric heater which apply the thick of the vessel. In order to prevent the deformation, the difference of temperature was as small as possible. By both the baking at 300degC and the conditioning such as discharge cleaning, the ultimate pressure was achieved 7.9x10 -7 Pa. (author)

  3. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  4. Plan de empresa baking fun

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco Gutiérrez, Daniella María; Blanco Barrios, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Baking fun es una empresa dedicada a la producción y comercialización de snacks saludables para niños. Sabemos que el momento de la comida no es fácil para los padres, y más aun cuando quieren alimentar con frutas y verduras a los más pequeños. Es por esto que nuestros snacks, a diferencia de los snacks tradicionales buscan combinar lo saludable con lo divertido, para que puedan alimentar balanceadamente a sus hijos mientras ellos se divierten y disfrutan nuestros snacks.

  5. Vacuum Baking To Remove Volatile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Outgassing reduced in some but not all nonmetallic materials. Eleven polymeric materials tested by determining outgassing species as temperature of conditioned and unconditioned materials raised to 300 degrees C. Conditioning process consisted of vacuum bake for 24 hours at 80 degrees C in addition to usual cure. Baking did not change residual gas percentage of water molecules.

  6. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  7. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin.

  8. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  9. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  11. Anode baking process optimization through computer modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.; Lancaster, D.; Crowell, B. [Noranda Aluminum, New Madrid, MO (United States); Ouellet, R.; Jiao, Q. [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Carbon anodes used in aluminum electrolysis are produced in vertical or horizontal type anode baking furnaces. The carbon blocks are formed from petroleum coke aggregate mixed with a coal tar pitch binder. Before the carbon block can be used in a reduction cell it must be heated to pyrolysis. The baking process represents a large portion of the aluminum production cost, and also has a significant effect on anode quality. To ensure that the baking of the anode is complete, it must be heated to about 1100 degrees C. To improve the understanding of the anode baking process and to improve its efficiency, a menu-driven heat, mass and fluid flow simulation tool, called NABSIM (Noranda Anode Baking SIMulation), was developed and calibrated in 1993 and 1994. It has been used since then to evaluate and screen firing practices, and to determine which firing procedure will produce the optimum heat-up rate, final temperature, and soak time, without allowing unburned tar to escape. NABSIM is used as a furnace simulation tool on a daily basis by Noranda plant process engineers and much effort is expended in improving its utility by creating new versions, and the addition of new modules. In the immediate future, efforts will be directed towards optimizing the anode baking process to improve temperature uniformity from pit to pit. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.

    1988-01-01

    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).

  13. Development of small-size baking oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Akihisa; Kuwabara, Shigeru; Yamazawa, Yoshitaka; Shigeta, Eiji

    1987-03-01

    In the bakery business, oven fresh bakeries selling fresh bread by installing their own baking ovens at their shops have become popular recently. This article reports the development of a small-size gas baking oven for oven fresh bakaries. The gas convection oven developed recently is based on the structure of the conventional electric convection oven, and uses low pressure gas. The gas oven has an advantage that the combustion gas contains moisture. The convection oven bakes bread normally at the baking density approximately 2.5 times as much as that of the radiation oven, thereby the size of the oven may become smaller. This oven can bake many kinds of bread ranging from croissants to bean-jam buns by gas combnstion heat as well as radiation heat from the radiation plates installed at the top of each compartment in the oven. An ultra small air heat type burner was developed to provide stable short flames in order to make the size of the combustion chamber smaller. (20 figs, 2 tabs)

  14. Baking exhaustion device in thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Mitsunori.

    1987-02-02

    Purpose: To rapidly remove tritium and impurity from the vacuum region in the access port of the baking exhaustion device in a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Each of the gaps at the boundary between a fixed shielding member and a blanket module and at the boundary between the blanket and a divertor is made extremely small so as to minimize the neutron streaming from plasmas. Accordingly, in the case of evacuating the vacuum region in the access port, the gap conductance is extremely poor and the exhaustion speed is low. Then, baking pipeways for flowing high temperature fluids are embedded to the surface layer at the position facing to the vacuum region and the plasma evacuation duct and the vacuum region are connected with an evacuation duct of the access port. By flowing high temperature fluids in the pipeways and conducting evacuation, baking exhaustion can be carried out rapidly. (Kamimura, M.).

  15. IBL Thermal Mockup Bake-Out Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiry, FX

    2014-01-01

    This note summarizes different bake-out tests that have been performed with the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) mockup. Two beam pipe configurations have been tested: one with the aerogel insulation layer all along the pipe and one without insulation over 622 mm around Z0. These tests have been crucial for decisions about aerogel removal, choice of heaters for the LHC beam pipe bake-out, and choice of temperature setpoints for the cooling system during nominal IBL operation. They also revealed very useful information on integration issues and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the IBL detector.

  16. Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injera Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 °C to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for househol...

  17. Development of a Benchtop Baking Method for Chemically Leavened Crackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, the baking performance of soft wheat flours has been evaluated by well-established benchtop cookie-baking methods. In contrast, a benchtop cracker-baking method has not been widely explored or implemented as an official method, due to hurdles including the difficulty in finding ideal...

  18. Design and thermal-hydraulic calculation for EAST PFCs' baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiaogang; Yao Damao

    2006-01-01

    According to the vacuum requirements for fusion in a tokamak device, the authors adopted a kind of gas flow baking technique in EAST. This paper presented the sketch design for EAST PFCs' baking, selected the specifications for the working gas. Calculated the hydraulic and thermal conditions in PFCs under baking, and simulated the results. (authors)

  19. Calculation the kinetics of the baking biscuit process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the input values of the equivalent values of thermophysical units and the heat transfer coefficient were calculated: values that reflect the kinetics of the process of baking; values allowing to determine the relationship duration baking temperature in the baking chamber; the voltage of the active area of the hearth.

  20. Baking results of KSTAR vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. M.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is an advanced superconducting tokamak designed to establish a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. The fusion energy in the tokamak device is released through fusion reactions of light atoms such as deuterium or helium in hot plasma state, of which temperature reaches several hundreds of millions Celsius. The high temperature plasma is created in the vacuum vessel that provides ultra high vacuum status. Accordingly, it is most important for the vacuum condition to keep clean not only inner space but also surface of the vacuum vessel to make high quality plasma. There are two methods planned to clean the wall surface of the KSTAR vacuum vessel. One is surface baking and the other is glow discharge cleaning (GDC). To bake the vacuum vessel, De-Ionized (DI) water is heated to 130 .deg. C and circulated in the passage between double walls of the vacuum vessel (VV) in order to bake the surface. The GDC operation uses hydrogen and inert gas discharges. In this paper, general configuration and brief introduction of the baking result will be reported.

  1. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  2. Baking controller for synchrotron beamline vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, C.K.; Kane, S.R.; Dhamgaye, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron storage ring Indus-2 is a hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Source. Nearly 27 beamlines will be installed on Indus-2 and they will cater to different experiments and applications. Most of the beamlines will be in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) the only exception being hard X-rays beamlines. However the front ends of all the beamlines will be in UHV. Practicing UHV requires efforts and patience. Evacuating any chamber, volume gases can be removed easily. However, outgassing phenomena like desorption, diffusion and permeation restricts the system to attain UHV. All processes except the volume gas removal are temperature dependent. At ambient temperature, gas pressure decreases so slowly that outgassing limit (i.e. 10 -10 1/s/cm 2 ) can hardly be achieved on a practical time scale. Also there are three orders of magnitude difference in outgassing between baked and unbaked systems. Depending on the vacuum chamber and the components inside it, the thermal outgassing (baking) of system is required and can be done at various temperatures between 150 degC to 450 deg C. For whole baking cycle, constant monitoring and controlling of the systems is required which takes tens of hours. This paper describes the automation for such baking system, which will be used for SR beamlines

  3. Baking results of KSTAR vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. M.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Kwon, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is an advanced superconducting tokamak designed to establish a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. The fusion energy in the tokamak device is released through fusion reactions of light atoms such as deuterium or helium in hot plasma state, of which temperature reaches several hundreds of millions Celsius. The high temperature plasma is created in the vacuum vessel that provides ultra high vacuum status. Accordingly, it is most important for the vacuum condition to keep clean not only inner space but also surface of the vacuum vessel to make high quality plasma. There are two methods planned to clean the wall surface of the KSTAR vacuum vessel. One is surface baking and the other is glow discharge cleaning (GDC). To bake the vacuum vessel, De-Ionized (DI) water is heated to 130 .deg. C and circulated in the passage between double walls of the vacuum vessel (VV) in order to bake the surface. The GDC operation uses hydrogen and inert gas discharges. In this paper, general configuration and brief introduction of the baking result will be reported

  4. [Study on baking processing technology of hui medicine Aconitum flavum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-yan; Zhang, Bai-tong; Li, Ting-ting; Dong, Lin; Hao, Wen-jing; Yu, Liang

    2013-12-01

    To screen and optimize the processing technology of Aconitum flavum. The acute-toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic experiments were used as indexes. Four processing methods, including decoction, streaming, baking and processing with Chebulae Fructus decoction, were compared to screen the optimum processing method for Aconitum flavum. The baking time was also optimized. The optimal baked technology was that 1-2 mm decoction pieces was baked at 105 degrees C for 3 hours. The baking method is proved to be the optimal processing method of Aconitum flavum. It is shown that this method is simple and stable.

  5. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong [Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper

  8. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  9. Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bake hardening behavior of AA7075 was studied and compared with its coarse-grain counterpart. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 88–100% increase in bake hardenability. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 36–38% increase in final yield strength after baking. ► Maximum bake hardenability and final yield stress were about 185 MPa and 719 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains of 50–110 nm, was about 75 μm on each side of workpiece. The bake hardenability of nanograin and coarse-grain AA7075 was then compared by pre-straining to 2, 4 and 6% followed by baking at 100 °C and 200 °C for 20 min. Comparing to coarse-grain case, there was about 88–100% increase in bake hardenability and about 36–38% increase in yield strength after the bake hardening of present nanograin AA7075. Such an increase in bake hardenability and strength was achieved when the thickness of two nanograin layers was about only one-tenth of the whole thickness.

  10. Xylanases and Their Applications in Baking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Sadiq Butt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide and a major component of plant cell wall. Cereal xylans contain large quantities of L-arabinose and are therefore, often referred to as arabinoxylans. Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes, which randomly cleave the β-1,4 backbone of this complex plant cell wall polysaccharide. Different species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma produce these enzymes. Xylanases are of great value in baking as they have been found to improve the bread volume, crumb structure and reduce stickiness. When xylanases are used at optimum levels, they play a significant role in increasing shelf life of bread and reduce bread staling. There is an increasing trend in baking industry towards the application of xylanases in bread production. This review discusses the application of xylanase in the bakery industry, alone and in combination with other enzymes when it shows synergism in the action with them.

  11. Design and Development of Solar Thermal Injera Baking: Steam Based Direct Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw Haileselassie; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article Under a Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Ethiopia, the second most populated country in Africa, meets 96% of its energy need from bio-mass and majority of this energy goes entirely to Injera baking. Injera, a pan-cake like bread that is consumed by most of the population, demands a temperature of 180-220 oC to be well baked. Both traditional and newly developed biomass Injera...

  12. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  13. Baking the first bread in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  14. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  15. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  16. Researches on bake effect on RF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Zhao Kui; Zhu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The Q-slope at high gradient affects the performance of superconducting cavity greatly. Recent researches show that low temperature (100-150) degree C heat treatment (bake) has positive effects on the performance of superconducting cavities. A lot of cavity tests are analyzed based on bake treatment. The average gradient E acc,max and E acc at Q=1 x 10 10 are increased by more than 3.5 MV/m. Q at E acc,max is increased and the Q-slope is improved. Analysis on bake temperature shows that higher bake temperature leads to higher Q value. Comparison of BCP and EP cavities shows that at least 60-80 μm EP is needed for BCP surface. More than 10-15 μm removal of the surface by BCP will degrade the performance of an EP cavity. Oxygen diffusion model is used to illustrate bake effect. (authors)

  17. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  18. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  19. Baking oven improvement by performance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The first phase of the project included both the derivation of an oven model and the development of a portable, rapid-response heat-flux sensor. Heat flux (defined as the instantaneous rate of heat flow per unit at the surface of the baking biscuit and expressed in W/cm[sup 2]) has been shown to be a more useful measure of oven performance than temperature alone. Fixed-point heat-flux sensors have already been developed and marketed, but a need was expressed at the start of this project for a travelling sensor which could be used to construct a more detailed picture of heat-flux variation in an oven. The travelling monitor developed can be used to measure variations in the heat flux experienced at the surface of products being baked in a travelling oven, both when oven conditions are fixed and when they are varied. It can also be used to identify the optimum locations within an oven for fixed heat-flux probes. It has been used effectively throughout the project for both purposes. Fuel savings of 18% and 21%, respectively, were achieved with two ovens. (author)

  20. Miniature bread baking as a timesaving research approach and mathematical modeling of browning kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Putranto, Aditya; Zhou, Weibiao; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-01-01

    Miniature bread baking is presented as an economical and timesaving laboratory approach to study the baking process in the present work. Results indicate that the miniature bread baking is essentially analogical to the baking process of regular-sized bread: quality-related properties of miniature

  1. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  2. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  3. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  4. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  5. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing......The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and mass transfer in a butter cookie product, and evaluation of quality assessment methods. The pilot plant oven is a special batch oven designed to emulate continuous convection tunnel oven baking. The design, construction, and validation of the oven has been part of the project and is described...

  6. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  7. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  8. Temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baking treatment is one of the most important processes of cigarette production, which can significantly enhance quality of tobacco. Theoretical and numerical investigation on temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking was carried out. The finite volume method was used to simulate the flow field. The relationship between the uniformity of temperature field and impeller’s speed was given finally, which is helpful to optimize cigarette oven with better quality and less energy consumption.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  10. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental result of poloidal limiter baking of Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K.A.; Arambhadiya, B.G.; Bhatt, S.B.; Bora, D.

    2005-01-01

    In tokamak Aditya, Poloidal limiter function as the operational limiter and are subjected to very high particles load and heat flux during plasma discharge. In addition, Poloidal limiter is the first material surface to come in contact with the hot plasma. In plasma discharge, the impurity generations from limiter are mostly by adsorbed particles. The baking of limiter provides high degassing rate and thermal desorption of adsorbed particles of limiter to reduce impurities from the limiter tiles. The series of experiments are done with different conditions like, Baking of limiter SS ring by heating element with and without limiter tiles in atmosphere and vacuum. Than Poloidal limiter is structured with 14 numbers of graphite tiles and electrical isolated to the vessel and support structure. As a heating element and for electrical isolation, Nychrome wire and ceramic block with ceramic tubes are used. In addition, Thermo couple and two DC power supply (0-10 Ampere) are used for limiter baking. Mass analyzer gives partial pressures of different species to observe effect of limiter baking. For the period of Poloidal limiter baking in Aditya, the partial pressures of different species like hydrogen, water vapor, and oxygen are extremely increased with time duration. This paper presents series of experimental results of poloidal limiter baking. (author)

  12. The JET gas baking plant for DT operation and analysis of tritium permeation and baking gas activation in DTE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Andrew, P.; Bryan, S.; Hemmrich, J.L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    The JET gas baking plant allows the vacuum vessel to be heated for conditioning and plasma operations. The vessel was maintained at 320 deg. C for the JET DT experiments (DTE 1). The design of the plant is outlined with particular reference to the features to provide compatibility with tritium operations. The experience of baking gas activation and tritium permeation into the plant are given, Developmentsto reduce the tritium permeation out of the vessel are considered. (authors)

  13. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  14. Pilot plant experiments for baking of anode blocks in electrically heated ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grjotheim, K. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry); Kvande, H. (Hydro Aluminium AS, Stabekk (Norway)); Naixiang, F.; Shiheng, Z.; An, L.; Guangxia, H. (Northeast Univ. of Technology, Shenyang, LN (China). Dept. of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy)

    1990-04-01

    Pilot plant experiments were made to bake anode blocks in electrically heated baking ovens. About 70% of the baked anodes had a specific electrical resistance between 35 and 60 {Omega}xmm{sup 2}xm{sup -1}. About 25% had higher resistances, and these were returned to the baking ovens and used as heating elements in the next baking cycle. The average electrical energy consumption was 1430 kWh per tonne of anodes produced, which is about only 60% of the energy consumption in classical oil or gas-fired baking ovens. (orig.).

  15. Development and optimization of operational parameters of a gas-fired baking oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Tunde MORAKINYO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the development and optimization of operational parameters of an indigenous gas-fired bread-baking oven for small-scale entrepreneur. It is an insulated rectangular box-like chamber, made of galvanized-steel sheets and having a total dimension of 920mm×650mm×600mm. This oven consists of two baking compartments and three combustion chambers. The oven characteristics were evaluated in terms of the baking capacity, baking efficiency and weight loss of the baked bread. The physical properties of the baked breads were measured and analyzed using Duncan multiple range test of one way ANOVA at significant level of p<0.05. These properties were optimized to determine the optimum baking temperature using 3D surface response plot of Statistical Release 7. The baking capacity, baking efficiency, weight loss and optimum baking temperature were: 12.5 kg/hr, 87.8%, 12.5 g, 200-220oC, respectively. The physical properties of baked bread dough were found to correspond with the imported product (control sample. These results showed that, the developed gas-fired baking oven can be adopted for baking of bread at domestic and commercial levels.

  16. Mathematical modeling of fish burger baking using fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bainy Eduarda M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. is the most important and abundant fish species in Brazil due to its adaptability to different environments. The development of tilapia-based products could be an alternative in order to aggregate value and increase fish meat consumption. However, there is little information available on fishburger freezing and cooking in the literature. In this work, the mathematical modeling of the fish burger baking was studied. Previously to the baking process, the fishburgers were assembled in cylindrical shape of height equal to 8mm and diameter 100mm and then baked in an electrical oven with forced heat convection at 150ºC. A T-type thermocouple was inserted in the burger to obtain its temperature profile at the central position. In order to describe the temperature of the burger during the baking process, lumped-parameter models of integer and fractional order and also a nonlinear model due to heat capacity temperature dependence were considered. The burger physical properties were obtained from the literature. After proper parameter estimation tasks and statistical validation, the fractional order model could better describe the experimental temperature behavior, a value of 0.91±0.02 was obtained for the fractional order of the system with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Therefore, with the better temperature prediction, process control and economic optimization studies of the baking process can be conducted.

  17. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy requirements during sponge cake baking: Experimental and simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureta, M. Micaela; Goñi, Sandro M.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Olivera, Daniela F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sponge cake energy consumption during baking was studied. • High oven temperature and forced convection mode favours oven energy savings. • Forced convection produced higher weight loss thus a higher product energy demand. • Product energy demand was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied. • The greatest energy efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode. - Abstract: Baking is a high energy demanding process, which requires special attention in order to know and improve its efficiency. In this work, energy consumption associated to sponge cake baking is investigated. A wide range of operative conditions (two ovens, three convection modes, three oven temperatures) were compared. Experimental oven energy consumption was estimated taking into account the heating resistances power and a usage factor. Product energy demand was estimated from both experimental and modeling approaches considering sensible and latent heat. Oven energy consumption results showed that high oven temperature and forced convection mode favours energy savings. Regarding product energy demand, forced convection produced faster and higher weight loss inducing a higher energy demand. Besides, this parameter was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied, with an average error between experimental and simulated values in a range of 8.0–10.1%. Finally, the energy efficiency results indicated that it increased linearly with the effective oven temperature and that the greatest efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode.

  19. Baking system for vacuum components in INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhange, Nilesh J.; Bhatnagar, Prateek; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Optimized bake-out procedures are very important for the overall reliability of vacuum system. In this process the UHV components like Sputter ion pump (SIP), Titanium sublimation pump (TSP) are subjected to temperature rise for sufficiently long period of time. Baking is necessary for obtaining low out gassing rates. In order to provide controlled baking of UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) components for INDUS-II an intelligent ON/OFF control system was needed. For that purpose distributed control system was suitable. For fulfillment of this need modular baking system was developed. This system contains Temperature controller unit (TCU), Pressure Monitoring Unit (PMU), and Temperature control and pressure Monitoring Interface Software (TCPMIS). Each TCU is an eight channel temperature controlling unit. PMU is eight channel pressure monitoring unit to which analog data from gauges like Penning, BA Gauge controllers is given. TCPMIS is a user interface software developed for, controlling up to 5 TCU's. In this way 40 channel temperature control, data logging of 40 channel temperature and logging of eight channel pressures was realized. The present paper describes details about computer controlled baking system. (author)

  20. Quality enhancement of chicken baked without skin using honey marinades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking.

  1. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  2. A New Type of Tea Baking Machine Based on Pro/E Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Ying; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the production process of wulong tea was discussed, mainly the effect of baking on the quality of tea. The suitable baking temperature of different tea was introduced. Based on Pro/E, a new type of baking machine suitable for wulong tea baking was designed. The working principle, mechanical structure and constant temperature timing intelligent control system of baking machine were expounded. Finally, the characteristics and innovation of new baking machine were discussed.The mechanical structure of this baking machine is more simple and reasonable, and can use the heat of the inlet and outlet, more energy saving and environmental protection. The temperature control part adopts fuzzy PID control, which can improve the accuracy and response speed of temperature control and reduce the dependence of baking operation on skilled experience.

  3. New baking system for the RFX vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Luchetta, A.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G.

    1996-01-01

    A heating system based on eddy currents has been developed for the vacuum vessel of the RFX Reversed Field Pinch device. After a testing phase, carried out at low power, the final power supply system has been designed and installed. It has been used during last year to bake out the vessel and the graphite first wall up to 320 degree C. Recently the heating system has been completed with a control system that allows for baking sessions with an automatic control of the vacuum vessel temperature and for pulse sessions with a heated first wall. After the description of the preliminary analyses and tests, and of the main characteristics of the power supply and control systems, the experimental results of the baking sessions performed during last year are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs

  4. Baking Arithmetic and Error Analyses for PEFP Fundamental Power Couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; An, Sun; Tang, Yazhe; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is considering developing and using SRF technology to accelerate a proton beam at 700 MHz in its present project and its extended project (PEP). The first section of the PEFP SRF linac (SCL) is composed of low-beta cryomodules. Each cryomodule has three 5-cell cavities and each cavity has one fundamental power coupler (FPC). Before the high power RF processing, each FPC needs to be baked out for 24 hours at 200 degrees Celsius ( .deg. C). The whole control system is described in reference, in this system, the temperature in the baking-box need to be changed according to three straight lines with different slope. This paper described how we can make the temperature of the baking-box changed according to the required values.

  5. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  6. Baking Arithmetic and Error Analyses for PEFP Fundamental Power Couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; An, Sun; Tang, Yazhe; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is considering developing and using SRF technology to accelerate a proton beam at 700 MHz in its present project and its extended project (PEP). The first section of the PEFP SRF linac (SCL) is composed of low-beta cryomodules. Each cryomodule has three 5-cell cavities and each cavity has one fundamental power coupler (FPC). Before the high power RF processing, each FPC needs to be baked out for 24 hours at 200 degrees Celsius ( .deg. C). The whole control system is described in reference, in this system, the temperature in the baking-box need to be changed according to three straight lines with different slope. This paper described how we can make the temperature of the baking-box changed according to the required values

  7. New baking system for the RFX vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Luchetta, A.; Sonato, P.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G. [Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    A heating system based on eddy currents has been developed for the vacuum vessel of the RFX Reversed Field Pinch device. After a testing phase, carried out at low power, the final power supply system has been designed and installed. It has been used during last year to bake out the vessel and the graphite first wall up to 320{degree}C. Recently the heating system has been completed with a control system that allows for baking sessions with an automatic control of the vacuum vessel temperature and for pulse sessions with a heated first wall. After the description of the preliminary analyses and tests, and of the main characteristics of the power supply and control systems, the experimental results of the baking sessions performed during last year are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Glucoamylase: a current allergen in the baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Bettina; Hölzel, Claus; Stark, Ulrike

    Over a 10 year period a decline in the rate of sensitizations to α-amylase (Aspergillus oryzae) was observed in bakers investigated for allergic obstructive airway disease. At the same time, glucoamylase (Aspergillus niger) was identified as the currently the most relevant allergen in sensitizations to enzymes in the baking industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, over a period of 10 years and in the case of new-onset disease, there had been any change in sensitization and exposure rates to enzymes used in the baking industry. Total immunoglobulin-E (IgE) levels and specific IgE to baking enzymes were determined in 433 bakers investigated in the Baker's Asthma prevention program (Bäckerasthma Präventionsprogramm, BAP) of the German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the foodstuffs and catering industry (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gastgewerbe, BGN). At the same time personal dust exposure, including assessment of the level of α-amylase exposure in the area of exposure, was recorded. Serological investigations revealed a significant decline in the rate of sensitization to α-amylase from 26 % to 13 %. At 28 %, the rate of sensitization to the baking enzyme glucoamylase was significantly higher than to cellulase (16 %) and α-amylase among subjects in 2010. Multiple sensitizations to all three baking agents are common. In total, 30 % of affected bakers are currently sensitized to at least one of the baking enzymes investigated. Data from individual dust measurements revealed a decline in α-amylase exposure while overall dust exposure remained almost unchanged. Today, 11 % fewer bakers are exposed to α-amylase compared with ten years previously and, at the same time, enzyme concentrations in exposed bakers have dropped significantly. The high sensitization rate to glucoamylase in affected bakers gives cause to investigate exposure levels in bakeries and to assess sensitizations in the context of occupational disease

  9. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion e...

  10. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes with which they were compared. We presuppose that the reason less plaque is removed by non-baking soda

  11. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  12. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  13. Diffusion of oxygen in niobium during bake-out

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Ruzinov, V

    2001-01-01

    Bake-outs at temperatures between 100 C and 150 C for a duration up to two days have become customary for optimising the performance of bulk niobium cavities. This treatment results in the diffusion of oxygen, originating from the surface oxide, into the niobium. The theoretical oxygen profile has been simulated using the diffusion equations, and compared with some experimental results.

  14. Arabinoxylan content and characterisation throughout the bread-baking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced in a variety of ways by non-starch polysaccharides, especially arabinoxylans (AX). The assessment of AX content and structural properties is often performed on flour and extrapolated to predict the role that AX may play in baked products....

  15. Numerical and experimental characterization of a batch bread baking oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploteau, J.P.; Nicolas, V.; Glouannec, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal characterization of an electrical static oven used for bread baking. The heating is provided by natural convection, infrared radiation and conduction with a cement slab. The paper describes a methodology to apprehend the heat flux which is applied to the products during baking. The oven was experimentally investigated and a finite element numerical model is established. The monitoring of temperatures at various points in the installation and of electrical power is carried out. Then, to characterize thermal exchanges around the bread during curing, thermal responses of a cylindrical sample is also measured. The numerical model made it possible to calculate the heat flux exchanges with the product, while separating the contributions of convection and radiation. The comparison of simulated responses with experimental data shows the relevance of the model. - Highlights: ► This study concerns the thermal characterization of an electric static oven used for bread baking. ► An original, experimental and numerical approach of thermal problem is proposed. ► Contributions by radiation and convection are separated. ► The goal is to provide boundary conditions for numerical models of bread baking. ► Results are encouraging to optimize energy consumption in industrial oven.

  16. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  17. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  18. Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder biscuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making bisc...

  19. Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoglu, E; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2012-01-01

    The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100-250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by using Arrhenius equation. The degradation of DON obeyed Arrhenius law with a regression coefficient of 0.95. A classical bread baking operation was also performed at 250°C for 70 min and the rate of DON degradation in the bread was estimated by using the kinetic data derived from the model study. The crust and crumb temperatures recorded during bread baking were used to calculate the thermal degradation rate constants (k) and partial DON degradations at certain time intervals. Using these data, total degradation at the end of the entire baking process was predicted for both crust and crumb. This DON degradation was consistent with the experimental degradation data, confirming the accuracy of kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model.

  20. Baking of SST-1 vacuum vessel modules and sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Firozkhan S; Khan, Ziauddin; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Manthena, Himabindu; Shah, Virendrakumar; Raval, Dilip C; Thankey, Prashant L; Dhanani, Kalpesh R; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak is a steady state super-conducting tokamak for plasma discharge of 1000 sec duration. The plasma discharge of such long time duration can be obtained by reducing the impurities level, which will be possible only when SST-1 vacuum chamber is pumped to ultra high vacuum. In order to achieve UHV inside the chamber, the baking of complete vacuum chamber has to be carried out during pumping. For this purpose the C-channels are welded inside the vacuum vessel. During baking of vacuum vessel, these welded channels should be helium leak tight. Further, these U-channels will be in accessible under operational condition of SST-1. So, it will not possible to repair if any leak is developed during experiment. To avoid such circumstances, a dedicated high vacuum chamber is used for baking of the individual vacuum modules and sectors before assembly so that any fault during welding of the channels will be obtained and repaired. This paper represents the baking of vacuum vessel modules and sectors and their temperature distribution along the entire surface before assembly.

  1. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.T.; Fels, van der Ine; Boekel, van Tiny

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after

  2. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  3. Genetic diversity of gliadin pattern, morphological traits and baking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... diversity of 102 double haploids of wheat (sent from. CIMMYT) through studying gliadin protein ... biomass, yield per plant, harvest index, number of grains per spike, spike density, spike length, plant ... per spike, also 6 baking quality traits, protein content, gluten index,. SDS sedimentation, sedimentation ...

  4. Development and optimization of operational parameters of a gas-fired baking oven

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi Tunde MORAKINYO; Babatunde OMIDIJI; Hakeem OWOLABI

    2017-01-01

    This study presented the development and optimization of operational parameters of an indigenous gas-fired bread-baking oven for small-scale entrepreneur. It is an insulated rectangular box-like chamber, made of galvanized-steel sheets and having a total dimension of 920mm×650mm×600mm. This oven consists of two baking compartments and three combustion chambers. The oven characteristics were evaluated in terms of the baking capacity, baking efficiency and weight loss of the baked bread. The ph...

  5. The Role of Baked Egg and Milk in the Diets of Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Melissa L; Lanser, Bruce J

    2018-02-01

    Baked egg and baked milk are tolerated by most children who are allergic to hen's egg and cow's milk. Incorporating baked goods into the diets of allergic children may help them outgrow their primary allergy more quickly, with changes observed akin to immunotherapy. Benefits may also include increased quality of life and improved nutritional status. The search for a reliable biomarker to predict tolerance to baked goods is ongoing. Most children with a milk or egg allergy who are not previously tolerating egg or milk in baked goods should be offered an observed oral food challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... and adjustable over a wide range of settings. It is possible to monitor the product weight and temperature continuously during baking. The simultaneous measuring of mass and a window allowing for visual (e.g., by video recording) control is unique for this experimental batch oven. Two validation steps have been...... carried out. The uniformity of heating in the oven was assessed by measurements of local heat transfer coefficients and confirmed by baking tests. The methods showed that the oven is able to heat and bake uniformly across the baking area. Hereafter, the oven was validated against a commercial 10-m tunnel...

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product.

  8. [Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dianhua; Su, Benzheng; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Qu, Yongsheng

    2011-05-01

    To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (3(4)). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 degrees C and the stir-baking time was 10 min. The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  9. The Impact of Baked Egg and Baked Milk Diets on IgE- and Non-IgE-Mediated Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Julia; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2018-03-08

    Baked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets are increasingly used in the management of milk and egg allergy, rather than avoidance. Children with tolerance versus reactivity to BM and BE may have smaller skin prick test and lower specific IgE, and BM-tolerant children have less basophil reactivity and more peripheral T regulatory cells. However, most milk- and egg-allergic children tolerate BM and BE and an individual's reactivity is unpredictable. Non-reactivity is due to conformational changes in the allergens. Significant differences in the published advice about methods of introduction exist from graded introduction at home to a medically supervised full dose. These approaches carry different risks and may have different immunological effects. Reactivity to BM is a predictor of a severe milk allergy. Therefore, medical supervision for BM and BE introduction is prudent. The baked diet allows dietary liberation. Most, but not all, BM- and BE-tolerant children continue eating the baked foods. The prognosis of children who can eat BM and BE is favorable with likely resolution of their allergy over the next few years. Murine models of BE diets demonstrate that heated egg can impart clinical protection against anaphylaxis and cause immune changes. Most observational human studies of BM and BE diets demonstrate clinical resolution of allergy and favorable immune changes versus regular care controls. However, the one randomized controlled trial for the BE diet in BE-tolerant children did not support an immune-modifying effect of the BE diet. Another study of BE immunotherapy is expected to be completed in 2018. There is currently no evidence for prevention of allergy with the baked diets. There may be a future role for BM and BE in liberating the diets of individuals with non-IgE-mediated allergy given recent studies that a subset of these patients can consume BM without a clinical reaction.

  10. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  11. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  12. Environmental benefits from RF post-baking drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoud, A. [Southern California Edison Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of industrial microwaves and their environmental benefits in the Los Angeles Basin. The objective of the project was to assess the use of radio frequency (RF) post baking dryers to reduce the emissions per pound of output from a biscuit manufacturer and to determine the net savings in fuel consumed. Emissions measurements and energy consumption measurements were made prior to modifications to have a baseline for data for comparison. Results showed that the bakery used 17% less fuel and productivity increased by 25% after installation of the RF units. It was estimated that NOx emissions would be reduced 15-20%. The addition of RF post baking dryers provided a significant reduction in the emission problem in Los Angeles. 1 fig.

  13. Vanadium Extraction from Shale via Sulfuric Acid Baking and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Fluorides are widely used to improve vanadium extraction from shale in China. Sulfuric acid baking-leaching (SABL) was investigated as a means of recovering vanadium which does not require the use of fluorides and avoids the productions of harmful fluoride-containing wastewater. Various effective factors were systematically studied and the experimental results showed that 90.1% vanadium could be leached from the shale. On the basis of phase transformations and structural changes after baking the shale, a mechanism of vanadium extraction from shale via SABL was proposed. The mechanism can be described as: (1) sulfuric acid diffusion into particles; (2) the formation of concentrated sulfuric acid media in the particles after water evaporation; (3) hydroxyl groups in the muscovite were removed and transient state [SO4 2-] was generated; and (4) the metals in the muscovite were sulfated by active [SO4 2-] and the vanadium was released. Thermodynamics modeling confirmed this mechanism.

  14. Optimized Baking of the DIII-D Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak vacuum vessel baking system is used to heat the vessel walls and internal hardware to an average temperature of 350 C to allow rapid conditioning of the vacuum surfaces. The system combines inductive heating and a circulating hot air system to provide rapid heating with temperature uniformity required by stress considerations. In recent years, the time to reach 350 C had increased from 9 hrs to 14 hrs. To understand and remedy this sluggish heating rate, an evaluation of the baking system was recently performed. The evaluation indicated that the mass of additional in-vessel hardware (50% increase in mass) was primarily responsible. This paper reports on this analysis and the results of the addition of an electric air heater and procedural changes that have been implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the time to 350 C has been decreased to 4.5 hours and the temperature uniformity has improved

  15. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  16. Characterization of baking behaviour of carbonaceous materials by dilatation investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M.; Seichter, A.; Starke, S.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in volume can be observed in carbonaceous materials during baking which is assumed to be the reason for strains and crack formation. It occurs most pronouncedly within a temperature range from 100 to 200{degree}C. The causes of such phenomena in products pressed at different temperatures are analyzed by means of a gas pressure model and a relaxation model. The factors influencing dilatation are subject to thermal analysis. 15 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffusion of oxygen in niobium during bake-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Calatroni, S.; Ruzinov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Bake-outs at temperatures between 100 degC and 150 degC for duration up to two days have become customary for optimising the performance of bulk niobium cavities. This treatment results in the diffusion of oxygen, originating from the surface oxide, into the niobium. The theoretical oxygen profile has been simulated using the diffusion equations, and compared with some experimental results. (author)

  19. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  20. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  1. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  2. Consideration of a non-baked start-up of a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum baking of large complex uhv devices, such as synchrotron light sources, requires both careful design and consideration of potential problems regarding the operation and maintenance of the device. Intense synchrotron irradiation can be utilized for degassing; it is indeed necessary to achieve the required operating pressure in most light sources. To examine a non-baked start-up, the outgassing of non-baked chambers by SR irradiation was measured. Also, a non-baked start-up was carried out at the Photon Factory ring. Both results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-baked start-up of a light source. The experiments and results are described, together with several other problems which must be solved for a non-baked start-up. (Author)

  3. Super heated water generator for baking of vacuum chambers of INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Yadav, D.P.; Sindal, B.K.; Sharma, H.K.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    It is proposed to use superheated water bake out system for in-situ baking of aluminum alloy dipole and straight section chambers of INDUS-2. Heat load calculations have shown that power requirements for an in-situ bake out at 150 degC is 0.64 kW mt - 1 and 3.2 kWmt -l for straight section and dipole chamber respectively (for one baking segment 60 kW. Baking of vacuum chambers by Nichrome flexible heating tapes at 150 degC has lot of practical problems such as non uniform temperature, non accessibility of heaters to inside parts etc. This paper presents various design objectives, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation design parameters including the safety devices in the system in order to achieve a fail safe baking operation ranging almost for 72 hrs. (author)

  4. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  5. 1.7.2. The hydrochloric acid decomposition of pre-baked kaolin clays and siallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.

    2016-01-01

    Present article of book is devoted to hydrochloric acid decomposition of pre-baked kaolin clays and siallites. The chemical composition of kaolin clays and siallites was determined. The influence of temperature, process duration, acid concentration on hydrochloric acid decomposition of pre-baked kaolin clays and siallites was studied. The optimal conditions of hydrochloric acid decomposition of pre-baked kaolin clays and siallites were determined.

  6. Study on out-gassing by baking and glow discharge during wall conditioning of vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; Zhao Yuanqing; He Yanhe; Liao Yikui

    2007-01-01

    The model of out-gassing by baking and glow discharge cleaning (GDC) is set up. The properties of them are studied. Out-gassing by baking is from bulk and it obeys the diffusion equation. Out-gassing of glow discharge cleaning is mainly on surface, it is inducement out-gassing by sputtering. Thus the properties of out-gassing for baking and GDC on the HL-1M tokamak are analyzed. Some empirical formulas are given. (authors)

  7. Involvement of hydrogen-vacancy complexes in the baking effect of niobium cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Visentin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Baking is necessary to improve high accelerating gradient performances of superconducting niobium cavities. Ten years after this discovery in 1998, the understanding of this effect still resists a lot of theoretical explanations. For the first time, positron annihilation spectroscopy performed on niobium samples reveals the increase after baking of positrons trapped under the Nb surface. Presence of hydrogen-vacancy complexes and their dissociation by baking could both explain rf losses observed at high fields (Q drop and its cure (baking effect.

  8. Bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel produced by constrained groove pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BH of UFG low carbon steel sheets was studied. ► Three passes of CGP are used for producing of UFG sheets. ► Maximum BH was achieved to the UFG specimen pre-strained 8% by baking at 250 °C. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. The ultra-fine grained sheets were produced by applying three passes of constrained groove pressing resulting the grains of 260–270 nm. The microstructure of ultra-fine grain specimens were characterized using electron back-scatter diffraction technique. Then, the bake hardenability of ultra-fine grain and coarse-grain samples were compared by pre-straining to 4, 6 and 8% followed by baking at 150 °C and 250 °C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 250 °C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain, respectively. As for baking at 150 °C, these values were 170%, 168%, and 100%, respectively for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain. The maximum in bake hardenability (103 MPa) and final yield stress (563 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 8% followed by baking at 250 °C.

  9. Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifakı, Yaşar Özlem; Şakıyan, Özge

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate dielectric properties with quality parameters, and to optimize cake formulation and baking conditions by response surface methodology. Weight loss, color, specific volume, hardness and porosity were evaluated. The samples with different DATEM (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) and chickpea flour concentrations (30, 40 and 50%) were baked in microwave oven at different power (300, 350, 400 W) and baking times (2.50, 3.0, 3.50 min). It was found that microwave power showed significant effect on color, while baking time showed effect on weight loss, porosity, hardness, specific volume and dielectric properties. Emulsifier level affected porosity, specific volume and dielectric constant. Chickpea flour level affected porosity, color, hardness and dielectric properties of cakes. The optimum microwave power, baking time, DATEM level and chickpea flour level were found as 400 W, 2.84 min, 1.2% and 30%, respectively. The comparison between conventionally baked and the microwave baked cakes at optimum points showed that color difference, weight loss, specific volume and porosity values of microwave baked cakes were less than those of conventionally baked cakes, on the other hand, hardness values were higher. Moreover, a negative correlation between dielectric constant and porosity, and weight loss values were detected for microwave baked samples. A negative correlation between dielectric loss factor and porosity was observed. These correlations indicated that quality characteristics of a microwave baked cake sample can be assessed from dielectric properties. These correlations provides understanding on the behavior of food material during microwave processing.

  10. Increasing productivity based on quality management: Baked goods sector example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates productivity and quality management challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study of an SME-sized company in the Danish baked goods sector. Companies in the food industry are faced with challenges related to short shelf-life and changing customer demands...... as well as intense cost pressures. Quality control is largely manual and often based on the bakers’ intuition. Problems with reusing dough, production stops and quality issues contribute towards waste. This paper addresses the research question “Is there a relation between the dough, production stops...... through improved quality management are detailed. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research....

  11. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  12. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oe.; Balchen, J.G. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-11-01

    The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation. 23 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Gundersen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation.

  14. Glass-making furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Possible areas for future strategic R and D within the European Community in the cement, glass and bake industries are identified based upon the current scenario of R and D in process industries and following views of main industries and research experts. Priority topics for R and D should include advanced flow modelling, the implementation of control strategies and expert systems and the development of on-line sensors. Fundamental research in some areas, such as advanced diagnostic techniques and sensor systems and modelling of two-phase and pollutant formation, is considered of primary importance.

  15. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  16. The development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring Bread is part of the Norwegian food culture, and a large part of our daily diet. However, the intake of fibre and hole grains is to low, and the Norwegian government encourages an increase in the intake of wholemeal bread and cereals. In addition, only half of the Norwegian population reaches the recommendation of being physical active for at least 30 minutes a day. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention. The i...

  17. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  18. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process.

  19. Hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis as a consequence of the therapeutic misuse of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S; Listernick, R

    1987-12-01

    When used appropriately, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, USP) is a nontoxic, readily available, multipurpose product found in many households. We report an infant who presented with hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis due to the addition of baking soda to her water. This case represents the possible dangerous use of a common household product in infants owing to the lack of proper warning labels.

  20. Effect of baking conditions and storage on the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum supplemented to bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Taal, Marieke A.; Boom, Remko M.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2018-01-01

    Bread is an interesting non-dairy-based vehicle for probiotics delivery given its daily consumption worldwide. The incorporation of probiotics in bread is challenging due to the high baking temperatures. In this study the influence of various baking conditions and subsequent storage on survival of a

  1. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Conlon

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  2. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  3. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  4. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  5. Decrease in Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of 10B21 Screws by Bake Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Jen Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking on the mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of low-carbon boron (10B21 steel screws were investigated. Fracture torque tests and hydrogen content analysis were performed on baked screws to evaluate hydrogen embrittlement (HE susceptibility. The diffusible hydrogen content within 10B21 steel dominated the fracture behavior of the screws. The fracture torque of 10B21 screws baked for a long duration was affected by released hydrogen. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS result showed that hydrogen content decreased with increasing baking duration, and thus the HE susceptibility of 10B21 screws improved. Diffusible hydrogen promoted crack propagation in high-stress region. The HE of 10B21 screws can be prevented by long-duration baking.

  6. Baking of carbon anodes for the electrolysis of aluminium by electric resistance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze-Rhonhof, E.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of the project was the development of a method of baking carbon anodes for the aluminium industry by direct electric resistance heating. A distinct reduction of the energy input compared with the usual methods is possible. At the same time fossil energy (oil, gas) will be substituted by electric energy. An experimental arrangement for baking carbon anodes built during the project baking experiments, in 1:1 scale was realized. The quality of the baked anodes has been investigated. Carbon anodes in a 1:1 scale can be baked uniformly by direct electric resistance heating. The characteristic chemical and physical data meets all requirements of the aluminium industry. The energy input has not yet come up to expectations.

  7. Influence of cookies composition on temperature profiles and qualitative parameters during baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Kožul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During baking of bakery products temperature of baking, temperature profiles, moisture content, volume and colour changes are strongly coupled. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of the cookies composition on temperature profiles and quality parameters (width and thickness, colour formation and textural properties: hardness, fracturability and work of breaking force during baking process. Composition of cookies differs due to flour type and initial moisture content. Cookies were baked at 205 °C and temperature was measured in the centre of samples which were 7 mm thick with a 60 mm diameter. The results of temperature profiles of the cookies during baking have shown the same trend for all of the 18 samples. Samples with the higher initial water content have lower values of total colour difference and also significantly affect textural properties.

  8. Design Feature and Result of PFCs Baking System for the KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Eun Nam; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su; Kim, Sang Tae; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kwon, Myeun

    2010-01-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is being majorly updated for 2010's operation which mainly aims to achieve the plasma shaping and diverted plasmas. The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as inboard and outboard limiters, divertors, and passive stabilizers have been finally installed in the vacuum vessel (VV) by middle of June 2010. The baking and cooling (B and C) pipe system for all the PFCs were installed inside of the vacuum vessel to fulfill baking and active cooling of each PFC components. The PFCs are to be baked by circulating hot nitrogen gas through internal tubes of back-plates of the PFCs. While VV is baked-out, the PFCs temperature was raised from room temperature to 120 .deg. C, and the baking temperature was raised again to 200 .deg. C in spite of the VV being maintained at room temperature

  9. Design Feature and Result of PFCs Baking System for the KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Eun Nam; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su; Kim, Sang Tae; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kwon, Myeun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is being majorly updated for 2010's operation which mainly aims to achieve the plasma shaping and diverted plasmas. The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) such as inboard and outboard limiters, divertors, and passive stabilizers have been finally installed in the vacuum vessel (VV) by middle of June 2010. The baking and cooling (B and C) pipe system for all the PFCs were installed inside of the vacuum vessel to fulfill baking and active cooling of each PFC components. The PFCs are to be baked by circulating hot nitrogen gas through internal tubes of back-plates of the PFCs. While VV is baked-out, the PFCs temperature was raised from room temperature to 120 .deg. C, and the baking temperature was raised again to 200 .deg. C in spite of the VV being maintained at room temperature

  10. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  11. 77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport (OCQ) Oconto, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... No. 18) at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport, Oconto, WI. Parcel No. 18 is located outside of the... property to be released at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport in Oconto, Wisconsin: Part of Government...

  12. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  13. Suppressed Acrylamide Formation during Baking in Yeast-Leavened Bread Based on added Asparaginase, Baking Time and Temperature Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashaer Matouri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: Acrylamide as a toxic substance for human beings is produced by Maillard reaction at high temperatures. In this research, this reaction can be inhibited based on using aspariganse enzyme, controlling the cooking time and temperature during baking in yeast-leavened bread.Material and Methods: In this study, a response surface methodology 5-level-3-factor central composite design was applied to study the effects of asparaginase (300-900 U Kg-1 of flour, baking temperature (230-280°C and baking time (13-16 min on acrylamide formation in yeast-leavened wheat bread.Results and Conclusion: Added asparaginase showed a reducing effect on acrylamide formation (p≤0.0001. Baking temperature significantly increased the acrylamide content in bread (p≤0.0001. A strong correlation was found between the baking temperature and acrylamide formation. Baking time and its interaction with asparaginase had a low but significant reducing effect on acrylamide content in bread (p≤0.0001. Three parameters of the cooking temperature and time as well as enzyme concentration have been optimized using response surface methodology, their values obtained 245.71°C, 14.55 min and 752.15 U Kg-1, respectively. Enzymatic process could be suggested as a safe and convenient method for preventing acrylamide formation in bread making.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  14. Acid curing and baking of bastnasite ore and concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkaya, Y.; Akkurt, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this study, the hydrometallurgical evaluation of a rare earth ore as well as a concentrate obtained from this was done at laboratory. For the mentioned study, a bastnasite type rare earth ore located in Beylikahir in Turkey was used. The total rare earth oxide (REO) content of the deposit was estimated to be 1 million tons with an average concentration of 3.42%REO. The rare earths were contained in bastnasite mineral. The other constituents of the ore were calcium fluoride (52.5%), barite (25.4%), calcite (2.8%) and minor amounts of thorium, iron, manganese, etc. The bastnasite mineral occurred either as cement material between fluoride and barite particles or as intimately associated with these minerals. The rare earth elements were enriched considerably in sub-sieve sizes. After extensive research about the physical concentration of this ore, two different metallurgical routes were followed for the extraction of REE from the ore itself or the preconcentrate obtained by attrition scrubbing and desliming by cyclones. In order to increase the grade of the concentrate, upgrading of the preconcentrate by multigravity was also tried. The two metallurgical routes tested were: Sulphuric acid curing and water leaching; Sulphuric acid baking and subsequent water leaching. The results of the leaching experiments were found to be quite promising. Leach recoveries up to 90% were easily obtainable. In the case of acid baking, hydrofluoric acid recover as a by-product was also possible

  15. Normative data for distal line bisection and baking tray task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Alessio; Beschin, Nicoletta; Pisano, Alessia; Reverberi, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Line bisection is one of the tests used to diagnose unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Despite its wide application, no procedure or norms were available for the distal variant when the task was performed at distance with a laser pointer. Furthermore, the baking tray task was an ecological test aimed at diagnosing USN in a more natural context. The aim of this study was to collect normative values for these two tests in an Italian population. We recruited a sample of 191 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 89 years. They performed line bisection with a laser pointer on three different line lengths (1, 1.5, and 2 m) at a distance of 3 m. After this task, the subjects performed the baking tray task and a second repetition of line bisection to test the reliability of measurement. Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant effects of demographic variables on the performance of both tests. Normative cut-off values for the two tests were developed using non-parametric tolerance intervals. The results formed the basis for clinical use of these two tools for assessing lateralized performance of patients with brain injury and for diagnosing USN.

  16. Method for baking a liner in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To attain effective baking for liners in a tokamak device by connecting the narrow portions and the wide portions of the liners with dielectric materials and supplying a constant current to these portions. Method: Split type liners disposed in the vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device are connected with dielectric materials at their wide portions and narrow portions and they are baked by supplying a constant current at a same density to the wide and narrow portions to rise their temperature uniformly. The wide portions are formed in such a way that the sum of their cross sectional areas is equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the narrow portions, and they form a parallel circuit. The parallel circuit consisting of the wide portions and the parallel circuit consisting of the narrow portions are connected in series to each other and connected to the constant current supply circuit, by which a constant current is supplied to the wide and the narrow portions. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Baking of tandem accelerator tube by low voltage arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1982-01-01

    In designing the accelerating tube for a static tandem accelerator in Kyushu University, the basic policy was as described below: individual unit composing the accelerating tube should fully withstand the electric field of 2 MV/m, and electric discharge must not be propagated from one unit to the adjacent unit when these are assembled to the accelerating tube. The accelerating tube units are each 25 cm in length, and both high and low energy sides are composed of 20 units, respectively. Although about 10 -9 Torr vacuum was obtained at the both ends of the accelerating tube by baking the tube at 300 to 350 deg C with electric heaters wound outside the tube in the conventional method, vast outgas was generated, which decreased vacuum by two or three figures if breakdown occurred through the intermediary of outgas. As a method of positively outgassing and cleaning the electrodes inside the accelerating tube, it was attempted to directly bake all the electrodes in the accelerating tube by causing strong arc discharge flowing H 2 gas in the tube. As a result of considering the conditions for this method, the low voltage arc discharge was employed using oxide cathodes. Thus, after implementing 10A arc discharge for several hours, the voltage was able to be raised to 10 MV almost immediately after the vacuum recovery, and further, after another conditioning for several hours, it was successful to raise voltage up to 11 MV. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Energy optimization of bread baking process undergoing quality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papasidero, Davide; Pierucci, Sauro; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    International home energy rating regulations are forcing to use efficient cooking equipment and processes towards energy saving and sustainability. For this reason gas ovens are replaced by the electric ones, to get the highest energy rating. Due to this fact, the study of the technologies related to the energy efficiency in cooking is increasingly developing. Indeed, big industries are working to the energy optimization of their processes since decades, while there is still a lot of room in energy optimization of single household appliances. The achievement of a higher efficiency can have a big impact on the society only if the use of modern equipment gets widespread. The combination of several energy sources (e.g. forced convection, irradiation, microwave, etc.) and their optimization is an emerging target for oven manufacturers towards optimal oven design. In this work, an energy consumption analysis and optimization is applied to the case of bread baking. Each source of energy gets the due importance and the process conditions are compared. A basic quality standard is guaranteed by taking into account some quality markers, which are relevant based on a consumer viewpoint. - Highlights: • Energy optimization is based on a validated finite-element model for bread baking. • Quality parameters for the product acceptability are introduced as constraints. • Dynamic optimization leads to 20% energy saving compared to non-optimized case. • The approach is applicable to many products, quality parameters, thermal processes. • Other heating processes can be easily integrated in the presented model.

  19. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  20. Effect of steam baking on acrylamide formation and browning kinetics of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Guven, Gonul; Ozdestan, Ozgul; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2012-10-01

    Effects of baking method and temperature on surface browning and acrylamide concentration of cookies were investigated. Cookies were baked in natural and forced convection and steam-assisted hybrid ovens at 165, 180, and 195 °C and at different times. For all oven types, the acrlyamide concentration and surface color of cookies increased with increasing baking temperature. Significant correlation was observed between acrylamide formation and browning index, BI, which was calculated from Hunter L, a, and b color values, and it showed that the BI may be considered as a reliable indicator of acrylamide concentration in cookies. Acrylamide formation and browning index in cookies were considered as the first-order reaction kinetics and the reaction rate constants, k, were in the range of 0.023 to 0.077 (min(-1) ) and 0.019 to 0.063 (min(-1) ), respectively. The effect of baking temperature on surface color and acrylamide concentration followed the Arrhenius type of equation, with activation energies for acrylamide concentration as 6.87 to 27.84 kJ/mol; for BI value as 19.54 to 35.36 kJ/mol, for all oven types. Steam-assisted baking resulted in lower acrylamide concentration at 165 °C baking temperature and lower surface color for all temperatures. Steam-assisted baking is recommended as a healthy way of cooking providing the reduction of harmful compounds such as acrylamide for bakery goods, at a minimal level, while keeping the physical quality. The kinetics of acrylamide formation and browning of cookies will possibly allow definition of optimum baking temperatures and times at convectional and steam-assisted baking ovens. The kinetic model can be used by developing baking programs that can automatically control especially a new home-scale steam-assisted hybrid oven producing healthy products, for the use of domestic consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reac...

  2. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  3. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.

  4. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. The gel forming characteristics and the palatability of pasteurized and radiation processed egg magma in baked custard - a class project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wyk, S.; Verhoef, L.

    1991-01-01

    In a research project conducted by third-year students, baked custard was made from six different samples of frozen egg magma subjected to various treatments. The treatments were pasteurization and various radiation doses. A sample made from untreated fresh egg magma was added as a control sample. Various objective measurements were executed: penetrometer testing with the skin of the baked custard left intact, penetrometer testing with the skin of the baked custards removed, syneresis testing, and determination of the percentage sag of the baked custard. Sensory evaluation included comparing the color of the baked custards with a predetermined color sample, evaluating the texture by means of visual as well as oral evaluation methods, evaluating the consistency of the baked custards, and the general acceptability of the baked custards to a trained sensory panel. Objective evaluation detected little difference between the egg magma samples. Sensory evaluation also detected little difference between the samples. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Dutch Cooking and baking customers under the magnifying glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, J.

    1980-10-01

    Sponsored by VEGIN, the Amsterdam bureau Centrum interviewed 400 people, aged 18-60 and using gas stoves less than 15 years old, about their cooking habits on gas stoves. For reasons of energy conservation or burner malfunction, over half of the interviewees do not use the ignition burner. Foreign dishes are becoming more popular (prepared by 64% of the respondents). Some 60% use the oven for baking or for heating prepared meals, not particularly for preparing their own dishes. The growing tendency to use only the front burner (for convenience of stirring) appears universal except in homes where such practice would be hazardous to children. Over 95% of those interviewed are married or living together. About 18% of the men cook regularly, 26% occasionally, and 54% never. Those men who do cook are generally younger and in two-person households. Only 6% of the respondents have their stoves regularly checked by professionals.

  7. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  8. Investigation of selective oxidation in bake hardenable steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, Laureanny; Lins, Vanessa Cunha Freitas; Faria, Guilherme Augusto de; Guimaraes, Juliana Porto; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo; Vilela, Jose Mario Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to characterize a steel bake hardenable (BH), annealed in three different dew points (-60°C, -30°C and 0°C), as the occurrence of selective oxidation, using the techniques of X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis by XPS showed that the alloying elements oxidized at different intensities for each dew point. Analysis by GDOES revealed that the surface and subsurface concentrations of these elements also varied with the dew point. The AFM images revealed that the size and shape of the oxides were different for each dew point. At the dew points of -30°C and -60°C the formation of oxides was local, while at 0°C the growth of oxides occurred uniform y on the surface of steels. (author)

  9. [Baking method of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum based on similarity of UPLC fingerprints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Chen, Chao; Yao, Xiaodong; Ding, Anwei

    2010-09-01

    To establish a baking method of Platycladi Cacumen Carbonisatum for providing a new idea to Carbonic Herbs' research. Samples were prepared in an oven for different time at different temperatures separately. Then the fingerprints of the samples were determined by UPLC. According to the standard fingerprint, the similarities of the samples' fingerprints were compared. The similarities of 3 samples, which were baked at 230 degrees C for 20 min, 30 min and at 240 degrees C for 20 min, were above 0.96. According to the similarities of the fingerprints and in view of the appearances, Platycladi Cacumen Carbonizing should be baked at 230 degrees C for 20 min.

  10. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, C.K., E-mail: ckchan@nsrrc.org.tw; Chang, C.C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I.C.; Wu, L.H.; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, C.M.; Huang, Y.T.; Chuang, J.Y.; Cheng, Y.T.; Hsiao, Y.M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-04-11

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  11. Numerical simulation on bake-out of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, S.; Pitcher, C.S.; Kalish, M.R.; Cheon, M.S.; Seon, C.R.; Lee, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic upper port plug in ITER is fixed to the upper port of the vacuum vessel as a cantilevered beam with bolts and forms a primary vacuum boundary. It needs to be baked out for outgassing before normal operation. This study calculated the required bake-out time and the transient thermal stress during baking for the diagnostic upper port plug. The calculation was done through numerical simulation. The analysis took into consideration the gradual temperature increase of working fluid. In order to look into the effect of radiation heat transfer from the upper port plug to the vacuum vessel port, the upper vacuum vessel port was included in this analysis.

  12. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I. C.; Wu, L. H.; Chen, B. Y.; Cheng, C. M.; Huang, Y. T.; Chuang, J. Y.; Cheng, Y. T.; Hsiao, Y. M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-04-01

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  13. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chang, C.C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I.C.; Wu, L.H.; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, C.M.; Huang, Y.T.; Chuang, J.Y.; Cheng, Y.T.; Hsiao, Y.M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  14. Effect of substrate baking temperature on zinc sulfide and germanium thin films optical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Yang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jianfu; Liu, Yongqiang; Liu, Qinglong; Wang, Songlin; Mi, Gaoyuan; Wang, Huina

    2016-10-01

    ZnS and Ge are very normal optical thin film materials in Infrared wave. Studying the influence of different substrate baking temperature to refractive index and actual deposition rates is very important to promote optical thin film quality. In the same vacuum level, monitoring thickness and evaporation rate, we use hot evaporation to deposit ZnS thin film materials and use ion-assisted electron beam to deposit Ge thin film materials with different baking temperature. We measure the spectral transmittance with the spectrophotometer and calculate the actual deposition rates and the refractive index in different temperature. With the higher and higher temperature in a particular range, ZnS and Ge refractive index become higher and actual deposition rates become smaller. The refractive index of Ge film material change with baking temperature is more sensitive than ZnS. However, ZnS film actual deposition rates change with baking temperature is more sensitive than Ge.

  15. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, V; Glouannec, P; Ploteau, J-P; Salagnac, P; Jury, V; Boillereaux, L

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French 'baguette' during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  16. Baking soda dentifrice and periodontal health: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical disruption of dental biofilm is critical to maintain periodontal health. Baking soda-containing dentifrices have shown to be potential aids for improving gingival health and maintaining dental biofilm control. Evidence from classic and contemporary literature is reviewed and summarized in this review. In vitro and in vivo (animal and human, respectively) studies and clinical trials have been analyzed. Some clinical studies demonstrated the benefits of baking soda dentifrices in plaque and gingivitis reduction. Clinical trials with longer follow-up would be useful to confirm the impact of baking soda on gingival health. Regular dental biofilm control and adjunctive use of baking soda dentifrices in an otherwise healthy and compliant patient may provide success in maintenance of gingival health. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread.

  19. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Bojana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookies. Referring to the results obtained at 160 and 170 °C and different baking times, the following was found: the difference in baking conditions caused variation between cookies' diameters of less than 1%, more regular shape of the cookies was obtained when baking time was shorter, hardness of cookies is highly correlated with moisture content, water activity, baking loss and short/long diameter ratio values. The colour characteristics (L*, a* and b* of cookies' top and bottom surfaces indicated that the cookies were not overbaked under the chosen baking conditions. Baking time of 14 min at 170°C was found to be the optimal baking conditions for the blueberry pomace enriched gluten-free cookies.

  20. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...

  1. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance.

  2. Determining the baking isotherm temperature of Söderberg electrodes and associated structural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko, L.; Beukes, J.P.; Strydom, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most commonly employed electrode systems in industrial metal smelting applications is continuous self-baking electrodes, i.e. the Söderberg electrode system. In this system, the temperature at which transition from a liquid/soft paste to a solid carbonaceous electrode takes place is termed the baking isotherm temperature. This temperature is extremely important within the context of electrode management. In this paper, thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) was used to measure the dimens...

  3. Effect of ferrite-martensite interface morphology on bake hardening response of DP590 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Arnab; Adhikary, Manashi; Venugopalan, T.; Singh, Virender; Nanda, Tarun; Kumar, B. Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of martensite spatial distribution and its interface morphology on the bake hardening characteristics of a dual phase steel was investigated. In one case, typical industrial continuous annealing line parameters were employed to anneal a 67% cold rolled steel to obtain a dual phase microstructure. In the other case, a modified annealing process with changed initial heating rates and peak annealing temperature was employed. The processed specimens were further tensile pre-strained within 1–5% strain range followed by a bake hardening treatment at 170 °C for 20 min. It was observed that industrial continuous annealing line processed specimen showed a peak of about 70 MPa in bake-hardening index at 2% pre-strain level. At higher pre-strain values a gradual drop in bake-hardening index was observed. On the contrary, modified annealing process showed near uniform bake-hardening response at all pre-strain levels and a decrease could be noted only above 4% pre-strain. The evolving microstructure at each stage of annealing process and after bake-hardening treatment was studied using field emission scanning electron microscope. The microstructure analysis distinctly revealed differences in martensite spatial distribution and interface morphologies between each annealing processes employed. The modified process showed predominant formation of martensite within the ferrite grains with serrated lath martensite interfaces. This nature of the martensite was considered responsible for the observed improvement in the bake-hardening response. Furthermore, along with improved bake-hardening response negligible loss in tensile ductility was also noted. This behaviour was correlated with delayed micro-crack initiation at martensite interface due to serrated nature.

  4. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks

    OpenAIRE

    Crassina, K.; Sudha, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality a...

  5. Change in high field Q-slope by baking and anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremeev, G. [LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Padamsee, H. [LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Low temperature RF performance of two niobium cavities that underwent different chemical treatments was measured after they were heat treated at 100 deg, C for 48 h. After heat treatment cavities were anodized in ammonia hydroxide solution for sequentially increasing voltage until baking effect was gone. The thickness of niobium finally consumed is estimated to be 20 nm. The results are discussed in view of one of the current models for the baking effect on the high field Q-slope.

  6. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  7. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  8. Chemistry of nepheline syenites interaction with calcium chloride at their joint baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, O.Kh.; Ruzieva, D.D.; Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2001-01-01

    This work dedicated to determination of chemistry of leaking processes at nepheline syenites interaction with calcium chloride on baking stage. The main point of chemical conversion at baking of Turpe deposit nepheline with calcium chloride concluding in decomposition of acid insoluble raw materials minerals with formation of soluble in mineral acid minerals, that is take place the substitution ions of Na +, K +o f initial ore on Ca 2 + .

  9. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S., E-mail: sourav.das@tatasteel.com [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur (India); Timokhina, I. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation/Science and Technology, Deakin University (Australia); Singh, S.B. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur (India); Pereloma, E. [BlueScope Steel Metallurgy Centre, University of Wollongong (Australia); Mohanty, O.N. [RSB Metaltech, RSB Group, Jamshedpur (India)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  10. Effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazoğlu, T Koray; Savran, Derya; Gökmen, Vural

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips was investigated in this study. Baking and frying experiments were conducted at 170, 180, and 190 degrees C using potato slices with a thickness of 1.4 mm. Raw potatoes were analyzed for reducing sugars and asparagine. Surface and internal temperatures of potato slices were monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Fried and baked chips were analyzed for acrylamide content using an LC-MS method. The results showed that acrylamide level of potato chips prepared by frying increased with frying temperature (19.6 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 39 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 95 ng/g at 190 degrees C). In baking, however, the highest acrylamide level was observed in potato chips prepared at 170 degrees C (47.8 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 19.3 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 29.7 ng/g at 190 degrees C). The results showed that baking at 170 degrees C more than doubled the acrylamide amount that formed upon frying at the same temperature, whereas at 180 and 190 degrees C, the acrylamide levels of chips prepared by baking were lower than their fried counterparts.

  11. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O 2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O 2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively. (paper)

  12. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikaku, Toshiyuki; Kaibara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Masatoshi; Miura, Takuya; Suzuki, Takaaki; Oohira, Fumikazu; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively.

  13. Cement factory kilns. Clinker baking workshops; Fours de cimenterie. Ateliers de cuisson du clinker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastier, R. [Direction Centrale Technologie (France); Bocan, A.; Gerbert, B.; Regnault, A.

    2000-07-01

    Clinker baking is the intermediate of the three main steps of the cement fabrication process. The aim of the baking workshop is the thermal transformation of the crude material into a semi-product (clinker). The problem of clinker baking is to find the optimum process taking into account: the investment and operation costs,the diversity of raw materials and fuels, the socio-economical constraints, the performances required, the environmental constraints and the increase of production capacity. This paper gives a presentation of the different types of clinker baking workshops: 1 - Rotative kiln and baking workshop; 2 - Different types of baking workshops: general considerations, humid way process (long kiln - WL), half-dry way process (short kiln - DG-N), dry-way process (short kiln - DS-X), comparison of standard energy consumptions and production ratios; 3 - Pre-calcination (DS-X-SF and DS-X-PC kilns): general considerations, industrial realizations, operation of pre-calcination, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks, standard operation data; 4 - Dimensioning of dry-way kilns: theoretical and empirical methods. (J.S.)

  14. FDA Food Code recommendations: how do popular US baking shows measure up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cadorett

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if popular US baking shows follow the FDA Food Code recommendations and critical food safety principles. This cross-sectional study examined a convenience sample of 75 episodes from three popular baking shows. The three shows were about competitively baking cupcakes, competitively baking cakes, and baking in a popular local bakery. Twenty-five episodes from each show were viewed. Coding involved tallying how many times 17 FDA Food Code recommendations were or were not followed. On each show, bare hands frequently came in contact with ready-to-eat food. On a per-hour basis, this occurred 80, 155, and 176 times on shows 1-3, respectively. Hands were washed before cooking three times on the three shows and never for the recommended 20 seconds. On each show, many people touched food while wearing jewelry other than a plain wedding band, for an average of at least 7 people per hour on each show. Shows 1-3 had high rates of long-haired bakers not wearing hair restraints (11.14, 6.57, and 14.06 per hour, respectively. Shows 1 and 2 had high rates of running among the bakers (22.29 and 10.57 instances per hour, respectively. These popular baking shows do not demonstrate proper food safety techniques put forth by the FDA and do not contribute the reduction of foodborne illnesses through proper food handling.

  15. A comparison of UV cross-linking and vacuum baking for nucleic acid immobilization and retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.; Gebhardt, J.S.; Linkkila, L.; Walsh, K.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of UV cross-linking and in vacuo baking for the immobilization and retention of DNA to various solid supports was investigated. Optimal immobilization treatments for supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes were: UV cross-linking at 254 nm with an exposure of 120 milliJoules/cm 2 , or baking in vacuo for two hours at 80 degrees C. UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes showed no increase in sensitivity when compared to baked membranes. An increase in sensitivity was observed for UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared with baked nylon membranes in some instances, although this varied within lots of the membranes tested. Repeated strippings and heterologous reprobings resulted in loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nylon membranes as compared to baked nylon membranes. Loss of target DNA from UV-immobilized nitrocellulose-based membranes due to repeated strippings and reprobings was even more pronounced. In vacuo baking of supported and unsupported nitrocellulose and nylon membranes was more effective for immobilization, and more importantly, for retention of target DNA through many reprobings of the same blot

  16. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Timokhina, I.; Singh, S.B.; Pereloma, E.; Mohanty, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. ► No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. ► Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  17. Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 °C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 °C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.23×0.23×1.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis for the baking out system of the HT-7U super-conducting tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuntao

    2004-01-01

    It can provide an ultrahigh vacuum location for the plasma operation. In order to improve its vacuum degree and attain a high quality operation environment for plasma, it is very important to proceed 250 degree C baking out to clear the wall before the plasma operation. The paper firstly gives two kinds of structures for the baking of the vacuum vessel, in which one is the baking by electricity and another is baking by the nitrogen gas. Secondly based on the numerical simulation and analysis, some results have been attained such as the baking power, temperature field distribution and thermal stress for the vacuum vessel, which can provide some valuable theory basis for the engineering design and optimization of the baking system of the HT-7U vacuum vessel or other similar super-conducting tokamak devices

  20. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  1. Odorant transfer characteristics of white bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The potent odorants in the crust and crumb of white bread were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry. The weight loss ratio of the samples baked at 220 °C was controlled in the range of 0-28%. The odorants were classified into 5 types by the transfer characteristics: i) All amounts of odorant transferred from the crust to external space (type-I). ii) All transferred from the crust to the crumb and external space (type-II). iii) Certain amount remaining in the crust and the rest transferred to the crumb and external space (type-III). iv) All transferred from the crumb to external space (type-IV). v) Certain amount remaining in the crumb and the rest transferred to the crust and external space (type-V). The odorants of type-IV were not apparent after the crust had formed. The results indicate that the crust could be a barrier to prevent the odorants from being transferred to external space.

  2. PERBEDAAN PH SALIVA ANTARA PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG BAKING SODA DAN PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG FLUOR

    OpenAIRE

    LINARDI, ALICIA NADIA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Latar belakang : Baking soda dan fluor merupakan bahan yang biasa ditambahkan dalam pasta gigi. Baking soda dan fluor mempunyai kemampuan untuk meningkatkan sekresi saliva dan pH saliva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan pH saliva antara pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda dan pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandun fluor. Bahan dan metode : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desai...

  3. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić Bojana M.; Nedeljković Nataša M.; Šimurina Olivera D.; Pestorić Mladenka V.; Kos Jovana J.; Mandić Anamarija I.; Sakač Marijana B.; Šarić Ljubiša Ć.; Psodorov Đorđe B.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookie...

  4. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Soparkar, Pramod M; Winston, Anthony E; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices with higher concentrations of baking soda consistently removed numerically more plaque than those containing lower levels. In one of these three studies, the difference in plaque removal between the baking soda dentifrices reached statistical significance. The results suggest a positive relationship

  5. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  6. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  7. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking.

  8. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.Research priorities is the development of food therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, innovative methods of complex processing of raw materials with maximum preservation of the original chemical composition and on the basis of a new product release in generation functionality. This article explores the many reasons for the lag of the Patriotic-owned enterprises in terms of technological development, analyzes the features of innovation in the bakery production of Russia, proposed the current directions for the innovative development of grain-processing industry. The observation revealed that during the years of market transformations in the bakeries have been significant changes, especially in the volume of products sold. Based on the results of statistical studies, it was found that at least 75% of the population consume daily baked goods and this makes them appropriate nutrient enrichment. The current state and bakeries, bakeries and revealed a high degree of wear of the process equipment. Over the past 14 years, marked by a decline in production, which led to a decline in production output and profitability constraints. It was found that in bakeries and bakeries deterioration index technique is approximately 67%. With respect to raw materials for bread production, noted that the creation of a civilized grain market in Russia requires the solution of a number of key issues. It is established that is currently happening aggression from industrialized countries to seize the Russian food market, leading to a narrowing of the domestic demand for domestic products, and this causes the drop in the economic growth of the food industry. The analysis revealed that there is considerable potential for the development of the industry.

  9. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  10. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Woo, H. K.; Im, K. H.; Cho, S. Y.; Kim, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10 -6 ∼10 -7 Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. For this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 .deg. C, 350 .deg. C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses

  12. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rossi Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.

  13. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  14. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H. [Chungnam National University Graduate School, Taejeon (Korea); Im, K.H.; Cho, S.Y. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Kim, J.B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (Korea); Woo, H.K. [Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6} {approx} 10{sup -7} Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. for this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 deg.C, 350 deg.C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P; Khan, Z; Raval, D C; Dhanani, K R; George, S; Paravastu, Y; Prakash, A; Thankey, P; Ramesh, G; Khan, M S; Saikia, P; Pradhan, S

    2017-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (paper)

  16. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Woo, H. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Im, K. H.; Cho, S. Y. [korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. For this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 .deg. C, 350 .deg. C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses.

  17. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, P.; Khan, Z.; Raval, D. C.; Dhanani, K. R.; George, S.; Paravastu, Y.; Prakash, A.; Thankey, P.; Ramesh, G.; Khan, M. S.; Saikia, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail.

  18. Improving the bulk laser-damage resistance of KDP by baking and pulsed-laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated bulk damage centers are produced when KDP crystals are irradiated by 1-ns 1064-nm pulses. We have tested about 100 samples and find the median threshold to be 7 J/cm 2 when the samples are irradiated only once at each test volume (1-on-1 tests). The median threshold increased to 11 J/cm 2 when the test volumes were first subjected to subthreshold laser irradiation (n-on-1 tests). We baked several crystals at temperatures from 110 to 165 0 C and remeasured their thresholds. Baking increased thresholds in some crystals, but did not change thresholds of others. The median threshold of baked crystals ranged from 8 to 10 J/cm 2 depending on the baking temperature. In crystals that had been baked, subthreshold irradiation produced a large change in the bulk damage threshold, and reduced the volume density of damage centers relative to the density observed in unbaked crystals. The data are summarized in the table

  19. Investigation on the effect of chemical composition on the texture and bake hardening I F steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariman, M.; Motaghi, A.; Raygan, Sh.; Habibi Parsa, M.; Nili Ahmadabadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial free steels have good formability and also excellent deep draw ability. These features make them one of the applicable materials in automotive industry. Chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment used to process these steels have important role in final properties of them. In this study, the effect of chemical composition on texture, anisotropic properties and bake harden ability of these steels were investigated. The results showed that contribution of vanadium as a weak carbonitride former element with titanium as strong carbonitride former could change the texture of steels. Replacing titanium with vanadium caused harmful effect on mechanical properties. In this research deep drawing properties of five steels were compared based on I {111} / I{001} and I {111} / I{110} parameters. The results of bake harden ability test showed that there were critical limits for vanadium volume fractions above which bake harden properties was improved. It was shown that the bake harden properties of Nb-steels were better than that of Ti-steels. This was due to the better solution of Nb(C,N) compared to Ti(C,N). Addition of vanadium to Ti-steels may improve bake harden properties of I F steels

  20. The Effect of Emulsifier and Hydrocolloid on Baking Expansion and Texture of Bread from Modified Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjihastuti Isti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a very abundant cassava that can be used instead of wheat. Bread made from cassava is safe for celiac sufferers, in which cannot tolerate a protein called gluten found in wheat flour. However, bread from cassava has the disadvantage that it cannot inflate perfectly. Our research goal is to study the effect of emulsifier and hydrocolloid concentration as modifying agents on baking expansion and bread texture (hardness. The test level hedonic preference for bread products results from modified tapioca is also necessary to know the level of customer satisfaction. This study were conducted by three main stages, modification of cassava, baking process, and analyses. Modification of cassava starch was applied using combination of lactic acid solution and ultra violet (UV irradiation. Emulsifier (DATEM and hydrocolloid (xanthan gum were used in baking process. The addition of emulsifier and hydrocolloid can improve baking expansion. The addition of 7% emulsifiers on modified cassava can increase the volume of bread, taste, and texture so it can give greater satisfaction to consumers. Hydrocolloid can replace the function of gluten so the bread can inflate perfectly. The optimal composition of modified cassava in bread making is 25% of modified cassava and 75% of wheat flour. The low value of texture (hardness on bread made from modified cassava indicated a better performance in comparison with native cassava. Baking expansion and texture of the bread is influenced by the modification process. Furthermore, the comprehensive and optimum studies of modification need to be investigated.

  1. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes.

  2. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  3. Presence of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in Baked Lamb: Their Properties and Potential Application for Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Liu, Shan; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Tan, Mingqian

    2017-08-30

    The presence of nanoparticles in food has drawn much attention in recent years. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles are a new class of nanostructures; however, the distribution and physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles in food remain unclear. Herein, the presence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles in baked lamb was confirmed, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The fluorescent carbon nanoparticles from baked lamb emit strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a 10% fluorescent quantum yield. The nanoparticles are roughly spherical in appearance with a diameter of around 2.0 nm. Hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups exist on the surface of nanoparticles. In addition, the nanoparticles could serve as a fluorescence sensor for glucose detection through an oxidation-reduction reaction. This work is the first report on fluorescent carbon nanoparticles present in baked lamb, which provides valuable insight into the physicochemical properties of such nanoparticles and their potential application in sensors.

  4. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep......Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  5. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a promising building material, was produced from manganese slag with the addition of quicklime and cement. The physical properties, chemical composition, and mechanical performances of the obtained samples were measured by several analyses and characterization methods. Then the influence of adding materials and molding pressure during the preparation of baking-free brick samples on their compressive strength properties was researched. It is concluded that the baking-free brick prepared from manganese residue could have excellent compressive strength performance under certain formula.

  6. The effect of baking and enzymatic treatment on the structural properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Catalina; Zielke, Claudia; Prakash, Manish; Kumar, Puneeth; Peñarrieta, J Mauricio; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-12-15

    In this study, bread was baked with and without the addition of α-amylase. Starch was extracted from the baked bread and its molecular properties were characterized using (1)H NMR and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) connected to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and other detectors. The approach allows determination of molar mass, root- mean-square radius and apparent density as well as the average degree of branching of amylopectin. The results show that starch size and structure is affected as a result of the baking process. The effect is larger when α-amylase is added. The changes include both a decrease molar mass and size as well as an increase in apparent density. Moreover, an increase in average degree of branching and the number of reducing ends H-1(β-r) and H-1(α-r) can be observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoki, D; Deka, S C

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.

  8. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: mingxingguo@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  9. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  10. The effect of oxygen on the release of tritium during baking of TFTR D-T tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, W.M. E-mail: shu@tpl.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Langish, S.; Nishi, M.F

    2002-11-01

    A series of tests involving 10 h baking under the current ITER design conditions (240 deg. C with 933 Pa O{sub 2}) was performed using a cube of a carbon fiber composite tile that had been used in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium burning operation. The removal rate of the codeposits was about 3 {mu}m/h near the surface and 0.9 {mu}m/h in the deeper region. Total amount of tritium released from the cube during 10 h baking was 202 MBq, while remaining tritium in the cube after baking was 403 MBq. Thus 10 h baking at 240 deg. C with 933 Pa O{sub 2} removed 1/3 of tritium from the cube. After 10 h baking, the tritium concentration on the cube surface also dropped by about 1/3. In addition, some tritium was released from another cube of the tile during baking at 240 deg. C in pure Ar, and a rapid increase of tritium release was observed when the purging gas was shifted from pure Ar to Ar-1%O{sub 2}. When a whole TFTR tile was baked in air at 350 deg. C for 1 h and then at 500 deg. C for 1 h, the ratios of tritium released were 53 and 47%, respectively. Oxygen reacted with carbon to produce carbon monoxide during baking in air.

  11. The effect of oxygen on the release of tritium during baking of TFTR D-T tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, W.M.; Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Langish, S.; Nishi, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests involving 10 h baking under the current ITER design conditions (240 deg. C with 933 Pa O 2 ) was performed using a cube of a carbon fiber composite tile that had been used in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium burning operation. The removal rate of the codeposits was about 3 μm/h near the surface and 0.9 μm/h in the deeper region. Total amount of tritium released from the cube during 10 h baking was 202 MBq, while remaining tritium in the cube after baking was 403 MBq. Thus 10 h baking at 240 deg. C with 933 Pa O 2 removed 1/3 of tritium from the cube. After 10 h baking, the tritium concentration on the cube surface also dropped by about 1/3. In addition, some tritium was released from another cube of the tile during baking at 240 deg. C in pure Ar, and a rapid increase of tritium release was observed when the purging gas was shifted from pure Ar to Ar-1%O 2 . When a whole TFTR tile was baked in air at 350 deg. C for 1 h and then at 500 deg. C for 1 h, the ratios of tritium released were 53 and 47%, respectively. Oxygen reacted with carbon to produce carbon monoxide during baking in air

  12. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C.

  13. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Mei-Chi Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Keywords: 5-Galloylquinic acid, Aging, Baking, Gallic acid, Oolong tea

  14. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  15. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  16. Validation of the baking process as a kill-step for controlling Salmonella in muffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Michael, Minto; Acuff, Jennifer C; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Olewnik, Maureen; Milliken, George

    2017-06-05

    This research investigates the potential risk of Salmonella in muffins when contamination is introduced via flour, the main ingredient. Flour was inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg) and re-dried to achieve a target concentration of ~8logCFU/g. The inoculated flour was then used to prepare muffin batter following a standard commercial recipe. The survival of Salmonella during and after baking at 190.6°C for 21min was analyzed by plating samples on selective and injury-recovery media at regular intervals. The thermal inactivation parameters (D and z values) of the 3-strain Salmonella cocktail were determined. A ≥5logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population was demonstrated by 17min of baking, and a 6.1logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population by 21min of baking. The D-values of Salmonella serovar cocktail in muffin batter were 62.2±3.0, 40.1±0.9 and 16.5±1.7min at 55, 58 and 61°C, respectively; and the z-value was 10.4±0.6°C. The water activity (a w ) of the muffin crumb (0.928) after baking and 30min of cooling was similar to that of pre-baked muffin batter, whereas the a w of the muffin crust decreased to (0.700). This study validates a typical commercial muffin baking process utilizing an oven temperature of 190.6°C for at least 17min as an effective kill-step in reducing a Salmonella serovar population by ≥5logCFU/g. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L. Jr.; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  19. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Production technology optimization of biscuit baked by electric-contact way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, G. A.; Popov, V. P.; Khanina, T. V.; Maneeva, E. Sh; Krasnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electric-contact way of baking allows one to maintain more nutrients used in biscuit making. As a result of the biscuit production technology optimization, it is established that 30-62,5% is an optimal amount of starch brought instead of flour; 184-200% is optimal amount of egg melange; at this a complex indicator of organoleptic properties will be more than 340 degrees, a complex indicator of physical and chemical properties will be more than 3,3 degrees, and specific costs of energy spent on the biscuit electric-contact baking process will be less than 100 W/kg.

  1. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy.

  2. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  3. Improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals by gamma irrdiation, Baked de-boned chicken meat with potatoe slices or baked fish and cooked rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.; Rady, A.H.; Abdel-Daiem, M.H.; Khalaf, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals. The prepared meals (included baked chicken meat with potato slices or baked fish and cooked rice) were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of O, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy followed by cold storage (4 C). The effects of irradiation and cold storage on the microbiological aspects, chemical and organoleptic properties of samples were studied. The results showed that irradiation of the prepared meals decreased the initial total bacterial count, total psychrophilic bacteria and total yeast and molds, proportionally to the applied dose, hence prolonged their refrigerated shelf-life. Moreover, irradiation at dose of 1.5 KGy reduced the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, while 3 KGy dose completely eliminated these bacteria in all samples. Salmonella was not detected in all irradiated and non-irradiated meals and Vibrio sp. were absent in irradiated and non-irradiated baked fish. On the other hand, gamma irradiation had no remarkable effects neither on the chemical composition of the main component of meals nor on their ph, while it increased the thiobarbituric acid (TEA) value for baked chicken and fish meat. However, cold storage gradually increased the values of TEA and gradually decreased the ph value for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Finally, irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory properties (appearance, odor and taste) of all meals and extended their time of sensory preference

  4. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C; Chauhan, N; Raole, P M

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles

  5. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  6. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  7. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to phytosterol oxidation products from baked food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinzhou; Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Yang, Guoliang; Lou, Tiantian; Lai, Shiyun; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei

    2018-02-01

    Phytosterols are nutritional phytochemicals that may undergo oxidation and be transformed into phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), thus inducing pathological and toxic effects. This work investigated four main phytosterols and 28 POPs in 104 kinds of commercial baked food by using GC-MS. The dietary exposure and hazard index values (HI) associated with POPs from baked food consumption in China were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. Concentrations of the total phytosterols were between 3.39 and 209.80 μg/g. The total concentrations of POPs, including 5α,6α/5β,6β-epoxysterols, 7-ketosterol, 7α/7β-hydroxysterols, 6-hydroxysterols, and triols, ranged from 0.37 to 27.81 μg/g. The median dietary exposure of POP contents in baked food for four age groups in China were 10.91 (children), 6.20 (adolescents), 3.63 (adults), and 3.40 (seniors) mg/(kg×day). Risk assessment of median HI with respect to POPs indicated no risk (HI <1) for people in adolescents, adults, and seniors in the country area of China, while a risk (1 < HI < 10) would refer to the baked food consumption of people in urban area and children in country area of China. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis showed that the most significant variables for each age group in China were POP concentration, body weight, and ingestion rate.

  8. Control vector parameterization with sensitivity based refinement applied to baking optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    In bakery production, product quality attributes as crispness, brownness, crumb and water content are developed by the transformations that occur during baking and which are initiated by heating. A quality driven procedure requires process optimization to improve bakery production and to find

  9. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. II. Validation of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machinin...

  10. Control vector parameterization with sensitivity based refinement applied to baking optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In bakery production product quality attributes as crispness, brownness, crumb and water content are developed by the transformations that occur during baking and which are initiated by heating. A quality driven procedure requires process optimization to improve bakery production and to

  11. Analyses and tests for the baking system of the RFX vacuum vessel by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical, thermal and mechanical analyses carried out for the design of a new baking system for RFX by eddy currents are presented. The results of an experimental test on RFX with low heating power are reported as well. They gave confidence in the numerical analyses so as the working conditions with the nominal heating power were computed. (orig.)

  12. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy thermal management in commercial bread-baking using a multi-objective optimisation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatir, Zinedine; Taherkhani, A.R.; Paton, Joe; Thompson, Harvey; Kapur, Nik; Toropov, Vassili

    2015-01-01

    In response to increasing energy costs and legislative requirements energy efficient high-speed air impingement jet baking systems are now being developed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation framework for oven designs is presented which uses experimentally verified heat transfer correlations and high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as temperature uniformity in the oven and overall energy efficiency of baking. A surrogate-assisted multi-objective optimisation framework is proposed and used to explore a range of practical oven designs, providing information on overall temperature uniformity within the oven together with ensuing energy usage and potential savings. - Highlights: • A multi-objective optimisation framework to design commercial ovens is presented. • High fidelity CFD embeds experimentally calibrated heat transfer inputs. • The optimum oven design minimises specific energy and bake time. • The Pareto front outlining the surrogate-assisted optimisation framework is built. • Optimisation of industrial bread-baking ovens reveals an energy saving of 637.6 GWh

  14. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones.

  15. The Development of an Energy Efficient Electric Mitad for Baking Injeras in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Robin; Diehl, J.C.; Simons, Leon; Verwaal, M.

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of Injera, the cultural staple bread food
    item in Ethiopia, is known for its intensive energy consuming
    cooking. Baking this food item in the traditional three stone stoves,
    with an efficiency of 5-15%, consumes huge amounts of firewood
    and causes consequent problems like

  16. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  17. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  19. Analyses and tests for the baking system of the RFX vacuum vessel by eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Zaccaria, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Zollino, G. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The electrical, thermal and mechanical analyses carried out for the design of a new baking system for RFX by eddy currents are presented. The results of an experimental test on RFX with low heating power are reported as well. They gave confidence in the numerical analyses so as the working conditions with the nominal heating power were computed. (orig.).

  20. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  1. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428 (India); Chauhan, N; Raole, P M [Facilitation Center for Industrial Plasma Technologies, IPR, Gandhinagar (India)], E-mail: arun@ipr.res.in

    2008-05-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles.

  2. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  3. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  4. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  5. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  6. Split nitrogen application improves wheat baking quality by influencing protein composition rather than concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eXue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of late nitrogen (N fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g. booting, heading or anthesis to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Kajala

    Full Text Available Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m and V(max values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min, respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking.

  8. Managing of the baking bread process based on mathematical model of change crust color dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bitjukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a support system of making decision about control of baking process of bread on the basis of estimating the quality ( the colors of the product surface and the mathematical model of the dynamics of change in this indicator is offered.

  9. Greening in sunflower butter cookies as a function of egg replacers and baking temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Amanda; Hahn, Lan; Pham, Vu; Were, Lilian

    2018-04-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) binding to proteins in alkaline conditions results in the production of green trihydroxy benzacradine (TBA) derivatives. The formation of TBA derivatives could decrease product quality due to the potential losses in soluble protein and antioxidants and the production of an undesirable green color. To determine how cookie formulation affected the formation of TBA derivatives in sunflower butter cookies, two egg replacers (chia and banana) and two baking temperatures (162.8 and 190.6 °C) were used. Moisture, greening intensity, CGA content and antioxidant capacity were measured. Cookies made with egg and baked at 162.8 °C had the highest moisture, internal greening intensity, and TBA derivative formation, in addition to lower CGA content and antioxidant capacity. Cookies made with banana baked at 190.6 °C produced the opposite outcome with 35, 4, and 23% less internal greening, moisture, and TBA derivatives, respectively, and 90 and 76% higher CGA and antioxidant capacity. Internal greening was positively correlated with moisture and adduct concentration, and negatively correlated with spread factor and CGA content. Moisture had a significant impact on greening, which indicates that baking temperature and cookie dough formulation can be modified to produce a less green cookie with more unreacted antioxidants and protein.

  10. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  11. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking.

  12. Effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols on Maillard reaction in bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the fatty acid composition of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) and the Maillard reaction induced during bread baking, a comparison with various fatty acids was conducted. Saturated fatty acids had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the amount of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated from the Maillard reaction in bread baking compared to unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of AGEs produced by each fatty acid (mg kg -1 ) was as follows: C18:0, 18.7; C12:0, 35.2; C16:0, 21.4; C18:0, 38.2; C18:1, 68.7; C18:2, 80.1; C20:4, 80.8; C22:4, 89.8. Saturated fatty acids were possibly involved in the Maillard reaction and, as a result, acted to inhibit it. In the case of unsaturated fatty acids, amounts of AGEs during the Maillard reaction in baking tended to increase as the degree of unsaturation increased. In other words, there was a positive correlation between the degree of unsaturation and the amount of AGEs. It was also confirmed that the air pore distribution in baked bread was closely related to AGEs. These results led us to conclude that the fatty acid composition of the added lipids also influences properties that determine the tastiness of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...

  14. Baking-powder driven centripetal pumping controlled by event-triggering of functional liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinahan, David J.; Burger, Robert; Vembadi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports radially inbound pumping by the event-triggered addition of water to on-board stored baking powder in combination with valving by an immiscible, high-specific weight liquid on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. This technology allows making efficient use of precious real estate...

  15. Survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking was investigated. Four encapsulating materials were evaluated, i.e., reconstituted skim milk (RSM), gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and inulin. Freeze dried bacteria survived better

  16. Formation of monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in biscuits during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-07-23

    The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits.

  17. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10"–"8 mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m"2 current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H_2O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O_2) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10"−"8 mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  18. The paint-bake response of three Al-Mg-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderach, Dustin C.; Hamilton, Jennifer A.; Leung, Emma; Cristina Tejeda, M.; Qiao Jun; Taleff, Eric M.

    2003-01-01

    The aging behaviors of three Al-Mg-Zn alloys have been investigated under conditions similar to the paint-bake cycle currently used in automotive manufacturing. The three alloys contain Mg in atomic concentrations from one to two times those of Zn. Natural aging at 25 deg. C after solutionizing is found to produce a linear increase in hardness with logarithmic time for times of up to 1 year. Hardnesses in naturally and artificially aged conditions are found to increase with Mg content. Artificial aging at 175 deg. C for 30 min, which simulates the automotive paint-bake cycle, produces increases in hardness of 15-36% over the solution-treated conditions. Peak hardness from artificial aging at 175 deg. C is produced in all alloys after approximately 8 h. Natural aging for 10 days prior to artificial aging at 175 deg. C does not produce significant changes in hardness compared with artificial aging alone. Natural aging for 1 year after simulated paint-bake aging increases hardnesses by 41-78% over those after simulated paint-bake aging alone. The precipitation strengthening mechanism in these alloys is consistent with η' formation. Increases in hardness and strength with increasing Mg content are consistent with increased solid-solution strengthening, which is retained even after artificial aging

  19. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and

  20. Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer during a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Ashokkumar, Saranya

    2011-01-01

    water content in the product and water in the vapour phase – was calibrated and partially validated using data obtained during baking of a representative food model (a pancake batter) under controlled conditions on a specially designed experimental rig. The unknown parameters in the model equations were...

  1. Organoleptic characteristics and nutritive value estimation of baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarto; Aprianty, D.; Bachtiar, R. A.; Kristiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Manonjaya salacca (snake fruit) is one of the original varieties of Indonesia which is currently declining due to the quality of taste less favoured than the snake fruit on the market. This variety in the future is feared to be lost, so it is necessary to revitalize the utilization of this snake fruit by diversifying processed products, one of them is baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour. The purpose of this research was to know the acceptance level of baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour organoleptically and the nutritional value estimation. This research method was observational with a descriptive explanation. Panellists in this study were consumers with a total of 61 people. Organoleptically, respondents tend to value cake, muffin, cookies, and flakes in every color, flavor, taste, and texture parameters. Nutritional value per 100 g of baked food products from Salacca flour (cake, muffin, cookies, flakes) were energy 287.5-479.0 kcal, water 0.8-3.8 g, protein 6.0-6.7 g, fat 0.8-31.0 g, carbohydrates 45.0-98.8 g, and fiber 1.1-4.6 g. Panellists were accepted the organoleptic characteristics and the estimated nutritional values on baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour were varied.

  2. Enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzyme modification on starch as an effective oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets. Various native starches were hydrolyzed by amyloglucosidase to a hydrolysis degree of 20% to 25% and plated with 50% (w/w, starch dry basis) with canola oil to create a starch-oil matrix. This matrix was then blended into a dry ingredient blend for batter and breader components. Nuggets were prepared by coated with predust, hydrated batter, and breader, and the coated nuggets were steam-baked until fully cooked and then frozen until texture and sensory analyses. The enzyme-modified starches showed a significant decrease in pasting viscosities for all starch types. For textural properties of nuggets, no clear relationship was found between peak force and starch source or amylose content. Sensory attributes related to fried foods (for example, crispness and mouth-coating) did not significantly differ between bake-only nuggets formulated using the enzyme-modified starches and the partially fried and baked ones. The present findings suggest that enzyme-modified starches can deliver sufficient quantity of oil to create sensory attributes similar to those of partially fried chicken nuggets. Further study is needed to optimize the coating formulation of bake-only chicken nugget to become close to the fried one in sensory aspects. The food industry has become increasingly focused on healthier items. Frying imparts several critical and desirable product functionalities, such as developing texture and color, and providing mouth-feel and flavor. The food industry has yet to duplicate all of the unique characteristics of fried chicken nuggets with a baking process. This study investigated the application of enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system in bake-only chicken nugget formulation in attempts to provide characteristics of fried items. This information is useful to improve the nutritional value of fried food by eliminating the

  3. Developing a xylanase XYNZG from Plectosphaerella cucumerina for baking by heterologously expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fei Xiang; Wang, Qin Hong; Jiang, Si Jing; Zhou, Yu Ling; Zhang, Gui Min; Ma, Yan He

    2014-12-16

    Xylanase can replace chemical additives to improve the volume and sensory properties of bread in the baking. Suitable baking xylanase with improved yield will promote the application of xylanase in baking industry. The xylanase XYNZG from the Plectosphaerella cucumerina has been previously characterized by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. However, P. pastoris is not a suitable host for xylanase to be used in the baking process since P. pastoris does not have GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and requires large methanol supplement during the fermentation in most conditions, which is not allowed to be used in the food industry. Kluyveromyces lactis, as another yeast expression host, has a GRAS status, which has been successfully used in food and feed applications. No previous work has been reported concerning the heterologous expression of xylanase gene xynZG in K. lactis with an aim for application in baking. The xylanase gene xynZG from the P. cucumerina was heterologously expressed in K. lactis. The recombinant protein XYNZG in K. lactis presented an approximately 19 kDa band on SDS-PAGE and zymograms analysis. Transformant with the highest halo on the plate containing the RBB-xylan (Remazol Brilliant Blue-xylan) was selected for the flask fermentation in different media. The results indicated that the highest activity of 115 U/ml at 72 h was obtained with the YLPU medium. The mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the hydrolytic products of xylan by XYNZG were mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. The results of baking trials indicated that the addition of XYNZG could reduce the kneading time of dough, increase the volume of bread, improve the texture, and have more positive effects on the sensory properties of bread. Xylanase XYNZG is successfully expressed in K. lactis, which exhibits the highest activity among the published reports of the xylanase expression in K. lactis. The recombinant XYNZG can be used to improve the volume and sensory

  4. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miki Mei-Chi; Yeh, Yun; Shih, Yu-En; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  6. Enhancement of gold grade through arsenic removal in the gold concentrate using sulfuric acid baking and hot water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Hyun-sung; Lim, Dae-hack; Myung, Eun-ji; Kim, Hyun-soo; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    In order to improve gold recovery, in general, the roasting process is carried out on gold concentrate. However in this process, Arsenic(As) is released from the gold concentrate and valuable elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are converted into oxides. This causes air pollution through the release of As and loss of valuable elements by discarding the oxide minerals in the tailings. In order to prevent the release of As and the loss of valuable metals, an acid baking experiment was carried out on the gold concentrate with the addition of an H2SO4 solution. The baking effect, H2SO4 concentration effect and the effects of changing the baking time were examined using an electric furnace. In experimental results, soluble metal sulfates such as Rhomboclase and Mikasite were formed in the baked samples as seen through XRD analysis. In hot(70 degree Celsius) water leaching of the roast and baked samples, As the contents leached were 60 times more in the baked sample than the roast sample, and the Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contents were 17, 10, 14, 13 times in the baked sample than in the roast sample, respectively. In the water leached solid-residues, the maximum gold grade was upgraded by 33% due to the acid baking effect. It is confirmed that acid baking with H2SO4 prevented As release into the air and the recovery of valuable metals through hot water leaching such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb which were formerly discarded in the tailings. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  7. Predicting rheological behavior and baking quality of wheat flour using a GlutoPeak test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Slađana; Dokić, Ljubica; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain an insight into the ability of the GlutoPeak instrument to predict flour functionality for bread making, as well as to determine which of the GlutoPeak parameters show the best potential in predicting dough rheological behavior and baking performance. Obtained results showed that GlutoPeak parameters correlated better with the indices of extensional rheological tests which consider constant dough hydration than with those which were performed at constant dough consistency. The GlutoPeak test showed that it is suitable for discriminating wheat varieties of good quality from those of poor quality, while the most discriminating index was maximum torque (MT). Moreover, MT value of 50 BU and aggregation energy value of 1,300 GPU were set as limits of wheat flour quality. The backward stepwise regression analysis revealed that a high-level prediction of indices which are highly affected by protein content (gluten content, flour water absorption, and dough tenacity) was achieved by using the GlutoPeak indices. Concerning bread quality, a moderate prediction of specific loaf volume and an intense level prediction of breadcrumb textural properties were accomplished by using the GlutoPeak parameters. The presented results indicated that the application of this quick test in wheat transformation chain for the assessment of baking quality would be useful. Baking test is considered as the most reliable method for assessing wheat-baking quality. However, baking test requires trained stuff, time, and large sample amount. These disadvantages have led to a growing demand to develop new rapid tests which would enable prediction of baked product quality with a limited flour size. Therefore, we tested the possibility of using a GlutoPeak tester to predict loaf volume and breadcrumb textural properties. Discrimination of wheat varieties according to quality with a restricted flour amount was also examined. Furthermore, we proposed the limit

  8. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of additives in the baking of electrolytic materials for SOFC; SOFC yo denkaishitsu zairyo no shoseiji ni okeru tenkabutsu no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    A technique is discovered for improving on the baking properties of cerium oxide which is one of the solid electrolytic materials for SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell). Cerium oxide, samarium oxide, and gallium oxide are weighed, each to the specified element ratio. The element ratio of cerium is fixed at 0.8 against the other elements except oxygen, and the element ratios of samarium or gallium are caused to change. Specimens containing gallium are designated as CSGa, those not containing as SDC. SDC baked at 1600degC and CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC are similar to each other in terms of average grain diameter. Specimens with gallium added thereto can be baked at temperatures that are lower than these by approximately 150degC. The conductivity of CSGa (0.2%) baked at 1500degC is higher than that of SDC baked at the same temperature, and is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. Baking is enhanced by the addition of 0.2% gallium. In the domain where more than 1% of gallium is in presence, conductivity lowers with an increase in the amount of gallium added. The conductivity of CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI; FARAH SALEENA TAIP; SITI MAZLINA MUSTAPA KAMAL; NORASHIKIN AB. AZIZ

    2014-01-01

    Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firm...

  11. [Study on detoxication of kansui radix on normal liver cells LO2 after stir-baking with vinegar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Li, Lin; Cao, Yudan; Li, Zhengjun; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei

    2012-06-01

    To compare the toxicity on normal liver cells LO2 before and after Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar. The MTT method was adopted to detect the cell activity, with normal liver cells LO2 as the study object. The morphology of cells were observed, and the level or content of AST, ALT, LDH, SOD, Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+ -ATPase, GSH and MDA were determined in cell culture supernatant and splitting supernatant. Compared with the control group, Kansui can obviously inhibit the cell activity (P baked with vinegar can significantly decrease the cell proliferation inhibition and the trend of morphological variation, and obviously decrease the levels of ALT, AST, and LDH (P baking with rice vinegar can release the hepatotoxicity of Kansui Radix. Its possible mechanism was that Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar can decrease the influence of Kansui Radix on the permeability of liver cells LO2 membrane and oxidative damage, in order to provide basis for further exploration of the detoxication mechanism of Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  12. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker’s results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism.

  13. Marker-assisted selection for recognizing wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism).

  14. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-02-11

    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  15. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  16. 2.2. Chlorination of pre-baked danburite with reducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Safiev, Kh.S.

    2013-01-01

    According to conducted studied it was found that increasing of reactivity of danburite rock with gaseous chlorine after heat treatment connected with danburite decomposition: Ca O·B 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 →Ca O·B 2 O 3 +2SiO 2 . The dependence of extraction rate of boron oxide on temperature, process duration, reducer (coal) and size of particles of danburite rock is defined. By means of X-ray analysis method the composition of danburite rock before and after pre-baking was defined as well. The impact of pre-baking on danburite chlorination was studied at 400-800 deg C during 60 minutes with reducer. The optimal parameters for chlorination of burned danburite are: temperature - 700 deg C, process duration - 120 minutes, and reducer containing - 30%.

  17. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  18. Baking soda pica: a case of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A; Dandolu, Vani; Katari, Sunita; Whiteman, Valerie E; Geifman-Holtzman, Ossie; Teitelman, Melissa

    2006-02-01

    We report a case of baking soda pica in a woman at 31 weeks of pregnancy causing severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis. A multigravida at 31 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and muscle pain. She was found to have severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis, with elevation in serum transaminases and hypertension. We initially thought the patient had an atypical presentation of preeclampsia until it was realized that she was ingesting 1 full box of baking soda (454 g sodium bicarbonate) per day. Symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings resolved with discontinuation of the patient's pica practices. Pica is a common but often overlooked practice that can potentially lead to life-threatening disorders. A thorough evaluation of a patient's dietary intake is extremely important, especially in the setting of atypical presentations of disease in pregnancy.

  19. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O

    2017-03-01

    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  20. PENGARUH FOTOOKSIDASI UV-C TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN BAKING EXPANSION PATI SAGU (Metroxylon sago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Fransisco Tethool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Native Sago starch is difficult to used in industry because of the limitations of its phisycochemical properties. The aim of this research was to studied effect of UV-C photo-oxidation on  physicochemical properties and baking expansion of sago starch. Five slurries ratio (starch : water ratio: 1:2; 1:4; 1:6; 1:8; and 1:10 were oxidized with UV-C irradiation for 20 minutes, and then compared with native sago starch. The results showed that UV-C photo-oxidation increasing amylose content and paste viscosity, but decreasing swelling power and solubility, and carbonyl and carboxyl content. Used of UV-C as a photooxidator effective to increasing baking expansion characteristic, and the best slurry ratio was 1:6, which has 6.97 ml/g specific volume or 33.7% increased from native sago starch (5.22 ml/g

  1. Baking properties and biochemical composition of wheat flour with bran and shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprelyants, Leonid; Fedosov, Sergey; Zhygunov, Dmytro

    2013-11-01

    Bran, being a by-product of grain grinding, is characterised by a high biological value and is thus widely used in food production. In this study, different streams of bran and shorts from the wheat graded milling process were incorporated into wheat flour at levels of 5, 11, 17 and 23% (w/w) to investigate their influence on the nutritional and baking properties of flour. Bran and shorts streams improved the baking properties of flour blends. The best result in the case of graded flour blends with different bran products was obtained at the 95:5 ratio. The products containing peripheral parts of grain had higher proteolytic enzyme and superoxide dismutase activities and lower trypsin inhibitor content and β-amylase activity compared with graded flour. Streams of wheat milled fractions including peripheral parts of grain increase the content of bioactive substances and dietary fibre in blends with wheat graded flour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Microbial Proteases in Baked Goods: Modification of Gluten and Effects on Immunogenicity and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina G. Heredia-Sandoval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are still missing due to the technological challenge of substituting the special gluten properties. Instead of using alternative ingredients for baking, some attempts have been done to decrease gluten immunogenicity by its enzymatic degradation with microbial proteases. Although the gluten immunogenicity reduction has been reached to an acceptable level, some quality parameters of the products are affected. This review focus on the use of microbial peptidases to prepare less immunogenic baked goods and their effect on product quality.

  3. Microbial Proteases in Baked Goods: Modification of Gluten and Effects on Immunogenicity and Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina G; Valencia-Tapia, Maribel Y; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M; Islas-Rubio, Alma R

    2016-08-30

    Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are still missing due to the technological challenge of substituting the special gluten properties. Instead of using alternative ingredients for baking, some attempts have been done to decrease gluten immunogenicity by its enzymatic degradation with microbial proteases. Although the gluten immunogenicity reduction has been reached to an acceptable level, some quality parameters of the products are affected. This review focus on the use of microbial peptidases to prepare less immunogenic baked goods and their effect on product quality.

  4. Nature of strain aging stages in bake hardening steel for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Alexander A.; Lee, Hu-Chul; Kuzmin, Nikolay L.

    2008-01-01

    Strain aging behavior of industrially produced ultra low carbon bake hardening (BH) steel for automotive application was investigated. The aging process was studied by the dynamic Young's modulus and amplitude-independent dislocation internal friction measurements with acoustic methods. Analysis of the revealed strain aging stages was carried out and has resulted in the conclusion that formation of interstitial atoms atmospheres on the dislocations is accompanied and substantially affected by the dissolution of their grain boundary segregations

  5. Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Patton, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis.

  6. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  7. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of Microwave Vacuum Baking and Drying of Oolong and Its Kinetic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rongchuan Lin; Hetong Lin; Qingjiao Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristics of microwave vacuum baking and drying of oolong and analyzes the influence of microwave power and vacuum degree in the drying process on the moisture in the tea. According to the variation law of moisture, it explores the relationship between time and wet base moisture contents under different microwave powers and vacuum degrees, as well as the kinetic mathematical model of vacuum drying for oolong using the microwave. Based on the energy balance between...

  9. Baking effect for NdFeB magnets against demagnetization induced by high-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizen, T. E-mail: bizen@spring8.or.jp; Asano, Y.; Hara, T.; Marechal, X.; Seike, T.; Tanaka, T.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, D.E.; Chung, C.W.; Kitamura, H

    2003-12-11

    The effect of thermal stabilization (pre-baking at 142 deg. C) on the sensitivity of neodymium-iron-boron (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets to irradiation was studied. Thermally stabilized magnets showed higher resistance to irradiation with 2.0 GeV electrons: their demagnetization curves decrease linearly with respect to the number of electrons, and with a demagnetization rate remarkably smaller than that of the unbaked magnets.

  10. Effect of Tempering and Baking on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.; Niji, K.; Battel, G.; Tran, A.; Iriarte, E.; Perez, O.; Ruiz, H.; Choi, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Ogren, J.; Alrashaid, J.; Es-Said, O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempered AISI 4340 steel was hydrogen charged and tested for impact energy. It was found that samples tempered above 468 °C (875 °F) and subjected to hydrogen charging exhibited lower impact energy values when compared to uncharged samples. No significant difference between charged and uncharged samples tempered below 468 °C (875 °F) was observed. Neither exposure nor bake time had any significant effect on impact energy within the tested ranges.

  11. Baking effect on Niobium superconducting RF cavities and its physical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kneisel, P. [Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility, VA, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Recently a very surprising phenomenon has been discovered at JLab and Saclay with chemically polished niobium cavities, which the baking during vacuum evacuation has benefits to improve the cavity performance: high Q and high gradient. We have confirmed the same effect on the electropolished niobium cavities. We have analyzed the temperature dependence of the surface resistance in order to understand this effect in the frame or BCS theory. In this paper these results will be presented. (author)

  12. The use of exhausted olive husks as fuel in the Calabrian bread-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, G. [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Exhausted olive husks are a biomass by-product from the olive oil working cycle that has very interesting energy characteristics. This paper considers the use of this biomass as an alternative to or integrative energy source with conventional fuels in the Calabrian bread baking sector, and it outlines its potential and economic viability. Various energy scenarios are suggested for a Calabrian bakery, by means of a detailed analysis of economic convenience. (author)

  13. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10{sup –8} mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m{sup 2} current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H{sub 2}O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O{sub 2}) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10{sup −8} mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  14. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  15. A numerical model of the shortbread baking process in a forced convection oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokolj, Uroš; Škerget, Leopold; Ravnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaporation of water had a significant effect on the temperature field. • The numerical model associated the grade of browning with the temperature field. • The results of the numerical and experimental grade of browning are comparable. • The difference between the measured and simulated temperature at the oven was 2.8 K. - Abstract: The objective of all manufacturers and users of ovens is to achieve uniform browning of various baked foods. In recent years, manufacturers have found it difficult to achieve this, due to the rapid appearance of new trends and due to progressively shorter development times. In this paper, we present the development and validation of a time-dependent 3D computational fluid dynamics model, which enables the numerical prediction of the baking performance and grade of browning of a forced convection oven. Flow and heat transfer of hot air in an oven, where a round heating element and a fan are both operating, are simulated. Radiative and convective heat transfer is taken into account. We found, that it is necessary to include water evaporation in the model. The numerical model was validated by performing experimental measurements of temperature and by performing baking tests of shortbread. After baking, the grade of browning was measured for the shortbread. To determine the grade of browning, the method of identification of colour contrasts was used, based on the colour space CIE L"∗a"∗b. Based on the results, we proposed a linear model, which enabled the prediction of the grade of browning based on the results of the fluid dynamics simulation.

  16. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Cevoli, C.; Fabbri, A.; Marai, S.V.; Ferrari, E.; Guarnieri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min), measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated t...

  17. Microbiological stability of rice tart stored at ambient temperature after baking

    OpenAIRE

    N'guessan, Elise; Cissé, Mohamed; Niyonzima, Eugene; Sindic, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Very popular in Belgium, rice tart is a hot pastry sold in bakeries. It is then consumed at home, for dessert or snack. This study is conducted to investigate the microbiological stability of this foodstuff, from the end of baking to end user by consumers. In this purpose, 108 rice tart samples were collected from each of seven bakeries in five Belgium provinces. Physico-chimical analysis in addition to microbiological analysis were carried out in accordance with the European Regulation EC 20...

  18. A comparison of the mechanical and sensory properties of baked and extruded confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Saba; Charalambides, Maria; Mohammed, Idris K.; Powell, Hugh

    2017-10-01

    Traditional baking is the most common way of producing confectionery wafers, however over the past few decades, the extrusion process has become an increasingly important food manufacturing method and is commonly used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and filled snack products. This study aims to characterise products made via each of these manufacturing processes in order to understand the important parameters involved in the resulting texture of confectionery products such as wafers. Both of the named processes result in brittle, cellular foams comprising of cell walls and cell pores which may contain some of the confectionery filling. The mechanical response of the cell wall material and the geometry of the products influence the consumer perception and preference. X-Ray micro tomography (XRT) was used to generate geometry of the microstructure which was then fed to Finite Element (FE) for numerical analysis on both products. The FE models were used to determine properties such as solid modulus of the cell walls, Young's modulus of the entire foam and to investigate and compare the microstructural damage of baked wafers and extruded products. A sensory analysis study was performed on both products by a qualified sensory panel. The results of this study were then used to draw links between the mechanical behaviour and sensory perception of a consumer. The extruded product was found to be made up of a stiffer solid material and had a higher compressive modulus and fracture stress when compared to the baked wafer. The sensory panel observed textural differences between the baked and extruded products which were also found in the differences of the mechanical properties of the two products.

  19. Combinatorial process optimization for negative photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics and investigation of post-apply bake and post-exposure bake interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Zhang, Ruzhi M.; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Patel, Bharatkumar K.; Toukhy, Medhat; Bogusz, Zachary; Nagahara, Tatsuro

    2012-03-01

    Patternable dielectric materials were developed and introduced to reduce semiconductor manufacturing complexity and cost of ownership (CoO). However, the bestowed dual functionalities of photo-imageable spin-on dielectrics (PSOD) put great challenges on the material design and development. In this work, we investigated the combinatorial process optimization for the negative-tone PSOD lithography by employing the Temperature Gradient Plate (TGP) technique which significantly reduced the numbers of wafers processed and minimized the developmental time. We demonstrated that this TGP combinatorial is very efficient at evaluating the effects and interactions of several independent variables such as post-apply bake (PAB) and post-exposure bake (PEB). Unlike most of the conventional photoresists, PAB turned out to have a great effect on the PSOD pattern profiles. Based on our extensive investigation, we observed great correlation between PAB and PEB processes. In this paper, we will discuss the variation of pattern profiles as a matrix of PAB and PEB and propose two possible cross-linking mechanisms for the PSOD materials to explain the unusual experimental results.

  20. The motivational benefits of a dentifrice containing baking soda and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S L; Kugel, G; Truelove, R B; Nelson, B J; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two family practice dentists, in a large metropolitan area, were recruited to act as independent examiners in a study to evaluate the compliance of their patients to accept a good oral hygiene regimen with the use of a fluoride dentifrice, containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda, dispensed from a dual dispensing package. To evaluate compliance, the dentists attended an orientation seminar and were trained to assess gingival health using the CPITN periodontal probe. Each dentist evaluated the gingival health status of five to seven of his own patients, initially and after one and three months of product use following hygiene instruction and product assignment. One-hundred and thirty-one patients successfully completed the study. After one month of using the hydrogen peroxide/baking soda toothpaste, the mean reduction in bleeding sites was 53%; at three months the reduction was 62%. The hydrogen peroxide/baking soda dentifrice was well accepted by dentist and patient, and a discernible improvement in oral health of the patients was achieved when the product was used in a conscientious oral hygiene program.

  1. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%.

  2. Improvement of initial vacuum condition along 2008-2010 KSTAR campaign by vessel baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo, E-mail: kpkim@nfri.er.ke [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahagno 113, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S.H.; Jung, N.Y.; Kim, S.T.; Kim, H.T.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, K.M.; Bang, E.N.; Chang, Y.B.; Kim, H.K.; Chu, Y.; Kim, Y.O.; Park, S.H.; Woo, I.S.; Hong, J.S.; Kim, S.W.; Park, K.R.; Na, H.K.; Yang, H.L.; Kim, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahagno 113, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is upgraded for its KSTAR 3rd campaign for new target mission to produce the D-shaped plasma with a target plasma current of 500 kA and/or pulse length of 5 s. New Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are installed which leads to the increase of the surface area of the vessel by a factor of about 5. The vacuum conditioning such as the vessel baking has been performed in order to remove various kinds of impurities including H{sub 2}O, carbon and oxygen for the plasma. The total outgassing rate in the KSTAR 1st campaign was measured as 1.5 x 10{sup -4} mbar l s{sup -1} which is increased by a factor of 3 (6.49 x 10{sup -4} mbar l s{sup -1}) in the KSTAR 3rd campaign. Nevertheless, the outgassing rates per unit area have been decreased from 9.31 x 10{sup -5} mbar l m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 1.22 x 10{sup -5} mbar l m{sup -2} s{sup -1} due to the upgrade of baking system and series of baking operation.

  3. Improvement of initial vacuum condition along 2008-2010 KSTAR campaign by vessel baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo; Hong, S.H.; Jung, N.Y.; Kim, S.T.; Kim, H.T.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, K.M.; Bang, E.N.; Chang, Y.B.; Kim, H.K.; Chu, Y.; Kim, Y.O.; Park, S.H.; Woo, I.S.; Hong, J.S.; Kim, S.W.; Park, K.R.; Na, H.K.; Yang, H.L.; Kim, Y.S.

    2011-01-01

    Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is upgraded for its KSTAR 3rd campaign for new target mission to produce the D-shaped plasma with a target plasma current of 500 kA and/or pulse length of 5 s. New Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are installed which leads to the increase of the surface area of the vessel by a factor of about 5. The vacuum conditioning such as the vessel baking has been performed in order to remove various kinds of impurities including H 2 O, carbon and oxygen for the plasma. The total outgassing rate in the KSTAR 1st campaign was measured as 1.5 x 10 -4 mbar l s -1 which is increased by a factor of 3 (6.49 x 10 -4 mbar l s -1 ) in the KSTAR 3rd campaign. Nevertheless, the outgassing rates per unit area have been decreased from 9.31 x 10 -5 mbar l m -2 s -1 to 1.22 x 10 -5 mbar l m -2 s -1 due to the upgrade of baking system and series of baking operation.

  4. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C

    2001-09-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper.

  5. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  6. Design of vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields for SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E.R.; Nagabhushana, S.; Pathak, H.A.; Panigrahi, S.; Nath, T.R.; Babu, A.V.S; Gangradey, R.; Patel, R.J.; Saxena, Y.C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    1998-07-01

    SST-1 is a Steady State Tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m, minor radius of 0.2 m and toroidal field of 3.0 T. The toroidal and poloidal field coils of SST-1 are superconducting. One of the main objectives of SST-1 is to demonstrate steady state particle removal and active plasma density control which states the necessity of wall conditioning. The vacuum vessel will be baked up to 525 K by passing hot nitrogen gas through the U - channels welded on the inner surface of vacuum vessel. The required mass flow rate at 5 bar is 0.712 Kg/s to maintain 525 K wall temperature in steady state. Superconducting coils operating at 4.5 K will be protected against thermal radiation from hot surfaces using liquid nitrogen cooled panels operating at 87 K. Maximum 1200 litres/hour liquid nitrogen is required during vessel baking. The design of vacuum vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields and related flow analysis are presented here. (authors)

  7. Design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of PFC baking for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Reddy, D. Chenna; Khirwadkar, S.; Prakash, N. Ravi; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium-size tokamak with super-conducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of the SST-1, consisting of divertors, passive stabilisers, baffles, and poloidal limiters, are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. Except for the poloidal limiters, all other PFC are structurally continuous in the toroidal direction. As SST-1 is designed to run double-null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. The passive stabilisers are located close to the plasma to provide stability against the vertical instability of the elongated plasma. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . In addition to removing high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 deg. C. Different flow parameters and various tube layouts have been examined to select the optimum thermal-hydraulic parameters and tube layout for different PFC of SST-1. Thermal response of the PFC during baking has been performed analytically (using a Fortran code) and two-dimensional finite element analysis using ANSYS. The detailed thermal hydraulics and thermal responses of PFC baking is presented in this paper

  8. Design of vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, E.R.; Nagabhushana, S.; Pathak, H.A.; Panigrahi, S.; Nath, T.R.; Babu, A.V.S; Gangradey, R.; Patel, R.J.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    SST-1 is a Steady State Tokamak with a major radius of 1.1 m, minor radius of 0.2 m and toroidal field of 3.0 T. The toroidal and poloidal field coils of SST-1 are superconducting. One of the main objectives of SST-1 is to demonstrate steady state particle removal and active plasma density control which states the necessity of wall conditioning. The vacuum vessel will be baked up to 525 K by passing hot nitrogen gas through the U - channels welded on the inner surface of vacuum vessel. The required mass flow rate at 5 bar is 0.712 Kg/s to maintain 525 K wall temperature in steady state. Superconducting coils operating at 4.5 K will be protected against thermal radiation from hot surfaces using liquid nitrogen cooled panels operating at 87 K. Maximum 1200 litres/hour liquid nitrogen is required during vessel baking. The design of vacuum vessel baking system and thermal radiation shields and related flow analysis are presented here. (authors)

  9. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  10. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology.

  11. Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Cosmai, Lucrezia; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants. The OLE addition significantly reduced the forced oxidative degradation during oven test, as evidenced by a decrease of 27% in oxidation-related volatile compounds and of 42% in triacylglycerol oligopolymers compared to control snacks (CTR) without OLE. Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR (i.e. hexanal 165.49 vs 38.31 μg g -1 in OLE-added). The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N.; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue

  13. Investigation of variations in the acrylamide and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine contents in cookies during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Jin, Cheng; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Baking processing is indispensable to determine special sensory prosperities of cookies and induces the formation of some beneficial components such as antioxidants. However, the formation of some Maillard reaction-derived chemical hazards, such as acrylamide (AA) and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) in cookies is also a significant consequence of baking processing from a food safety standpoint. This study investigated the effects of baking conditions on the formation of AA and CML, as well as the antioxidant activity (AOA) of cookies. Cookies were baked at various baking temperatures (155 to 230 °C) and times (1.5 to 31 min). AA and CML contents were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The highest level of AA was obtained in the cookies baked at 155 °C/21 min and 205 °C/11 min (328.93 ± 3.10 μg/kg and 329.29 ± 5.29 μg/kg), while the highest level of CML was obtained in the cookies baked at 230 °C/1.5 min (118.05 ± 0.21 mg/kg). AA was prone to form at relatively low temperature range (155 to 205 °C), however, CML at relatively high temperature range (205 to 230 °C). The CML content was much higher than the AA content in the same set of cookies, by about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The AOA of cookies increased at more severe baking conditions. According to the AA and CML content, AOA and sensory properties of cookies, the temperature-time regime of 180 °C/16 min might be a compromised selection. However, only optimizing the baking condition was not enough for manufacture of high-quality cookies. Cookies, a kind of widely consumed bakery products in the world, contain some potentially harmful compounds, like acrylamide (AA) and N(ε) -(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML). AA in cookies has led to public health concern and several research efforts. But CML, another Maillard reaction-derived chemical hazard, has been neglected so far, even though its content is much higher than that of AA in cookies. The

  14. The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

    2000-12-30

    The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong

  15. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  16. Impact of local hydrothermal treatment during bread baking on soluble amylose, firmness, amylopectin retrogradation and water mobility during bread staling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besbes, Emna; Le Bail, Alain; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hydrothermal processing undergone by bread dough during baking on the degree of starch granule disruption, on leaching of soluble amylose, on water mobility, on firmness and on amylopectin retrogradation during staling has been investigated. Two heating rates during baking have been considered (4.67 and 6.31 °C/min) corresponding respectively to baking temperature of 220 and 240 °C. An increase in firmness and in the amount of retrogradated amylopectin accompanied by a decrease in freezable water has been observed during staling. Although a lower heating rate yielded in larger amount of retrogradated amylopectin retrogradation, it resulted in a lower firmness. Additionally, the amount of soluble amylose and the relaxation times of water measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR (T20, T21 and T22) decreased during staling. It was demonstrated that the amount of soluble amylose was higher for bread crumb baked at lower heating rate, indicating that an increasing amount of amylose is leached outside the starch granules. This was corresponding to a greater amount of retrograded amylopectin during staling. Moreover, it was found that the degree of gelatinization differs locally in a same bread slice between the top, the centre and the bottom locations in the crumb. This was attributed to the differences in kinetics of heating, the availability of water during baking and the degree of starch granule disruption during baking. Based on first order kinetic model, it was found that staling kinetics were faster for samples baked at higher heating rate.

  17. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  18. Thermal release of D_2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  19. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  20. Safety and operational aspects in in-situ electrical baking of large vacuum systems of Indus accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Bhange, Nilesh; Joshi, Sujata; Sridhar, R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve pressures in UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) range, the vacuum chambers and associated vacuum components, necessarily made of UHV compatible materials, should be baked sufficiently long enough so as to reduce outgassing rates. The baking period usually ranges from 48 hours to 72 hours for an electrical load of more than 30 kW per sector, in which baking temperatures, a characteristic parameter and specific to material, range from 150°C-180°C for Aluminium alloy and 250°C-300°C for SS (stainless steel). Indus accelerators vacuum installations include more than 300 m long vacuum chamber which are subjected to rigorous, standardized and labour intensive electrical baking procedure involving an intelligent ON-OFF distributed temperature control system with in-built defence of electrical safety and expandability as per the needs. The paper discusses various in built electrical safely features, operational aspects, work practices and challenges involved in accomplishing an interrupt free continuous electrical baking for distributed electrical load of more than 30 kW for a typical vacuum segment of Indus accelerator. (author)

  1. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  2. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Relationship Between Bake Hardening, Snoek-Köster and Dislocation-Enhanced Snoek Peaks in Coarse Grained Low Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, specimens prepared from coarse grained low carbon steel with different prestrains were baked and then, their bake hardening (BH property and internal friction were determined. TEM was used to characterize the dislocation structure in BH treated samples. The measurements of internal friction in prestrained samples and baked samples were carried out using a multifunctional internal friction apparatus. The results indicate that, in coarse grained low carbon steel, the bake hardening properties (BH values were negative, which were increased by increasing the prestrain from 2 to 5%, and then were decreased by increasing the prestrain from 5 to 10%. In the specimen with prestrain 5%, the BH value reached the maximum value and the height of Snoek-Köster peak was observed to be the maximum alike. With increasing the prestrain, both of the BH value and Snoek-Köster peak heights are similarly varied. It is concluded that Snoek-Köster and dislocation-enhanced Snoek peaks, caused by the interactions between interstitial solute carbon atoms and dislocations, can be used in further development of the bake hardening steels.

  5. Comparative study of the nutritional quality of potato-wheat steamed and baked breads made with four potato flour cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingli; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Fauconnier, Maire Laure

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads containing 35% potato flour from four potato cultivars. Compared with traditional wheat varieties, potato-wheat steamed and baked breads contained higher dietary fiber (1.87-fold), K (2.68-fold), vitamin C (28.56-fold), and total polyphenol (1.90-fold) contents and greater antioxidant activity (1.23-fold). Moreover, the estimated glycemic index of potato-wheat breads ranged from 61.20 (Hongmei-wheat baked bread) to 67.36 (Atlantic-wheat steamed bread), which was lower than that of wheat steamed bread (70.22) and baked bread (70.62). In terms of nutritional value, Hongmei was the optimum cultivar, followed by Blue Congo, Shepody, and Atlantic. For the same cultivar, the nutritional value of steamed bread was higher than that of baked bread. In conclusion, potato flour is a potential wheat flour supplement that improves the nutritional and functional properties of breads.

  6. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  7. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  8. Further studies on the problems of geomagnetic field intensity determination from archaeological baked clay materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological baked clay remains provide valuable information about the geomagnetic field in historical past, but determination of the geomagnetic field characteristics, especially intensity, is often a difficult task. This study was undertaken to elucidate the reasons for unsuccessful intensity determination experiments obtained from two different Bulgarian archaeological sites (Nessebar - Early Byzantine period and Malenovo - Early Iron Age). With this aim, artificial clay samples were formed in the laboratory and investigated. The clay used for the artificial samples preparation differs according to its initial state. Nessebar clay was baked in the antiquity, but Malenovo clay was raw, taken from the clay deposit near the site. The obtained artificial samples were repeatedly heated eight times in known magnetic field to 700 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses and rock-magnetic experiments were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the initial and laboratory heated clays. Two different protocols were applied for the intensity determination-Coe version of Thellier and Thellier method and multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol. Various combinations of laboratory fields and mutual positions of the directions of laboratory field and carried thermoremanence were used in the performed Coe experiment. The obtained results indicate that the failure of this experiment is probably related to unfavourable grain sizes of the prevailing magnetic carriers combined with the chosen experimental conditions. The multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol in its original form gives excellent results for the artificial samples, but failed for the real samples (samples coming from previously studied kilns of Nessebar and Malenovo sites). Obviously the strong dependence of this method on the homogeneity of the used subsamples hinders its implementation in its original form for archaeomaterials. The latter are often

  9. Dynamics of gas cell coalescence during baking expansion of leavened dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miś, Antoni; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Dziki, Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the dynamics of gas cell coalescence, i.e. a phenomenon that deteriorates the homogeneity of the cellular structure of bread crumb, was carried out performing simultaneously measurements of the dough volume, pressure, and viscosity. It was demonstrated that, during the baking expansion of chemically leavened wheat flour dough, the maximum growth rate of the gas cell radius determined from the ratio of pressure exerted by the expanded dough to its viscosity was on average four-fold lower than that calculated from volume changes in the gas phase of the dough. Such a high discrepancy was interpreted as a result of the course of coalescence, and a formula for determination of its rate was developed. The coalescence rate in the initial baking expansion phase had negative values, indicating nucleation of newly formed gas cells, which increased the number of gas cells even by 8%. In the next baking expansion phase, the coalescence rate started to exhibit positive values, reflecting dominance of the coalescence phenomenon over nucleation. The maximum coalescence rates indicate that, during the period of the most intensive dough expansion, the number of gas cells decreased by 2-3% within one second. At the end of the formation of bread crumb, the number of the gas cells declined by 55-67% in comparison with the initial value. The correctness of the results was positively verified using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The developed method can be a useful tool for more profound exploration of the coalescence phenomenon at various stages of evolution of the cellular structure and its determinants, which may contribute to future development of more effective methods for improving the texture and sensory quality of bread crumb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  11. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.Y. [Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J., E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  12. Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent: Production process and history of baking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “flat” breads include a multitude of bread types different from each other but are always relatively thin, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in thickness. These breads, whose origin is very ancient, fit well into the context of a subsistence economy: i they can be obtained from cereals other than wheat, such as pseudocereals or legumes, allowing the use of sustainable local productions from marginal lands; ii they do not necessarily require an oven to be baked; iii they can serve as a dish and as a spoon/fork; iv they can be dehydrated by a second baking process, preventing the growth of molds and extending the shelf life; v they are transported with little encumbrance. These strong points make flat breads very popular, traditionally in Near East and Central Asia and also in some Mediterranean areas, in the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Indian subcontinent. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens (tannur and tabun and griddles (saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail. This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. In fact, flat breads can be produced both in the same way as they were made thousands of years ago and in modern fully automatic industrial lines, allowing tradition to meet innovation. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven

  13. Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.

  14. Effect of mild baking on superconducting niobium cavities investigated by sequential nanoremoval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romanenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The near-surface nanostructure of niobium determines the performance of superconducting microwave cavities. Subtle variations in surface nanostructure lead to yet unexplained phenomena such as the dependence of the quality factor of these resonating structures on the magnitude of rf fields—an effect known as the “Q slopes”. Understanding and controlling the Q slopes is of great practical importance for particle accelerators. Here we investigate the mild baking effect—120°C vacuum baking for 48 hours—which strongly affects the Q slopes. We used a hydrofluoric acid rinse alternating with oxidation in water as a tool for stepwise material removal of about 2  nanometers/step from the surface of superconducting niobium cavities. Applying removal cycles on mild baked cavities and measuring the quality factor dependence on the rf fields after one or several such cycles allowed us to explore the distribution of lossy layers within the first several tens of nanometers from the surface. We found that a single HF rinse results in the increase of the cavity quality factor. The low field Q slope was shown to be mostly controlled by the material structure within the first six nanometers from the surface. The medium field Q slope evolution was fitted using linear (∝B peak surface magnetic field and quadratic (∝B^{2} terms in the surface resistance and it was found that best fits do not require the quadratic term. We found that about 10 nanometers of material removal are required to bring back the high field Q slope and about 20–50 nanometers to restore the onset field to the prebaking value.

  15. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The influence of roasting and baking on fatty acids composition of consumer oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mikołajczak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Foods rich in nutrients have a positive effect on the human body. They are beneficial both for the health and the mind of human. Good sources of essential fatty acids and other biologically active compounds are oilseeds. It is important to include them in your daily diet. They can be added to dishes or serve as a snack. Brief description of the state of knowledge: The aim of this study was to evaluate of fatty acid composition in selected consumer oilseeds: sunflower, sesame, flax after application of typical technological processes such as roasting and baking, in different temperature, power and time ranges. In the research materials (before and after modification, the fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Summary: Based on obtained results, it was found that roasting and baking have an influence on the change in the content and composition of fatty acids. The strength of influence was dependent on the parameters (e.g. type of seed, temperature, time, power, which were used in the research. The roasting in the oven caused changes in the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, both in flax and sunflower seeds. The roasting in the microwave at 900 W affected on saturated fatty acids composition in flax seeds, similarly sunflower. In the case of sesame seeds, the influence of time on the content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was noted. The baking process caused significant changes in the fatty acid composition in the seeds from the crust of bread (flax seeds, sunflower seeds.

  17. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  18. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  19. Energy use in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.; Serrallach, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to determine energy consumption in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industry. Information was obtained from 11 bread bakeries. Energy use in the bread bakeries over the period 1977/78 was found to average 2.45 MJ/kg of which 0.46 MJ/kg was electricity and the rest oven and boiler fuels. Process flow charts are shown. The purposes for which electricity are used are described. An energy consumption analysis is presented and energy conservation measures are described. (MCW)

  20. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author)

  1. EFFECTS OF BARLEY FLOUR ADDITION AND BAKING TEMPERATURE ON Β-GLUCANS CONTENT AND BISCUITS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Džafić, A; Oručević-Žuljević, Sanja; Spaho, Nermina; Akagić, Asima

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities to improve the nutritional value of biscuits. Therefore, the content of β-glucans, physical, chemical and sensory properties of biscuits were determined in relation to a share of added barley flour and a baking temperature. Five different blends of barley and wheat were used for biscuit production: barley/wheat flours in combinations: 0/100; 25/75; 50/50; 75/25 and 100/0 according to the procedure described in AACC method 10-52. The temp...

  2. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  3. Thermal analyses. Information on the expected baking process; Thermische analyses. Informatie over een te verwachten bakgedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijck, H. [Stichting Technisch Centrum voor de Keramische Industrie TCKI, Velp (Netherlands)

    2009-09-01

    The design process and the drying process for architectural ceramics and pottery partly determine the characteristics of the final product, but the largest changes occur during the baking process. An overview is provided of the different thermal analyses and how the information from these analyses can predict the process in practice. (mk) [Dutch] Het vormgevingsproces en het droogproces voor bouwkeramische producten en aardewerk bepalen voor een deel de eigenschappen van de eindproducten, maar de grootste veranderingen treden op bij het bakproces. Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de verschillende thermische analyses en hoe de informatie uit deze analyses het in de praktijk te verwachten gedrag kan voorspellen.

  4. [Self-treatment with baking soda can lead to severe metabolic alkalosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sara; Skriver, Signe

    2014-12-15

    This case report describes a 66-year-old man, previously healthy besides mild hypertension. He ingested a self-made folk remedy consisting of baking soda and water against acid reflux in dosages that resulted in severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.8). Diagnosing and treating MA is easy and cheap, but if the condition is not treated, consequences can be severe. The challenge is to uncover patients' use of non prescription medications and folk remedies in the diagnostic process. Having this information it is possible to prevent MA in both high- and low-risk patients.

  5. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models

  7. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  8. Transitional analysis of organic thin color filter layers in displays during baking process using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Baek Sung; Hyung, Kyung Hee; Oh, Gwi Jeong; Jung, Hyun Wook

    2018-02-01

    The color filter (CF) is one of the key components for improving the performance of TV displays such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and white organic light emitting diodes (WOLED). The profile defects like undercut during the fine fabrication processes for CF layers are inevitably generated through the UV exposure and development processes, however, these can be controlled through the baking process. In order to resolve the profile defects of CF layers, in this study, the real-time dynamic changes of CF layers are monitored during the baking process by changing components such as polymeric binder and acrylate. The motion of pigment particles in CF layers during baking is quantitatively interpreted using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy (MSDWS), in terms of the autocorrelation function and the characteristic time of α-relaxation.

  9. The effect of baking conditions on the effective contact areas of screen-printed silver layer on silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietun Sun; Jianmin Miao; Rongming Lin; Yongqing Fu [Nanyang Technological Univ., Micromachines Lab., Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Ag-based paste was screen-printed on polished as well as on textured p-type (100) single crystalline silicon wafers. Three types of baking processes were studied: the tube furnace, the belt furnace and the hot plate baking. The effective contact areas of Ag/Si system were measured with a novel method, namely metal insulator semiconductor structure measurement. The results show that after baking on the hot plate at 400 deg C for 5 min, the size and number of pores in the Ag film layer as well as at the interface between silver layer and silicon decreases significantly, the effective contact area also increases about 20%, particularly on the textured silicon substrate. (Author)

  10. Effect of Binder and Mold parameters on Collapsibility and Surface Finish of Gray Cast Iron No-bake Sand Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu Reddy, K.; Venkata Reddy, Vajrala; Mandava, Ravi Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Chemically bonded no-bake molds and cores have good mechanical properties and produce dimensionally accurate castings compared to green sand molds. Poor collapsibility property of CO2 hardened sodium silicate bonded sand mold and phenolic urethane no-bake (PUN) binder system, made the reclamation of the sands more important. In the present work fine silica sand is mixed with phenolic urethane no-bake binder and the sand sets in a very short time within few minutes. In this paper it is focused on optimizing the process parameters of PUN binder based sand castings for better collapsibility and surface finish of gray cast iron using Taguchi design. The findings were successfully verified through experiments.

  11. The effect of baking conditions on the effective contact areas of screen-printed silver layer on silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Tietun; Miao, Jianmin; Lin, Rongming; Fu, Yongqing [Micromachines Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Ag-based paste was screen-printed on the polished as well as on the textured p-type (100) single crystalline silicon wafers. Three types of baking processes were studied: the tube furnace, the belt furnace and the hot plate baking. The effective contact areas of Ag/Si system were measured with a novel method, namely metal insulator semiconductor structure measurement. The results show that after baking on the hot plate at 400{sup o}C for 5min, the size and number of pores in the Ag film layer as well as at the interface between silver layer and silicon decreases significantly, the effective contact area also increases about 20%, particularly on the textured silicon substrate.

  12. Studying the Environmental Health Status and Consumption of Baking Soda in Military and Urban Lavash Bakeries of Tehran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Consumption of baking soda, as a primary material for preparation of bread dough, has been banned due to its health complications in Iran. So bread production in our country faced difficulties and one part of them is related to health issues which are bread production. Also, in some cases, baking soda is used in the bread production. This study was done to study the environmental health status and consumption of baking soda in the military and urban Lavash bakeries of Tehran in 2012. Materials and methods:This is a descriptive comparative study done on Lavash bread production of 14 military bakeries and 14 corresponding urban bakeries near them. PH in the samples was tested based on Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran No. 2628. To check the status of environmental health and personal hygiene of bakeries, the check list of Cereal Research Center was used. Results:In terms of environmental health status,28.6% military bakeries and7.1% urban bakeries were at good level. In terms of personal hygiene, all bakeries were in the poor category. Also,42.9% of military Lavash bakeries and 14.3% of urban Lavash bakeries used baking soda in their bread production. Conclusion:Environment health and personal hygiene status in military bakeries are better than the urban bakeries however, hygiene status was not desirable in military bakeries. Also, baking soda consumption in military bakeries was more common than the urban bakeries. According to the results of this study, control of health status and avoiding baking soda consumption in the bakeries are necessary.

  13. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  15. Baking system for ports of experimental advanced super-conducting tokamak vacuum vessel and thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yali; Bao Liman; Song Yuntao; Yao Damao

    2006-01-01

    The baking system of Experimental Advanced Super-Conducting Toakamk (EAST) vacuum vessel is necessary to obtain the baking temperature of 150 degree C. In order to define suitable alloy heaters and achieve their reasonable layouts, thermal analysis was carried out with ANSYS code. The analysis results indicate that the temperature distribution and thermal stress of most parts of EAST vacuum vessel ports are uniform, satisfied for the requirement, and are safe based on ASME criterion. Feasible idea on reducing the stress focus is also considered. (authors)

  16. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Litwinek; Halina Gambuś; Gabriela Zięć; Renata Sabat; Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul; Wiktor Berski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb tex...

  17. Improved bread-baking process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed with engineered cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Nam-Seok; Roh, Sun-Ah; Kim, Jung-Wan; Cha, Hyunju; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2007-06-13

    A bread-baking process was developed using a potential novel enzyme, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase[3-18] (CGTase[3-18]), that had previously been engineered to have enhanced hydrolyzing activity with little cyclodextrin (CD) formation activity toward starch. CGTase[3-18] was primarily manipulated to be displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae carrying pdeltaCGT integrated into the chromosome exhibited starch-hydrolyzing activity at the same optimal pH and temperature as the free enzyme. Volumes of the bread loaves and rice cakes prepared using S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT increased by 20% and 45%, respectively, with no detectable CD. Retrogradation rates of the bread and rice cakes decreased significantly during storage. In comparison to the wild type, S. cerevisiae/pdeltaCGT showed improved viability during four freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicated that CGTase[3-18] displayed on the surface of yeast hydrolyzed starch to glucose and maltose that can be used more efficiently for yeast fermentation. Therefore, display of an antistaling enzyme on the cell surface of yeast has potential for enhancing the baking process.

  18. Degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids after baking and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Stefan; Dib, Baha; Maul, Ronald; Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2012-11-01

    The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. Different steps of digestion were analyzed using salivary, gastric, and duodenal juices. The degradation and bidirectional conversion of the toxicologically relevant (R)-epimers and the biologically inactive (S)-epimers for seven pairs of EAs were determined by a HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection. Baking cookies resulted in degradation of EAs (2-30 %) and a shift in the epimeric ratio toward the (S)-epimer for all EAs. The applied digestion model led to a selective toxification of ergotamine and ergosine, two ergotamine-type EAs. The initial percentage of the toxic (R)-epimer in relation to the total toxin content was considerably increased after digestion of cookies. Ergotamine and ergosine increased from 32 to 51 % and 35 to 55 %, respectively. In contrast, EAs of the ergotoxine type (ergocornine, α- and β-ergocryptine, and ergocristine) showed an epimeric shift toward their biologically inactive (S)-epimers. Further experiments indicated that the selective epimerization of ergotamine EAs occurs in the duodenal juice only. These results demonstrate that toxification of EAs in the intestinal tract should be taken into consideration.

  19. Effect of a baking soda-peroxide dentifrice on post-surgical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, A R; Ciancio, S G; Bessinger, M; Mather, M A; Cancro, L; Fischman, S

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a baking soda-hydrogen peroxide (0.75%) dentifrice on wound healing, plaque formation, gingival inflammation, patient comfort, probing depth, and clinical attachment level following gingival flap surgery. A randomized, double-blind crossover study involving 25 patients requiring bilateral maxillary gingival flap surgery was completed. The effects of twice daily brushing with a baking soda-hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) or a placebo dentifrice (Crest) were observed over a 28-day post-surgical period. Gingival Index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival bleeding index (BI) were recorded pre-surgically and at day 28 for each surgical sextant. At days 7 and 14, soft tissue appearance/wound healing (STA) was assessed based on color and edema, PIs were determined and patient comfort was ascertained by report. Post-surgical wound healing was statistically significantly improved at day 7 with the trend continuing to day 14 when Mentadent dentifrice was used as compared to Crest dentifrice. However, there was no statistical difference in the PI values between the test and control dentifrice throughout the study. Use of Mentadent may be an effective aid in the early phase of healing following gingival flap surgery.

  20. The laboratory and clinical safety evaluation of a dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S L; Truelove, R B; Hart, R; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    This study reports the laboratory, clinical, and microbiological finding of the safety testing and daily use of a dentifrice delivering 0.75% hydrogen peroxide and 5% baking soda. Laboratory studies using Ca45 labeled teeth and biologically stained teeth confirmed that the dentifrice did not decalcify enamel or bleach teeth. Over the course of a six-month period, 62 subjects using a hydrogen peroxide-baking soda dentifrice and 21 subjects using a control dentifrice were examined for oral soft tissue change and hard tissue alterations. No soft tissue changes attributable to the use of either dentifrice were noted. Experienced clinicians using Trubyte shade guide teeth observed no significant changes to the subjects' anterior teeth following 6 months use of the test dentifrice. Paired discrimination tests revealed that the examiners could distinguish color differences in the shade guide teeth at 0.7%. Microbiological monitoring of the subjects for six months use of their assigned dentifrice and for the following months on the control dentifrice, revealed neither an increased incidence of candida nor increased candida counts.

  1. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile.

  2. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Junichiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small

  3. Effect of shortening replacement with oleogels on the rheological and tomographic characteristics of aerated baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongtaek; Jeong, Sungmin; Lee, JaeHwan; Park, Sungkwon; Lee, Jonggil; Lee, Suyong

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening owing to the high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins. Muffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography indicated a lower fragmentation index (i.e. a more connected solid structure) in the oleogel-incorporated muffins, which was correlated with more enclosed and isolated air cells. A stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced muffins with a firmer and springier texture. Based on fatty acid compositions, the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41. Use of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Junichiro, E-mail: kamiya.junichiro@jaea.go.jp; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-PARC Center, Ooaza Shirakata 2-4, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, Yuichi [SAKAGUCHI E.H VOC CORP., Sakura Dai-san Kogyodanchi 1-8-6, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-0802 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  5. Baking effect on initial pumping characteristics of oxygen free copper duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuchika; Yamamoto, Yoshiki; Saito, Yoshio; Matsuda, Namio.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to the application of oxygen-free copper to the field of vacuum vessels, such as the beam duct material for the B Factory. The initial exhaust characteristics of oxygen-free copper vessels were compared before and after the baking, and the change of the surface condition was examined. The material used for this experiment was the oxygen-free copper, to which vacuum degassing treatment was applied. The vacuum vessels of this oxygen-free copper and SUS316L stainless steel were made. The turbo-molecular pump of 400 liter/min and the scroll pump of 270 liter/min were used, and pressure measurement and the analysis of the components in remaining gas were carried out. The procedure of the experiment is explained. The exhaust curves for the oxygen-free copper and stainless steel vacuum vessels are shown. The time required for reaching 1x10 -6 Pa was about 1/2 after the exposure to nitrogen as compared with after the exposure to air, thus the kinds of gas exerted large influence to the exhaust characteristics. The difference before and after baking arose in most cases. (K.I.)

  6. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  7. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvačkaj, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (bake hardening effect achieved by interaction of interstitial atoms with dislocations. The Cottrels atmosphere is obtained. The second step of BH effect is to produced the hardening from precipitation of the carbon atoms in e-carbides, or formation of Fe32C4 carbides. WH (work hardening effect is obtained as dislocation hardening from plastic deformations during sheet deep drawing. Experimental works were aimed at as to achieve such plastic material properties after cold rolling, annealing and skin-pass rolling, which would be able to classify the material ZStE220BH into the drawing categories at the level of DQ – DDQ. As resulting from the experimental results, the optimal treatment conditions for the maximal sum (WH+BH = 86 MPa are as follows: total cold rolling deformation ecold = 65 %, annealing temperature Tanneal. = 700 °C.

  8. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  12. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Baking effect on initial pumping characteristics of oxygen free copper duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Yasuchika; Yamamoto, Yoshiki [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan). System' s Material Lab.; Saito, Yoshio; Matsuda, Namio

    1994-03-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to the application of oxygen-free copper to the field of vacuum vessels, such as the beam duct material for the B Factory. The initial exhaust characteristics of oxygen-free copper vessels were compared before and after the baking, and the change of the surface condition was examined. The material used for this experiment was the oxygen-free copper, to which vacuum degassing treatment was applied. The vacuum vessels of this oxygen-free copper and SUS316L stainless steel were made. The turbo-molecular pump of 400 liter/min and the scroll pump of 270 liter/min were used, and pressure measurement and the analysis of the components in remaining gas were carried out. The procedure of the experiment is explained. The exhaust curves for the oxygen-free copper and stainless steel vacuum vessels are shown. The time required for reaching 1x10[sup -6] Pa was about 1/2 after the exposure to nitrogen as compared with after the exposure to air, thus the kinds of gas exerted large influence to the exhaust characteristics. The difference before and after baking arose in most cases. (K.I.).

  14. Still Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Salwen, Nathan; Rubin, Ron

    1998-01-01

    We present here a simple proof of the non-existence of a non-periodic invariant point for the quantum baker's map propagator presented in Rubin and Salwen (Annals of Physics, 1998), for Planck's constant h=1/N and N a positive integer.

  15. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    be the high price of CAVEs, the lack of intuitive navigation and design tools in those environments, the absence of useful and easy to handle design workflows, and the quality constraints of real-time display of 3D models. A great potential for VR in the architectural workflow is the review of design...

  16. Baked Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.; Kowalski, K.L.; Taylor, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    We speculate that, in the interiors of large ''fireballs'' produced in very high-energy collisions, vacuum states of the strong interactions are produced with anomalous chiral order parameters. If true this can lead to anomalously large fluctuations in the charged-to-neutral ratio of produced hadrons (Centauro and anti-Centauro behavior). We also discuss strategies for an experimental search. (authors). 20 refs., 14 figs

  17. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Knol, D.; Janssen, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatography-​mass spectrometry (GC-​MS) methodologies for the anal. of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidn. products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extn. were

  18. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  19. Anesthetic management of a patient with sustained severe metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte abnormalities caused by ingestion of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jose; Lim, Jeffrey; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  20. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Steffolani, María Eugenia; Barrera, Gabriela N; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2015-12-01

    The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  1. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  2. Effect of egg freshness on texture and baking characteristics of batter systems formulated using egg, flour and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liting; Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness on baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with eggs of different freshness, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during the baking and cooling processes. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). The flow behavior of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as the Haugh unit (HU) value decreased, while the flow behavior index (n) increased. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations revealed that lower-HU samples had a lower viscosity in the baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinization and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increasing change, which was reflected by a decrease in the specific volume of final models. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered…

  5. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Soliz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  6. Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-11-15

    Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Baked in Convention Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozen fish fillets designed to be baked or reheated in the home oven have been one of the major ways fish are consumed in the US. Examples includes frozen salmon, tilapia, pollock, and cod with different types of pre-treatment such as precooked, marinated, or breaded and par-fried products. However...

  9. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren’t reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  10. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Fan; Fan, Hang; Li, Ke; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2018-03-26

    Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren't reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  11. Evaluation of Vitamin D3 and D2 Stability in Fortified Flat Bread Samples During Dough Fermentation, Baking and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian, Mehrnaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Sadeghi, Malihe; Mohtadinia, Javad

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, has a significant role in bone metabolism and helps calcium absorption in the body. Since vitamin D concentration is altered in fortified foods and dietary supplements, the actual amount of vitamin D may differ from the label value. Methods: In this study, the concentrations of vitamin D 2 and D 3 of fortified bread sample were analytically determined. For this purpose, dough or homogenized bread sample was saponified using potassium hydroxide solution (30%, w/v) at 80°C, and the saponified analytes were extracted into n -heptane followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Then n -heptane fraction was evaporated to dryness and the sample was reconstituted in methanol. The effect of different parameters was evaluated by one variable at one-time strategy. Results: The analytes concentrations were evaluated in dough fermentation, baking and storage steps. The effect of temperature in dough fermentation and baking was evaluated at the range of 5-30 and 200-250°C, respectively. Also, the fermentation time was studied in the range of 0-120 min. The analytes concentrations were followed for 1 to 5 days after baking. The results indicated that dough fermentation temperature has no significant effect on the concentration of the analytes. On the other hand, when the dough fermentation time and baking temperature are increased, the analytes concentrations are decreased. Also, the storage duration of the spiked bread samples decreased the analytes concentrations after one day. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, baking the dough at high temperatures lead to decrease in vitamin levels.

  12. The Effect of Process Condition and SiO2 as Catalyst for the Density and the Resistivity of the Calcine Coke and Tar Pitch Mixed Pellet as 900 oC Baking Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundjung lndrati Y; Imam Dahroni; Kasilani Noor Sayekti

    2002-01-01

    The experiment of the baking condition effect and SiO 2 as catalyst have been done. Graphite turbo static be produced by baking of the mixed pellet ( Calcine Coke, Tar Pitch (32%) and SiO 2 as catalyst). The baking have been done on the inert atmospherics (argon : 2 l/hour) and the heating rate 10 o C/minute. The baking condition and catalyst was affected for density and resistivity. There was little bit density change with densification phenomena. The graphite resistivity was more decrease with the increasing of heating and the longer baking time. The baking condition for produce turbo static graphite with resistivity 2100 Ωμm and density 1.4 gram/cm 3 was 900 o C, 3 hours for baking time and optimal adding catalyst SiO 2 0.5 %. (author)

  13. Study of device of electron-ion treatment of mother baking yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapenkov, A.M.; Merinov, N.S.; Nazarov, V.N.; Balan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Devices for electron- ion treatment of mother baking yeasts are considered and classified by the way of aerions removal from the ionization zone: the first ones - by means of the electric field, the other - by air directed flux. Devices of the first type require high voltage - 20-60 kV. Electrodynamic ion generator has been applied as a device of the second type; considered is its construction, principal of operation, given are diagrams of ion flux dependence. The methods of process calculations in the generator and experimental results are presented. The main advantage of the generator of the second type is operation at low (3-5 kV) voltages. It is shown, that the yeast growth module can achieve 36% at essential increase of biomass when using these yeasts as sowing. The device can be used for biostimulation and antisepting of food raw materials

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  15. Ceramics baking temperature influence on the dosimetric parameters essential in TL dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpschmid, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Thermoluminescence in quartz is used for dating of ceramics. The main problem is the 'intercept', i.e. the deviation from linearity in the relationship thermoluminescence versus absorbed dose of natural radiation. This deviation is most probably dependent on the fabrication method of the ceramics. In the present work the hypothesis is tested that the most important parameter, in this respect, is the baking temperature. Four types of ceramic bricks were fabricated, with four burning cycles of end temperatures of 550 0 C, 650 0 C, 900 0 C and 1200 0 C respectively, then irradiated and finally underwent the TL-procedure. The results are discussed with regard of the maximum of glow curve, intensity, fading, sensitivity to beta radiation and to additional alpha radiation and the intercept. (qui)

  16. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cuquerella, J.; Granado, R.; Silvestre, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (16 0 C-30 0 C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  17. Ultrathin Polyimide-Stainless Steel Heater for Vacuum System Bake-out

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Christian; Henrist, Bernard; Kölemeijer, Wilhelmus; Libera, Bruno; Lutkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Space constraints in several normal conducting magnets of the LHC required the development of a dedicated permanent heater for vacuum chamber bake-out. The new heater consists of stainless steel bands inside layers of polyimide. The overall heater thickness is about 0.3 mm. The low magnetic permeability is suitable for applications in magnetic fields. The material combination allows for temperatures high enough to activate a NEG coating. Fabrication is performed in consecutive steps of tape wrapping. Automation makes high volume production at low costs possible. About 800 m of warm vacuum system of the long straight sections of the LHC will be equipped with the new heater. This paper covers experience gained at CERN from studies up to industrialization.

  18. Recent developments in gluten-free bread baking approaches: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease (CD is one of the most common human intestinal malabsorption diseases. The only effective treatment for patients with CD is to follow a gluten-free (GF diet strictly. Nowadays, the increasing incidence of CD promotes worldwide interests for various desirable GF products. However, baking without gluten, the key ingredient for bread structure and quality, is a big challenge for all bakers and cereal researchers. Several approaches have been applied to understand and improve gluten-free bread (GFB elaboration and further studies are still required. The main focus of this review is to discuss the approaches for GFB improvements in recent 5 years, including the use of novel alternative flours, functional ingredients, processing aids, additives, innovative techniques, and their combinations.

  19. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  20. Improvement of energy efficiency in glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.D.G. [Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Nogueira, M. [IrRADIARE, R and D in Engineering andrsholm Environment, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1997-08-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the utilisation of dedicated modelling tools for the optimisation of a variety of thermal equipment for high-, medium-, and low-temperature heat transfer process. A combination of modelling with advanced extensive on-line measurements is proposed as an approach for the development of optimisation procedures able to be used in equipment design and operation. The industrially oriented utilisation of modelling is discussed considering the state-of-the-art and the application of existing codes capable of computing the three-dimensional characteristics of the aerodynamics, mixing, combustion (single- or multi-phase), pollutants formation and heat transfer of industrial combustion equipment. The present paper describes modelling tools for the optimisation of a glass-melting furnace, a ceramic kiln, a cement kiln and a baking oven. Significant reduction of energy consumption and low-cost abatement were achieved for these four industrial situations. (author)

  1. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of hydrocarbons from anode baking furnaces. Kombiniertes Abscheideverfahren fuer Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Anoden- und Elektrodenbrennoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, S.; Peukert, W.; Kaeppeler, G.

    1993-10-01

    Fumes from anode baking furnaces contain substantial concentrations of solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Various concepts for fume treatment systems are discussed. A solution with indirect cooling with subsequent dry adsorption has various advantages in comparison to traditional systems with evaporative coolers. The adsorbents for collection of gaseous hydrocarbons originate from anode manufacturing so that no additives have to be fed into the process. The loaded adsorbents can be recycled into the process avoiding additional waste disposal. Pilot scale tests are necessary in order to determine the most important process variables. Results of the experiments show the possibilities and the physical-chemical limits of the used adsorbents in an integrated fume treatment. (orig.)

  3. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ L =23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions

  4. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λL=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ >100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  5. Study on the Thermal Properties of Some Inorganically Modified Pre- Baked Clay Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.; Ishaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the influence of some inorganic modifiers on the thermal stability of the clay-inorganic intercalates. The inorganic modifiers used were NaOH and KOH. Solvent intercalation procedure was used. Clay was modified at 150, 500 and 750 degree C, separately with NaOH and KOH. TGDTA study was performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the resultant intercalates. Intercalation with NaOH and KOH performed at 150 degree C showed significant mass loss. Intercalation with NaOH performed at 500 and 750 degree C, separately showed less mass loss compared to the ones prepared at 150 degree C and hence exhibited thermal stability. In case of intercalation performed with KOH at 500 and 750 degree C separately, the mass loss was comparable to the original pre-baked clay. (author)

  6. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  7. Identification of milling and baking quality QTL in multiple soft wheat mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Antonio; Guttieri, Mary; Smith, Nathan; Souza, Edward; Sturbaum, Anne; Hua, Duc; Griffey, Carl; Barnett, Marla; Murphy, Paul; Ohm, Herb; Uphaus, Jim; Sorrells, Mark; Heffner, Elliot; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Van Sanford, David; Sneller, Clay

    2015-11-01

    Two mapping approaches were use to identify and validate milling and baking quality QTL in soft wheat. Two LG were consistently found important for multiple traits and we recommend the use marker-assisted selection on specific markers reported here. Wheat-derived food products require a range of characteristics. Identification and understanding of the genetic components controlling end-use quality of wheat is important for crop improvement. We assessed the underlying genetics controlling specific milling and baking quality parameters of soft wheat including flour yield, softness equivalent, flour protein, sucrose, sodium carbonate, water absorption and lactic acid, solvent retention capacities in a diversity panel and five bi-parental mapping populations. The populations were genotyped with SSR and DArT markers, with markers specific for the 1BL.1RS translocation and sucrose synthase gene. Association analysis and composite interval mapping were performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). High heritability was observed for each of the traits evaluated, trait correlations were consistent over populations, and transgressive segregants were common in all bi-parental populations. A total of 26 regions were identified as potential QTL in the diversity panel and 74 QTL were identified across all five bi-parental mapping populations. Collinearity of QTL from chromosomes 1B and 2B was observed across mapping populations and was consistent with results from the association analysis in the diversity panel. Multiple regression analysis showed the importance of the two 1B and 2B regions and marker-assisted selection for the favorable alleles at these regions should improve quality.

  8. The research of moisture forms in the baking yeast by the thermogravimetric analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lavrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermogravimetry method is one of the few absolute methods of analysis, that makes it one of the most accurate methods. In this research, thermogravimetric analysis of baking yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out. It allowed to identify temperature zones, which correspond to dripping with various link energy, as well as to predict operating parameters of the process of dehumidification and to choose their most effective dehydration method. The studies were conducted in the laboratory of the collective use center "Control and management of energy efficient projects" of the "Voronezh state university of engineering technologies" on the simultaneous thermal analysis device STA 449 F3 model (NETZSCH, Germany. The device records the change in a substance mass and the difference of the heat flow inside the crucible containing the sample and the crucible containing the standard analyte. The analyzer's working principle is based on continuous recording of the dependence of the material mass on time or temperature and its being heated to the selected temperature program in a specified gas atmosphere. The release or absorption of heat by the sample due to phase transitions or chemical reactions is recorded simultaneously. The study was performed in the following modes: the pressure is atmospheric, the maximum temperature is 588 K, the rate of temperature change is 5 K/min. The experiments were performed in aluminum crucibles with a total weight of 12 mg. The software NETZSCH Proteus was used for processing of the obtained TG and DTG curves. The analysis of the obtained data allowed to identify periods of water dehydration and solids transformation by thermal effect on baking yeast, and to identify temperature zones, which correspond to the release of moisture with different link form and energy.

  9. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 3.3.1. Filtration properties of hydrochloride-acid pulps at reprocessingof nepheline syenites by baking method with calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.S.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2008-01-01

    At hydrochloride-acid decomposition of solid residuum from the waterprocessing of cake obtained at baking of nepheline with calcium chloride into the liquid phase pass hydrochloride-acid of aluminium and iron

  11. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  12. Investigations by the surface photo-E. M. F. method of the effect of low temperature vacuum baking of an Si(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlugosz, B.; Kochowski, S.

    1982-02-26

    Investigations of the effect of low temperature vacuum baking on the surface potential of silicon are reported. The surface potential Vsub(s0) was measured by the surface photo-e.m.f. method. No noticeable changes in Vsub(s0) occurred after baking of samples which had been freshly etched in HF for 2 h in a vacuum of 6.6 x 10/sup -3/ Pa (5 x 10/sup -5/ Torr) at temperatures of 573, 623 and 723 K. Radical changes were observed when the samples had been aged in air for 2 months before vacuum baking. These results suggest that the direction and the value of the surface potential changes during vacuum baking are determined by the initial surface state.

  13. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A four-week clinical study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a baking soda dentifrice and an antimicrobial dentifrice in reducing plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness in reducing plaque of a fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda and a non-baking soda fluoride dentifrice containing an antimicrobial (triclosan/copolymer) system after a single brushing and over a four-week period of daily brushing. A total of 207 subjects completed this randomized, blinded, parallel-group clinical study. Twenty-four hour plaque buildup was scored at baseline and after two and four weeks of twice-daily use of the products. Additionally, controlled single brushing with the assigned dentifrice, followed by post-brushing plaque assessment, was performed at the start (baseline visit) and end (Week-4 visit) of the study. Plaque was scored using the Turesky, et al. modification of Quigley-Hein Index at six sites per tooth, according to Soparkar's modification. Mean baseline whole mouth plaque scores for the baking soda and triclosan dentifrice groups were 2.90 +/- 0.40 and 2.90 +/- 0.39, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Within-group analysis showed that both products significantly reduced the amount of plaque over the four-week period (p baking soda dentifrice exhibited significantly greater reduction in plaque scores (p baking soda dentifrice group (0.34 +/- 0.32) was 2.22-fold greater than that observed for the triclosan dentifrice group (0.15 +/- 0.24). Similarly, single brushing with the baking soda dentifrice showed a 1.88- to 2.08-fold greater pre- to post-brushing plaque difference as compared to the triclosan dentifrice at the baseline visit (mean plaque reduction: baking soda 0.54 +/- 0.26; triclosan 0.28 +/- 0.18; ratio 1.88X) and Week-4 visit (baking soda 0.47 +/- 0.21; triclosan 0.23 +/- 0.15; ratio 2.08X). Similar to the whole mouth scores, evaluation of various tooth sites (facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival) showed a significantly greater reduction in plaque scores for brushing with the baking soda dentifrice as compared to brushing with the triclosan

  15. Effect of baking and steaming on physicochemical and thermal properties of sweet potato puree preserved by freezing and freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Svrakačić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatments could be one of the hurdles in applications of sweet potato purees for food different products formulation. Sweet potato purees (SPP were prepared from raw, baked and steamed roots and they were preserved by freezing and freeze-drying. The effects of baking and steaming on thermal properties (melting temperature-Tm, melting transition energy - ΔH, and glass transition temperatures - Tg of sweet potato (cultivar Beauregard, were measured by means of a Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The SPP made from baked roots had higher total and soluble solids (20.32 and 18.95%, respectively than SPP made from raw and steamed roots. It can be also noticed that starch content was reduced by steaming and baking which reflected on amount of total and reducing sugars. The increase of reducing sugars level in baked SPP for 3.78% and steamed for 0.86% SPP was the result of yielding the maltose. The chemical changes of SPP also influenced the thermal behavior such that SPP prepared from baked sweet potato roots had the lowest initial freezing point (-2.80 °C followed by SPP prepared from steamed (-2.63 °C and raw (-0.71 °C roots. The highest energy for melting (transition was needed for SPP prepared from raw potato roots followed by steamed and baked roots, -103.79, -103.63, and -102.90 J/g, respectively. The glass transition in freeze-dried SPP prepared from raw roots was not detected. However, in the freeze-dried SPP prepared from baked and steamed roots the glass transition was detected in the range of 39 and 42 °C but with no significant difference (p > 0.05.

  16. The performances of natural gas infrared radiation in paints baking; Les performances de l`infrarouge gaz pour la cuisson des peintures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourdou, I. [Gaz de France, 75 - Paris (France). Centre d`essais de recherches sur les utilisations du gaz

    1998-04-01

    The direction of research of Gaz de France (GdF) company, in association with the centre for technical studies of aeraulic and thermal industries (CETIAT), has carried out infrared radiation baking tests on real painted parts using natural gas burners. Tests were performed on the Erica test facility. The development of the use of infrared gas burners in the mechanical industry requires an optimum use of this technology in the baking cycle. (J.S.)

  17. Effect of formulation and baking conditions on the structure and development of non-enzymatic browning in biscuit models using images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Valenzuela, Gabriel A; Quilaqueo, Marcela; Lagos, Daniela; Estay, Danilo; Pedreschi, Franco

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of composition (dietary fiber = DF, fat = F, and gluten = G) and baking time on the target microstructural parameters that were observed using images of potato and wheat starch biscuits. Microstructures were studied Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Non-enzymatic browning (NEB) was assessed using color image analysis. Texture and moisture analysis was performed to have a better understanding of the baking process. Analysis of images revealed that the starch granules retained their native form at the end of baking, suggesting their in complete gelatinization. Granules size was similar at several different baking times, with an average equivalent diameter of 9 and 27 µm for wheat and potato starch, respectively. However, samples with different levels of DF and G increased circularity during baking to more than 30%, and also increasing hardness. NEB developed during baking, with the maximum increase observed between 13 and 19 min. This was reflected in decreased luminosity (L*) values due to a decrease in moisture levels. After 19 min, luminosity did not vary significantly. The ingredients that are used, as well as their quantities, can affect sample L* values. Therefore, choosing the correct ingredients and quantities can lead to different microstructures in the biscuits, with varying amounts of NEB products.

  18. Effect of dentifrice containing fluoride and/or baking soda on enamel demineralization/remineralization: an in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, J A; Hashizume, L N; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P

    2001-01-01

    The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in this study. During each phase, 10% sucrose solution was dripped (3 times a day) only onto the sound blocks. After 10 min, a slurry of placebo, fluoride (F) or fluoride and baking soda (F+NaHCO(3)) dentifrice was dripped onto all enamel blocks. The results showed a higher F concentration in dental plaque formed during treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (pbaking soda neither improves nor impairs the effect of F dentifrice on reduction of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization of enamel.

  19. Installation of a direct fired Lanham bread baking system. A demonstration at Family Loaf Bakery Ltd. (Bristol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    The first installation in the UK of a direct-fired continuous conveyor oven capable of producing 8,500 loaves/hour has reduced energy costs at Family Loaf Bakery's Avonmouth plant by pound 66,680/year and resulted in net cost savings to the company of pound 59,680/year. This saving was achieved by using a direct-fired oven which had a low thermal mass and small oven openings. When baking identical products, a 30% saving in oven fuel was obtained using the new system compared to conventional systems. For this bakery, it is expected to save over 12,000 GJ/year. The bread baking system was of USA development and initial teething problems adapting to the more dense UK bread have now been overcome. (U.K.).

  20. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  1. The influence of hard-baking temperature applied for SU8 sensor layer on the sensitivity of capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta; Hauptman, Nina; Maček, Marijan; Kunaver, Matjaž

    2009-06-01

    SU8, the near-UV photosensitive epoxy-based polymer was used as a sensor layer in the capacitive chemical sensor, ready for integration with a generic double-metal CMOS technology. It was observed that the response of the sensor slowly increases with the temperature applied in hard-baking process as long as it remains below 300°C. At this temperature the response of the sensor abruptly increases and becomes almost threefold. It was shown that fully crosslinked structure of the sensor layer becomes opened and disordered when the sensor is hard-baked at temperatures between 300°C and 320°C, that is, still well below the degradation temperature of the polymer. These changes in chemical structure were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent changes of the sensor layer structure enable one to prepare a combination of capacitive chemical sensors with good discrimination between some volatile organic compounds.

  2. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind

    1998-11-01

    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  3. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind

    1998-11-01

    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  4. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo sa...

  5. Severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion: case reports of two patients with unsuspected antacid overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, L J; Snoey, E R

    1999-01-01

    Oral ingestion of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has been used for decades as a home remedy for acid indigestion. Excessive bicarbonate ingestion places patients at risk for a variety of metabolic derangements including metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and even hypoxia. The clinical presentation is highly variable but can include seizures, dysrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest. We present two cases of severe metabolic alkalosis in patients with unsuspected antacid overdose. The presentation and pathophysiology of antacid-related metabolic alkalosis is reviewed.

  6. Influence of the xanthan gum addition on the technological and sensory quality of baking products during the freezing storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 0.16% xanthan gum addition in the recipe of the bread production and its influence on the baking and sensory quality of products was monitored during the process of our research. Prepared dough was inserted in the freezing box directly (-18°C and it was stored for one, two, three, four, five and six months. When the baking process was finished, the products with xanthan gum and the products without it were compared and evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. It was found that freezing, cooling and storage of the products without xanthan gum addition influenced the volume, vaulting and general appearance of the products in a negative way and loaves of bread were evaluated as unacceptable after four months of freezing. The quality of experimental loaves of bread with xanthan gum was, even after six months of freezing storage, comparable with freshly baked products. Despite the freezing, the volume of the products had an increased value. After first month of freezing the volume increased by 28.6% and after two months of freezing it increased by 23.8% both compared to the control. The vaulting in products processed by freezing was in the required optimal level during the whole period of freezing. Sensory evaluation results of loaves of bread with xanthan gum were the best after three, four and five months of storage in a freezer, when 98 points were achieved. During the monitored period of freezing, the addition of 0.16% of xanthan gum markedly contributed to the preservation of sensory and baking quality of the frozen wheat dough.

  7. ANALISIS MODA KEGAGALAN DENGAN PENDEKATAN RELIABILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE (RCM (Studi kasus Baking Section Mesin Imfori PT Nissin Biskuit Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM adalah suatu pendekatan perawatan yang berbasis pada upaya menjamin keandalan mesin. Dengan pendekatan ini, perawatan ditujukan untuk menjamin agar asset terus menerus mencapai kemampuan dasarnya. Dalam penelitian dilakukan analisis fungsi sistem yang tepat terhadap Baking Section mesin Imaforni PT Nissin Biskuit Indonesia melalui pendekatan RCM untuk mengetahui moda kegagalan yang dapat menyebabkan sistem kehilangan fungsinya. Kata Kunci : Fungsi Sistem,Moda Kegagalan,Reliability Centered Maintenance.

  8. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  9. Consumption of baked nuts or seeds reduces dental plaque acidogenicity after sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Chuoyue; Ge, Chunling; Wang, Bing; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To assess the acidogenic potential of eight different types of baked nuts or seeds eaten alone and after a sucrose challenge using in-dwelling electrode telemetry. Six participants wearing a mandibular partial prosthesis incorporated with a miniature glass pH electrode were enrolled. The plaque pH was measured after 5 or 6 days of plaque accumulation. To establish a control, the subjects were instructed to rinse with sucrose, without any subsequent treatment, at the first visit. At each subsequent test visit, the subjects were asked to chew sugar free xylitol gum or consume 10 g of baked (180 degrees C, 5 minutes) peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, or watermelon seeds alone and 10 minutes after a sucrose rinse. The minimum plaque pH value and area of plaque pH curve under 5.7 (AUC5.7) during and after nut/seed consumption or gum chewing alone, the plaque pH value at 10 minutes after the sucrose rinse, the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and AUC5.7 after the sucrose rinse with or without nut/seed consumption or gum chewing were calculated from the telemetric curves. The sucrose rinse induced a rapid decrease in the plaque pH to 4.32 +/- 0.17 at 10 minutes; this value remained below 5.7 for the measurement period. The AUC5.7 values were 34.58 +/- 7.27 and 63.55 +/- 15.17 for 40 and 60 minutes after the sucrose challenge, respectively. With the exception of cashews and pumpkin seeds (minimum pH, 5.42 and 5.63 respectively), the nuts or seeds did not decrease the plaque pH to below 5.7 when consumed alone, with the AUC5.7 values during and after consumption (total 40 minutes) ranging from 0.24 to 2.5 (8.44 for cashews), which were significantly lower than those after the sucrose challenge. Furthermore, nut/seed consumption or gum chewing after the sucrose challenge significantly reversed the sucrose-induced decrease in the plaque pH, and the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and the AUC5.7 values for 60

  10. Consuming Almonds vs. Isoenergetic Baked Food Does Not Differentially Influence Postprandial Appetite or Neural Reward Responses to Visual Food Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Dhillon, Jaapna; Tamer, Gregory G; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Richard D

    2017-07-27

    Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus a baked food on postprandial appetite and neural responses to visual food stimuli. Twenty-two adults (19 women and 3 men) with a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m² completed the current study during a 12-week behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants consumed either 28 g of whole, lightly salted roasted almonds or a serving of a baked food with equivalent energy and macronutrient contents in random order on two testing days prior to and at the end of the intervention. Pre- and postprandial appetite ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed on all four testing days. Postprandial hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and neural responses to visual food stimuli were not different following consumption of almonds and the baked food, nor were they influenced by weight loss. These results support energy and macronutrient contents as principal determinants of postprandial appetite and do not support a unique satiety effect of almonds independent of these variables.

  11. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-12-15

    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of baking time and matrix effects on the detection of milk allergens in cookie model food system by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Linda; Brohée, Marcel; Tregoat, Virginie; van Hengel, Arjon

    2011-07-15

    Milk allergens are common allergens occurring in foods, therefore raising concern in allergic consumers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is, to date, the method of choice for the detection of food allergens by the food industry although, the performance of ELISA might be compromised when severe food processing techniques are applied to allergen-containing foods. In this paper we investigated the influence of baking time on the detection of milk allergens by using commercial ELISA kits. Baked cookies were chosen as a model food system and experiments were set up to study the impact of spiking a matrix food either before, or after the baking process. Results revealed clear analytical differences between both spiking methods, which stress the importance of choosing appropriate spiking methodologies for method validation purposes. Finally, since the narrow dynamic range of quantification of ELISA implies that dilution of samples is required, the impact of sample dilution on the quantitative results was investigated. All parameters investigated were shown to impact milk allergen detection by means of ELISA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF.

  14. Analysis of oxidation of self-baking electrodes (Soederberg electrodes) by means of three-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashnin, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the methodology and results of the development of the temperature dependence of the oxidation speed of the self-baking electrode (Soederberg Electrodes) in the ore-thermal furnaces. For the study of oxidation, the working ends of the self-baking electrodes, which were taken out from the ore-thermal furnaces after their scabbings, were used. The temperature of the electrode surface by its height was calculated with the help of the mathematical model of heat work of self-baking electrode. The comparison of electrode surface temperatures with the speed of oxidation of the electrode allowed one to obtain the temperature dependency of the oxidation of the lateral electrode surface. Comparison of the experimental data, obtained in the laboratory by various authors, showed their qualitative coincidence with results of calculations of the oxidation rate presented in this article. With the help of the mathematical model of temperatures fields of electrode, the calculations of the sizes of the cracks, appearing after burnout ribs, were performed. Calculations showed that the sizes of the cracks after the ribs burnout, calculated by means of the obtained temperature dependence, coincide with the experimental data with sufficient accuracy.

  15. Stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking as affected by the presence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2018-03-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients. A range of common food additives and ingredients were added to assess possible interference: ascorbic acid (E300), citric acid (E330), sorbic acid (E200), calcium propionate (E282), lecithin (E322), diacetyltartaric acid esters of fatty acid mono- and diglycerides (E472a), calcium phosphate (E341), disodium diphosphate (E450i), xanthan gum (E415), polydextrose (E1200), sorbitol (E420i), sodium bicarbonate (E500i), wheat gluten and malt flour. The DON content was reduced by 40%, and the DON-3-glucoside concentration increased by >100%, after baking for 20 min at 180°C. This confirmed that DON and DON-3-glucoside concentrations can vary during heating, and DON-3-glucoside could even increase after baking. However, DON and DON-3-glucoside are not affected significantly by the presence of the food additives tested.

  16. Suicide by plastic bag suffocation combined with the mixture of citric acid and baking soda in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keishu; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Hashizume, Yumiko; Kitamura, Kengo; Okada, Misato; Okumoto, Kohei; Sakamoto, Shoich; Ishida, Yuko; Nosaka, Mizuho; Kimura, Akihiko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2018-05-22

    We describe a case of suicidal asphyxiation using a plastic bag combined with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas. A 20-year-old male, whose head was covered with a plastic bag, was found dead in his room. In the plastic bag, there were two glass-made cups containing liquid-like substance. Through crime scene investigation by police staffs, a bottle of citric acid and a box of baking soda were also discovered in his room. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither lesions nor injuries in all of the organs. Moreover, any drugs and poisons could not be detected in blood samples. Based on autopsy findings and crime scene investigation, the cause of death was diagnosed as acute asphyxia due to CO 2 intoxication by the mixture of citric acid with baking soda in the plastic bag. To the best of our knowledge, there are no medical literatures describing plastic bag suffocation combined with CO 2 gas generated from citric acid and baking soda, which has been widely distributed as suicidal means through websites. This case report promotes forensic pathologists and medical coroners to emphasize that the Internet has a crucial role on a source of suicidal information or a promoter of suicide all over the world.

  17. Long-term fuel retention and release in JET ITER-Like Wall at ITER-relevant baking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinola, K.; Likonen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Brezinsek, S.; De Temmerman, G.; Jepu, I.; Matthews, G. F.; Pitts, R. A.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    The fuel outgassing efficiency from plasma-facing components exposed in JET-ILW has been studied at ITER-relevant baking temperatures. Samples retrieved from the W divertor and Be main chamber were annealed at 350 and 240 °C, respectively. Annealing was performed with thermal desoprtion spectrometry (TDS) for 0, 5 and 15 h to study the deuterium removal effectiveness at the nominal baking temperatures. The remained fraction was determined by emptying the samples fully of deuterium by heating W and Be samples up to 1000 and 775 °C,respectively. Results showed the deposits in the divertor having an increasing effect to the remaining retention at temperatures above baking. Highest remaining fractions 54 and 87 % were observed with deposit thicknesses of 10 and 40 μm, respectively. Substantially high fractions were obtained in the main chamber samples from the deposit-free erosion zone of the limiter midplane, in which the dominant fuel retention mechanism is via implantation: 15 h annealing resulted in retained deuterium higher than 90 % . TDS results from the divertor were simulated with TMAP7 calculations. The spectra were modelled with three deuterium activation energies resulting in good agreement with the experiments.

  18. Study of Low Temperature Baking Effect on Field Emission on Nb Samples Treated by BEP, EP, and BCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy; Jin, Song; Rimmer, Robert; Lu, Xiang Yang; Zhao, K.; MacIntyre, Laura; Ike, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Field emission is still one of the major obstacles facing Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community for allowing Nb SRF cavities to reach routinely accelerating gradient of 35 MV/m that is required for the international linear collider. Nowadays, the well know low temperature baking at 120 C for 48 hours is a common procedure used in the SRF community to improve the high field Q slope. However, some cavity production data have showed that the low temperature baking may induce field emission for cavities treated by EP. On the other hand, an earlier study of field emission on Nb flat samples treated by BCP showed an opposite conclusion. In this presentation, the preliminary measurements of Nb flat samples treated by BEP, EP, and BCP via our unique home-made scanning field emission microscope before and after the low temperature baking are reported. Some correlations between surface smoothness and the number of the observed field emitters were found. The observed experimental results can be understood, at least partially, by a simple model that involves the change of the thickness of the pent-oxide layer on Nb surfaces.

  19. TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanchou; Zhang Jingzhao; Xie Jun

    1988-01-01

    Six ceramics and two baked soil samples collected from the famous Xian Terracotta Army Site have been dated by using fine grain (2-8 μ) thermoluminescence (TL) technique. Five samples of pottery sherds exhibited peak TL at about 275 0 C and 395 0 C gave the TL age ranges from 2.13 ± 0.14 ka to 2.25 ± 0.14 ka and a mean TL age of 2.20 ± 0.15 ka, with a good plateau in the range of 290-400 0 C. Another sample, however, showed a larger peak at 365 0 C and could not be dated because of serious fading. TL ages of 1.93 ± 0.13 ka and 2.20 ± 0.19 ka have been also obtained from the baked soil samples with a plateau between 300 and 350 0 C. The TL dates of the ceramics and baked soil are consistent with C-14 dates on charcoal samples taken from the same layer in Xian Terracotta Army Site. It is consistent with other evidence that the Terracotta Army figures were made about 2200 yr ago and that the site burned down soon afterwards. (author)

  20. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  1. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  2. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  3. Development of an in situ bake-out method of outgassing reduction of kicker ferrite cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Junichiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Hikichi, Yusuke; Yanagibashi, Toru; Suganuma, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    The usual way for reduce outgassing of a large structure in vacuum is to bake the whole vacuum chamber containing the structure. However, this method needs a huge heater capacity and there are limits caused by the heat expansion of the chamber. The solution is to raise the temperature of the structure inside without heating the vacuum chamber. This is achieved by installing a heat source inside the chamber and by inserting the heat shield between the structure and the chamber walls to direct the heat to the structure. In the particle accelerator field, it is often required to reduce outgassing of structures inside vacuum chambers. One example is a kicker magnet, which is installed in a vacuum chamber and consists mainly of ferrite and aluminum alloy. As known from former experience the main outgassing component from ferrite is water. We applied the above mentioned method to the outgassing reduction of such a kicker. We are able to direct most of the heat flow toward the kicker magnet by inserting the heat shielding plates and thus outgassing was successfully reduced. (author)

  4. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. An intense lithium ion beam source using vacuum baking and discharge cleaning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschella, J.J.; Kusse, B.R.; Longfellow, J.P.; Olson, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a high-purity, intense, lithium ion beam source which operates at 500 kV and 120 A/cm 2 with pulse widths of 125 ns full width half maximum. The beams were generated using a lithium chloride anode in planar magnetically insulated geometry. We have found that the combination of vacuum baking of the anode at 250 degree C followed by the application of 100 W of pure argon, steady-state, glow discharge cleaning reduced the impurity concentration in the beam to approximately 10% (components other than chlorine or lithium were considered impurities). Although the impurities were low, the concentration of chlorine in the 1+ and 2+ charge states was significant (∼25%). The remaining 65% of the beam consisted of Li + ions. Without the special cleaning process, over half the beam particles were impurities. It was determined that these impurities entered the beam at the anode surface but came originally from material in the vacuum chamber. After the cleaning process, recontamination was observed to occur in approximately 6 min. This long recontamination time, which was much greater than the expected monolayer formation time, was attributed to the elevated temperature of the anode. We also compared the electrical characteristics of the beams produced by LiCl anodes to those generated by a standard polyethylene proton source. In contrast to the polyethylene anode, the LiCl source exhibited a higher impedance, produced beams of lower ion current efficiency and had longer turn on times

  6. Study of radiation heat transfer between PFC and vacuum vessel during SST-1 baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Chenna Reddy, D.; Santra, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Ravi Pragash, N.; Saxena, Y.C

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of SST-1 are placed inside the vacuum vessel (VV) of the tokamak and are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at high temperature. Since it is difficult to calculate the radiation heat loads between PFC and VV in a 3-D irregular geometry, a simplified model of concentric cylinders has been chosen for the purpose of estimation of the power requirements and the thermal responses of PFC and VV during their bakeout phases. Thermal responses of the PFC and VV have been analysed and the analytical results have been compared with 2-D finite element analysis using ANSYS. The radiation losses between PFC and VV also have been evaluated on the actual model containing all PFC inside the VV.

  7. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Baking Powder Actuated Centrifugo-Pneumatic Valving for Automation of Multi-Step Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kinahan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a new flow control method for centrifugal microfluidic systems; CO2 is released from on-board stored baking powder upon contact with an ancillary liquid. The elevated pressure generated drives the sample into a dead-end pneumatic chamber sealed by a dissolvable film (DF. This liquid incursion wets and dissolves the DF, thus opening the valve. The activation pressure of the DF valve can be tuned by the geometry of the channel upstream of the DF membrane. Through pneumatic coupling with properly dimensioned disc architecture, we established serial cascading of valves, even at a constant spin rate. Similarly, we demonstrate sequential actuation of valves by dividing the disc into a number of distinct pneumatic chambers (separated by DF membranes. Opening these DFs, typically through arrival of a liquid to that location on a disc, permits pressurization of these chambers. This barrier-based scheme provides robust and strictly ordered valve actuation, which is demonstrated by the automation of a multi-step/multi-reagent DNA-based hybridization assay.

  9. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN MAGNESIUM STEARAT DAN JENIS PROTEIN PADA PEMBUATAN BIODEGRADABLE FOAM DENGAN METODE BAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik hendrawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foam with cassava starch, protein and chitosan as the basic ingredients can be produced by using baking process method. Variation on magnesium stearate amount and protein types gave different effect on the biodegradable foam quality. The amount of magnesium stearate was varied as 1; 1.6; 2.2; 2.8; 3.4 and 4 % w/w and the sources of protein used in this research were taken from soy bean, peanut and egg white. The foam produced in this research was then tested for its mechanical properties, water resistance and biodegradability. It was found that addition of magnesium stearate as much as 4% w/w reduced water adsorption and biodegradability of foam. Magnesium stearate affected the ability of absorption of water and foam degradation, but did not influence on tensile strength. Different types of protein also gave influence on water absorption, biodegradability and tensile strength. The best improvement of tensile strenght among the compounds tested was shown by soy bean based foam.

  10. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Raineri, Andrea; Fongaro, Lorenzo; Foschino, Roberto; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-10-23

    The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  11. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  12. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

    2015-01-01

    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Baking quality parameters of wheat in relation to endosperm storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat storage proteins of twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2009 were studied for their contribution to the baking quality. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS was analyzed by SDS-PAGE method, while the proportions of endosperm storage proteins were determined by RP-HPLC method. Regarding the proportion of storage proteins, results of the linear correlation (p<0.05 showed that protein (P and wet gluten (WG content were highly negatively correlated with albumins and globulins (AG and positively with α- gliadins (GLI. A strong negative correlation between AG and water absorption (WA capacity of flour was found, while α- GLI had positive influence on this property. Dough development time (DDT was positively significantly correlated with HMW-GS and negatively with AG. Degree of dough softening (DS was strongly positively affected by γ- GLI and gliadins to glutenins ratio (GLI/GLU and negatively by total GLU and HMW-GS. Dough energy (E and maximum resistance (RMAX were significantly positively affected by Glu-1 score and negatively by GLI/GLU ratio. Resistance to extensibility ratio (R/EXT was significantly negatively correlated with total GLI. Bread volume was significantly negatively influenced by AG.

  14. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  15. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  16. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pfats/oils, with coconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response.

  17. BakeCMS satura vadības sistēma

    OpenAIRE

    Znotiņš, Artūrs

    2012-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs apraksta izstrādātu BakeCMS satura vadības sistēmu, kas piedāvā ērti pielāgojamu tīmekļa vietņu administrēšanas paneli. Sistēma tīmekļa vietnes administratoram nodrošina ērtu veidu, kā rediģēt vietnes tekstuālo un vizuālo informāciju. BeakeCMS sevī ietver jau gatavus biežāk nepieciešamos lapas satura vadības moduļus un piedāvā programmatūras saskarni (API), kas atvieglo jaunu moduļu izstrādi un esošo pielāgošanu konkrētās vietnes vajadzībām. Izstrāde ir pilnībā dokumentēt...

  18. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  19. Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils on mold growth on baked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jian; Xu, Xiaomiao; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of cinnamon and clove essential oils against mold growth on green bean cake and finger citron crisp cake, and also examined the effects of these two essential oils and their application methods on the shelf life of the baked products in normal and vacuum packages by accelerated storage test. The results showed that the MIC of cinnamon and clove essential oils against molds were 0.21-0.83 and 0.21-1.67μL/mL, respectively and the MLC were 0.42-0.83 and 0.83-1.67μL/mL, respectively. In normal package cinnamon and clove essential oils could prolong the shelf life of green bean cake 9-10 and 3-4days, respectively and could prolong the shelf life of finger citron crisp cake 5-6 and 2-3days, respectively. And in vacuum package they were 15-16, 8-9, 10-12 and 7-9days, respectively in turn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Tailoring rice flour structure by rubbery milling for improved gluten-free baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütsch, Linda; Tribolet, Liliane; Isabettini, Stéphane; Soltermann, Patrick; Baumann, Andreas; Windhab, Erich J

    2018-05-10

    Ever-growing demand for gluten-free products calls for the development of novel food processing techniques to widen the range of existing baked goods. Extensive research has been targeted towards recipe optimization, widely neglecting the tailoring potential of process-induced structuring of gluten-free raw materials. Herein, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating the potential of rubbery milling for the generation of structure and techno-functionality in breads obtained from a variety of rice flour types. Moisture and temperature induced state transitions during milling were exploited to tailor the physicochemical properties of the flour. Moisture addition during conditioning of the different rice varieties and milling in the rubbery state considerably decreased starch damage due to more gentle disintegration. The degree of starch damage dictated the water absorption capacity of the rice flour types. Flour types with reduced starch damage upon milling offered lower dough densities, yielding bread loafs with a higher volume and better appearance. The choice of rice variety enables fine-tuning of the final product quality by influencing the dough viscoelasticity, which defines the final loaf volume. Whole grain rice flour dramatically increased the loaf volume, whilst simultaneously offering nutritional benefits. Combining the proposed functionalised flour types with current and future advances in product recipes paves the way towards optimised gluten-free goods.

  1. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  2. [GC-MS combined with AMDIS and Kováts retention index to investigate dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ping; Pan, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Mei-Jun; Luo, Guan-Hua; Liu, You-Ping

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees (from slight stir-baking, stir-baking to yellow, stir-baking to brown, to stir-baking to scorch). In the present experiment, the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples with different stir-baking degrees were collected at different processing time points. The contents of volatile oil in various samples were determined by steam distillation method, and the volatile compounds were extracted by using static headspace sampling method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS) and automated mass spectral deconrolution and identification system (AMDIS) were combined with Kováts retention index to analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile compounds. The results showed that with the deepening of the stir-baking degree, the content of volatile oil was decreased step by step in 4 phases, and both the compositions and contents of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma showed significant changes. The results showed that the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in the process of stir-baking were closely related to the processing degree; in addition, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and honey bran had adsorption on each other. These results can provide a scientific basis for elucidating the stir-baking (with bran) mechanism of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Thermal release of D{sub 2} from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.J., E-mail: m1baldwin@ucsd.edu; Doerner, R.P.

    2015-12-15

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  4. Genetic diversity of bread wheat genotypes in Iran for some nutritional value and baking quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Reza; Sasani, Shahryar; Jalali-Honarmand, Saeid; Rasaei, Ali; Seifolahpour, Behnaz; Bahraminejad, Sohbat

    2018-02-01

    Genetic variation among 78 irrigated bread wheat genotypes was studied for their nutritional value and baking quality traits as well as some agronomic traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates under normal and terminal drought stress conditions in Kermanshah, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. The results of combined ANOVA indicated highly significant genotypic differences for all traits. All studied traits except grain yield, hectoliter weight and grain fiber content were significantly affected by genotype × environment interaction. Drought stress reduced grain yield, thousand kernel weight, gluten index, grain starch content and hectoliter weight and slightly promoted grain protein and fiber contents, falling number, total gluten and ratio of wet gluten to grain protein content. Grain yield by 31.66% and falling number by 9.20% attained the highest decrease and increase due to drought stress. There were negative and significant correlations among grain yield with grain protein and fiber contents under both conditions. Results of cluster analysis showed that newer genotypes had more grain yield and gluten index than older ones, but instead, they had the lower grain protein and fiber contents. It is thought that wheat breeders have bred cultivars with high grain yield, low protein content, and improved bread-making attributes during last seven decades. While older genotypes indicated significantly higher protein contents, and some of them had higher gluten index. We concluded from this study that it is imperative for breeders to pay more attention to improve qualitative traits coordinated to grain yield.

  5. Baking Gender Into Social Media Design: How Platforms Shape Categories for Users and Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Bivens

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several popular social media platforms have launched freeform custom gender fields. This decision reconstitutes gender categories beyond an oppressive binary only permitting “males” and “females.” In this work, we uncover many different user-facing gender category design strategies within the social media ecosystem, ranging from custom gender options (on Facebook, Google+, and Pinterest to the absence of gender fields entirely (on Twitter and LinkedIn. To explore how gender is baked into platform design, this article investigates the 10 most popular English-speaking social media platforms by performing recorded walkthroughs from two different subject positions: (1 a new user registering an account, and (2 a new advertiser creating an ad. We explore several different spaces in social media software where designers commonly program gender—sign-up pages, profile pages, and advertising portals—to consider (1 how gender is made durable through social media design, and (2 the shifting composition of the category of gender within the social media ecosystem more broadly. Through this investigation, we question how these categorizations attribute meaning to gender as they materialize in different software spaces, along with the recursive implications for society. Ultimately, our analysis reveals how social media platforms act as intermediaries within the larger ecosystem of advertising and web analytics companies. We argue that this intermediary role entrusts social media platforms with a considerable degree of control over the generation of broader categorization systems, which can be wielded to shape the perceived needs and desires of both users and advertising clients.

  6. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments.

  7. Characterization and bake stability of dry fruit fillings in dehydrated chiku (Manilkara zapota L. P. Royen) incorporated biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditi, Mahapatra; Shashirekha, M N; Sudha, M L

    2017-06-01

    Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Value added products, especially products rich in fiber and phytochemicals are getting popular. Among the dry fruits used for filling, Figs were rich in ash and protein and Dates were rich in dietary fiber. Gallic acid was the dominant free phenolic acid in Fig whereas chlorogenic acid and procatechuic acid were dominant in Dates in the bound form. Farinograph water absorption, dough development time, maximum pressure (P), and extensibility (L) decreased on increase in the replacement of wheat flour with chiku powder from 0 to 30%. The dry fruit fillings in the pH range of 3.3-3.5 with 75-80°Bx showed better bake stability with respect to spreadability and breaking strength. Biscuits topped with higher °Bx fillings had higher breaking strength values even during storage. Among the gelling agents used, addition of sodium alginate stabilized and further improved the bake stability of the fillings. The chiku incorporated biscuits sandwiched with fruit filling were rich in dietary fiber. Also significant amounts of gallic acid and chlorogenic acid in free and bound form were present in the biscuit. Bakery products can act as a vehicle for supplementation of vitamins, minerals, protein, dietary fiber, and so on, to prevent nutritive deficiencies. Among the bakery products, biscuits are shelf stable and have better consumer acceptability by all age groups. To incorporate fruits which are rich in many bioactive principles, and to add on to variety, fruit sandwiched biscuits with fruit powder in the casing too. Fillings mainly from dry fruits were prepared at varying degree brix and with different gelling agents. Biscuit sheets containing chiku powder in the formulation was topped with the fillings and looked for the bake stability with respect to texture and spreadability. Addition of fruit powder in the shells

  8. Effect of low-temperature baking on the radio-frequency properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some 'anomalous' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low-temperature (100-150 deg. C) 'in situ' bake under ultrahigh vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from 'anomalous' losses (so-called 'Q drop') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth, and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with nuclear reaction analysis. The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper

  9. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  10. Cooking and baking with the sun. Development potential of solar stoves. Kochen und Backen mit Sonne. Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten von Solaroefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelle, E.; Kienzle, P.; Oehler, U.

    1991-04-01

    Throughout the last years efforts were made to use solar energy for cooking and baking. Especially in the sunblessed development countries this could contribute to saving fossile energies and ressources. U. Oehler is one of those who developed solar stoves which have proved to work well both in our climate and in tropical areas. A simple theoretic model tires to describe the temperature behaviour of such a stove. By way of comparison the stove was also subjected to experiments. The potential of development and practical application is described. (orig.).

  11. Effect of low-temperature baking on the radio-frequency properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2004-08-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low-temperature (100-150°C) "in situ" bake under ultrahigh vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q drop") without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth, and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with nuclear reaction analysis. The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes

  12. Effect of low temperature baking in nitrogen on the performance of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Pashupati Dhakal; Santosh Chetri; Shreyas Balachandran; Peter J. Lee; Gianluigi Ciovati

    2018-01-01

    We report the rf performance of a single cell superconducting radiofrequency cavity after low temperature baking in a nitrogen environment. A significant increase in quality factor has been observed when the cavity was heat treated in the temperature range of 120–160 °C with a nitrogen partial pressure of ∼25  m Torr. This increase in quality factor as well as the Q-rise phenomenon (anti-Q-slope) is similar to those previously obtained with high temperature nitrogen doping as well as titanium...

  13. Effect of Low Temperature Baking in Nitrogen on the Performance of a Niobium Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Chetri, Santosh; Balachandran, Shreyas; Lee, Peter J.; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    We report the rf performance of a single-cell superconducting radiofrequency cavity after low temperature baking in a nitrogen environment. A significant increase in quality factor has been observed when the cavity was heat treated in the temperature range of 120-160 {\\deg}C with a nitrogen partial pressure of ~25 mTorr. This increase in quality factor as well as the Q-rise phenomenon (anti-Q-slope) is similar to those previously obtained with high temperature nitrogen doping as well as titan...

  14. Opportunities in Tajikistan to breed wheat varieties resistant to seed-borne diseases and improved baking quality

    OpenAIRE

    Husenov, Bahromiddin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat seed-borne diseases and options for improving baking quality of wheat, as well as the role of genotypes for breeding to achieve high yield and quality are the key issues discussed in this introductory paper. The importance of wheat for Tajikistan and how to achieve food security goals in the country is also elucidated. Wheat seed-borne diseases are caused mostly by fungi. Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici), Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T.caries), Karnal Bunt (T.indica), Dwarf Bunt (T....

  15. Influence of baking enzymes on antimicrobial activity of five bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutaite, V; Fernandez, A; Horn, N; Juodeikiene, G; Narbad, A

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of four different baking enzymes on the inhibitory activity of five bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs. The overlay assay and the Bioscreen methods revealed that the five BLIS exhibited an inhibitory effect against spore germination and vegetative outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis, the predominant species causing ropiness in bread. The possibility that the observed antibacterial activity of BLIS might be lost after treatment with enzymes used for baking purposes was also examined. The enzymes tested; hemicellulase, lipase, amyloglucosidase and amylase had little or no effect on the majority of the antimicrobial activities associated with the five BLIS studied. This study suggests a potential application in the sourdough baking industry for these antimicrobial producing LAB strains in the control of B. subtilis spore germination and vegetative outgrowth.

  16. Baking soda and salt in bakeries of Mehrdasht (Najafabad), Isfahan, Iran: a survey on a typical rural population in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaiimofrad, M; Rangraz Jeddi, F; Azarbad, Z

    2013-03-01

    Bread is a valuable source of proteins, minerals and calories. Baking soda prevents the absorption and digestion of bread and more salt used in production of bread also causes different diseases. This study was conducted to determine the amount of soda and salt in bakeries. Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 50 bakeries district during 2009. 400 samples were collected in four steps randomly. The standard PH baking soda in bread and salt less than 2 g/100 g was considered as the reference. The PH less than 6.2 was seen in 91.5% of samples and analyzed by random effect analysis. In 64.5% of samples, the amount of salt was more than the standard. The amount of baking soda used in the bakeries was not high; bakers either had no enough knowledge about the amount of salt or had more other reasons. Drastic measures are recommended.

  17. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  18. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of waffles at baking plates-Part II: effect of fat, leavening agent, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are continuously baked in tunnel baking ovens in industrial scale. Waffles that partly or fully stick to the baking plates cause significant product loss and increased costs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of different recipe ingredients on the sticking behavior of waffles. In this second part, ingredients investigated were different leavening agents (sodium acid pyrophosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide carbonate, or monocalcium phosphate), different fat sources (rapeseed oil, cocos fat, butter, or margarine), and different water sources (tap water 12°dH and distilled water). Within the different types of fats, solid fats with high amount of short-chain fatty acids (cocos fat or butter) decreased the number of sticking waffles compared to liquid oils (rapeseed oil). Regarding leavening agents, magnesium hydroxide carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate were superior to sodium acid pyrophosphate or monocalcium phosphate. Between the two water sources, effects were small.

  19. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of fresh egg waffles at baking plates-Part I: effect of starch and sugar components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are a sweet convenience product typically baked from eggs, water, sugar, flour, fat, leavening agents, emulsifiers, preservatives, and flavors. In industrial production, waffles are baked continuously in high amounts of up to 200 kg raw material per hour. Therefore, it is important that the waffles do not stick onto the baking plates, which can cause significant product loss and increased costs due to interruption of the baking process, required cleaning procedures, and restarting of the energy-consuming start-up phase. Sticking of waffles is greatly influenced not only by baking plate material, release agent, baking temperature, and time, but also by the batter ingredients. In this study, effects of different starches and sugar components were investigated. Within the selected starches, potato starch demonstrated the highest effects on increasing waffle stability and releasing properties compared to wheat and lupine flour (less than 7% sticking waffles). Rice flour performed worst, with almost 50% of sticking waffles. Most of these waffles were broken during take-off, due to their crumbly texture. Within the sugar components, glycerine was better suitable than sorbitol and crystal sugar was superior compared to powdered sugar. They required less take-off force. It could be demonstrated that waffles with increased stability and texture were those that showed the least number of sticking waffles, thus the main aim of batter ingredients was to improve waffle quality. Waffle quality was influenced by batter parameters, significant correlations could be found, for example, a positive correlation between pH- and L-value, negative correlations between pH- and a-value, or density and aw-value. This resulted in significant correlations with take-off-force, which was correlated with L*- and b*-value (negative) and positive to a*-value. Sticking behavior was strongly associated with b*-value (positive) and to a*-value (negative).

  20. Effects of baked and raw salmon fillet on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues in Zucker fa/fa rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vikøren, Linn Anja Slåke; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Bergseth, Marthe Tønder; Mjøs, Svein Are; Mola, Nazanin; Leh, Sabine Maria; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the health impact of consuming heat-treated versus raw fish fillet is limited. To investigate effects of baked or raw salmon fillet intake on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues, obese Zucker fa/fa rats were fed diets containing 25% of protein from baked or raw salmon fillet and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for four weeks. Salmon diets had similar composition of amino and fatty acids. Growth and energy intake were...