WorldWideScience

Sample records for baking

  1. Pastry Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on pastry baking is designed to provide a source of study materials on the preparation of pastry items within central pastry shops throughout the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific…

  2. Baking stability of acesulfame K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, C; von Rymon Lipinski, G W; Böttger, D

    1992-05-01

    The stability of acesulfame K during baking was investigated at different baking temperatures and baking times. The contents of acesulfame K in baked and unbaked doughs were determined by HPLC. The recovery rate of acesulfame K was independent of the baking conditions chosen and correlated with the recovery rate of acesulfame K in the unbaked doughs. As the stability of acesulfame K cannot only be affected by baking temperature and baking time but also by pH value and moisture content of the baked goods, additional stability investigations were performed with acidic fillings and apple pie. Even under these extreme baking conditions no decomposition of acesulfame K could be detected. PMID:1621451

  3. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  4. Selected Baking Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  5. Baking in the Backwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Baking in the woods can be a lot of fun and can help to make a good trip an amazing one. It does take some time, planning, and preparation, and chosen recipes should be tested in the oven at home before trying them out with friends on a 10-day trip. Outdoor baking requires a different set of rules and equipment than those one uses at home and a…

  6. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  7. Bread Baking Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  8. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  9. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy from Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha Emily Cutler; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities.  We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion.  Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  10. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  11. Collection Development: Hitting the Sweet Spot (Baking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    Baking can be intimidating. Just ask all those contestants on "Top Chef" who would rather prepare Beef Wellington than bake a cake. But libraries can take the fear factor out of baking by putting together a solid collection of cookbooks that can help anyone master the sweeter side of the culinary arts or even serve as delicious armchair reading…

  12. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  13. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  14. Vacuum Baking To Remove Volatile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Outgassing reduced in some but not all nonmetallic materials. Eleven polymeric materials tested by determining outgassing species as temperature of conditioned and unconditioned materials raised to 300 degrees C. Conditioning process consisted of vacuum bake for 24 hours at 80 degrees C in addition to usual cure. Baking did not change residual gas percentage of water molecules.

  15. Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, T.

    2014-01-01

    / Le chapitre présente les principaux mécanismes régissant la cuisson de produits céréaliers, incluant le transport d’énergie, le transport d’eau, la gélatinisation de l’amidon et la coagulation des protéines, l’évolution de la porosité gazeuse, la formation de la croute.

  16. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin. PMID:1924185

  17. Natural gas profile: the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on the number of establishments and employment in each segment, natural gas consumption for each segment in each U.S. state, natural gas prices in various U.S. regions, fuel conservation possibilities in the baking industry, FEA policy on curtailment of gas supplies, and the economic impact of such possible curtailments. (LCL)

  18. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  19. The secret to baking a good loaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Martin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread has been produced and consumed for many thousands of years – long before science existed. A new book provides a comprehensive review of the latest scientific developments in baking.

  20. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS BAKING INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr S. Balan; Zoya A. Stepanjuk; Julia O. Dubenchuk

    2015-01-01

    The investment attractiveness of the baking industry in Ukraine is considered in the article. The factors that affect the investment attractiveness of the industry are considered. Dedicated key issues bakery products.

  1. Crust formation and its role during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Vanin, F.; Lucas, T.; Trystram, G.

    2009-01-01

    The final properties of the crumb and crust differ according to their heat-moisture dynamics. Compilations of heating and drying rates reported in the literature are discussed and will serve to validate future models of baking. Their impact on the structural elements in dough films and the porous network are discussed, highlighting the lack of data and the need to reproduce these dynamics inside the instrument of analysis. Some roles of the crust setting during the whole baking process are al...

  2. Pilote oven instrumentation for sponge cake baking

    OpenAIRE

    Douiri, Imen

    2007-01-01

    Baking of cereal products create physicochemical reactions in the dough creating the structure, the texture, the shape, the coulour and taste of the final product. An air convective electrical pilot oven was instrumented to control on-line the baking of a sponge cake product (700g) in a special mould: weight loss, internal temperature profile and surface temperature, internal pressure; Through a glass window in the isolated lateral side of the mould, images were taken to follow the product he...

  3. IBL Thermal Mockup Bake-Out Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiry, FX

    2014-01-01

    This note summarizes different bake-out tests that have been performed with the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) mockup. Two beam pipe configurations have been tested: one with the aerogel insulation layer all along the pipe and one without insulation over 622 mm around Z0. These tests have been crucial for decisions about aerogel removal, choice of heaters for the LHC beam pipe bake-out, and choice of temperature setpoints for the cooling system during nominal IBL operation. They also revealed very useful information on integration issues and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the IBL detector.

  4. Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injera Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 °C to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for househol...

  5. Energy cost reduction in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand for lighting, cooling, and heating bakeries. (LCL)

  6. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong [Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  7. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  8. Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels%Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; SHI Wen; HE Yan-lin; LU Xiao-gang; LI Lin

    2012-01-01

    Specimens of two different kinds of bake hardening steels (BH-Mn and BH-P) were prepared and treated with different annealing processes (water quenching and overaging). A novel technique of three dimensional atom probe was used to investigate solute distributions in these steels. The results indicate that C concentration decreases, whereas V increases during overaging in both bake hardening steels. The conclusion that no vanadium carbides pre- cipitate during the overaging is therefore originally obtained by microanalysis in bake hardening steels. Moreover, bake hardening values of all the specimens were tested by tensile experiments with 2 0/~ pre-deformation. However, those of overaged specimens were further measured with higher levels of pre-deformation because no bake hardening phenomenon was present at 2% pre-deformation. As the pre-deformation increases from 2% to 6% and 8%, both overaged steels show bake hardening values, and the value data are almost the same.

  9. Design and Development of Solar Thermal Injera Baking: Steam Based Direct Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia, the second most populated country in Africa, meets 96% of its energy need from bio-mass and majority of this energy goes entirely to Injera baking. Injera, a pan-cake like bread that is consumed by most of the population, demands a temperature of 180-220 oC to be well baked. Both traditional and newly developed biomass Injera stoves are energy inefficient; besides the kitchen environment is highly polluted with soot and smoke that affect the health of household inhabitants. This art...

  10. SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE BAKING INDUSTRY IN KEMEROVO OBLAST

    OpenAIRE

    Kiryukhina, A.; Guk, N.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows the dynamics of the output of baked goods over the past five years in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District. The main trends in the development of the baking branch of the food industry of Kemerovo oblast are specified. Factors that determine the dynamics of baked goods production in the Kuznetsk Basin are considered. Practices of transfer from administrative bread price regulation to targeted subsidies for the least protected strata are shown. Analytical results of th...

  11. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  12. Baking the first bread in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  13. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    objective is to develop barley varieties with good baking properties. The poor leavening properties of barley can be attributed, at least partially, to the physical properties of the storage proteins. Studies based on small scaled baking trials and protein pattern analysed by SDS-PAGE on a large number of...... high protein barley cultivars suggested differences in baking quality and correlation between baking quality and D-hordeins. The amino acid composition was measures using the newly developed AccQ Tag Ultra Amino acid (AA) derivatisation system designed for the Acquity UPLC. Obtained results from the...... opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  14. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  15. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing...... the heat and mass transfer in butter cookies during baking was formulated. The model was solved numerically by the use of a finite element method. Model optimization and validation was successfully carried out against experimental data obtained in the new pilot plant oven. The effect of the baking tray...

  16. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  17. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  18. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M

    2015-01-01

    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  19. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  20. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Bowra, Steve

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  1. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  2. Temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qing; Shao Jia-Cun; Zhao Hang; Zhang Kai; Su Zhong-Di

    2015-01-01

    Baking treatment is one of the most important processes of cigarette production, which can significantly enhance quality of tobacco. Theoretical and numerical investigation on temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking was carried out. The finite volume method was used to simulate the flow field. The relationship between the uniformity of temperature field and impeller’s speed was given finally, which is helpful to optimize cigarette oven wi...

  3. Graphitizing Process of the Self—Baking Carbon Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXiaojun; XUEXiangxin; 等

    1998-01-01

    The different specimens of the Self-Baking Carbon Block are obtained by charging the baking temperature and time.The graphitizing degree G of the specimen is determined by the quantitiative X-ray diffraction.The relationships between G and temperature are expressed.The results show that the graphitizing process from amorphous carbon to graphite is apparent quasi-one-order and should be conducted above a critical temperature.1200K The transition rate increases with tenperature.

  4. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, Sh.

    2012-01-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L*) and total color change (E*) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathemat...

  5. KADA KUHAJU BAKE... TRADICIJA I POVIJEST U DVJEMA BAKINIM KUHARICAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Normiranje i kanoniziranje tradicionalne hrvatske kuhinje, odnosno stvaranje prepoznatljiva brenda, jedan je od svojih izraza pronašlo u sintagmi bakina kuhinja. Funkcija bake u prenošenju tradicije, u najširem smislu, već je istaknuta u mnogim radovima, a recepcija bake kao najvećeg autoriteta privatnog kuhanja, legitimira njezinu kuhinju kao zdravu, ukusnu i prije svega tradicionalnu. Brojne kuharice i proizvodi koji nose pridjev bakin govore u prilog toj tezi. U posljednjih nekoli...

  6. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  7. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, E A

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we hav...

  8. USE OF CRIOPROTECTORS IN THE BAKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keniyz N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main component of food pyramid is bakery products. Consumers of bakery products offer fresh bakery in any time of day, in wide assortment, produced by traditional way and possessing the beneficial properties, hypoallergenic and mainly tasty. In Russia, there is an intensive development of the new technologies, which are based on the freezing of semi-finished bakery. There was considered a possibility of pectin use with a new purpose as a crioprotector in the article. On the first stage of the researches there was a work on study of the influence of different crioprotectors on rheology of dough, dough water-absorbing ability, change of formation time and dough stability at addition of crioprotectors, change of valometric assessment of dough at addition of crioprotectors. There was an analysis of the index of “flour power”. On the results of the research, there was calculated the optimal dose of pectin introduction. There was studied the influence of different crioprotectors on structure of frozen by-products. There were cited the microphotos of frozen yeast dough. There was revealed that the best indexes of a quality of ready bread was reached at use of EMP microwave frequency of defrosting dough by-products taking into account energy expenses there was chosen the rational way of baking. There was worked out the technological scheme of bread production from frozen by-products with pectin as a crioprotector

  9. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  10. Baking Arithmetic and Error Analyses for PEFP Fundamental Power Couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is considering developing and using SRF technology to accelerate a proton beam at 700 MHz in its present project and its extended project (PEP). The first section of the PEFP SRF linac (SCL) is composed of low-beta cryomodules. Each cryomodule has three 5-cell cavities and each cavity has one fundamental power coupler (FPC). Before the high power RF processing, each FPC needs to be baked out for 24 hours at 200 degrees Celsius ( .deg. C). The whole control system is described in reference, in this system, the temperature in the baking-box need to be changed according to three straight lines with different slope. This paper described how we can make the temperature of the baking-box changed according to the required values

  11. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  12. Study of energy conservation potential in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    The U.S. baking industry consumes more than 82 trillion BTU/yr or 7% of the gross energy used by the U.S. food system. In order to establish energy saving possibilities in the baking industry, energy audits were performed for 5 bakery plants. These audits resulted in suggestions for formal programs for energy conservation and involve changes in operating procedures, equipment improvement, increased thermal insulation in buildings and equipment, recovery of waste heat, and the substitution of fossil fuel for higher cost electric power for heating. The economic advantages of such modifications are given. (LCL)

  13. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion e...

  14. Effects of pre-strain and baking parameters on the microstructure and bake-hardening behavior of dual-phase steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fu Kuang; Shen-gen Zhang; Jun Li; Jian Wang; Hua-fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    In a typical process, C-Mn steel was annealed at 800°C for 180 s, and then cooled rapidly to obtain the ferrite-martensite micro-structure. After pre-straining, the specimens were baked and the corresponding bake-hardening (BH) values were determined as a function of pre-strain, baking temperature, and baking time. The influences of pre-strain, baking temperature and baking time on the microstructure evo-lution and bake-hardening behavior of the dual-phase steel were investigated systematically. It was found that the BH value apparently in-creased with an increase in pre-strain in the range from 0 to 1%;however, increasing pre-strain from 1%to 8%led to a decrease in the BH value. Furthermore, an increase in baking temperature favored a gradual improvement in the BH value because of the formation of Cottrell atmosphere and the precipitation of carbides in both the ferrite and martensite phases. The BH value reached a maximum of 110 MPa at a baking temperature of 300°C. Moreover, the BH value enhanced significantly with increasing baking time from 10 to 100 min.

  15. Use of family 8 enzymes with xylanolytic activity in baking

    OpenAIRE

    Dutron, Agnes; Georis, Jacques; Genot, Bernard; Dauvrin, Thierry; Collins, Tony; Hoyoux, Anne; Feller, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The present invention describes a method to improve the properties of a dough and/or a baked product by adding a bread or dough-improving agent containing a enzyme with xylanolytic activity belonging to glycoside hydrolases family 8. Preferred enzymes are the psychrophilic xylanase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and the mesophilic xylanase Y from Bacillus halodurans C-125.

  16. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  17. Arabinoxylan content and characterisation throughout the bread-baking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced in a variety of ways by non-starch polysaccharides, especially arabinoxylans (AX). The assessment of AX content and structural properties is often performed on flour and extrapolated to predict the role that AX may play in baked products....

  18. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  19. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  20. Numerical and experimental characterization of a batch bread baking oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the thermal characterization of an electrical static oven used for bread baking. The heating is provided by natural convection, infrared radiation and conduction with a cement slab. The paper describes a methodology to apprehend the heat flux which is applied to the products during baking. The oven was experimentally investigated and a finite element numerical model is established. The monitoring of temperatures at various points in the installation and of electrical power is carried out. Then, to characterize thermal exchanges around the bread during curing, thermal responses of a cylindrical sample is also measured. The numerical model made it possible to calculate the heat flux exchanges with the product, while separating the contributions of convection and radiation. The comparison of simulated responses with experimental data shows the relevance of the model. - Highlights: ► This study concerns the thermal characterization of an electric static oven used for bread baking. ► An original, experimental and numerical approach of thermal problem is proposed. ► Contributions by radiation and convection are separated. ► The goal is to provide boundary conditions for numerical models of bread baking. ► Results are encouraging to optimize energy consumption in industrial oven.

  1. [Baking ingredients, especially alpha-amylase, as occupational inhalation allergens in the baking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Baur, X

    1990-03-31

    Baker's asthma is the most frequent occupational lung disease in Switzerland and West Germany. Cereal flours, and more rarely flour parasites, are implicated as the responsible allergens. Based on an observation of a case of baker's asthma due to monovalent sensitization to alpha-amylase used as additive to flour, 31 bakers with occupational asthma and/or rhinitis were routinely tested by skin tests and serological RAST examinations for allergic sensitivity to flour, alpha-amylase and other bakery additives. 17/31 subjects (55%) reacted positively in scratch tests to a commercial powdered alpha-amylase and 13/20 (65%) to a lecithin preparation. 23/31 (74%) and 19/31 (61%) were RAST positive to wheat and to rye flour respectively. 32% had RAST specific IgE to alpha-amylase (from Aspergillus oryzae), 19.3% to soya bean flour and 16% to malt. 7/12 and 5/12 respectively reacted to trypsin inhibitor and lipoxidase, the main allergens in soya bean. In two patients monosensitization to alpha-amylase was present. In accordance with other reports we recommend that baking additives, especially alpha-amylase, should be tested in allergological diagnosis of occupational diseases in flour processing workers. Full declaration of all additives used in the bakery industry is needed. PMID:2326614

  2. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  3. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian

    2013-01-01

    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  4. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  5. Modelling thermal degradation of zearalenone in maize bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoglu, E; Yener, S; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation of zearalenone (ZEA) was investigated using a crust-like model, representing maize bread, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. Model samples were heated under isothermal conditions at the temperature range of 100-250°C. No reduction was observed at 100°C. Thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated as 0.0017, 0.0143 and 0.0216 min(-1) for 150, 200 and 250°C, respectively. Maize bread baked at 250°C for 70 min was used to test the capability of model kinetic data for the prediction of ZEA reduction. The time-temperature history in the crust and crumb parts was recorded separately. Partial degradation of ZEA at each time interval was calculated by means of the corresponding k-values obtained by using the Arrhenius equation, and the total reduction occurring at the end of the entire baking process was predicted. The reduction in the crumb and crust of bread was also experimentally determined and found to be consistent with the predicted values. It was concluded that the kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model could be used to predict the ZEA reduction occurring during baking of maize bread. PMID:23256902

  6. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  7. Debates in allergy medicine: baked egg and milk do not accelerate tolerance to egg and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thanh D; Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that children with egg and cow's milk allergy who can tolerate these allergens cooked in baked goods are more likely to develop tolerance. As a result a hypothesis has arisen that exposure to egg and milk in baked goods may hasten tolerance development; however, it is unclear whether children who develop tolerance do so because they have ingested low levels of egg or milk in baked products. An alternative explanation for the improved prognosis in those who can tolerate food allergens in the baked form is that tolerance to egg and milk in baked goods is simply an indicator of a phenotype that is less likely to be persistent. We discuss the role that the baked egg or milk allergy phenotype plays on predicting tolerance development and suggest that it is the phenotype of the disease rather than exposure to altered allergens that is the strongest predictor of tolerance development. PMID:26839629

  8. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tank, A.; Chhanwal, N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2012-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C...

  10. Influence of cookies composition on temperature profiles and qualitative parameters during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Budžaki, Sandra; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Lukinac Čačić, Jasmina; Čačić, F.; Jukić, M.; Kožul, Ž.

    2014-01-01

    During baking of bakery products temperature of baking, temperature profiles, moisture content, volume and colour changes are strongly coupled. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of the cookies composition on temperature profiles and quality parameters (width and thickness, colour formation and textural properties: hardness, fracturability and work of breaking force) during baking process. Composition of cookies differs due to flour type and initial moisture content. Cooki...

  11. Food contact material for baking: a review on associated chemical risks and technological issues

    OpenAIRE

    LE-BAIL Alain; Veyrand, Bruno; Durand, Sophie; KADAR Hanane; PROST, Carole; GRUA Joelle; Simoneau, Catherine; Perronnet, Annick; ROELENS Guillaume; LE BIZEC Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview on product contact surfaces (PCS) used for baking supports, with a focus on associated neoformed and exogenous contaminants related to these PCSs in the case of baking. Exogenous contaminants are usually brought into the product from the surface contact material of the baking support, and in particular, from antistick coatings (ASC). Due to multiple thermal treatments, the performance of ASCs evolve during ageing, resulting in sticking problems. In additio...

  12. Acrylamide in relation to asparagine in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread.

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to the contents of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. The asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in a reduced acrylamide contents in the products. In wheat bread 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14g kg-1) was left after yeast fermentation and baking, while for rye bread 82% of the asparagine was left after sourdough fermentation and baking. The ...

  13. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  14. 大型预焙槽焦粒焙烧探讨%Coke Grain Baking of Large-scale Pre-baked Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彪

    2013-01-01

    目前,铝液焙烧及焦粒焙烧是国内比较常用的两种焙烧方法。焦粒焙烧法具有操作相对简便、技术可靠、焙烧时间短,一次可焙烧多处电解槽等优点,现已在大型预焙槽电解铝厂得到普遍应用。本文从理论及实践两方面对焦粒焙烧法进行解析及总结。%At present, the liquid aluminum baking and coke grain baking is domestic commonly used two methods of baking. Coke grain baking is relatively simple to operate, reliable technique, short roasting time, can baking more than one cell, and is now widely applied in the large pre-baked slot electrolysis plant. This paper, from two aspects of theory and practice, focuses grain baking method.

  15. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  16. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Gundersen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation.

  17. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  18. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Conlon

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  19. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Conlon

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  20. Kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite of Ak-Arkhar deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies of kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite of Ak-Arkhar deposit by means of first-order equation is given. It is defined that reaction passes in mixed area. The activation energy of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite is evaluated.

  1. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%. PMID:19121897

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reduction Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. LL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits...

  3. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process. PMID:17661177

  4. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  5. Baking of tandem accelerator tube by low voltage arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In designing the accelerating tube for a static tandem accelerator in Kyushu University, the basic policy was as described below: individual unit composing the accelerating tube should fully withstand the electric field of 2 MV/m, and electric discharge must not be propagated from one unit to the adjacent unit when these are assembled to the accelerating tube. The accelerating tube units are each 25 cm in length, and both high and low energy sides are composed of 20 units, respectively. Although about 10-9 Torr vacuum was obtained at the both ends of the accelerating tube by baking the tube at 300 to 350 deg C with electric heaters wound outside the tube in the conventional method, vast outgas was generated, which decreased vacuum by two or three figures if breakdown occurred through the intermediary of outgas. As a method of positively outgassing and cleaning the electrodes inside the accelerating tube, it was attempted to directly bake all the electrodes in the accelerating tube by causing strong arc discharge flowing H2 gas in the tube. As a result of considering the conditions for this method, the low voltage arc discharge was employed using oxide cathodes. Thus, after implementing 10A arc discharge for several hours, the voltage was able to be raised to 10 MV almost immediately after the vacuum recovery, and further, after another conditioning for several hours, it was successful to raise voltage up to 11 MV. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Microstructure and Properties of Ti and Ti+Nb Ultra-Low-Carbon Bake Hardened Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-ping; KANG Yong-lin; HAO Ying-min; LIU Guang-ming; XIONG Ai-ming

    2009-01-01

    Hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing processes of Ti bearing and Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels were experimentally studied. The microstrueture and texture evolution, as well as the morphology, size and distribution of second phase precipitates during hot roiling, cold rolling and continuous annea-ling were also analyzed. The results showed that the size of NbC precipitates in Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel was smaller than that of TiC precipitates in Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel, which made the average grain size of Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel finer than that of Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel; for the yield strength, the former was higher than the latter; but for the γ value which reflects the deep-drawing performance, the former was lower than the latter.

  7. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... oven, with a butter cookie as the test product. The investigated quality parameters for the butter cookies were mass loss and surface browning, where the uniformity of browning was evaluated subjectively against a scale of standards and objectively by L* value measurements. Good reproducibility...... of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection...

  8. Debates in allergy medicine: baked milk and egg ingestion accelerates resolution of milk and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Cow's milk and hen's egg are ubiquitous in diets around the world and can be important sources of protein in young children. Unfortunately, milk and egg allergies are also some of the most common food allergies in childhood. Less allergenic forms of milk and egg due to heating and interactions with a food matrix, as in baked goods, are tolerated by a majority of milk- and egg-allergic patients. Adding baked milk and egg into the diets of milk- and egg-allergic children can broaden diets, increase nutrition, and improve quality of life. Most important, regular ingestion of baked milk and egg can help children outgrow their allergies to milk and egg. This article will review our current understanding of baked milk and egg tolerance and outline how these baked forms accelerates tolerance to regular milk and egg. PMID:26839628

  9. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products. PMID:20687560

  10. 77 FR 67862 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Bake Memorial Airport (OCQ) Oconto, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of.... Douglas Bake Memorial Airport, Oconto, WI. Parcel No. 18 is located outside of the airport fence along the... be released at the J. Douglas Bake Memorial Airport in Oconto, Wisconsin: Part of Government Lot...

  11. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  12. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zamani; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Behnam Naserian Khiabani; Zahra Tahernezhad; Mohammad Taher Hallajian; Marzieh Varasteh Shamsi

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reac...

  13. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  14. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  15. Property of laser welded bake-hardening steel in tailored blanks for automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, F.; Shibao, M.; Yoshida, N.; Hirose, A.; Kobayashi, K.F. [Dept. of Mfg. Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shibata, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, H. [Material Research Lab. Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. 1, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The behavior of bake-hardening of the laser weldment was investigated. The bake-hardening steel(BH steel) was welded with Nd:YAG laser followed by plastic deformation and subsequent heat-treatment. Then the influence of laser welding on the behavior of bake-hardening was investigated. The hardness of the laser weld metal significantly increased after welding. After the plastic deformation, both the base metal and weld metal became harder by work-hardening. The heat treatment resulted in more increment of hardness in both the base metal and weld metal by bake-hardening. The amount of bake-hardening reached a maximum value at the plastic strain of 5% or more. We modified a kinetic equation proposed for predicting the strength of a low-carbon bake-hardening steel and applied to the estimation of hardness of the base metal and weld metal. The calculated hardness values agree with the experimental data. The calculated activation energy for bake-hardening was that for diffusion of carbon and nitrogen atoms in {alpha}-Fe. Thus the hardening is thought to be governed by diffusion of these solute atoms. (orig.)

  16. The gel forming characteristics and the palatability of pasteurized and radiation processed egg magma in baked custard - a class project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a research project conducted by third-year students, baked custard was made from six different samples of frozen egg magma subjected to various treatments. The treatments were pasteurization and various radiation doses. A sample made from untreated fresh egg magma was added as a control sample. Various objective measurements were executed: penetrometer testing with the skin of the baked custard left intact, penetrometer testing with the skin of the baked custards removed, syneresis testing, and determination of the percentage sag of the baked custard. Sensory evaluation included comparing the color of the baked custards with a predetermined color sample, evaluating the texture by means of visual as well as oral evaluation methods, evaluating the consistency of the baked custards, and the general acceptability of the baked custards to a trained sensory panel. Objective evaluation detected little difference between the egg magma samples. Sensory evaluation also detected little difference between the samples. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...

  18. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough rheological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several rheological parameters, including phase angle δ, Farinograph and creep recovery parameters...

  19. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  20. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French 'baguette' during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  1. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread. PMID:25265293

  2. Pengaruh Penambahan Konsentrasi Tahu dan Baking Soda Terhadap Pembuatan Kerupuk Tahu.

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Josua Marojahan

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of tofu and baking powder concentration on the making of tofu crackers. The study was performed in October to December 2011 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Agricultural Faculty, North Sumatra University, Medan, using Factorial Completely Randomized block design with two factors i.e. tofu concentration (A) (10%), (15%), (20%), and (25%) and baking powder concentration (B) (0.1%), (0.2%), (0.3%), and (0.4%). Parameters analyzed before fr...

  3. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abri, SA; Kearney, T

    2013-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases i...

  4. MOVABLE OVEN FOR BREAD BAKING INTENDED FOR FOOD PREPARATION IN SERBIAN ARMY PEACE CORPS

    OpenAIRE

    TESANOVIC BRANKO M.; JOVIC SASA B.

    2014-01-01

    An oven for baking bread in field conditions is assigned to units that are by their nature relatively stationary and whose size does not require a movable bakery. It is intended for baking bread in our units located in international missions with supply difficulties, since our units have a habit of consuming bread instead of biscuits. The oven is of a prefabricated type, adapted for use in all types of terrains, simple design which makes it possible to be, dismantled and easily transported.

  5. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Rossi Silva; Giovani Benin; Juliano Luiz de Almeida; Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca; Claudemir Zucareli

    2014-01-01

    Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115) were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and Ju...

  6. Pengaruh Pemakaian Baking Soda Dalam Pasta Gigi Terhadap pH Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Siregar

    2008-01-01

    Baking soda sebagai bahan dasar pernbuat pasta gigi, mempunyai kemampuan sebagai buffer dalam menetralisir asam mulut sehingga dapat mencegah kerusakan pada gigi. Saat ini banyak beredar di pasaran bermacam-macam pasta gigi dengan berbagai merk dan jenis bahan kimia yang terkandung didalamnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan dan pengaruh pemakaian pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda terhadap pH saliva sebelum dilakukan penyikatan gigi dan setelah dilakukan penyikatan...

  7. Determining the baking isotherm temperature of Söderberg electrodes and associated structural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko, L.; J. P. Beukes; Strydom, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most commonly employed electrode systems in industrial metal smelting applications is continuous self-baking electrodes, i.e. the Söderberg electrode system. In this system, the temperature at which transition from a liquid/soft paste to a solid carbonaceous electrode takes place is termed the baking isotherm temperature. This temperature is extremely important within the context of electrode management. In this paper, thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) was used to measure the dimens...

  8. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  9. Optimization of Baking Process for Equus asinus%阿胶烘制工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振凌; 汪坤

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选阿胶烘制工艺.方法:以阿胶珠中4种氨基酸的含量为指标,采用HPLC测定指标成分含量,选取烘制温度、时间及阿胶丁大小为考察因素,正交试验法优选阿胶烘制工艺.结果:阿胶最佳烘制工艺条件为1.27cm×0.88 cm×0.6 cm的阿胶丁在180℃烘制15 min.结论:该优选工艺简单可控、操作性强、适合大规模生产.%Objective: To optimize baking process of Equus asinus. Method; With the cotents of 4 kinds of amino acid as indexes, which was determined by HPLC, baking process of E. asinus was optimized by orthogonal test with baking time, baking temperature and size of E. asinus as factors. Result: Optimum baking process was; size of E. asinus 1. 27 cm xO. 88 cm x 0. 6 cm, baked 15 min at 180 癈 . Conclusion; Optimized process was simple, controllable, operable, and suitable for mass production

  10. Influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical reliability of SU-8 microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the influences of pretreatment and hard baking on the mechanical characteristics of SU-8 microstructures are described. Four types of samples with different combinations of O2 plasma ashing, primer coating and hard baking were prepared for shear strength tests and uniaxial tensile tests. Specially developed shear test equipment was used to experimentally measure the shear adhesion strength of SU-8 micro posts on a glass substrate. The adhesiveness was strengthened by hard baking at 200 °C for 60 min, whereas other pretreatment processes hardly affected the strength. The pretreatment and hard baking effects on the adhesive strength were compared with those on the fracture strength measured by uniaxial tensile testing. There were no influences of O2 plasma ashing on both the strengths, and primer coating affected only tensile strength. The primer coating effect as well as the hard baking effect on stress relaxation phenomena in uniaxial tension was observed as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that surface degradation and epoxide-ring opening polymerization would have given rise to the primer coating effect and the hard baking effect on the mechanical characteristics, respectively. (paper)

  11. Energy use in the biscuit-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to ascertain the level of energy use in the New Zealand biscuit baking industry. All firms in the New Zealand food processing industry that produce biscuits were sent a questionnaire requesting information on energy consumption and production. Replies were received from five factories and the information from these was supplemented by detailed factory surveys in two other factories. Measures to reduce energy consumption are proposed. Replacement of existing steam boilers with boilers better suited to provide the requirements for process steam would lead to significant reductions in baseload boiler fuel use. Small savings both in boiler fuel consumption and oven fuel consumption can be made by improvements to insulation. Further savings in oven fuel consumption are unlikely except by replacement of the existing ovens with more energy-conscious designs. The design of the biscuit coolers used in the industry can be improved to reduce the electricity consumed by the refrigeration equipment for these coolers. Process flow charts are presented. An analysis of energy consumption was made. (MCW)

  12. Morphological Evaluation of Variously Intercalated Pre-baked Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Hameed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of porous materials is enjoying tremendous popularity and attention of the advance scientific communities due to their excellent adsorptive and catalytic activities. Clays are one of the most important candidates in the porous community which shows the above mentioned activities after modifing with a different intercalating agent. The paper is focused on the infiuence of some inorganic intercalating agents (NaOH on the morphology of the variously intercalated clay samples. The alkali metal was used as the inorganic intercalating agent. The effect of intercalation temperature, intercalation agent concentration and intercalation time on the pre-baked clay morphology were also part of the study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM study was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the resultant intercalates. Different morphological properties were improved significantly in the case of the inorganically modified clay samples. Thus, such intercalations are suggested to be effective if the clays under study are to be used for different industrial process at elevated conditions.

  13. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods. PMID:1315432

  14. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  15. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2013-01-01

    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  16. 宣纸土焙研究%On Local Bake-room of Chinese Xuan Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹天生; 张有根

    2012-01-01

    Using local bake-room to sun paper is a significant part of traditional manufacture craftsmanship of Chinese Xuan paper.Researchers went deep into country of origin of Xuan paper,conducted detailed field trip,studied the problems such as production materials,instruments,process,as well as working hours and payment,format,baking and sunning of local bake-room of Xuan paper.We made comparative analysis of local bake-room and iron bake-room being used at present,then come to conclude,Xuan paper sunned by local bake-room as "longevous paper for millennium" still has some drawbacks,iron bake-room being used under modern conditions has advantages such as convenient built,flat surface smooth and neat,higher efficiency of labor,as well as certain drawbacks exist.Today we initiate inherit and protect of human non-material cultural heritage vigorously from the aspects of historical examine and keeping culture diversity and richness,and suggest local bake-room and irony bake-room to be applied at the same time in Xuan paper manufacture.%土焙晒纸是宣纸传统制作技艺中的重要组成部分。研究者深入宣纸原产地,对宣纸土焙制作材料、制作工具、制作过程、工时与工价、土焙规格、烧焙与晒纸等进行了较为详细的实地考察研究,对宣纸土焙与当下主要采用的铁焙进行了对比分析,最后得出结论:宣纸土焙晒出的宣纸,经过千百年的历史检验,被誉为"千年寿纸",但也有某些缺陷;现代条件下采用的铁焙具有建造便捷、平面光滑匀整、劳动效率提高的优势,但也有某些缺陷。在大力倡导非物质文化遗产传承、保护的今天,从宣纸纸张历史检验对比和保持文化多样性、丰富性角度出发,建议宣纸产地应土焙和铁焙同时使用。

  17. A Baking Function Depending Upon Storage Condition and a Type of Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Miličević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flour is a raw material, more exactly grocery very sensitive on external influence.Namely, due to the hygroscopic nature of the flour it is good base for microbial growth. Normal moisture content in flour ranges from 13 to 15 %. An increase in moisture contents makes conditions suitable for microbial growth, accelerating the enzymatic activity and spoiling of fl our. The storage conditions have a great influence on the moisture content, especially temperature and humidity.The fl our reaction to the storage condition is based to its chemical composition, which is related to the moisture, fat and proteins content.Baking function is dependable upon the storage condition and storage period, as well as acting of the flour during making of dough, and baking of made dough.The aim of this study was to establish behaviour of different fl our types (T-500,T-850 and whole meal fl our stored at temperatures +4 and 20 °C and defined humidity.Each fl our sample was analyzed determining its chemical contents and farinograph characteristics immediately after milling and after 10 and 21 day, and baking test was done on those days.The obtained results proved that storage conditions significantly affected the chemical composition of composite fl ours, as well as baking functions of fl our and characteristics of baked bread.

  18. Effect of Age and Environment on Strength of Old Baked Clay Bricks of Indus Valley Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental investigations conducted on old baked clay bricks of Indus Valley civilization of tenth century. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of age and environmental conditions on the strength of the baked clay bricks which are about 1000 years old. The brick samples were collected from six different archeological sites at the banks of old route of River Indus in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. These specimens were tested for apparent density, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and the weathering effects on them during the course of time. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standard for baked clay bricks, based on compressive strength, suggests that the bricks of four sites can withstand severe weathering while the bricks of two sites are resistant to moderate weathering. These results were compared to the values of the corresponding data of bricks, of same period, obtained from the historical monuments of the world as reported in the literature. The comparison showed that the values of physical properties of old baked clay bricks of Indus valley civilization of tenth century are in agreement with that of old baked clay bricks of contemporary era. The results of this study could also be helpful for preservation of old archeological sites of Indus valley civilization.

  19. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  20. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  1. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  2. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: mingxingguo@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  3. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy

  4. The effect of baking and enzymatic treatment on the structural properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Catalina; Zielke, Claudia; Prakash, Manish; Kumar, Puneeth; Peñarrieta, J Mauricio; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Nilsson, Lars

    2016-12-15

    In this study, bread was baked with and without the addition of α-amylase. Starch was extracted from the baked bread and its molecular properties were characterized using (1)H NMR and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) connected to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and other detectors. The approach allows determination of molar mass, root- mean-square radius and apparent density as well as the average degree of branching of amylopectin. The results show that starch size and structure is affected as a result of the baking process. The effect is larger when α-amylase is added. The changes include both a decrease molar mass and size as well as an increase in apparent density. Moreover, an increase in average degree of branching and the number of reducing ends H-1(β-r) and H-1(α-r) can be observed. PMID:27451246

  5. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes. PMID:17995773

  6. Some measures for improving the pre-baked anode quality at initial stage of the second phase of baking%提高预焙阳极质量的一些措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺成平

    2011-01-01

    从焙烧工艺和焙烧炉燃烧设备两个方面介绍了中铝青海分公司炭素厂二期焙烧车间投产初期提高预焙阳极质量的一些措施,对焙烧车间提高预焙阳极质量有一定借鉴意义.%Some measures for improving the pre-baked anode quality at initial stage of production of the second phase of baking in Carbon Plant, Qinghai Branch of Chalco, were described from the view of baking process and the baking furnace equipment, which could give a reference for improving pre-baked anode quality.

  7. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C. Acry

  8. The effect of oxygen on the release of tritium during baking of TFTR D-T tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests involving 10 h baking under the current ITER design conditions (240 deg. C with 933 Pa O2) was performed using a cube of a carbon fiber composite tile that had been used in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium burning operation. The removal rate of the codeposits was about 3 μm/h near the surface and 0.9 μm/h in the deeper region. Total amount of tritium released from the cube during 10 h baking was 202 MBq, while remaining tritium in the cube after baking was 403 MBq. Thus 10 h baking at 240 deg. C with 933 Pa O2 removed 1/3 of tritium from the cube. After 10 h baking, the tritium concentration on the cube surface also dropped by about 1/3. In addition, some tritium was released from another cube of the tile during baking at 240 deg. C in pure Ar, and a rapid increase of tritium release was observed when the purging gas was shifted from pure Ar to Ar-1%O2. When a whole TFTR tile was baked in air at 350 deg. C for 1 h and then at 500 deg. C for 1 h, the ratios of tritium released were 53 and 47%, respectively. Oxygen reacted with carbon to produce carbon monoxide during baking in air

  9. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  10. Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer during a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Ashokkumar, Saranya;

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer of a contact baking process is developed. In the current model formulation, a local evaporation of water is described with a reaction–diffusion approach, where a simultaneous diffusion and evaporation of water takes place. The resulting coupled...... model equations (unsteady state heat transfer, liquid water and water vapour) were solved using the Finite Element Method (COMSOL Multi-physics® version 3.5). During the baking process, local temperatures and overall moisture loss were measured continuously. The model – predicting temperature, liquid...

  11. The Baking Process of 46.8m2 Glass Melting Kiln%46.8 m2玻璃熔炉的烘炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌

    2000-01-01

    本文针对46.8m2玻璃熔窑烘炉的全过程-烘炉曲线的制定、烘炉准备和烘炉三方面的工作作了介绍。%This paper introduces the whole process of the baking of 46.8m2 glass kiln. Theprocess includes :laying out baking curve, baking preparation and whole baking process.

  12. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, D; Davis, C

    1982-08-01

    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  13. Studies and Tendencies within the Baking Products Market in the European Union with Implications on the Baking Products of the Romanian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Saseanu

    2005-01-01

    According to the agricultural patterns existing in the EU, the objectives of the Romanian baking industry should ensure the alimentary safety, introduce the European competitive technologies and manufacturing process, harmonize the Romanian law with the communitary acquis and implement it, match the Romanian standards with the European and international ones, improve the image and statute for the jobs as a miller or a baker and improve their professional training. Nowadays, the consumers of t...

  14. Improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals by gamma irrdiation, Baked de-boned chicken meat with potatoe slices or baked fish and cooked rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the quality of ready-to-eat meals. The prepared meals (included baked chicken meat with potato slices or baked fish and cooked rice) were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of O, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy followed by cold storage (4 C). The effects of irradiation and cold storage on the microbiological aspects, chemical and organoleptic properties of samples were studied. The results showed that irradiation of the prepared meals decreased the initial total bacterial count, total psychrophilic bacteria and total yeast and molds, proportionally to the applied dose, hence prolonged their refrigerated shelf-life. Moreover, irradiation at dose of 1.5 KGy reduced the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, while 3 KGy dose completely eliminated these bacteria in all samples. Salmonella was not detected in all irradiated and non-irradiated meals and Vibrio sp. were absent in irradiated and non-irradiated baked fish. On the other hand, gamma irradiation had no remarkable effects neither on the chemical composition of the main component of meals nor on their ph, while it increased the thiobarbituric acid (TEA) value for baked chicken and fish meat. However, cold storage gradually increased the values of TEA and gradually decreased the ph value for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Finally, irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory properties (appearance, odor and taste) of all meals and extended their time of sensory preference

  15. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  16. The effect of pre-crop and fertilization on baking quality of organic spring wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Jaana; Pihala, Marjo

    1999-01-01

    Soil structure more than previous crop seemed to influence the development of organic spring wheat during the extremely wet growing season in 1998. However, the best soil structures and strongest wheat crops were found after clover leys and the poorest after peas. The most important determinant for the baking quality of the flour was the cultivar.

  17. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; auf’m Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  18. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  19. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  20. Identification of milling and baking quality QTL in multiple soft wheat mapping populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat derived food products require a range of characteristics. Identification and understanding of the genetic components controlling end-use quality of wheat is important for crop improvement. We assessed the underlying genetics controlling specific milling and baking quality parameters of soft wh...

  1. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  2. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Kajala

    Full Text Available Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m and V(max values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min, respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking.

  3. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  4. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  5. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  6. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  7. Home-Made Breads [and] Home-Baked Breads for Busy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, John

    This packet contains two lesson plans for a class on making bread to be taught in an adult literacy program. Developed by a teacher who has taught the classes to 175 people, the lesson plans each contain complete directions for working with students while baking bread. One lesson plan is for experienced home bakers, and the other is a simpler…

  8. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg∙min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  10. Energy thermal management in commercial bread-baking using a multi-objective optimisation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing energy costs and legislative requirements energy efficient high-speed air impingement jet baking systems are now being developed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation framework for oven designs is presented which uses experimentally verified heat transfer correlations and high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as temperature uniformity in the oven and overall energy efficiency of baking. A surrogate-assisted multi-objective optimisation framework is proposed and used to explore a range of practical oven designs, providing information on overall temperature uniformity within the oven together with ensuing energy usage and potential savings. - Highlights: • A multi-objective optimisation framework to design commercial ovens is presented. • High fidelity CFD embeds experimentally calibrated heat transfer inputs. • The optimum oven design minimises specific energy and bake time. • The Pareto front outlining the surrogate-assisted optimisation framework is built. • Optimisation of industrial bread-baking ovens reveals an energy saving of 637.6 GWh

  11. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14)C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m) and V(max) values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  12. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  13. Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

    The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

  14. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  15. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI; FARAH SALEENA TAIP; SITI MAZLINA MUSTAPA KAMAL; NORASHIKIN AB. AZIZ

    2014-01-01

    Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firm...

  16. Improvement of winter wheat baking quality in ecological cultivation by enlargement of row spacing and undersown intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Dr. Konstantin; Leithold, Prof. Dr. Günter

    2008-01-01

    Under ecological crop growing conditions, considerable problems consistently arise in fulfilling the baking quality of winter wheat demanded by consumers. The “wide row” procedure shows promising potential for effectively using the nutrient supply in ecological cultivation for the production of winter wheat with high baking performance. Increasing the distance between rows of winter wheat from 12.5 cm to 50 cm proved advantageous for the indirect quality parameters sedimentation value and glu...

  17. Simulation of the influence of the baffle on flowing field in the anode baking ring furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 梅炽; 周孑民; 周乃君; 徐琼辉

    2002-01-01

    In an anode baking horizontal flue ring furnace, the temperature distribution is one of the key factors influencing the quality of baked anode and is closely correlated with the gas flow. To understand the gas flow distribution in the flue, Navier-Stokes equation with "k-ε" two-equation turbulence model was adopted and the simulation on the gas flow was performed. The numerical simulation results showed that the even direction of gas flow should be considered in the design of flue baffles and the gas flow distribution was really uneven in the flue in practical use. By adjusting the number and location of flue baffles rationally, the even distribution of gas flow can be improved obviously.

  18. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. PMID:27185141

  19. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fuckerer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but still not solved. Therefore, this study investigates a new possibility by trying to influence the recrystallization of starch with microwave heating. For this, the differences between microwave and conventional baked rye-wheat bread were examined concerning the difference of water activity and firmness of the bread during time. As result, a faster water loss during storage period could be observed in microwave heated bread, which probably implies an even more rapid recrystallization instead the desired avoiding of recrystallization of starch.

  20. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  1. Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.

    2013-03-01

    This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

  2. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

  3. The use of exhausted olive husks as fuel in the Calabrian bread-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, G. [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Exhausted olive husks are a biomass by-product from the olive oil working cycle that has very interesting energy characteristics. This paper considers the use of this biomass as an alternative to or integrative energy source with conventional fuels in the Calabrian bread baking sector, and it outlines its potential and economic viability. Various energy scenarios are suggested for a Calabrian bakery, by means of a detailed analysis of economic convenience. (author)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Distribution for the Pan in a Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we give mathematical models to give the heat distribution around the pan’s exterior edges. By applying Fourier's law, the mathematical models of heat distribution are designed. Models of instantaneous heat flux density on the pans in the baking oven are then constructed for pans with different shapes from rectangular to circular. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of our methods.

  5. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a...

  6. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cevoli; Angelo Fabbri; Simone Virginio Marai; Enrico Ferrari; Adriano Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min), measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated t...

  7. Energy thermal management in commercial bread-baking using a multi-objective optimisation framework

    OpenAIRE

    KHATIR, Z; Taherkhani, AR; Paton, J.; Thompson, HM; Kapur, N; Toropov, V

    2015-01-01

    In response to increasing energy costs and legislative requirements energy efficient high-speed air impingement jet baking systems are now being developed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation framework for oven designs is presented which uses experimentally verified heat transfer correlations and high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as temperature uniformity in the ...

  8. Baking-powder driven centripetal pumping controlled by event-triggering of functional liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinahan, David J.; Burger, Robert; Vembadi, Abhishek;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports radially inbound pumping by the event-triggered addition of water to on-board stored baking powder in combination with valving by an immiscible, high-specific weight liquid on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. This technology allows making efficient use of precious real esta......-on-a-Disc” (LoaD) cartridge can be significantly enhanced while maintaining minimum requirements on the intrinsically simple, spindle-motor based instrumentation....

  9. Baking effect for NdFeB magnets against demagnetization induced by high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of thermal stabilization (pre-baking at 142 deg. C) on the sensitivity of neodymium-iron-boron (Nd2Fe14B) magnets to irradiation was studied. Thermally stabilized magnets showed higher resistance to irradiation with 2.0 GeV electrons: their demagnetization curves decrease linearly with respect to the number of electrons, and with a demagnetization rate remarkably smaller than that of the unbaked magnets

  10. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fuckerer; Elsen, A.; Langer, H.; N. Leitschuh; J. Rumpf; Rosenberger, C.; Schmitt, J J

    2015-01-01

    Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but sti...

  11. Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel

    1996-07-26

    Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

  12. Baking quality, sensory properties and shelf life of bread with polyols

    OpenAIRE

    Bhise, Suresh; Kaur, A.

    2014-01-01

    The polyols namely glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol were incorporated at 2, 4 and 6 % level in flour for bread making and their effect on textural properties, bread making quality and sensory acceptability of bread was studied. The effect of incorporation revealed the increased bake absorption, bread weight and decreased specific volume. The overall acceptability scores were maximum for bread prepared with glycerol at 2 % level, followed by sorbitol at 4 % level and mannitol at 4 % level. Duri...

  13. Nature of strain aging stages in bake hardening steel for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain aging behavior of industrially produced ultra low carbon bake hardening (BH) steel for automotive application was investigated. The aging process was studied by the dynamic Young's modulus and amplitude-independent dislocation internal friction measurements with acoustic methods. Analysis of the revealed strain aging stages was carried out and has resulted in the conclusion that formation of interstitial atoms atmospheres on the dislocations is accompanied and substantially affected by the dissolution of their grain boundary segregations

  14. INFORMATION ON THE COST AND MANAGERIAL DECISIONS IN THE COMPANIES IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Taicu

    2012-01-01

    Management accounting has evolved in recent decades from a supplier of financial information to a tool system used by the company management to make decisions both at strategic as well as at operational level, to relate with the external environment and to make economic forecasts. Companies in the baking industry operate nowadays on a competitive market in which prices are set by the market and cost control is one of the factors that can make sure that the proposed performance is reached. The...

  15. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...

  16. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kvačkaj; Mamuzić, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (ba...

  17. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one. PMID:12866615

  18. Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Patton, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis. PMID:10451595

  19. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  20. Microstructural characteristics and paint-bake response of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yan-li; GUO Fu-an; PAN Yan-feng

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural characteristics and paint-bake response of 6022 alloy with 0.3% Cu (mass fraction) were studied using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope(SEM), transmission electron microscope(TEM) and tensile tester. The results indicate that the phase constituents in the as-cast microstructure are Mg2Si, Si, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, Al5FeSi, α-Al(MnCrFe)Si and CuAl2. During the following homogenization, CuAl2, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Mg2Si phases are almost completely dissolved, and Al5FeSi transforms to α-Al(MnCrFe)Si particles. After rolling, the phase constituents in the alloy change less except the precipitation of Mg2Si particles, and the precipitation behavior of Mg2Si strongly depends on the thermomechanical conditions. Cu addition significantly increases the paint-bake response of 6022 alloy by facilitating the formation of β" phase. Therefore, the tensile strength of 6022 alloy with 0.3% Cu is higher than that of 6022 alloy without Cu after paint-bake cycle.

  1. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue

  2. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2015-08-01

    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%. PMID:26243966

  3. Multi-objective Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) design optimisation in commercial bread-baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing legislation and rising energy costs are bringing the need for more efficient baking processes into much sharper focus. High-speed air impingement bread-baking ovens are complex systems used to entrain thermal air flow. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is combined with a multi-objective optimization framework to develop a tool for the rapid generation of forced convection oven designs. A design parameterization of a three-dimensional generic oven model is carried out to enable optimization, for a wide range of oven sizes and flow conditions, to be performed subject to appropriate objective functions measuring desirable features such as temperature uniformity throughout the oven, energy efficiency and manufacturability. Optimal Latin Hypercubes for surrogate model building and model validation points are constructed using a permutation genetic algorithm and design points are evaluated using CFD. Surrogate models are built using a Moving Least Squares approach. A series of optimizations for various oven nozzle sizes, oven depths and flow conditions are performed using a genetic algorithm with responses calculated from the surrogates, from which appropriate oven designs for a wide range of specific applications can be inferred. Results from various oven design and objective functions under investigation are presented together with ensuing energy usage and savings. Analysis suggests that 10% energy savings can be achieved for the baking process

  4. 烤茶用具、烘烤温度与时间对佤族烤茶品质影响的研究%Study on Tea Baking Utensils, Baking Temperature & Time's Influences on the Quality of Wa Nationality Baked Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨净云

    2012-01-01

    Baked tea is one of the specialties of the minority areas in the Yunnan Province, which has a distinctive tea culture. In order to determine the influence of baking time and baking utensils on the Wa nationality's tea quality, and to further its popularization, experiments were conducted on sundried green tea. The experiments tested clay, papyrus, and iron paneled pots, which were often used by Wa people, under two different baking times, at three different baking temperatures. The results showed that, the tea baked in papyrus was superior to that in iron panel; 250 ℃ was the most favorable baking temperature; and the tea quality was not affected, either by baking for ten minutes or fifteen minutes.%烤茶是云南少数民族的传统茶饮品,具有独特的茶文化.为了研究不同烤茶用具在不同温度下烘烤不同时间对佤族传统烤茶品质的影响,更好地推广应用佤族烤茶,以晒青绿毛茶为试验材料,选取佤族常用的土罐、生草纸、铁板等3种用具,选择3种温度和2个烘烤时间对佤族晒青绿毛茶进行烘烤试验.结果表明,以草纸烤茶品质较好,优于佤族传统烤茶用具铁板烤茶;佤族烤茶烘烤温度以250℃时较好,但烘烤10 min和15 min对佤族烤茶品质的影响不明显.

  5. Probing the environmental stability and bake latitudes of acetal vs. ketal protected polyvinylphenol DUV resist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uday; Pandya, Ashish; Sinta, Roger F.; Huang, Wu-Song; Bantu, Rao; Katnani, Ahmad D.

    1997-07-01

    Environmental stability has been a major concern in chemically amplified resist systems. These are the major chemistry platforms adopted in DUV resists. To resolve this issue, two extreme approaches were proposed recently. One is using the annealing concept through high temperature bake to densify the film and reduce free volume in the resist, thus minimizing the uptake of airborne contaminants. In this approach, high post exposure bake temperature is used which then bakes away major portion of airborne base from top of the resist, thus minimizing (or eliminating) T-top formation. To be able to execute this concept, a highly thermally stable copolymer of 4-hydroxystyrene and t-butyl acrylate was adopted. The nature of the thermal stability is due to the high activation energy of t-butyl ester group during the deprotection process. The other approach in achieving the environmental stability is using an extremely low activation energy protecting group which will deprotect during the exposure step. Since T-top formation usually occurs between exposure and PEB, the spontaneous room temperature deblocking eliminates any delay, thus PED effect free resist can be obtained. In this approach, the ketal resist system (KRS) using methoxy propene protected polyvinylphenol was used. The advantages of low activation energy are not only environmental stability but also large bake latitudes with PEB variation as low as 0 nm/degrees Celsius. Besides ketal, silyl ethers and acetals are the other two distinct resist families which have lower activation energy than t-butoxycarbonyl and t-butyl ester systems. According to many recent publications, the acetal resist systems have demonstrated some environmental robustness and insensitivity to bake temperature variation. In order to shed some light on the lithographic performance of these low activation energy resist systems, we present here some of our work on acetal resist family in comparison to ketal family. In the acetal resist

  6. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Sasano Yu; Haitani Yutaka; Hashida Keisuke; Ohtsu Iwao; Shima Jun; Takagi Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Rece...

  7. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  8. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化研究%Optimization of salty baked chili powder technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 吴灿

    2012-01-01

    The effect of baking temperature,baking time and salt concentration on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder were studied,and the optimum processing technology was obtained through sensory score.Results showed that:baking time was the main influencing factors on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powde,and then baking temperature,adding salt only made the aroma more gentle.The optimal processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder was,baking temperature 120 ℃,baking time 10 min,and salt concentration 5%.%以野山椒为原料,通过感官评分的方法,探究了烘烤温度、烘烤时间以及加盐量对其加工的影响,并得出了焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺。结果表明,烘烤时间为焦盐野山椒粉生产的主要影响因素,其次是烘烤温度,而添加食盐只会让其香气变得更加柔和。焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺为烘烤温度120℃,烘烤时间10min,加盐量为干辣椒粉质量5%。

  9. Internal Friction on the Bake-Hardening Behavior of 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renyu Fu; Yu Su; Ping Ye; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li; Jicheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The bake-hardening (BH) values and the "internal friction-temperature" spectrums were studied for the baked 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) specimens with 0%, 2% and 6% prestrain. Results show that the experimental TRIP steel deserves good bake-hardening ability and Cottrell atmosphere is the reason for its bake hardening characteristic. It is also concluded that both the number and the saturation degree of Cottrell atmosphere might affect the BH value of TRIP steel.

  10. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity. PMID:20367217

  11. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part II: Investigations into burn-in time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Vetter, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Combination products have become popular formats for the delivery of parenteral medications. Bake-on siliconization of glass syringes or cartridges allows good piston break-loose and gliding during injection at low silicone levels. Although widely implemented in industry, still little is known and published on the effect of the bake-on process on the silicone level, layer thickness and chemical composition. In this study, cartridges were bake-on siliconized in a heat-tunnel by varying both temperature from 200 to 350°C for 12min and time from 5min to 3h at 316°C. Furthermore, a heat-oven with air-exchange was established as an experimental model. Heat treatment led to a time- and temperature-dependent decrease in the silicone level and layer thickness. After 1h at 316°C lubrication was insufficient. The silicone levels substantially decreased between 250 and 316°C after 12min. After bake-on, the peak molecular weight of the silicone remained unchanged while fractions below 5000g/mol were removed at 316 and 350°C. Cyclic low molecular weight siloxanes below 500g/mol were volatilized under all conditions. Despite most of the baked-on silicone was solvent-extractable, contact angle analysis indicated a strong binding of a remaining, thin silicone film to the glass surface. PMID:27328279

  12. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven. PMID:25892790

  13. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. PMID:26010869

  14. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  15. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J.; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  16. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Becky J.; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G.; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the e...

  17. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  18. Analysis of Corn Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS) / Flour Mixtures, and Subsequent Bread Baking Trials

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Saunders; Kurt A. Rosentrater; P. G. Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Grains offer a variety of nutrients; it is thought that through the addition of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) the fiber and protein in baked products may be improved. In this study, all-purpose flour and bread flour were tested with various DDGS substitution levels (0%, 25%, or 50% flour substitution) with the dough conditioner sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (0%, 0.15%, or 0.3% flour weight basis). SSL is surfactant produced from reacting stearic acid with food grade lactic ac...

  19. Very rare Q-slope none overcome by electropolishing and baking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discovered the very rare Q-slope none overcome by electropolishing and baking at 120degC for 48 hours. The Q-slope is not related to 'Hydrogen disease'. The Q-slope is not improved by the wiping and steam so that we recognize that the Q-slope is not caused by some cohesion things of the cavity's surface. The rare Q-slope is categorized a low, medium and high rare Q-slope. In this paper, we report the Rare Q-slope and the categorized rare Q-slope. (author)

  20. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  1. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products. PMID:23993603

  2. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. PMID:26742610

  3. Optimization of High Temperature Baking Technology of Aconitum carmichaeli%川乌高温烘制工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 方莉; 邓广海; 龚又明

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选川乌高温烘制工艺.方法:HPLC和滴定法测定炮制品中6种生物碱和总生物碱的含量,并以此为指标,选取烘制时间、烘制温度及软化方式等为考察因素,采用正交试验法综合评价其高温烘制工艺.结果:川乌高温烘制的最佳工艺为A5B3C1,即川乌经润透法处理,110℃烘制8h.结论:该优选工艺简单可行且易于控制,可替代川乌传统炮制工艺.%Objective; To optimize high temperature baking process of Aconitum carmichaeli. Method: With the content of six kinds of alkaloid and total alkaloids in processed products were determined by HPLC and titration method, and with them as indexes, taking baking time, baking temperature and softening method as factors, orthogonal test was used to comprehensive evaluate high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli. Result; Optimum high temperature baking technology of A. carmichaeli was AsBiC1, as that of A. carmichaeli was treatmented by moistening method, baked 8 h at 110 t. Conclusion; This optimized technology was simple, practical and easy to control, it could be instead of traditional processing technology of A. carmichaeli as a new method.

  4. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  5. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvačkaj, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (bake hardening effect achieved by interaction of interstitial atoms with dislocations. The Cottrels atmosphere is obtained. The second step of BH effect is to produced the hardening from precipitation of the carbon atoms in e-carbides, or formation of Fe32C4 carbides. WH (work hardening effect is obtained as dislocation hardening from plastic deformations during sheet deep drawing. Experimental works were aimed at as to achieve such plastic material properties after cold rolling, annealing and skin-pass rolling, which would be able to classify the material ZStE220BH into the drawing categories at the level of DQ – DDQ. As resulting from the experimental results, the optimal treatment conditions for the maximal sum (WH+BH = 86 MPa are as follows: total cold rolling deformation ecold = 65 %, annealing temperature Tanneal. = 700 °C.

  6. Effect of temper rolling on the bake-hardening behavior of low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fu Kuang; Shen-gen Zhang; Jun Li; Jian Wang; Pei Li

    2015-01-01

    In a typical process, low carbon steel was annealed at two different temperatures (660°C and 750°C), and then was temper rolled to improve the mechanical properties. Pre-straining and baking treatments were subsequently carried out to measure the bake-hardening (BH) values. The influences of annealing temperature and temper rolling on the BH behavior of the steel were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructure evolution during temper rolling was related to carbon atoms and dislocations. After an apparent increase, the BH value of the steel significantly decreased when the temper rolling reduction was increased from 0%to 5%. This was attributed to the increase in solute carbon concentration and dislocation density. The maximum BH values of the steel annealed at 660°C and 750°C were 80 MPa and 89 MPa at the reductions of 3%and 4%, respectively. Moreover, increasing the annealing temperature from 660 to 750°C resulted in an ob-vious increase in the BH value due to carbide dissolution.

  7. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Junichiro, E-mail: kamiya.junichiro@jaea.go.jp; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-PARC Center, Ooaza Shirakata 2-4, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, Yuichi [SAKAGUCHI E.H VOC CORP., Sakura Dai-san Kogyodanchi 1-8-6, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-0802 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  8. Production of crude xylanase from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756 aiming the baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denise S; Meherb-Dini, Carolina; Franco, Célia M L; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, the baking industry has focused its attention on substituting several chemical compounds with enzymes. Enzymes that hydrolyze nonstarch polysaccharides, such as xylanase, lead to the improvement of rheological properties of dough, loaf specific volume, and crumb firmness. The purpose of this study was to find a better solid-state fermentation substrate to produce high levels of xylanase and low levels of protease and amylase, which are enzymes involved in bread quality, from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756. Wheat bran, corncob, and corn straw were used as energy sources. The enzyme extract of corncob showed high xylanase activity (130 U/mL) and low amylase and protease activity (<1 and 15 U/mL, respectively). This enzyme profile may be more profitable for the baking industry, because it results in a slower degradation of gluten. Our results confirm this finding, because the enzyme obtained by fermentation in corncob resulted in a gluten with a higher specific volume than all the other substrates that were tested. The crude xylanase presented maximum activity at a pH of 5, and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. It was stable up to 70 °C for an hour and at a pH range from 4 to 10. PMID:21535524

  9. Microstructural characterization and thermodynamic analysis of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We provide the optimum amounts of Nb in ultra-low-carbon steel. • The density of fine precipitates and yield strength are closely connected. • The bake hardenability was mostly affected by a fine NbC precipitates. • The observed MnS–Cu2S precipitate manifests a core–shell structure. -- Abstract: The effects of niobium (Nb) addition on the morphologies, size distributions, crystallography, and thermodynamics of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels (ULC-BH) were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calculated nucleation rate of NbC precipitates indicate that the observed fine precipitates and saturation of yield strength with Nb 90 ppm steel are closely connected to thermodynamic factors. A TEM analysis was also carried out for other fine precipitates in two nitride modes: hexagonal AlN and fcc TiN. The Cu2S–MnS complex precipitate was found to manifest a core–shell structure; the core part formed Cu2S and the shell part formed MnS. MnS and Cu2S have an orientation relationship between (001)MnS//(001)Cu2S and [001]MnS//[001]Cu2S

  10. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  11. The Potential of Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Baked Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Ben Boubaker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality baked carbon anodes contribute to the optimal performance of aluminum reduction cells. However, the currently decreasing quality and increasing variability of anode raw materials (coke and pitch make it challenging to manufacture the anodes with consistent overall quality. Intercepting faulty anodes (e.g., presence of cracks and pores before they are set in reduction cells and deteriorate their performance is therefore important. This is a difficult task, even in modern and well-instrumented anode plants, because lab testing using core samples can only characterize a small proportion of the anode production due to the costly, time-consuming, and destructive nature of the analytical methods. In addition, these results are not necessarily representative of the whole anode block. The objective of this work is to develop a rapid and non-destructive method for quality control of baked anodes using acousto-ultrasonic (AU techniques. The acoustic responses of anode samples (sliced sections were analyzed using a combination of temporal features computed from AU signals and principal component analysis (PCA. The AU signals were found sensitive to pores and cracks and were able to discriminate the two types of defects. The results were validated qualitatively by submitting the samples to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan.

  12. Microstructural characterization and thermodynamic analysis of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg-Woo [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Il. [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang, Jeonnam 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Moon-Hi [POSCO Center, 892 Daechi-4dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-777 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Yong [Gangwon Regional Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Gyu [Foundry Technology Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shlim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • We provide the optimum amounts of Nb in ultra-low-carbon steel. • The density of fine precipitates and yield strength are closely connected. • The bake hardenability was mostly affected by a fine NbC precipitates. • The observed MnS–Cu{sub 2}S precipitate manifests a core–shell structure. -- Abstract: The effects of niobium (Nb) addition on the morphologies, size distributions, crystallography, and thermodynamics of precipitates in ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels (ULC-BH) were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calculated nucleation rate of NbC precipitates indicate that the observed fine precipitates and saturation of yield strength with Nb 90 ppm steel are closely connected to thermodynamic factors. A TEM analysis was also carried out for other fine precipitates in two nitride modes: hexagonal AlN and fcc TiN. The Cu{sub 2}S–MnS complex precipitate was found to manifest a core–shell structure; the core part formed Cu{sub 2}S and the shell part formed MnS. MnS and Cu{sub 2}S have an orientation relationship between (001){sub MnS}//(001){sub Cu{sub 2S}} and [001]{sub MnS}//[001]{sub Cu{sub 2S}}.

  13. Degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids after baking and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Stefan; Dib, Baha; Maul, Ronald; Köppen, Robert; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2012-11-01

    The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. Different steps of digestion were analyzed using salivary, gastric, and duodenal juices. The degradation and bidirectional conversion of the toxicologically relevant (R)-epimers and the biologically inactive (S)-epimers for seven pairs of EAs were determined by a HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection. Baking cookies resulted in degradation of EAs (2-30 %) and a shift in the epimeric ratio toward the (S)-epimer for all EAs. The applied digestion model led to a selective toxification of ergotamine and ergosine, two ergotamine-type EAs. The initial percentage of the toxic (R)-epimer in relation to the total toxin content was considerably increased after digestion of cookies. Ergotamine and ergosine increased from 32 to 51 % and 35 to 55 %, respectively. In contrast, EAs of the ergotoxine type (ergocornine, α- and β-ergocryptine, and ergocristine) showed an epimeric shift toward their biologically inactive (S)-epimers. Further experiments indicated that the selective epimerization of ergotamine EAs occurs in the duodenal juice only. These results demonstrate that toxification of EAs in the intestinal tract should be taken into consideration. PMID:22968686

  14. Nanometer-scale fabrication of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) films with post exposure baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Se-Koo; Yeom, Geun-Young; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2013-03-01

    A nanometer-scale grating structure with a 60-nm-wide gap and 200-nm-wide ridge has been successfully demonstrated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate by using a 220-nm-thick hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative tone electron beam resist. A post exposure baking (PEB) process and hot development process with low concentration (3.5 wt%) of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution were introduced to realize the grating pattern. To study the effects of post exposure baking on the HSQ resist, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were carried out. From the FT-IR and XPS analyses, it was verified that a thin SiO2 with high cross-linked network structure was formed on the HSQ surface during the PEB step. This SiO2 layer prevents the formation of unwanted bonds on the HSQ surface, which results in clearly defined grating structures with a 60-nm-gap and 200-nm-wide-ridge on the 220-nm-thick HSQ resist. The nanometer-scale grating pattern was successfully transfered to the 280-nm-thick silicon layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate by using inductively-coupled-plasma-reactive-ion-etching (ICP-RIE). PMID:23755620

  15. Characteristics of Microwave Vacuum Baking and Drying of Oolong and Its Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongchuan Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the characteristics of microwave vacuum baking and drying of oolong and analyzes the influence of microwave power and vacuum degree in the drying process on the moisture in the tea. According to the variation law of moisture, it explores the relationship between time and wet base moisture contents under different microwave powers and vacuum degrees, as well as the kinetic mathematical model of vacuum drying for oolong using the microwave. Based on the energy balance between the sensible heat, latent heat and the absorptive microwave energy, this model builds verification test by a large number of experimental data and the results indicate that within certain range of radiation power and thickness, the temperature and moisture content of oolong are uniformly distributed, even more uniform especially in the drying period; generally, the temperature distribution within the oolong fails to show integrity. The free water and water vapor may flow as permeate stream in the internal part of oolong under the action of pressure gradient. The migration intensity mainly depends on the intensity of microwave radiation and initial moisture content; the mathematical model established on this basis could better simulate the microwave vacuum drying process of oolong. Due to its high simulation accuracy, it can be used to describe the variation of moisture content with the drying time and power. The test results provide a technical basis for the controllable industrial production of oolong baking.

  16. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation. PMID:23386201

  17. 烟筐装烟烘烤对烟叶质量及烘烤成本的影响%Effects of Tobacco Baking with Loose Leaf Loaded in Basket on Leaf Quality and Baking Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小良; 李迪秦; 姚强; 郭维; 黄景崇; 谭思思

    2016-01-01

    为探讨适宜衡阳植烟区的密集烤房装烟方式,从烤后烟叶外观质量、主要化学成分指标、经济性状及烘烤能耗和用工成本等方面,对烟筐装烟和传统烟杆烘烤进行了对比研究。结果表明,与传统烟杆烘烤相比,烟筐装烟烘烤装鲜烟量高11.8%~15.9%,干烟量高50.5~65.5 kg/房,产值高804.7~1719.3元/房,主要化学成分指标间无显著差异,能耗与用工成本低1.1~1.6元/kg 干烟。综合分析烘烤后烟叶的装烟量、经济性状和综合成本,采用烟筐烘烤效果较好。因此,在现有烘烤设施和烘烤技术条件下,采用烟筐装烟烘烤可以代替传统的烟杆烘烤。%To explore a proper loading modes of tobacco bulk curing barn in Hengyang tobacco-growing areas,comparative experiments about apparent quality,chemical component indicators,economic character,energy and labor costs between baking of loose leaf loading in basket and pole model loading baking was carried out.The results showed that the loaded fresh-leaf quantity,per chamber dry tobacco leaves and per chamber out-put value of loose leaf loading model baking was 11.8% ~15.9%,50.5 ~65.5 kg/champer and 804.7 ~1719.3 yuan/champer higher than that of pole model loading baking in turn.And energy and labor costs of was 1.1 ~1.6 yuan/kg (dry tobacco leaf)significant lower than that of pole model loading baking.And there was any significant difference of chemical component indicators between loose leaf loading model baking and polo model loading baking.Loading fresh-leaf quantity,economy and composite costs of loose leaf loading model baking was the best.Therefore,the loose leaf loading model baking may replace the pole model loading baking.

  18. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  19. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Soliz; Jeffrey Lim; Gang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  20. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum…

  1. BREAD BAKING DOES NOT ALTER THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF HYDROGEN-REDUCED IRON POWDER ADDED TO REFINED WHEAT FLOUR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe0 to Fe2+ or Fe3+. In the present study we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model an...

  2. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  3. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  4. Development of High vacuum facility for baking and cool down experiments for SST-1 Tokamak components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SST-1 Tokamak, a steady state super-conducting device, is under refurbishment to demonstrate the plasma discharge for the duration of 1000 second. The major fabricated components of SST-1 like vacuum vessel, thermal shields, superconducting magnets etc have to be tested for their functional parameters. During machine operation, vacuum vessel will be baked at 150 °C, thermal shields will be operated at 85 K and magnet system will be operated at 4.5 K. All these components must have helium leak tightness under these conditions so far as the machine operation is concerned. In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, in-house high vacuum chamber is fabricated. This paper describes the analysis, design and fabrication of high vacuum chamber to demonstrate these functionalities. Also some results will be presented.

  5. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  6. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (160C-300C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  7. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p gluten network and probably weakens the interaction between gluten and starch, which protects starch from digestive enzymes action. Scanning electronic microscopy microstructure of bread crumbs corroborated this statement. PMID:22621760

  8. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  9. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  10. Bake NP NP”是属于动词还是属于构式?——以使用为基础的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛保义

    2012-01-01

    本文是在认知语法的范畴化理论框架内探讨“bake NP NP”与双及物构式“V NP NP”之间的范畴化关系,发现“bake NP NP”是从动词“bake”的使用例子中概括出来的具有一定规约性的单位.“V NP NP”通过原型范畴化和图式范畴化将“bake NP NP”范畴化为“give NP NP”家族的边缘成员和“transfer NP NP”图式的一个实例.作为实例,“bake NP NP”继承了图式“transfer NP NP”的语义特征,表示“传递”义.作为“give NP NP”家族的边缘范畴,“bake NPNP”表示通过“烘烤”过程实现的间接传递.因此,“bake NP NP”是一个表示“通过烘烤实现的间接传递”义的次范畴.显而易见,“bake NPNP”既属于动词,又属于构式.

  11. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. PMID:27531451

  12. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with α95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  13. The Effect of Process Condition and SiO2 as Catalyst for the Density and the Resistivity of the Calcine Coke and Tar Pitch Mixed Pellet as 900 oC Baking Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment of the baking condition effect and SiO2 as catalyst have been done. Graphite turbo static be produced by baking of the mixed pellet ( Calcine Coke, Tar Pitch (32%) and SiO2 as catalyst). The baking have been done on the inert atmospherics (argon : 2 l/hour) and the heating rate 10 oC/minute. The baking condition and catalyst was affected for density and resistivity. There was little bit density change with densification phenomena. The graphite resistivity was more decrease with the increasing of heating and the longer baking time. The baking condition for produce turbo static graphite with resistivity 2100 Ωμm and density 1.4 gram/cm3 was 900 oC, 3 hours for baking time and optimal adding catalyst SiO2 0.5 %. (author)

  14. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range. PMID:27041660

  15. Studies on Characteristic Baking Technologies of Flue-cured Tobacco Variety G80%烤烟G80特色烘烤工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓东; 李帆; 陈坤; 夏向京; 龙世平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore a characteristic baking technology for highly efficient using curing barn. [Method]The experiment aimed to compare energy cost, economic benefit, chemical composition, starch converting of three kinds of flue-cured tobacco after baking by dint of quantified baking technology (Ⅰ), mild yellow high baking technology (Ⅱ), and high temperature yellow humid backing technology (Ⅲ). [ Result] Ⅱ baking technology had less energy cost for per kilogram drying tobacco than I baking technology, and the energy cost reduced by 0.58 yuan/kg (central leaves of dry tobacco) and 0.12 yuan/kg ( upper leaves of dry tobacco) , respectively. Ⅲ baking technology had most economic benefit than other baking technologies, and the economic benefit of Ⅲ baking technology increased by 0.10 yuan/kg (central leaves of dry tobacco) and 0.15 yuan/kg ( upper leaves of dry tobacco) respectively. There were same starch converting tendency in three baking technologies, and the starch converting rate of B Ⅲ baking technology was the highest(27.53% ) , but CⅡ was least(14. 69% ). However, converting rate of CⅡ baking technology was the most radical (4. 5%) after baking, and converting rate of BⅠ baking technology was the least radical (6.15% ) after baking. [Conclusion] By comparison, it was found that II had relative lower energy cost while Ⅲ baking technology had most e-conomie benefit.%[目的]探索能够高效利用新型烤房的烟叶烘烤工艺.[方法]采用量化烘烤工艺(Ⅰ)、中温变黄高湿定色烘烤工艺(Ⅱ)和高温变黄高湿定色烘烤工艺(Ⅲ)烘烤烟叶,对3种烘烤工艺的能耗成本及其烤后烟叶经济效益、化学成分、淀粉转化情况进行比较分析.[结果]采用Ⅱ烘烤能耗成本较低,比Ⅰ分别降低0.58元/kg(中部叶干烟)、0.12元/kg(上部叶干烟).采用Ⅲ烤后烟叶经济效益最高,比Ⅰ分别提高了0.10元/kg(中部叶干烟)和0.15元/kg(上部叶干烟).3种工

  16. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  17. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind

    1998-11-01

    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  18. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

    2003-12-15

    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  19. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Red and Yellow Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds as Affected by Baking and Cooking Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Brend; Liel Galili; Hana Badani; Ran Hovav; Shmuel Galili

    2012-01-01

    Seeds with colored testa (seed coat) contain high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds that exhibit high levels of antioxidant activity. Common processing procedures, such as cooking and baking, decrease the levels of these bioactive compounds and consequently, overall antioxidant activity. Here, the effects of baking and cooking processes were examined on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and ferric-reducing ability of plasma antioxidant activity (FRAP AA) of re...

  20. Structure optimization of the dispensing house in a combustion train for a thermal bake-out aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengbo; CHANG Baolong; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Binghuai

    2003-01-01

    The fume bake-out aluminum reduction cell is a novel technology possessing such advantages as easy control for the speed of heating-up, well-distributed temperature, and little cathode and anode oxidation. The key equipment of fume bake-out is a combustion train whose one important part is a dispensing house. This work deals with the numerical model and the flow and temperature fields of the dispensing house, which suggests that uniformity of flow and energy distribution is influenced by the position, shape and direction of the nozzle and cross dimension of dispensing house mainly, but is less influenced by entry speed The parameters of the dispensing house structure are optimised to satisfy the requirements for a combustion train in fume bakeout, and appropriate dimensions are obtained for a dispensing house structure.

  1. Accumulation of Protein Fractions during Grain Filloing of Wheat Genotypes Differing in Protein Content and Baking Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiaobing; LiWenxiong; 等

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of protein fractions was analyzed on developing and mature wheat grains of three cultivars differing in protein content and baking quality.There was a slight difference in the accumulation of cytoplasmic proteins in the cultivars used.The high yield but low protein cultivar showed a consistent decline of protein content during grain filling but the high-protein cultivars increascd their psotein contant after 25 days post-anthesis.The accumulation of storage proteins was different from that of cytoplasmic protein.and there were also cultivar variations,However,all cultivars reached their.Maximum-synthesizing capacity for storage proteins at maturity.The relationship between the protein fractions or their ratio and baking quality was also discussed.

  2. Processing of Potato Chips by Microwave Baking%微波加工马铃薯片的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宽; 潘明

    2001-01-01

    Potato chips are produced by microwave baking, its flavor isimproved with the maceration of pineapple juice,scalding time and macerating time of potato flakes is 3 minutes and 30 minutes respectively,the concentration of adding sugar in pineapple juice is 4%~8%.The time of microwave baking is 110~130 seconds.%采用微波烘烤技术加工马铃薯片,并辅以菠萝汁浸渍来提高产品风味。试验结果表明:马铃薯片的热烫时间为3分钟,在菠萝汁中的浸渍时间为30分钟,加糖浓度4%~8%较为适宜,微波烘烤时间在110秒~130秒之间

  3. 浅谈“三段六步式”烘烤工艺效果评价%Effect Evaluation of "Three Phases and Six Steps" Baking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伯军; 李昆

    2013-01-01

    比较了三段六步式和三段式烘烤工艺烘烤烟叶的经济指标、外观质量、化学成分、评吸品质的差异,结果表明:无论是外观质量,还是烤后烟叶的经济价值,三段六步式均优于传统的三段式烘烤工艺,因而更加适用于重庆烟区特色烟叶的烘烤.%The author compared the economic indicators, appearance quality, chemical compositions, smoking quality of flue - cured tobacco leaf between "three phases and six steps" baking process and "three phases" baking process. The results indicated that; as compared with "three phases" baking process, "three phases and six steps" baking process could obtain good appearance quality and high economic value of flue - cured tobacco leaf. Thus, this baking process was more suitable for the tobacco leaf baking in Chongqing tobacco - growing area.

  4. Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1 after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2 was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS, ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb.

  5. Strain Limit of Extra Galvannealed Interstitial-Free and Bake Hardened Steel Sheets Under Different Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Narayanasamy; N L Parthasarathi; R Ravindran; C Sathiya Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    The formability of bake hardened steel (thickness 0.82 ram),and the extra galvannealed IF steel (thickness 0.82 ram) have been studied.The suitability of the above steels for forming applications has been critically examined.The microstructure,tensile properties,and formability parameters of the above sheet metals were determined.The manufacturing process of the steels and the significance with reference to its formability were studied.

  6. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo sa...

  7. Use of bio-enriched yeast and stability of its vitamin D2 in wheat dough baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosa, Bogale N

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the basic vitamins required by our body for maintaining stable health conditions and to have stronger bone structure. In countries where there is shortage of sunlight exposure (like in Northern European countries) the oral intake of vitamin D either from dietary source or from supplementing tablets is very essential. This study aimed to analyze stability of vitamin D2 originating from bio-enriched yeast in baking process and...

  8. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H. P. S.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blend...

  9. Amino Acid Composition and Structure of Cheese Baked as a Pizza Ingredient in Conventional and Microwave Ovens

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Alenka; Kalab, Miloslav

    1988-01-01

    Amino acid compositions of stirred-curd Mozzarella, stretched Mozzarella, and process Cheddar cheeses were similar and did not change as the result of baking in a conventional oven. D-glutamic acid (D0Glue) and D-phenyl-alanine (D-Phe) were present at low concentrations in all cheese samples, the lowest concentrations having been found in unbaked stirred-curd Mozzarella cheese (2.7% D-Glu of total Glu present and

  10. The challenges faced when starting from scratch: baking GRI G4 sustainability reporting into existing organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Multanen, Juho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY, ACADEMIC BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: This study focuses on the process of introducing the trendy GRI G4 sustainability reporting standard in a Finnish chemical company and how this is done. The purpose of this single case study is to deepen our understanding on the challenges and tensions that actors dealing with reporting must handle and turn to their advantages. What empowers them to tackle these challenges, who are they exactly, and how have they baked the MA-...

  11. Creating value-added cereal-based baked products: marketplace offer, laboratory-designed goods, and revisited local products

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growing interest in well-being and healthy lifestyle, the increasing awareness of the relationship between non-communicable diseases and unhealthy diet, as well as the increasing prevalence of food intolerances have boosted the production of an increasing number of novel goods in both gluten-containing and gluten-free products market. The overall objective of this thesis was to create cereal-based baked products with added value with respect to those currently available o...

  12. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph p...

  13. Evaluation of heating performances and associated variability of domestic cooking appliances (oven-baking and pan-frying)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparison with those in industry, domestic cooking processes are rarely studied with respect to heat transfer although they can drastically modify the quality of heated products. In order to compensate for this lack of information in the literature, the aim of this work was to propose test procedures to evaluate the variability of domestic appliance heating performances in the case of oven-baking and pan-frying. The measurements included the continuous recording of pan temperature during pan-frying using different types of hobs (electric, halogen, gas, induction) and pans; the continuous recording of air temperature and measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient and equivalent radiative temperature during oven-baking using different types of ovens. The results revealed broad variations in heating conditions depending on the type of appliance used and on consumer behaviour. For pan-frying, it was shown that pan temperature varied constantly during heating. From an initial value of 200 °C and a given product load, it could fall to 150 °C or rise to 330 °C at medium or high heat, respectively. For oven-baking, heating was sometimes performed at an actual air temperature that differed considerably from the air temperature set on the oven. These measurements also showed relatively low convective heat transfer coefficient values, ranging from 6 W/m2 K under free convection to 16 W/m2 K under forced convection. -- Highlights: • Domestic oven baking and pan-frying are thermally chracterised. • Quantitative data on the variability of domestic heating conditions are given. • Variability due to domestic appliances and cooking practices is very large

  14. Influence of the xanthan gum addition on the technological and sensory quality of baking products during the freezing storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 0.16% xanthan gum addition in the recipe of the bread production and its influence on the baking and sensory quality of products was monitored during the process of our research. Prepared dough was inserted in the freezing box directly (-18°C and it was stored for one, two, three, four, five and six months. When the baking process was finished, the products with xanthan gum and the products without it were compared and evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. It was found that freezing, cooling and storage of the products without xanthan gum addition influenced the volume, vaulting and general appearance of the products in a negative way and loaves of bread were evaluated as unacceptable after four months of freezing. The quality of experimental loaves of bread with xanthan gum was, even after six months of freezing storage, comparable with freshly baked products. Despite the freezing, the volume of the products had an increased value. After first month of freezing the volume increased by 28.6% and after two months of freezing it increased by 23.8% both compared to the control. The vaulting in products processed by freezing was in the required optimal level during the whole period of freezing. Sensory evaluation results of loaves of bread with xanthan gum were the best after three, four and five months of storage in a freezer, when 98 points were achieved. During the monitored period of freezing, the addition of 0.16% of xanthan gum markedly contributed to the preservation of sensory and baking quality of the frozen wheat dough.

  15. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  16. TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six ceramics and two baked soil samples collected from the famous Xian Terracotta Army Site have been dated by using fine grain (2-8 μ) thermoluminescence (TL) technique. Five samples of pottery sherds exhibited peak TL at about 2750C and 3950C gave the TL age ranges from 2.13 ± 0.14 ka to 2.25 ± 0.14 ka and a mean TL age of 2.20 ± 0.15 ka, with a good plateau in the range of 290-4000C. Another sample, however, showed a larger peak at 3650C and could not be dated because of serious fading. TL ages of 1.93 ± 0.13 ka and 2.20 ± 0.19 ka have been also obtained from the baked soil samples with a plateau between 300 and 3500C. The TL dates of the ceramics and baked soil are consistent with C-14 dates on charcoal samples taken from the same layer in Xian Terracotta Army Site. It is consistent with other evidence that the Terracotta Army figures were made about 2200 yr ago and that the site burned down soon afterwards. (author)

  17. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

  18. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions from baking: an unrecognized anthropogenic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F; Horst, Axel; Carrizo, Daniel; Holmstrand, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide (CH3Cl and CH3Br) are the largest natural sources of chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. We report the anthropogenic production of CH3Cl and CH3Br during breadbaking, and suggest this production is an abiotic process involving the methyl ester functional groups in pectin and lignin structural polymers of plant cells. Wide variations in baking styles allow only rough estimates of this flux of methyl halides on a global basis. A simple model suggests that CH3Br emissions from breadbaking likely peaked circa 1990 at approximately 200tonnes per year (about 0.3% of industrial production), prior to restrictions on the dough conditioner potassium bromate. In contrast, CH3Cl emissions from breadbaking may be of similar magnitude as acknowledged present-day CH3Cl industrial emissions. Because the mechanisms involve functional groups and compounds widely found in plant materials, this type of methyl halide production may occur in other cooking techniques as well. PMID:26878644

  19. Half-Baked Logo Microworlds as Boundary Objects in Integrated Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chronis KYNIGOS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of fragmentation of the communities involved in the design of digital media for education. It draws on the experience gained at the Educational Technology Lab in the design of Logo-based microworlds with three different platforms respectively based on component computing, 3D game engines and 3D navigation with a GIS. In this paper I use the term half-baked to describe a microworld which is explicitly designed to engage its users with changing it as the main aspect of their activity. I discuss this kind of microworld as a tool for integrated design involving people with diverse expertise and/or roles to communicate. These kinds of microworlds implicitly exist within the community, but they can be explicitly designed mediated and put to use in the role of facilitators for integrated design and development to enable a growing communication amongst researchers, technicians, teachers and students. A template for presenting microworlds which was constructed through the experience with four such integrated communities is used to describe for each respective case the design principles, the affordances, the histories of development and the variety of emergent microworlds.

  20. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. PMID:26304439

  1. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. PMID:24837596

  2. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pcoconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response. PMID:27102847

  3. Improvement of Mutant Wheat for Baking Quality Using Marker-assisted Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivars carrying the alleles HMWx2 and HMWx5 were classified according to results of SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel. Based on SDS-PAGE results we made crosses between Bezostaya, Enia, Tajan, Chamran, Pishtaz as pollinators (with high bread making quality) and Tabasi mutant lines (low bread making quality, but with other desirable traits) as recipient parents. F1 and F2 plants subsequently obtained from F1 hybrids were planted in a greenhouse. Selection for high baking quality was performed using an STS marker related to Glu1D (subunits 5+10) that showed a sharp band (450bp) in all genotypes that have 5+10 subunits. The identification of Glu-D1 HMWx5 carrier genotypes is more straightforward at the gene than at the gene product level. Furthermore, in all blind experiments, including a wide array of wheat genotypes, the PCR system correctly detected the presence of the Glu-D1 HMWx5+y10 pair. F2 individuals that had this allele were selected and planted in the field in April 2007. Selection of F3 individuals was done according to agronomical traits such as earliness, vigor and yield components, such as seed number per spike, weight of seed per spike, etc. (author)

  4. Improvement of mutant wheat for baking quality using marker assisted selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was conducted in the Molecular marker lab.Of nuclear agriculture Dep.In Agriculture Medicine and Industry, Research School. Cultivars carrying the alleles HMWx2 and HMWx5 were classified according to results of SDSPAGE in ploy acryl amid gel. A cording SDS-PAGE results we made crosses between Bezostaya, Enia, Tajan, Chamran, Pishtaz as pollinators (with high bread making quality) and Tabasi mutant lines( low bread making quality, but have desirable traits), as recipient parents. F1 plants were planted on greenhouse, subsequently F2 Plants that obtained from F1 hybrids were planted in greenhouse. Selection for high baking quality were performed using STS Marker, related to Glu1D (subunits 5+10).This marker showed a sharp band (450bp) in all genotypes that have 5+10 subunits. The identification of Glu-D1 HMWx5 carrier genotypes is more straightforward at the gene rather than at the gene product level. Furthermore, in all blind experiments including a wide array of wheat genotypes the PCR system correctly detected the presence of the Glu-D1 HMWx5+y10 pair. F2 individuals that having this allele selected and in April 2007 were planted in field condition.Selection of F3 individuals considered according to some agronomical traits such as earliness, vigor and yield component such as seed no per spike, weight of seed per spike, etc. (author)

  5. Release of MEMS devices with hard-baked polyimide sacrificial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand Azad, Javaneh; Rezadad, Imen; Nath, Janardan; Smith, Evan; Peale, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Removal of polyimides used as sacrificial layer in fabricating MEMS devices can be challenging after hardbaking, which may easily result by the end of multiple-step processing. We consider the specific commercial co-developable polyimide ProLift 100 (Brewer Science). Excessive heat hardens this material, so that during wet release in TMAH based solvents, intact sheets break free from the substrate, move around in the solution, and break delicate structures. On the other hand, dry reactive-ion etching of hard-baked ProLift is so slow, that MEMS structures are damaged from undesirably-prolonged physical bombardment by plasma ions. We found that blanket exposure to ultraviolet light allows rapid dry etch of the ProLift surrounding the desired structures without damaging them. Subsequent removal of ProLift from under the devices can then be safely performed using wet or dry etch. We demonstrate the approach on PECVD-grown silicon-oxide cantilevers of 100 micron × 100 micron area supported 2 microns above the substrate by ~100-micron-long 8-micron-wide oxide arms.

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  7. Baking and Adjustment of 66 m Natural Gas Tunnel Kiln Produced by Swindell Dressier International Company%66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘烤与调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏兴; 刘剑

    2011-01-01

    Reasonable baking system was propitious to extending the life of tunnel kiln.Checking and preparation before baking, method and notice for baking was introduced into the baking and adjustment of 66 m natural gas tunnel kiln produced.%合理的烘调制度,有利于延长隧道窑的使用寿命。笔者主要从烘调前的检查准备工作、烘调方法及烘调注意事项等几个方面对66m美国SD天然气隧道窑的烘调过程进行综述。

  8. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747742

  9. Physical and hydraulic properties of baked ceramic aggregates used for plant growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Jones, Scott B.; Daidzic, Nihad E.; Reddi, Lakshmi N.; Xiao, Ming; Tuller, Markus; Newman, Rebecca M.; Or, Dani; Alexander, J. Iwan. D.

    2005-01-01

    Baked ceramic aggregates (fritted clay, arcillite) have been used for plant research both on the ground and in microgravity. Optimal control of water and air within the root zone in any gravity environment depends on physical and hydraulic properties of the aggregate, which were evaluated for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particle size distributions. The maximum bulk densities obtained by any packing technique were 0.68 and 0.64 g cm-3 for 0.25-1-mm and 1-2-mm particles, respectively. Wettable porosity obtained by infiltration with water was approximately 65%, substantially lower than total porosity of approximately 74%. Aggregate of both particle sizes exhibited a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of inter-aggregate macropores and intra-aggregate micropores, with the transition from macro- to microporosity beginning at volumetric water content of approximately 36% to 39%. For inter-aggregate water contents that support optimal plant growth there is 45% change in water content that occurs over a relatively small matric suction range of 0-20 cm H2O for 0.25-1-mm and 0 to -10 cm H2O for 1-2-mm aggregate. Hysteresis is substantial between draining and wetting aggregate, which results in as much as a approximately 10% to 20% difference in volumetric water content for a given matric potential. Hydraulic conductivity was approximately an order of magnitude higher for 1-2-mm than for 0.25-1-mm aggregate until significant drainage of the inter-aggregate pore space occurred. The large change in water content for a relatively small change in matric potential suggests that significant differences in water retention may be observed in microgravity as compared to earth.

  10. Technology and Practice of Ferroalloy Online Baking Process%铁合金在线烘烤技术及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰升文

    2012-01-01

    The principle and scheme of ferroalloy baking process were researched and discussed. Ferroalloy online baking program was formulated. And the ferroalloy online baking process was optimized and realized. Practices showed that ferroalloy could be baked to highter than 300℃, average tapping temperature dropped by 50.4℃ with baked ferroalloy, and tapping temperature drop was lowered by 4.9℃.%对炼钢厂铁合金烘烤的原理和方案进行研究和探讨,初步制定了铁合金在线烘烤工艺方案,并对铁合金在线烘烤工艺进行优化改造,实现了铁合金的在线烘烤.实践表明:铁合金可烘烤至300℃以上,利用烘烤的铁合金料可使平均出钢温度降低50.4℃,出钢温降降低4.9℃.

  11. Experimental study on Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening sheet steel hot-rolled in the ferrite region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ping Chen; Yong-lin Kang; Ying-min Hao; Guang-ming Liu; Ai-ming Xiong

    2009-01-01

    A Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening sheet steel hot-rolled in the conventional austenite region and in the fer- rite region with lubrication was experimentally studied. Subsequent cold rolling and continuous annealing processes were also con-ducted. The results show that microstructures of ultra-low carbon bake hardening hot strips at room temperature are basically irregu-lar polygonal ferrites. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, n value, and r value of the No.2 specimen hot-rolled in the ferrite region with lubrication are 243 MPa, 364 MPa, 0.29, and 1.74, respectively, which are similar to those of the No.1 specimen hot-rolled in the conventional austenite region. The elongation rate and bake hardening value of No.2 specimen are 51% and 49.4 MPa, respectively, which are greater than those of No. 1 specimen. The No.2 specimen hot-rolled in the ferrite region with lubrication exhibits good mechanical properties and relatively excellent baking hardening performance. Therefore, the hot rolling experiment of Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steel in the ferrite region with lubrication is feasible and can be considered in the fu-ture industrial trial production.

  12. The multi-objective decision for baking process parameters of carbon anode%炭阳极焙烧工艺参数多目标决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琳; 李晓斌

    2016-01-01

    The multi-objective fuzzy decision is applied to optimize the technological parameters of baking. The authors analyzed the correlation between the technological parameters and the quality parameters in baking process, and used the technological pa-rameters of baking as the decision theory domain. According to the quality parameters of carbon anode which are as index function, it gets the optimal technological parameters, and optimizes the temperature curve of baking. This method creates the conditions for improving the quality of carbon anode, realizing the optimized control effect in consumption reduction, energy saving, and emission reduction of baking process.%研究将多目标模糊决策方法应用到炭阳极焙烧工艺参数优化中,通过分析焙烧过程中工艺参数与质量参数的相关性,以焙烧工艺参数为决策论域,炭阳极的质量参数为指标函数决策得到最优焙烧工艺参数,优化了焙烧曲线。该方法为提高炭阳极生产质量,实现炭阳极焙烧过程中的降耗、节能及减排等方面的优化控制创造条件。

  13. 焙烤仔猪教槽料的研制%Study on the baked piglet feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永富; 李亮; 穆玉云; 刘荫亭

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to research on the production process and feeding effect of baked piglet feed (BPF), therefore to develop a novel piglet feed product to ensure the successful weaning. The baking process was optimized at first. The loss ratio of lysine was minimum (8.25%) in the baked product when baking at 170 for 18 min. Then the baked product was fed to piglets. The intake speed for the BPF was significantly increased. Meanwhile, the feed intake for the BPF was 2 times of that for the traditional particulate feed (TPF), testing with the suckling piglets at the age of 7 to 20 days. Furthermore, the growth performance of the BPF also improved greatly. When testing with the suckling piglets at the age of 17 to 22 days, the average daily feed intake for the BPF was 11.1 g/head, 10 times higher than that for the TPF, and the average daily weight gain was 50 g/head higher than that for the TPF, indicating its high feed conversion ratio. Most importantly, for the piglets on day 1 postweaning, the feed intake for the BPF reached 139.95 g/head, 2 times higher than that for the TPF, which means that the nutrition intake exceeds the maintenance requirement, so piglets did not lose weight after weaning, but gain weight. These results demonstrated that the loss of lysine in the baking process had been effectively controlled, and two difficult problems of unwilling to eat feed during suckling and lose of weight after weaning have been successfully solved by the BPF.%试验旨在研究仔猪焙烤教槽料生产工艺及其对仔猪诱食和生长性能的影响,开发出能够确保仔猪成功离乳的新型仔猪教槽料产品.通过对焙烤工艺优化,在焙烤温度170℃、焙烤时间18 min时,焙烤产品赖氨酸损失最少,损失率为8.25%.诱食性试验证明,焙烤教槽料能使刚断奶仔猪采食速度明显加快;偏食性试验结果表明,在哺乳期7~20日龄内,焙烤教槽料的饲料摄入量是传统颗粒料的2倍;哺乳仔猪生

  14. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments. PMID:26365625

  15. Effects of semolina replacement with gluten-free ingredients on properties of poultry baked pâtés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effects of semolina replacement with millet flakes and corn grits on selected properties of poultry pâtés. Yield after baking, moisture and fat contents, colour values (L*, a*, b*, and compression force were investigated. Sensory analysis was also conducted. Most of pâté chemical and physical characteristics (except higher compression force in the case of pâté with corn grits did not differ significantly. Most of sensory properties of pâtés with corn grits were scored higher compared to products with millet flakes.

  16. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  17. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  18. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-03-16

    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking

  19. Beyond baking soda: Demonstrating the link between volcanic eruptions and viscosity to all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Walters, R. L.; Harpp, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Public interest in volcanic eruptions and societal relevance of volcanic hazards provide an excellent basis for successful earth science outreach. During a museum-based earth science outreach event free and open to the public, we used two new interactive experiments to illustrate the relationship between gas content, magma viscosity, and eruption style. Learning objectives for visitors are to understand: how gas drives volcanic eruptions, the differences between effusive and explosive eruption styles, viscosity's control on gas pressure within a magma reservoir, and the role of gas pressure on eruption style. Visitors apply the scientific method by asking research questions and testing hypotheses by conducting the experiments. The demonstrations are framed with real life examples of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980), providing context for the scientific concepts. The first activity demonstrates the concept of fluid viscosity and how gas interacts with fluids of different viscosities. Visitors blow bubbles into water and corn syrup. The corn syrup is so viscous that bubbles are trapped, showing how a more viscous material builds up higher gas pressure. Visitors are asked which kind of magma (high or low viscosity) will produce an explosive eruption. To demonstrate an explosive eruption, visitors add an Alka-Seltzer tablet to water in a snap-top film canister. The reaction rapidly produces carbon dioxide gas, increasing pressure in the canister until the lid pops off and the canister launches a few meters into the air (tinyurl.com/nzsgfoe). Increasing gas pressure in the canister is analogous to gas pressure building within a magma reservoir beneath a volcano. The lid represents high-viscosity magma that prevents degassing, causing gas pressure to reach explosive levels. This interactive activity is combined with a display of an effusive eruption: add vinegar to baking soda in a model volcano to produce a quick-flowing eruption. These

  20. Validation of Baking To Control Salmonella Serovars in Hamburger Bun Manufacturing, and Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Nonpathogenic Surrogate Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Holmgren, Elizabeth S; Michael, Minto; Sevart, Nicholas J; Milke, Donka; Schwan, Carla L; Krug, Matthew; Wilder, Amanda; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Milliken, George

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for hamburger buns to destroy Salmonella serovars and to determine the appropriateness of using nonpathogenic surrogates (Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for in-plant process validation studies. Wheat flour was inoculated (∼6 log CFU/g) with three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium, Newport, or Senftenberg 775W) or with E. faecium. Dough was formed, proofed, and baked to mimic commercial manufacturing conditions. Buns were baked for up to 13 min in a conventional oven (218.3°C), with internal crumb temperature increasing to ∼100°C during the first 8 min of baking and remaining at this temperature until removal from the oven. Salmonella and E. faecium populations were undetectable by enrichment (>6-log CFU/g reductions) after 9.0 and 11.5 min of baking, respectively, and ≥5-log-cycle reductions were achieved by 6.0 and 7.75 min, respectively. D-values of Salmonella (three-serovar cocktail) and E. faecium 8459 in dough were 28.64 and 133.33, 7.61 and 55.67, and 3.14 and 14.72 min at 55, 58, and 61°C, respectively, whereas D-values of S. cerevisiae were 18.73, 5.67, and 1.03 min at 52, 55, and 58°C, respectivly. The z-values of Salmonella, E. faecium, and S. cerevisiae were 6.58, 6.25, and 4.74°C, respectively. A high level of thermal lethality was observed for baking of typical hamburger bun dough, resulting in rapid elimination of high levels of the three-strain Salmonella cocktail; however, the lethality and microbial destruction kinetics should not be extrapolated to other bakery products without further research. E. faecium demonstrated greater thermal resistance compared with Salmonella during bun baking and could serve as a conservative surrogate to validate thermal process lethality in commercial bun baking operations. Low thermal tolerance of S. cerevisiae relative to Salmonella serovars limits its usefulness as a surrogate for process validations

  1. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Xian; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Woods, Rachelle; Breksa, Andrew P; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert

    2012-08-15

    The addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5 and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and tomato-based film-forming solutions and 0.5 and 0.75% cinnamaldehyde (active ingredient of cinnamon oil) to apple-based film-forming solutions on sensory properties of cooked chicken wrapped with these films. Paired preference tests indicated no difference between baked chicken wrapped with tomato and apple films containing 0.5% carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde compared to chicken wrapped with tomato or apple films without the plant antimicrobials. The taste panel indicated a higher preference for carvacrol-containing tomato-coated chicken over the corresponding apple coating. There was also a higher preference for cinnamaldehyde-containing apple films over corresponding carvacrol-containing wrapping. Films containing antibacterial active compounds derived from essential oils can be used to protect raw chicken pieces against bacterial contamination without adversely affecting preferences of wrapped chicken pieces after baking. PMID:22831761

  2. Pre-treatment to Improve the Bake-hardening Response in the Naturally Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Hui Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes pre-treatment methods to improve the bake-hardening response of naturally aged AA6022 (Al-0.6Mg-1.0Si), which is an alloy used in automotive body panels. These methods are used to accelerate the artificial aging process, which proceeds 30-day period of natural aging. The precipitation behavior of the sheets of this aluminum alloy was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrical conductivity measurements, and subsequently confirmed by microstructure observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tensile tests and microhardness measurements were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the samples. Under simulated paint-baking conditions (30 min at 170℃), the microhardness and the yield strength (YS) of the pre-strained + pre-aged samples were found to be 113 HV and 225 MPa, respectively. These values are considerably higher than those of pre-aged samples, and they did not decrease significantly during the initial stage of artificial aging.

  3. The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (yoghurts and baked beans) on plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J A; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1997-04-01

    The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (strawberry yoghurt and baked beans) on plaque acidogenicity was investigated using plaque sampling with a 'Beetrode' electrode. Six varieties of yoghurt, four varieties of baked beans and positive and negative control solutions of 10 per cent sucrose and sorbitol, respectively, were tested on six volunteers, selected according to the guidelines agreed at the San Antonio Conference of 1985. Plaque was harvested immediately before a one minute challenge with the test condition and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. Parameters investigated were minimum plaque pH reached after a one minute consumption/rinse of the test food or control solution, maximum drop in plaque pH and 'area of the Stephan curve below pH 6.5'. An Acidogenic Potential Index was calculated for each test food and the results did not suggest a linear relationship between sucrose concentration in a food and acidogenic potential. PMID:9448797

  4. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material. PMID:12537419

  5. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  6. THE INULIN AND OLIGOFRUCTOSE EFFECT ON QUAL­ITY PARAMETERS OF BAKING PREMIUM WHEAT AND RYE FLOUR AND PRESSED BAKER’S YEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Koryachkina, S.; Matveeva, T.; Akhmedova, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expediency of inulin and oligofructose use as an additive giving the bread functional properties, the effect of inulin and oligofructose on quality parameters of baking premium wheat and rye flour and pressed baker’s yeast was investigated.

  7. Analysis and solution to the cavity defect of baked pruducts%焙烧品空头缺陷分析及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪伟; 陈磊

    2014-01-01

    The cavity defect of baked products is one of the main quality problems in the first-baking process technology, which often happens in domestic manufactures. It has a significant influence on the first-baking production yield, and the quality index in-cluding the structure, strength, electric resistance and functional performance of finished products. According to years of experience in solving the cavity defects in first-baking products, the causes were analyzed and the solutions were put forward.%石墨电极一次焙烧过程中空头缺陷是主要质量问题之一,其对一次焙烧成品率,成品结构、强度、电阻率等质量指标及产品使用性能有明显影响。根据多年对一次焙烧空头问题解决经验对该问题进行分析及提出新的解决措施。

  8. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. PMID:23993492

  9. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lin; D. Knol; M. Menéndez-Carreño; W.A.M. Blom; J. Matthee; H.G. Janssen; E.A. Trautwein

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  10. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  11. 焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺含量测定分析%A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN BAKED WHEAT GERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志成; 任文明

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  12. Study on the Best Baking Technology of Frankincense by Orthogonal Test%正交法优选乳香最佳烘制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素连; 蒋孟良; 陈卫红; 蒋晓煌

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to select the best baking process of frankincense. Methods Taking the indexes of stimulating components, peak area and number of essential oil and irritant test (hyp ere mia and hydroncus in rabbit eye),baking temperature, time, thickness, diameter of Frankincense were optimizated by orthogonal design test. Results The best baking technology were A2B3C1D1, diameter of Frankinceuse 0. 5 cm, thickness 1 cm, 120 ℃ baking for 2 h. Conclusion The baking method was reasonable, simple, feasible and high efficiency, it can provide a certain reference for mass - production.%目的 优选乳香烘制法的最佳炮制工艺.方法 以刺激性成分挥发油的总峰面积、峰数目和刺激性试验(兔眼充血与水肿)等4个评价指标,采用正交试验法,对温度、时间、放置厚度、药材直径等4个因素的水平进行优选.结果 乳香最佳烘制工艺为A2B3C1D1,即乳香直径0.5 cm,放置1 cm厚,120 ℃烘制2 h o结论优选出的炮制工艺合理、简单、可行、效率高,可为大规模生产提供参考依据.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical properties, thiamine and riboflavin contents,dough properties and baking quality of the flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation at the doses of 0.25,0.50,0.75,1.00 and 1.25 kGy on two flour samples with distinct technological properties was investigated in this study.The sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease but falling number and wet gluten content did not change to an important extend as the radiation level increased. Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased with irradiation. Dough development time and stability values decreased but no apparent changes were observed in other farinogram and extensogram parameters as radiation levels increased.The baking quality of the samples irradiated at higher doses(over 1.00 kGy) deteriorated in both flours as radiation levels increased

  14. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of air flow and temperature distribution in a small scale bread-baking oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the thermal air flow distribution in a 3-zone small scale forced convection bread-baking oven are undertaken. Following industrial bread-making practise, the oven is controlled at different (constant) temperatures within each zone and a CFD model is developed and validated against experimental data collected within the oven. The CFD results demonstrate that careful selection of the flow model, together with implementation of realistic boundary conditions, give accurate temperature predictions throughout the oven. The CFD model is used to predict the flow and thermal fields within the oven and to show how key features, such as regions of recirculating flow, depend on the speeds of the impinging jets.

  15. Estimation of energy saving thanks to a reduced-model-based approach: Example of bread baking by jet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a reduced order mechanistic model is proposed for the evolution of temperature and humidity during French bread baking. The model parameters are identified using experimental data. The resulting model is then used to estimate the potential energy saving that can be obtained using jet impingement technology when used to increase the heat transfer efficiency. Results show up to 16% potential energy saving under certain assumptions. - Highlights: ► We developed a mechanistic model of heat and mass transfer in bread including different and multiple energy sources. ► An optimal control system permits to track references trajectories with a minimization of energy consuming. ► The methodology is evaluated with jet impingement technique. ► Results show a significant energy saving of about 17% of energy with reasonable actuator variations

  16. 不锈钢烤花装饰工艺%Decoration and Baking Process for Stainless Stell Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光震

    2000-01-01

    As the living standards of the people have improved constantly,the stainless steel household utensils are indispensable for daily use in placement of aluminium products.The paper expounds how to decorate the stainless steel containers for increasing additional value.It also introduces the design of decal paper for stainless steel utensils and its baking decoration process.%随着人们生活水平的不断提高,不锈钢器皿逐步取代铝制品成为家庭生活中不可缺少的日用器具。就如何装饰不锈钢器皿,增加其附加值进行了论述,详细介绍了不锈钢装饰贴花纸的设计制作及不锈钢器皿贴花烤烧工艺的具体操作。

  17. Investigation on synthesis of a low cost no-bake furan resin system with a high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weihua; Liu Shiyang; Li Yingmin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a low cost no-bake furan resin with a high strength was researched in this paper. Through the analysis of main factors influencing the strength of furan resin, an orthogonal experiment was conducted to optimize synthesis of urea-formaldehyde furan resin with 3% nitrogen. The critical factors and their optimal levels were confirmed, and high strength property was obtained. Subsequently, some active substitute materials, including polyols A agent, methyl alcohol, mother liquid of xylitol, polyols B agent and ethanol, were used for partly substitution of furfural alcohol, the main material component of furan resin. A good combination of the substitute materials was determined to achieve a high strength, and the overal proportion of substitute materials to the resin is 20%. In this study, the substitution mechanism on furan resin was also characterized and analyzed by IR.

  18. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  19. STUDY ON THE PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR PRE-BAKED FROZEN BREAD DOUGH%预烤冷冻面包面团加工工艺参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晨丽; 陈洁; 王春; 吕莹果

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effects of pre-baking conditions, such as water amount, proofing time, pre-baking temperature, and pre-baking time on the quality of pre-baked frozen bread dough by measuring the specific volume, texture(TPA) and other indexes of baked bread. The optimum conditions were as follows;water amount 50% , proofing time 135 min, pre-baking temperature 165℃ , and pre-baking time 10 min.%通过测定复烤面包后的比容、质构( TPA)、感官等各项指标,研究了不同加水量、醒发时间、预烤温度、预烤时间等加工条件对预烤冷冻面包面团品质的影响.确定其制作的最佳工艺:加水量50%、醒发时间135 min、预烤温度165℃、预烤时间10 min.

  20. Optimisation of the energy efficiency of bread-baking ovens using a combined experimental and computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A scientific framework for optimising oven operating conditions is presented. ► Experiments measuring local convective heat transfer coefficient are undertaken. ► An energy efficiency model is developed with experimentally calibrated CFD analysis. ► Designing ovens with optimum heat transfer coefficients reduces energy use. ► Results demonstrate a strong case to design and manufacture energy optimised ovens. - Abstract: Changing legislation and rising energy costs are bringing the need for efficient baking processes into much sharper focus. High-speed air impingement bread-baking ovens are complex systems using air flow to transfer heat to the product. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is combined with experimental analysis to develop a rigorous scientific framework for the rapid generation of forced convection oven designs. A design parameterisation of a three-dimensional generic oven model is carried out for a wide range of oven sizes and flow conditions to optimise desirable features such as temperature uniformity throughout the oven, energy efficiency and manufacturability. Coupled with the computational model, a series of experiments measuring the local convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) are undertaken. The facility used for the heat transfer experiments is representative of a scaled-down production oven where the air temperature and velocity as well as important physical constraints such as nozzle dimensions and nozzle-to-surface distance can be varied. An efficient energy model is developed using a CFD analysis calibrated using experimentally determined inputs. Results from a range of oven designs are presented together with ensuing energy usage and savings

  1. 无铝多效泡打粉在面制食品中的应用%Application of Aluminium-free Multiple-effect Baking Powder in Wheat Flour Food Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜炤; 许喜林; 蒋清君; 何松; 段慧琴

    2012-01-01

    将研制的Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型无铝泡打粉与市售的含铝泡打粉A、无铝泡打粉B和C应用到磨堡蛋糕、甜馒头和油条中,通过比较及分析其产品的感官、比容、质构等特性,确定研制的泡打粉的性能.结果表明、研制的Ⅱ型泡打粉在所有产品中都能起到比较好的作用,在蛋糕(2%)、馒头(2.5%)、油条(3.5%)产品中的比容分别为2.65 mL/g、1.76 mL/g、4.11 mL/g,同时质构特性各指标达到或优于市售泡打粉的产品水平,具有较好的应用前景.%Two new aluminum-free baking powders (named as baking power Ⅰ and Ⅱ) and three commercially available baking powder (including aluminum-containing baking powder A, aluminum-free baking powder B and C) were applied to the baked cake, the cooked sweet steamed bun and the deep-fried dough sticks. The performances of the tested baking powders were determined through analyzing and comparing the products' senses, specific volume and texture by using different baking powder. The results showed that the baking powder Ⅱ could work better in all tested wheat flour food products. Its specific volumes of cake (2%), sweet steamed bun(2.5%), deep-fried dough sticks (3.5%) were 2.65 mL/g, 1.76 mL/g and 4.11 mL/g, respectively. The texture characteristics of the baking powder are close or superior to those of commercially available baking powder.

  2. Study on process of Inner mongolia traditional meat products-baking lamb chop%内蒙古传统肉制品-烤羊排制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海英; 李正英

    2015-01-01

    以8~10月的小尾寒羊分割肋骨为试验材料进行烤制,研究其最佳的烤制温度及时间。结果表明,羊排烤制的最佳工艺是先低温后高温的烤制方法,最佳工艺参数是先在110℃下烤制60 min,然后在170℃下烤制40 min,此工艺条件下烤制出的羊排烤香浓郁,无焦苦味,口感好,易嚼碎。%This experiment selected split ribs of 8~10 mouths ' Small Tailed Han Sheep as test materials to bake , and focused on research of the best baking temperature and time. The results show that the best baking technological process is first baking for 60 min under 60℃low temperature, and then baking for 40 min under 170℃. The products under the process are full of baking flavour, without caramel flavour and easy to masticate.

  3. Quantification of bovine β-casein allergen in baked foodstuffs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jingshun; Ke, Xing; Lai, Shiyun; Tao, Baohua; Yang, Jinchuan; Mo, Weimin; Ren, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of allergens in food including baked food matrices is of great interest. The aim of the present study was to describe a non-immunologic method to quantify bovine β-casein using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Eight of 10 theoretical peptides from β-casein after tryptic digestion were compared and MRM methods were developed to determine five signature peptides. The ...

  4. Wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking: A case study of a domestic agricultural industry adapting to overseas competition. Report to the foundation for Research Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pickford, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking industries (henceforth, for the sake of brevity, 'the industries') are closely interrelated in various ways. [...] In New Zealand most wheat is grown to be milled into flour, with individual farmers usually contracting directly with particular millers for sale of their crop prior to sowing the seed. As the country is not self-sufficient in wheat, the local crop has to be supplemented by substantial imports, mostly from Australia. The bulk of t...

  5. Coupling between heat and mass transfer and stoechio-kinetic models to bring insight into Maillard reaction kinetics during baking of sponge-cake products

    OpenAIRE

    Pénicaud, Caroline; Broyart, Bertrand; Goujot, Daniel; COUREL, Mathilde; Meyer, Xuân Mi; Bonazzi, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Penicaud11coupling The objective of this work is to present the methodology used to bring insight into interactions between heat and mass transfer phenomena (within the heating product and between the product and its environment) and the extent of Maillard reaction (influenced by the variations of local values of product moisture content, temperature and reactants concentration) during baking of a sponge-cake type bakery product. Therefore, a heat and mass transfer model coupled with a sto...

  6. Perbedaan Laju Aliran Saliva Sebelum Dan Sesudah Berkumur Dengan Larutan Baking Soda Pada Pasien Hipertensi Dengan Xerostomia Di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Diny

    2014-01-01

    Perbedaan Laju Aliran Saliva Sebelum dan Sesudah Berkumur Dengan Larutan Baking Soda pada Pasien Hipertensi Dengan Xerostomia di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan.xi + 35 halaman Hipertensi adalah meningkatnya tekanan darah sistolik lebih tinggi atau sama dengan 140 mm Hg serta tekanan darah diastoliknya lebih tinggi atau sama dengan 90 mm Hg atau ketika seseorang sedang mengonsumsi antihipertensi untuk mengontrol tekanan darah. Beberapa golongan dari obat antihipertensi mempunyai efek samping xero...

  7. Baking soda and salt in bakeries of Mehrdasht (Najafabad), Isfahan, Iran: a survey on a typical rural population in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    REZAIIMOFRAD, M.; RANGRAZ JEDDI, F.; AZARBAD, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background. Bread is a valuable source of proteins, minerals and calories. Baking soda prevents the absorption and digestion of bread and more salt used in production of bread also causes different diseases. This study was conducted to determine the amount of soda and salt in bakeries. Method. Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 50 bakeries district during 2009. 400 samples were collected in four steps randomly. The standard PH < 6.2 indicative of no consumption of ba...

  8. The impact of raw materials and baking conditions on Maillard reaction products, thiamine, folate, phytic acid and minerals in white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Robert, Nathalie; Branlard, Gérard; Thebault, Jacques; Librere, Sarah; Jacquot, Sylvain; Mardon, Julie; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès; Chapron, Sophie; Chatillon, Antoine; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a white bread with improved nutrient contents and reduced levels of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products such as N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Assays were carried out through a full factorial experimental design allowing the simultaneous analysis of four factors at two levels: (1) wheat flour extraction rates (ash content: 0.60%-0.72%), (2) leavening agents (bakers' yeast - bakers' yeast and sourdough), (3) prebaking and (4) baking conditions (different sets of time and temperature). The baking conditions affected HMF and CML as well as certain mineral contents. A reduced baking temperature along with a prolonged heat treatment was found to be favourable for reducing both the CML (up to 20%) and HMF concentrations (up to 96%). The presence of sourdough decreased the formation of CML (up to 28%), and increased the apparent amounts of calcium (up to 8%) and manganese (up to 17.5%) probably through acidification of the dough. The extraction rate of flours as well as interactions between multiple factors also affected certain mineral content. However, compounds like folate, thiamine, copper, zinc, iron and phytic acid were not affected by any of the factors studied. PMID:26974195

  9. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin. PMID:19007497

  10. Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, P; Singh, V; Gupta, M K; Kumari, V; Shrivastav, R; Ramanamurthy, M; Dass, S

    1997-01-30

    Studies were conducted in order to assess the level of aluminium (Al) in samples of Indian tea, coffee, toothpaste, paan masala (mouth freshener) and baking powder. Leaching of Al from cookware while preparing tea and coffee was also studied. Experiments were also conducted to study the sequential leaching of Al from cookware by preparing tea and coffee in the presence of standard size Al sheets (coupons). A small amount of Al was found to have leached from coupons during preparation of tea. Tea leaves, were found to be a rich source of Al and a maximum of 2.2% Al is extracted in tea infusions. Coffee powder on the other hand was not found to be a rich source of Al. Baking powder was found to be a rich source of Al and 1 kg of cake prepared with 1-3 teaspoon of baking powder may contain 2-12.7 mg of Al in each serving (25 g). Toothpaste also contains a significant quantity of Al, more so, when packed in Al tubes. Ingestion pattern of Al from these items by humans is also discussed. PMID:9092078

  11. Reconstitution baking tests with defatted wheat flour are suitable for determining the functional effects of lipase-treated wheat lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffarczyk, Monika; Østdal, Henrik; Matheis, Olivia; Jekle, Mario; Koehler, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A microscale reconstitution baking test, using wheat flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C, was established to determine the functional effects of lipids isolated from lipase-treated wheat dough. Proper selection of solvent and extraction temperature was of major importance to maintain the functionality of defatted flour. Dough and gluten from flour defatted with water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB; extracted at 20 °C) and 2-propanol (extracted at 75 °C) had inferior extensibility and loaf volume compared to control flour extracted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Quantitation of gluten proteins showed that defatting with WSB (20 °C) or 2-propanol (75 °C) decreased the gliadin and increased the glutenin content. Possible reasons were thiol-disulfide interchange reactions, caused either by heat (2-propanol, 75 °C) or by the solvent WSB, which affected gluten proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that regular, interconnected gluten structures were only present in dough from flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. PMID:26830576

  12. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level. PMID:24082269

  13. Selection of Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality by Using PCR (STS Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in the Agriculture, Medicine and Industry Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute of Iran in 2005-2006, through Polymerase Chain Reaction by using Sequence Tagged Site (STS) method, to characterize in terms of bread quality of some wheat mutant genotypes (Roshan, Omid, Tabasi, Azar and Azadi), their parents and other cultivars such as Chamran, Enia, Bezostaya, Tajan, Pishtaz and Chinese spring. Twelve pairs of primers were used in this study; seven of them were extracted from the literature and the others were designed from the D genome subunites sequences of wheat. Some studies on drought resistance, salt resistance, etc., have been done for these mutant genotypes, some of them showing good results. However, their baking quality has not been studied before. The alleles Dx2+Dy12 (with negative effect on bread quality) and Dx2*, Dx5+Dy10 (with positive effect on bread quality) had the main effect on wheat bread quality. Special primers of these subunits were used to amplify these alleles. Except for the cultivars that had Dx5+Dx10, six mutant genotypes whose parents did not have these alleles (T-66-58-60, Ro-5, Ro-4, Ro-3, Ro-1 and O-64-1-10), showed Dx5+Dx10. SDS-PAGE analyses showed no contradictory results with molecular experiments. Significant differences were seen on protein percentage for polymorphic mutant genotypes, Ro-1 , Ro-3 and Ro-5 with Roshan (their parent), at 1% probability level. (author)

  14. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  15. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. PMID:25040090

  16. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  17. Ergonomics, automation and logistics: practical and effective combination of working methods, a case study of a baking company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Leonardo; Arias, Claudia; Cordoba, Jorge; Moroy, Magda; Pulido, Jean; Ramirez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to combine three different analytical methods from three different disciplines to diagnose the ergonomic conditions, manufacturing and supply chain operation of a baking company. The study explores a summary of comprehensive working methods that combines the ergonomics, automation and logistics study methods in the diagnosis of working conditions and productivity. The participatory approach of this type of study that involves the feelings and first-hand knowledge of workers of the operation are determining factors in defining points of action and ergonomic interventions, as well as defining opportunities in the automation of manufacturing and logistics, to cope with the needs of the company. The study identified an ergonomic situation (high prevalence of wrist-hand pain), and the combination of interdisciplinary techniques applied allowed to improve this condition in the company. This type of study allows a primary basis of the opportunities presented by the combination of specialized methods of different disciplines, for the definition of comprehensive action plans for the company. Additionally, it outlines opportunities for improvement and recommendations to mitigate the burden associated with occupational diseases and as an end result improve the quality of life and productivity of workers. PMID:22317728

  18. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-01

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was <100 ng/mL. The measurements from this method were used in the value-assignment of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384. PMID:15161179

  19. Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S; Domingo, M V

    1985-12-01

    Forty-five harvests corresponding to the two predominating domestic species of amaranth in Mexico were studied. The proximate analysis revealed some statistically significant differences throughout three years of observation. The Ca, P and Fe content did not vary greatly in 15 samples. No chemical differences were either manifested in the Mercado and Aztec types of A. hypochondriacus, nor in the Mexican type of A. cruentus. The latter exhibits a higher grain yield and a shorter life cycle; however, its baking quality is apparently inferior to that of the Mercado type of A. hypochondriacus. The heat treatment of the seeds (toasting, popping and cooking) affected protein and lysine contents as does in cereals and leguminous seeds although toasting in particular improves its sensory characteristics without altering digestibility and PER. Popping only improves PER. Heating at 90 or 170 degrees C for three to five minutes, at the usual seed's moisture rate of 6 to 15%, does not affect protein content and does so only slightly in the case of the fatty acids content. Amylographic and farinographic values of the starchy fractions indicate similarities to C. quinoa and differences with respect to wheat. In the case of "amaranth milk", viscosity and gelatinization temperature produced satisfactory values. The extension of amaranth cultivation in the country is hereby suggested in view of the seed's nutritional quality, and considering the behavior of whole amaranth flour and its fractions. PMID:3842924

  20. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer. PMID:26435311

  1. 阳极焙烧温度场的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation on Temperature Field of Carbon Anodes during Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀慧

    2012-01-01

    The heat transfer mathematical modes for carbon anodes baking process were established to simulate the influence of baking curves on the process of raising temperature, finishing baking temperature and the difference in temperature between inside and outside of carbon anodes on FLUENT 6.3 software. The results show that the mathematical modes are reasonable because the simulated results of temperature raising rate is much close to the measured results in carbon anodes. The temperature raising curves of carbon anode-central gradually move to right, the finishing baking temperature gradually rise, and the difference in temperature between inside and outside of carbon anode decreases with the increase of fire cycle time when the other parameters are constant. The temperature raising rates rise in each baking phases increases, the soaking time decreases and the operating difficulties increases with the fire cycle time reducing.%以FLUENT 6.3为计算平台,建立了阳极焙烧温度场的计算模型,采用数值模拟的方法研究了不同焙烧曲线对阳极升温过程、终焙温度和内外温差的影响.结果表明:数值模拟结果与实测值极为接近,所建模型具有较高的可信度.在其它参数一定的条件下,随火焰周期的延长,阳极表面和中心的升温速率变小,终焙温度升高且出现的位置后移,阳极内外温差缩小,阳极内部温度均匀性得到改善;随火焰周期的变短,阳极在各焙烧阶段的平均升温速率增大,保温时间减少,操作参数的控制难度增大.

  2. Bake-hardening behavior of low silicon TRIP steel with niobium%含铌低硅TRIP钢板烘烤硬化行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 张冬梅; 岳明明

    2014-01-01

    模拟汽车板的烘烤工艺,研究了预变形量、烘烤温度和烘烤时间等对含铌低硅T RIP钢板组织和性能的影响,探讨了T RIP钢的烘烤硬化机理。结果表明,当预变形量小于4%时,烘烤硬化值随预变形量增大而增加,预变形量大于4%时反而降低了烘烤硬化效应;当烘烤温度低于170℃时,随烘烤温度的上升,烘烤硬化值明显增加,当烘烤温度高于170℃时,烘烤温度对烘烤硬化值影响不大;当烘烤时间在20 m in以内时,随烘烤时间的延长,烘烤硬化值显著增加,烘烤时间超过20 m in时,烘烤硬化值随烘烤时间的延长反而有所降低。通过对TRIP钢的烘烤硬化机理分析,建立了烘烤硬化值变化模型:ΔYBH =ΔYγ+ΔYb+ΔYγc+ΔYdp+ΔYc ,其中沉淀析出碳氮化物数量和Cottrell气团数目变化引起的ΔY dp+ΔYc对烘烤硬化值变化影响相对显著。%In order to simulate baking process of automobile steel sheet ,baking treatment experiments at different pre-strains ,temperatures and times were carried out on low silicon TRIP steel with Nb . T he variation of the microstructures and bake-hardening values of the experimental steel during bak-ing treatment was investigated ,and the bake-hardening mechanism of TRIP steel was discussed .A model of variation of the bake-hardening value was built as follows :ΔYBH = ΔYγ + ΔYb+ ΔYγc+ΔYdp+ ΔYc ,in which effects of ΔYdp and ΔYc on the variation of the bake-hardening value (ΔYBH) are relatively strong ,which are the yield strength variations caused by the amount of carbide precipi-tation and Cottrell atmosphere .

  3. Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test%正交试验法优选郁金的醋制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石典花; 苏本正; 孙立立; 张军; 曲永胜

    2011-01-01

    目的:优选郁金最佳醋制工艺.方法:以内在质量(姜黄素含量)和传统外观质量为指标,采用L9(34)正交试验,对闷润时间、炒制温度、炒制时间3个因素进行考察.结果:优选的最佳醋制工艺为取净郁金片,加10%的醋,拌匀,闷润10 min,130℃炒制10 min.结论:优选得到的郁金醋制工艺合理可行,可用于指导醋郁金的规范化生产.%Objective: To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. Method: The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (34 ). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. Result: The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 ℃ and the stir-baking time was 10 min. Conclusion: The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  4. Selection of wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality by using PCR (STS method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For considering the bread quality of some mutant genotypes (Roshan, Omid, Tabasi, Azar and Azadi) with their parents and some other cultivars like (Chamran, Enia, Bezostaya, Tajan, Pishtaz and Chinese spring) this study accomplished in the Agriculture, Medicine and Industry Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute of Iran in 2005-2006 through Polymerase Chain Reaction by using Sequence Tagged Site (STS) method. Twelve pairs of primers were used in this study. Seven pairs of them were extracted from the references and the others were designed from the D genome subunits sequences of wheat. Some studies like drought resistance, salt resistance, etc, have been accomplished for these mutant genotypes that some of them showed good results in that studies but there were not any studies about baking quality on these genotypes. The alleles Dx2+Dy12 (with negative effect on bread quality) and Dx2*, Dx5+Dy10 (with positive effect on bread quality) have the main effect on wheat bread quality. Special primers of these subunits were used to amplify these alleles. Except for the cultivars that had Dx5+Dx10, six mutant genotypes T-66-58-60, Ro-5, Ro-4, Ro-3, Ro-1 and O-64-1-10 that their parents did not have these alleles, showed Dx5+Dx10. Also for being assured of the results of molecular experiment, SDS-PAGE method was accomplished which there were not any contradictory results. Significant differences were on protein percentage for mutant genotypes that have polymorphism, showed in Ro-1 , Ro-3 and Ro-5 with Roshan (their parent) at 1% probability level. (author)

  5. Effect of the addition of hydrocolloids on the rheological and baking properties of the products with added spelt flour (Triticum spelta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the evaluation of the effect of additives on the rheological properties of composite flour made of wheat flour in the amount of 70% and spelt flour at 30%. As additives guar gum (0.5% by weight of flour and xanthan gum (0.16% by weight of flour were used. Properties of produced control dough and doughs with hydrocolloids were evaluated by means of rheological appliances by Farinograph, Extenzograph, Amylograph and Rheofermentometer. Based on the observed results it can be concluded that the addition of xanthan gum has a positive effect on increasing of farinographic water absorption capacity, extension of dough development time and dough stability and generally positively affected farinographic properties. The addition of guar gum has improved especially extensographic properties as extensographic energy and extensographic resistance. Based on amylographic evaluation of control doughs and doughs with additives it can be stated that in the dough with guar gum the amylographic maximum has slightly increased. Hydrocolloid guar gum contributed to an increased retention capacity of dough observed. Based on our measurements we can indicate that addition of guar and xanthan gum contributed to an increased rheological quality of doughs prepared with addition of flour from spelt wheat. With reference to the baking experiment it was found that the use of hydrocolloids has a positive effect on the improvement of the baking properties, in particular larger volume, specific volume, and the volume yield of the dough with the addition of guar and xanthan gum compared to the control. Our results showed that aditives significantly influenced rheological qualities of dough and a baking quality of products. These findings thus allow optimizing the recipe in order to increase the technological quality of leavened bakery products.

  6. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air humidity during baking caused a decrease in the melting temperature of the fractions of fats used in the process, compared to fats from pastries baked in dry air. This may be indicative of a product with a high degree of unsaturation in the lipid fraction.

    Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el tipo de grasa utilizada en el horneado de mantecadas tienen una influencia evidente en las propiedades de la fracción lipídica y una correlación entre estas propiedades (acidez, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados. Para grasas bajas en trans la correlación entre la acidez y el índice de peróxido es inversamente proporcional, para grasas conteniendo trans esta correlación fue directamente proporcional. Un aumento de la humedad del aire durante el horneado causa una disminución de la temperatura de fusión de las fracciones de grasas utilizadas en el proceso, en comparación con las grasas de repostería horneadas en aire seco. Esto puede indicar la presencia de productos con alto grado de insaturación en las fracciones lipídicas.

  7. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products. PMID:26697919

  8. O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的特性研究%Properties of special oils for O/W baking release agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马传国; 汪鸿; 刘会娟; 苗海卿

    2013-01-01

    O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂作为一种乳化油脂有着特殊的性质.研究了各实验因素对O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的粘连率、液滴直径和黏度的影响,分析O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的脱模性和稳定性.结果表明,在Tween80-单甘酯比例1∶4,Tween80-单甘酯添加量3%,乳化时间1min,油水比例4∶6,乳化温度70℃,搅拌速率10 000 r/min,酯化磷脂添加量3%,黄原胶添加量0.30%的条件下,O/W型焙烤专用脱模剂的液滴直径最小,为1.39 μm,黏度为5 090 mPa·s,焙烤蛋糕和面包粘连率均为O,粒度分布较均匀,体系较稳定.%O/W baking release agent as an emulsified fat has special properties. Effects of experimental factors on adhesion rate, droplet diameter and viscosity of O/W baking release agent were investigated and the release ability and stability of O/W baking release agent were analyzed. The results showed that when the ratio of Tween80 to monoglycerides was 1:4, Tween80 - monoglycerides dosage was 3% ,emulsion time was 1 min, ratio of oil to water was 4:6, emulsion temperature was 70 ℃, stirring rate was 10 000 r/min, acetyl phospholipids dosage was 3% and xanthan gum dosage was 0. 30% , the minimum droplet diameter was 1. 39 μm, the viscosity was 5 090 mPa · s and the adhesion rates of baking cakes and breads both were 0, which represented a stable emulsion system.

  9. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  10. Optimization of the bake-on siliconization of cartridges. Part I: Optimization of the spray-on parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are increasingly commercialized as drug/device combinations to enable self-administration. Siliconization of the inner syringe/cartridge glass barrel for adequate functionality is either performed at the supplier or drug product manufacturing site. Yet, siliconization processes are often insufficiently investigated. In this study, an optimized bake-on siliconization process for cartridges using a pilot-scale siliconization unit was developed. The following process parameters were investigated: spray quantity, nozzle position, spray pressure, time for pump dosing and the silicone emulsion concentration. A spray quantity of 4mg emulsion showed best, immediate atomization into a fine spray. 16 and 29mg of emulsion, hence 4-7-times the spray volume, first generated an emulsion jet before atomization was achieved. Poor atomization of higher quantities correlated with an increased spray loss and inhomogeneous silicone distribution, e.g., due to runlets forming build-ups at the cartridge lower edge and depositing on the star wheel. A prolonged time for pump dosing of 175ms led to a more intensive, long-lasting spray compared to 60ms as anticipated from a higher air-to-liquid ratio. A higher spray pressure of 2.5bar did not improve atomization but led to an increased spray loss. At a 20mm nozzle-to-flange distance the spray cone exactly reached the cartridge flange, which was optimal for thicker silicone layers at the flange to ease piston break-loose. Initially, 10μg silicone was sufficient for adequate extrusion in filled cartridges. However, both maximum break-loose and gliding forces in filled cartridges gradually increased from 5-8N to 21-22N upon 80weeks storage at room temperature. The increase for a 30μg silicone level from 3-6N to 10-12N was moderate. Overall, the study provides a comprehensive insight into critical process parameters during the initial spray-on process and the impact of these parameters on the characteristics of the

  11. Effects of Baking Time for Improving Aroma on the Quality of Congou Black Tea%烘焙提香时间对工夫红茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆娜; 张丽霞; 王小会; 向勤锃; 黄晓琴

    2012-01-01

    为提高工夫红茶的甜香度,本文以山东夏季鲜叶加工的工夫红茶初制品为原料,在70℃的烘温下进行不同时间的烘焙提香处理,并通过感官审评、生化成分和香气分析方法研究其对工夫红茶品质的影响,结果表明:烘焙时间的长短不仅影响工夫红茶的香型和高低,而且也影响汤色和滋味,在本试验条件下,烘焙时间以1.0~1.5h的感官品质较好;此外,烘焙时间对工夫红茶各生化成分的影响不同,但对品质有利的生化成分以烘焙1.0h的茶样含量最高;随着烘焙时间的延长,工夫红茶香气的种类、含量以及组分比值发生显著变化,从而可以解释不同烘焙时间工夫红茶香型存在差异的原因。%In order to improve the sweet flavor of congou black tea,the primary congou black tea,which was made from the summer fresh tea leaves picked in Shandong province,had been baked at 70℃ for different time.The effect of baking time on their quality was estimated by sensory evaluation,biochemical compositions determination and aroma analysis.The results showed that the baking time could affect the types and concentration of aroma as well as the liquor color,the taste of congou black tea.The sensory quality of congou black tea which was baked for 1.0 ~ 1.5 h at the temperature of 70℃,was better.There was different effect of baking time on different types of biochemical compounds.Baking 1h resulted in the high content of biochemical compounds which were beneficial to the quality of congou black tea.As the baking time increased,the types,contents and ratio of aroma compounds of congou black tea changed,which could the reason why the different baking time made different aroma of congou black tea.

  12. Atom probe analysis on interaction between Cr and N in bake-hardening steels with anti-aging properties at RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional atom probe (1DAP) analysis was performed on chromium and nitrogen added bake hardening steel sheets that have both high bake-hardenability and anti-aging properties at room temperature (RT). The atomic data of more than 2 million atoms were collected for sample steels with and without low-temperature aging after recrystallization annealing and quenching. The correlation in atomic position between chromium and nitrogen atoms in a solid solution was investigated by a statistical analysis using the binomial distribution function. In the samples with low-temperature aging, the probability that a chromium atom was observed near a nitrogen atom was significantly higher than that estimated from the null hypothesis that there was no attractive atomic interaction. This suggests that there is an attractive interaction between a nitrogen atom and a chromium atom in bcc iron, which led to the anti-aging properties at RT. In contrast, such correlation was not observed definitely in the samples without low-temperature aging, which implied that the atomic pair formation is a thermal activation process

  13. Archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence investigation of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, northern Italy: contribution to the rescue of our cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Tema

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining different dating techniques is fundamental to constrain the ages of archaeological findings, mainly when direct evidences for their chronological context are not available. This paper presents the results of a combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study of a kiln discovered during a rescue excavation at Chieri, northern Italy. The archaeological site is quite complex mainly due to the interposition of different stratigraphic levels that span from Roman times to present day. The studied kiln belongs to the post-medieval stratigraphic level but the lack of datable diagnostic objects strongly limits the possibility of its accurate dating only by means of archaeological evidences. Archaeomagnetic study was performed on 26 baked clay samples, isolating stable characteristic remanent magnetizations. The statistic comparison of the averaged direction with reference secular variation curves suggests two possible dating intervals. Independent dating from thermoluminescence study of 2 samples is consistent with the second time interval proposed by archaeomagnetism, suggesting that the kiln was abandoned at the beginning of the 17th century. The successful combination of the two independent laboratory techniques provides accurate dating of archaeological baked clays and can be used as routine for future archaeological investigations of rescue excavations.

  14. Design Experience of the Lining-baking Equipment for New 260 t Mixing Bogie with Torpedo Retort%新型260 t鱼雷罐混铁车内衬烘烤装置的设计经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薇萍

    2000-01-01

    在上海宝钢集团一钢公司2500m3高炉工程混铁车内衬烘烤装置的设计中,采用了高架金属软管供给煤气、稳焰烧嘴和计算机按预设工况进行自动烘烤的新技术,成功地将转炉煤气用于混铁车内衬烘烤作业。通过一年多的生产实践,充分显示了该装置具有结构简单、操作维护方便、安全可靠和烘烤效果好等优点。%The new techniques of overhead metallic hose for gas supply, steady-flame burner and computer-based automatic baking are atopted in the design of the lining-baking equipment of the mixing bogie for the 2500m3 blast furnace project at the First Steel Co. of Shanghai Baosteel Group Corp. ,and the gas from converter is successfully used for baking the bogie lining. Over more then one year production practice,it is shown that the equipment has simple structure,convenient operation and maintenance, reliable safety and good baking effectiveness.

  15. Using Cooking, Baking, and Cutting Terms. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.1a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with some of the terms used in recipes. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on important cooking, baking, and cutting terms. The…

  16. Effect of heating rate on the crack formation of carbon anodes during baking used in aluminum industry%升温速率对铝用炭阳极焙烧过程中裂纹形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘民章

    2016-01-01

    The quality of carbon anodes used in aluminum industry depends on the raw material properties and the manufacturing process parameters. It is one of the key factors directly related to the aluminum production cost. The degradation in anode quality such as crack formation increases the energy consumption, the environmental emissions, and the smelter’s overall operating cost. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of cracks in several industrial green anode samples during baking at different heating rates and to determine the influence of this baking parameter on the crack formation. The samples were characterized before and after baking by measuring a number of physical properties (electrical resistivity, density, etc.) which define the final quality of the anode samples. Also, techniques based on ultra-sound and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the extent of cracking after baking.%研究了不同升温速率下工业生阳极试样在焙烧过程中裂纹的形成。通过测量阳极试样在焙烧前后的一些物理性能(电阻率、密度),评价阳极试样的最终质量。另外,为了确定焙烧后的开裂程度,使用了超声波和扫描电子显微镜技术。

  17. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  18. 正交试验法优选桑白皮蜜炙工艺%Optimization of stir-baking technology for Mori Cortex with honey by orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群; 王瑾; 张会敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 优选桑白皮最佳蜜炙工艺.方法 以传统外观质量和内在质量(总黄酮量、东莨菪内酯量)为评价指标,采用L9(34)正交试验,对蜜与水比例、闷润时间、炒制温度及炒制时间4个因素进行考察.结果 桑白皮最佳蜜炙工艺为取炼蜜25 g加入37.5 g沸水稀释,淋入100g桑白皮净制饮片拌匀,闷润60 min,置炒制容器内,240℃炒制18 min,取出晾凉.结论 优选出的蜜炙工艺设计合理、结果可靠,为规范蜜桑白皮饮片生产提供了理论依据.%Objective To optimize the stir-baking technology for Mori Cortex with honey. Methods The traditional appearance and intrinsic quality (the contents of total flavonoids and scopoletin) were chosen as indexes. The four factors of the honey-water ratio, the moistening time, stir-baking temperature, and stir-baking time were investigated by L9(34) orthogonal test. Results The optimal technology was as follows: refined honey (25 g) was added to boiled water (37.5 g), and then the solution was drizzled onto the pieces of Mori Cortex (100 g), the moistening time was 60 min, the stir-baking temperature was 240 ℃, and the stir-baking time was 18 min. Conclusion The optimal stir-baking with honey technology for Mori Cortex is reasonable, which could be used to guide the standardized production of Mori Cortex stir-baked with honey.

  19. 不同烘烤工艺对烤烟感官质量的影响%Effect of Different Baking Technologies on Sensory Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建; 杨晓亮; 宋朝鹏; 张豹林; 贺帆; 吴克松; 王浩军; 汪季涛; 张国英

    2014-01-01

    The upper , middle and lower leaves of flue -cured tobacco variety Yunyan 97 were respectively baked under 7 tech-nological conditions , and the sensory qualities of the baked tobacco leaves were researched by factor analysis and comprehensive e -valuation.The results indicated that aroma quality , aroma quantity, offensive odor, physiological strength, smoke consistence, sweetness and remaining flavor had greater influences on the sensory quality evaluation .As for the correlation coefficients among 11 sensory quality indexes, 67.27%of them reached significant level .Through calculating the synthesis score (y) of sensory quality of baked tobacco leaves in different treatments according to the mathematical model y=0.58587F1 +0.26588F2 , the following conclu-sions were obtained:prolonging the baking time of lower leaves at terminal yellowing stage (42 ℃) by 8 h, prolonging the baking time of middle leaves at principal yellowing stage (38℃) by 12 h, and lengthening the baking time of upper leaves at 42℃by 20 h were advantageous to the improvement of sensory qualities of the baked tobacco leaves .%对烤烟品种云烟97的上、中、下3个部位的烟叶分别设计7个烘烤工艺条件处理,对烤后烟叶的感官质量进行了因子分析和综合评价。结果表明:香气质、香气量、杂气、劲头、浓度、甜度和余味7个指标对感官质量评价的影响较大,11个指标间的相关系数有67.27%达到显著水平。通过建立数学模型“综合得分=0.58587F1+0.26588F2”,得出:下部叶在变黄末期42℃延长8 h、中部叶在主变黄期38℃延长12 h、上部叶在42℃延长20 h有利于提高烤后烟叶的感官质量。

  20. Applications of Technology of Compound Lining of Semi—gr aphitized Self—baking Carbon Block Ceramic Brickwork in Large—sized Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYung-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the lining technologies of the hot press formed carbon brick iu U.S.A., of the ce-ramic cup in France and of the creative self-baking car-bon brick in China,the technology of semi-graphitized car-bon block-ceramic brickwork has been studied and developed ,and has successfully ben used in No.7 blast furnace (2580m3) at Anshan Irom and Steel Company and in No.3 blast furnace (1200m3) at Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company,This paper puts fourward a feasible scheme for realization of long service lives of the bootms and the hearths of large-sized blast furaces in China.

  1. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  2. Influence of baking on the photoluminescence spectra of In1-x Gax Asy P1-y solid solutions grown on Inp substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of thermal treatments on the photoluminescence spectra of In1-x Gax Asy P1-y epitaxial layers of various compositions grown by LPE on In P substrates has been studied. To prevent the epitaxial layers from degradation, due to phosphor evaporation during the baking, their surface was covered by spin-on SiO2 layers. The photoluminescence spectra did not change for solid solutions whose compositions were near In P and InGaAs. For compositions in the middle of the lattice-matched region, the variations were very noticeable because the appearance of additional peaks in the luminescence spectra. This could be related to the decomposition of those solid solutions whose compositions lie inside a theoretically predicted miscibility gap. (Author)

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of bake-out heating jackets for the LHC vacuum components

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of bake-out heating jackets for the LHC vacuum components. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ELTHERM (DE), the lowest bidder, for the supply of heating jackets for a total amount of 711 567 euros (1 120 646 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with an option for up to 15% additional heating jackets for an additional amount of up to 106 735 euros (168 097 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 818 302 euros (1 288 743 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. 2006/68/5/e

  4. 液体大麦精在面包烘焙中的应用%Application of Liquid Malt Extract in Bread Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龄; 丁文平; 曹银

    2009-01-01

    研究了液体大麦精的不同添加量对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量.研究发现,液体大麦精的添加会改变面团的流变学性质,对面包的理化指标有所改善.经过感官品质分析可得出:液体大麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的风味和内部结构.同时,面包添加液体大麦精,延缓了面包的陈化速率,延长了面包的保质期.试验结果显示,大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量为蔗糖替代量的60%.%The effects of liquid malt extract in different addition dose on the rheological characteristics of wheat dough and bread baking performance were studied, a bread preservation test was carried out, and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated. Results indieate that adding the malt extract to wheat dough changes the theological characteristics of dough and improves the performance in bread baking. The sensory evaluation proves that the bread quality is improved by a proper addition of malt extract, especially the bread taste, flavor and inner textural structure. Furthermore, the stale rate of bread is reduced and bread quality assurance period is extended by the malt extract addition. The optimum addition dose of the maltextract in bread produetion is 60% substitution amount of sugar.

  5. Seleção de refratários para fornos de cozimento de anodo Refractories selection for anode baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a produção mundial de alumínio tem aumentado e para as empresas continuarem competitivas torna-se necessário que a média do custo de produção do metal seja reduzida. Uma das alternativas é aumentar a vida útil dos refratários usados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, bem como a sua capacidade de produção. Ambas estratégias podem resultar em maior qualidade do anodo e redução no custode manutenção do forno. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentara caracterização termo-mecânica dos tijolos refratários utilizados em fornos de cozimento de anodo e a resistência destes materiais ao ataque químico. Os resultados indicam que a escolha da composição mais adequada depende de uma análise sistêmica das propriedades a alta temperatura, da resistência química e das práticas operacionais do forno.In the latest years the worldwide production of aluminum is increasing and for the companies to keep their competitiveness it is necessary to reduce the average cost of the metal production. One of the alternatives is to increase the refractories working life used in anode baking furnaces and their production capacity. Both strategies may result in a higher anode quality and reduction of the furnace maintenance costs. This paper aims to present the thermo-mechanical characterization of the refractory bricks used in anode baking furnaces and their resistance to chemical attack. The results indicated that the selection of the most suitable composition depends on a systemic analysis involving the high temperature properties, chemical resistance and the operational practices of the furnace.

  6. Seleção de refratários para fornos de cozimento de anodo Refractories selection for anode baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a produção mundial de alumínio tem aumentado e para as empresas continuarem competitivas torna-se necessário que a média do custo de produção do metal seja reduzida. Uma das alternativas é aumentar a vida útil dos refratários usados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, bem como a sua capacidade de produção. Ambas estratégias podem resultar em maior qualidade do anodo e redução no custo de manutenção do forno. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a caracterização termo-mecânica dos tijolos refratários utilizados em fornos de cozimento de anodo e a resistência destes materiais ao ataque químico. Os resultados indicam que a escolha da composição mais adequada depende de uma análise sistêmica das propriedades a alta temperatura, da resistência química e das práticas operacionais do forno.In the latest years, the worldwide production of aluminum is increasing and for the companies to keep their competitiveness it is necessary to reduce the average cost of the metal production. One of the alternatives is to increase the refractories working life used in anode baking furnaces and their production capacity. Both strategies may result in a higher anode quality and reduction of the furnace maintenance costs. This paper aims to present the thermo-mechanical characterization of the refractory bricks used in anode baking furnaces and their resistance to chemical attack. The results indicated that the selection of the most suitable composition depends on a systemic analysis involving the high temperature properties, chemical resistance and the operational practices of the furnace.

  7. Effect of heating rate on the quality of Longjing tea during baking and aroma-improving process%升温速率对龙井茶烘焙提香品质效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱作春; 汤一; 潘蓉; 胡书琴

    2013-01-01

    In the tea refining process,baking and aroma-improving technology is widely used in many kinds of dry tea to improve and stabilize the tea quality.Through baking process,not only the moisture of tea could be effectively reduced but also the harmful bacteria could be killed,which is good for preservation; furthermore,baking promotes the dehydration saccharification and isomerization of tea components which is good for tea quality by the way of reducing the bitterness,astringent taste and removing stale taste and miscellaneous taste of tea.So far,research on baking and aroma-improving technology was limited to baking temperature,baking time and so on.Considering that different heating rates in baking and aroma-improving process has different thermal effects on tea.It usually heats up faster on tea surface,but slower inside the tea due to the thermal conductivity factor,therefore,fast heating rate usually leads to uneven heating effect and to the decreases of tea quality.In this work,baking treatments with different heating rates were applied to Longjing tea,and the effects of heating rates on the tea quality were investigated.Middle and low grade Longjing teas were used as tested materials.Different baking treatments were carried out with final temperature of 110 ℃ and heating rates of 4,6 and 8 ℃/min respectively.Treatment A4 was directly heated at 110 ℃ for 45 minutes,and the unheated Longjing tea as a control.Different baking time was implemented in accordance with different heating rates to ensure that all the tea with different treatments received the same total heat.The effects of heating rate on the tea quality were estimated by sensory evaluation,quality component determination and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) for aroma analysis.The results indicated that different heating rates in baking process had obvious impact on the tea quality.Values from chemical tests showed that the slow heating rate resulted in the higher contents of amino acids

  8. 闽南乌龙茶烘焙的研究进展%The research advance of baking process in Minnan Oolong tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 孙威江

    2015-01-01

    With fierce competition, the sale of Fen-flavor Oolong tea ran to difficulty. The manufacturing of high-aroma Oolong tea becomes popular in Minnan district. The roasting process plays a critical role in shaping of flavor and improvements of tea quality. The black brown color of leaves developed from browning reactions during roasting process; baking odors came from browning reactions while the flower and fruit smell preserved and promoted in baking process; isomerizations of tea polyphenol compounds reduced the bitter and astringency taste, sugars added the sweet taste by means of decomposition and participation of browning reactions. The study on improvements of the leaf color, smell and taste of Oolong tea were reviewed in this paper, aroma and flavor substances were summarized, with the anticipation of the possible contribution to prove its chemical mechanism and provide theoretical basis and reference for further studies.%激烈市场环境下,闽南清香型乌龙茶销售陷入困境,浓香型乌龙茶开始回归,“清转浓”正如火如荼地进行。烘焙是形成浓香型乌龙茶风味的关键工艺,具有提升茶叶品质的重要作用。烘焙型茶叶通过褐化反应形成乌润色泽;烘烤香由褐化反应产生,焙火前已形成的花果香在烘焙中得以保留和提升;多酚类物质异构化减少茶汤苦涩味,糖类物质通过分解、参与褐化反应的方式增加甜醇滋味。本文对焙火提高乌龙茶色、香、味等方面品质的研究进行了综述,总结了已发现的呈香、呈味物质,为探索烘焙对茶叶品质形成的化学机制提供理论依据和参考。

  9. Obtention and characterization of gluten-free baked products Obtenção e caraterização de produtos panificados livres de glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Schamne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective the development of gluten-free breads and muffins using rice flour and maize and cassava starches. From seven samples resulting from a Simplex-Centroid design, the sensory and instrumental analyses of specific volume, elasticity, and firmness were performed. For the sensory analysis, the optimized formulation contained 50% of rice flour and 50% of cassava starch, and for the instrumental evaluation, the optimal simultaneous point for the three conducted analyses were 20% of rice flour, 30% of cassava starch, and 50% of maize starch. A comparative analysis of specific volume, elasticity, firmness, and triangular test was performed with pre-baked, baked, and frozen bread. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbiological analyses were performed for both bread and muffin according to the Brazilian legislation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de pães e bolos tipo muffin livres de glúten, usando farinha de arroz e amidos de milho e de mandioca. A partir de sete amostras resultantes de um delineamento Simplex-Centroide, foram realizadas análises sensoriais e instrumentais de volume específico, elasticidade e firmeza. Para a análise sensorial, a formulação ótima de mistura encontrada foi 50% de creme de arroz e 50% de amido de mandioca e, para a análise instrumental, o ponto ótimo simultâneo das três análises realizadas foi 20% de creme de arroz, 30% de amido de mandioca e 50% de amido de milho. Análises comparativas foram feitas para volume específico, elasticidade e firmeza, e teste triangular entre o pão assado e o pão pré-assado e congelado. Para ambos os produtos, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e nutricionais, as quais estão de acordo com a legislação vigente.

  10. 基于逆模型解耦的绿茶烘焙变论域模糊控制%Method of variable universe fuzzy control base on inverse-model decoupling for green tea baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 周国雄

    2014-01-01

    绿茶烘焙过程,伴随着复杂的物质交换和热交换,温、湿度变化耦合严重。针对这一问题该文提出了一种基于逆模型解耦的变论域模糊控制方法。采用支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)方法辨识绿茶烘焙过程,建立精度相对较高逆模型,根据试验结果,电热丝电流平均误差为4.3%,而风机转速为8.5%。将该模型并与被控对象进行串联,建立伪线性系统,实现温、湿度解耦。同时采用模糊控制器对温、湿度分别进行独立控制,同时对模糊控制器的论域进行改进,增强系统的环境适应能力。性能试验结果表明,该控制系统能够将温度误差控制在小于1.4℃,相对湿度控制误差仅为2.8%;品质试验表明,绿茶橙花叔醇成分平均提升15.2%,α-法呢烯成分平均提升17.4%,芳樟醇成分平均提升14.2%。该文方法能够有效提升绿茶烘焙过程的控制效果,提供了一种控制绿茶烘焙过程的新途径。%Baking technology is the key technology of the Green Tea refining process, and it directly affects the preservation of tea time, aroma and taste. At present, there are two ways for Green Tea baking;charcoal baking and roasting. Machine baking of charcoal, the main process by manual operation, greatly rely on the experience of workers and a low degree of standardization, but the tea quality is not stable; machine baking with an electric oven for baking is widely used, but due to the lack of systematic research, the control algorithm is simple, the temperature error is higher than 5℃, and the humidity error is greater than eight percent. Therefore, studies of one kind of advanced green tea baking process control method should be of vital significance. The key of the baking process is precise control of temperature and humidity, however, the roasting process physics, complex chemical changes, system temperature, and humidity influence each other, forming

  11. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27162406

  12. Structure and properties of a duplex coating combining micro-arc oxidation and baking layer on AZ91D Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Ming-Tian; Yang, Rui-Song; Yu, Zu-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A duplex coating (called MAOB coating) was fabricated on AZ91D Mg alloy by combining the process of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with baking coating (B-coating). The structure, composition, corrosion resistance, and tribological behaviour of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical and long-term immersion test, and ball-on-disc friction test. The results show that a dense 92 μm thick B-coating was tightly deposited onto the MAO-coated Mg alloy and exhibited a good mechanical interlock along the rough interface. Compared with the MAO-coated sample, the corrosion current density of the MAOB-coated Mg alloy decreased by two or three orders of magnitude and no corrosion phenomenon was observed during a long-term immersion test of about 500 h (severe corrosion pits were found for MAO-treated samples after about 168 h of immersion). The frictional coefficient values of the MAOB coating were similar to those of the MAO coating using dry sliding tests, while the B-coating on the MAO-coated surface significantly improved the wear resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy. All of these results indicate that a B-coating can be used to further protect Mg alloys from corrosion and wear by providing a thick, dense barrier.

  13. Researches on Bake Effect on RF Superconducting Cavities%射频超导腔的低温烘烤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建奎; 赵夔; 朱凤

    2005-01-01

    射频超导腔在高场下的Q-slope严重影响到高加速梯度的获得.研究表明100-150℃低温烘烤(Bake)对改善超导腔的Q-slope有比较好的效果.本文在大量超导腔Bake实验的基础上,对Bake进行了系统的研究.研究结果显示,电抛光(EP)超导腔经过Bake后,平均加速梯度和高Q值(1×101o)时的加速梯度均增加3.5MV/m以上,最大加速梯度时的Q值得到增加,Q-slope得到改善.对Bake温度的研究表明,在最佳Bake温度范围内,高的Bake温度能得到相对高的Q值.对比化学抛光(BCP)和EP超导腔可知,要得到好的加速性能,需要60-80μm的EP.超过10-15μm的BCP会使EP超导腔品质下降.用氧扩散模型对Bake作出了解释.

  14. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  15. Vinegar-Baked Radix Bupleuri Regulates Lipid Disorders via a Pathway Dependent on Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with VBRB or fenofibrate, once daily for further twelve weeks. VBRB (1.0 g kg−1 per day produced effects similar to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 in reducing body weight (BW gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as hepatic TG and cholesterol content of HFD-fed rats. VBRB also lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. VBRB and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1 proteins were reversed by VBRB and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs in HFD-fed rats was lowered by VBRB and fenofibrate. The results of this study show that VBRB suppresses BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely mediated via upregulation of PPARα and downregulation of SREBP expression in the liver of HFD-fed rats.

  16. Optimization of Processing Technology for Atractylodes lancea Stir-baking with Bran by Box-behnken Re-sponse Surface Methodology%Box-behnken效应面法优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 刘舸

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺。方法:以苍术素含量、水溶性浸出物得率、醇溶性浸出物得率和外观评分的综合评分为评价指标,采用Box-behnken效应面法考察所加辅料量、翻炒时间、翻炒温度对麸炒苍术饮片质量的影响,优选麸炒苍术炮制工艺参数并进行验证试验。结果:麸炒苍术最优炮制工艺为加辅料量为药材量的10%、翻炒温度140℃、翻炒时间3 min;验证试验综合评分平均值为0.39(RSD=2.88%,n=3),与预测值0.38接近。结论:采用Box-behnken效应面法优选麸炒苍术的炮制工艺合理、可行。%OBJECTIVE:To optimize the processing technology for Atractylodes lancea stir-baking with bran. METHODS:Us-ing the content of atractylodin,yield of water-soluble extract and ethanol-soluble extract,appearance score as comprehensive in-dex,the effects of excipient amount,stir-baking time and temperature on the quality of A. lancea stir-baking with bran were investi-gated by Box-behnken design-response surface method,so as to optimize the processing technology parameters of A. lancea stir-bak-ing with bran,and verification test were conducted. RESULTS:The optimized parameters were that the excipients amount was 10% medicinal material,stir-baking at 140 ℃ for 3 min;average comprehensive score of verification test was 0.39 (RSD=2.88%,n=3),which was close to predicted value 0.38. CONCLUSIONS:Box-behnken response surface method is reasonable and feasible for the optimization of the processing technology for A. lancea stir-baking with bran.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Baked Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Loaded by Different Patterns in Bulk Curing Barn%烤烟密集烤房不同装烟方式烘烤效果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张警予; 娄元菲; 王文超; 李昂; 董艳辉; 杨彦明; 贺帆; 宫长荣

    2014-01-01

    The comparative tests for the baked effect of flue -cured tobacco loaded by 3 different ways ( hanging rod , tobacco clamping, and dispersal leaf ) were carried out in bulk curing barn .The results indicated that: in comparison with the traditional hanging-rod baking , the dispersal-leaf baking could save labor and energy .The labor efficiency in tobacco -loading of hanging -rod way was basically the same as that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way , but the labor used in tobacco -weaving of the for-mer was 0.39 workers/667 m2 higher than that of the latter .The labor used in all links of dispersal -leaf way was 1.60 workers/667 m2 less than that of hanging -rod way, and 1.21 workers/667 m2 less than that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way.The energy-consumption cost in tobacco -baking of dispersal -leaf way and needle -type tobacco-clamping way was respectively 0.22 and 0.07 yuan/kg lower than that of hanging -rod way.The chemical compositions in the baked tobacco leaves loaded by tobacco -clamping way had the best harmony .The average price of baked dry tobacco leaves of needle -type tobacco-clamping way and dis-persal-leaf way was respectively 0.9 and 0.5 yuan/kg higher than that of hanging -rod way, and the medium-superior proportion of baked tobacco leaves of these two tobacco -loading ways was also higher than that of hanging -rod way .%挂竿、烟夹、散叶等3种装烟方式的烘烤对比试验表明:与传统挂竿烘烤相比,较散叶烘烤省工、节能,挂竿装烟和针式烟夹装烟环节用工效率基本一致,差异不明显,但编烟环节针式烟夹明显省工,总体节省了0.39个工/667 m2;散叶堆积较挂竿的各个环节均明显省工,散叶堆积较挂竿节省了1.60个工/667 m2,较针式烟夹节省用工1.21个工/667 m2。针式烟夹和散叶堆积较挂竿烘烤能耗成本略有降低,散叶堆积干烟较挂竿节省能耗成本0.22元/kg,针式烟夹干烟节省0.07元/kg。烟夹

  18. Job categories and their effect on exposure to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust in the U.K. baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Beckett, Paul; Griffin, Peter; Evans, Paul; Sams, Craig; Roff, Martin; Curran, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes in flour improver, in particular fungal alpha-amylase, are known to be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in the baking industry. This study measured total inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures in U.K. bakeries, mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and determined whether assignment of job description could identify individuals with the highest exposures to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust. A total of 117 personal samples were taken for workers in 19 bakeries, 2 mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and were analyzed using a monoclonal based immunoassay. Occupational hygiene surveys were undertaken for each site to assign job description and identify individuals who worked directly with flour improvers. Analysis of exposure data identified that mixers and weighers from large bakeries had the highest exposures to both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase among the different categories of bakery workers (p<.01). Currently, the maximum exposure limit for flour dust in the United Kingdom is 10 mg/m(3) (8-hour time-weighted average reference period). In this study 25% of the total dust results for bakers exceeded 10 mg/m(3), and interestingly, 63% of the individuals with exposure levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3) were weighers and mixers. Individuals who worked directly with flour improvers were exposed to higher levels of both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase (p<.01) than those who were not directly handling these products. Before sensitive immunoassays were utilized for the detection of specific inhalable allergens, gravimetric analysis was often used as a surrogate. There was a weak relationship between inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures; however, inhalable dust levels could not be used to predict amylase exposures, which highlights the importance of measuring both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures. PMID:12908861

  19. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor As levels in baked clay (known as sikor. Methods Sikor samples originating from Bangladesh were digested using a microwave digester and analysed for their As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn levels using ICP-MS. Detailed As speciation analysis was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. Results Of particular concern were the levels of As (3.8-13.1 mg kg-1, Cd (0.09-0.4 mg kg-1 and Pb (21-26.7 mg kg-1 present in the sikor samples and their possible impact on human health. Speciation analysis revealed that sikor samples contained mainly inorganic As. Modest consumption of 50 g of sikor is equivalent to ingesting 370 μg of As and 1235 μg of Pb per day, based on median concentration values. This level of sikor consumption exceeds the permitted maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of inorganic As by almost 2-fold. Conclusion We conclude that sikor can be a significant source of As, Cd and Pb exposure for the Bangladeshi population consuming large quantities of this material. Of particular concern in this regard is geophagy practiced by pregnant women concurrently exposed to As contaminated drinking water. Future studies needs to evaluate the bioavailability of As and other elements from sikor and their impact on human health.

  20. Efficiency of ascorbic acid and γ-rays to ameliorate the quality of ready-to-eat baked bolti fish fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a reducing agent, inhibits oxidative reactions developed in cold-storage Bolti (Tilapia nilotica) fish. It is the most popular fish repasts in Egypt. To determine the influence of ascorbic acid on cooking (roasting) and irradiated fish fillets to extend their storage-time in refrigerators, 3 patches of fish fillets were prepared; control (0 kGy), ascorbic acid plus 2.5 kGy and ascorbic acid plus 4 kGy and were tested for bacteriological examination, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks of cold storage at 5±1 degree C. The bacteriological examinations were total aerobic plate counts, psychotropic bacterial counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, total mould and yeast counts and microbial pathogens counts (Salmonella and Vibrio species). The chemical analyses were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), inosine 5-monophosphate (IMP) concentration, hypoxanthine (HX) concentration, ph figure, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and total trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N). The sensory evaluation was (texture and odour factors) of the cold-storage Bolti fish fillets samples. The results revealed that aerobically packed fish fillets samples treated with ascorbic acid plus 4 kGy after cooking had satisfied bacteriological, chemical and organoleptical trails. Conclusion: using of baking, irradiation combined with natural antioxidant nd refrigeration could reduce the energy requirements for freezing and costs for the marketing of ready- to-eat fish repasts. Recommendation: combination effects of γ-irradiation plus ascorbic acid in processing fish fillets help to preserve its quality. The possible strategies for improving fish fillets quality and acceptability are discussed

  1. 铝土矿生料浆烘干与烧结特性的试验研究%Test study on the Raw Slurry Baking and Sintering Feature of Aluminate Sodium Sintered Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春成

    2011-01-01

    Combining with alumina production practice by the alkali - lime sintering process, referring to foreign study achievements, the author studied the law of the viscosity, baking process and sintering feature of the raw slurry in the laboratory conditions. The test results showed that the true calcium ratio change had no effect on the viscosity of the raw slurry at the same moisture, but when the raw slurry moisture was less than 38% , its moisture and temperature increasing had a large effect on its viscosity. The slurry baking temperature in the gas suspension baking oven should be higher than 6001. Sintering temperature, the time of sintering retaining temperature, the cluster particle size and the structure consistency of the sintered material were the key to ensure a high quality of the sintered material.%在试验室条件下,参照国外研究成果,结合我国碱石灰烧结法氧化铝生产实际,从生料浆黏度变化规律、生料浆烘干过程及生料浆烧结特性等方面进行了试验.研究试验结果表明:真钙比的变化对同一水分下生料浆黏度的影响不明显,当生料将水分<38%时,生料浆水分和生料浆温度升高对生料浆黏度值影响较大;气态悬浮干燥器中料浆烘干温度应不低于600℃;熟料的烧成温度、烧结保温时间、料团粒径的大小及结构密实程度是保证熟料烧成质量的关键.

  2. 乳化剂对微波蛋糕品质的影响%Effects of emulsifier on quality of cake baked with microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 赵思明; 刘友明

    2013-01-01

    The effects of emulsifier types and dosages on the qualities of cake baked with microwave were studied. The recipe of compound emulsifier was optimized and the quality of cake was evaluated by texture analyzer and sensory evaluation. The results showed that GMS could greatly improve the texture and specific volume of cake.SE and OSA-starch represented a better ermulsification capability and compound emulsifier had a synergistic effect. The optimized recipe of compound emulsifier was;GMS 0.6%,SE 0.2% and OSA-starch 0.3%. Moreover,the cake with addition of compound emulsifier had a quality of soft texture,good bulkiness and exquisite taste.%采用微波熟化方式,研究乳化剂种类和用量对蛋糕品质的影响,优化乳化剂的配方,通过质构仪和感官品尝评价蛋糕品质.结果表明,分子蒸馏单甘酯(GMS)具有较好的起泡性和泡沫稳定性,可明显增大蛋糕比容,提高其柔软性:蔗糖脂肪酸酯(SE)和辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(OSA-starch)具有较好的乳化性能,三种乳化剂经复配后具有协同增效的作用.复合乳化剂的适宜配方为分子蒸馏单甘酯0.6%、蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.2%和辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯0.3%.添加了复合乳化剂的蛋糕的质地柔软,膨松性好,内部气孔小而均匀,口感细腻.

  3. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. . PMID:27104763

  4. Litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) enabling dual wafer flow coat/develop process and freeze CD tuning bake for >200wph immersion ArF photolithography double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczulewski, Charles N.; Rosslee, Craig A.

    2009-12-01

    The SOKUDO DUO track system incorporates a dual-path wafer flow to reduce the burden on the wafer handling unit and enables high-throughput coat/develop/bake processing in-line with semiconductor photolithography exposure (scanner) equipment. Various photolithography-based double patterning process flows were modeled on the SOKUDO DUO system and it was confirmed to be able to process both Litho-Process-Litho-Etch (LPLE)*2 and negative-tone develop process wafers at greater than 200 wafer-per-hour (wph) capability for each litho-pass through the in-line exposure tool. In addition, it is demonstrated that Biased Hot Plates (BHP) with "cdTune" software improves litho pattern #1 and litho pattern #2 within wafer CD uniformity. Based primarily on JSR Micro materials for Litho-Freeze- Litho-Etch (LFLE) the coat, develop and bake process CD uniformity improvement results are demonstrated on the SOKUDO RF3S immersion track in-line with ASML XT:1900Gi system at IMEC, Belgium.

  5. Investigation on Microwave Baking Technology for Frozen Cake%冷冻蛋糕的微波烘焙技术特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春利; 汤晓娟; 黄卫宁; 邹奇波; 甘小红; Rayas-Duarte Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The effects of frozen storage condition (0,2,4 and 6w;0,1,2 and 3c) , microwave power (40% and 100% ) and storage time on the moisture content, hardness, specific volume and soluble starch content of microwave- baked frozen batter-making corn cakes were investigated. Results showed that a significant increase in moisture con- tent and specific volume and a significant reduction of hardness of the cake with the increasing of frozen storage time; freeze-thaw cycles had a more significant effect on the properties of corn cakes. Higher microwave power lowered moisture content of the cake, increased specific volume and hardness. Moisture loss and hardness increased signifi- cantly and soluble starch content decreased with storage time. Higher microwave power increased hardness and mois- ture loss and reduced soluble starch content at a more rapidly speed. The changes of hardness was positive related to moisture loss and soluble starch content And the relative coefficients were O. 93 and O. 86, respectively.%文中对冻藏时间(0、2、4、6周)、冻融循环次数(0、1、2、3次,数字代表冻融循环次数)、微波烘焙功率(40%和100%)和储藏时间(0、1、3、6和24h)对冷冻面糊微波烘焙蛋糕含水量、硬度、比容、水分损失及可溶性淀粉含量等进行了研究。结果发现:随冻藏时间延长,蛋糕含水量和比容显著降低,硬度显著增大,冻融循环过程明显加剧了这些影响;微波烘焙功率越大,蛋糕含水量显著降低,比容和硬度显著增大。在储藏过程中,蛋糕硬度和水分损失都显著增加,可溶性淀粉含量显著减少;微波烘焙功率较大时,硬度和水分损失增加的明显更快,可溶性淀粉含量降低的明显更迅速;储藏过程中蛋糕硬度变化与水分损失、可溶性淀粉含量均成正相关,相关系数分别为0.93和0.86。结果说明:(1)较小的微波烘焙功率(40%)比较高的微波烘焙功率(100%)

  6. 烘焙温度对九龙袍品种乌龙茶生化品质的影响%Effects of Baking Temperature on Quality an d Chemical Components of Jiulongpao Oolong Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秋生; 林郑和; 陈常颂; 陈志辉; 游小妹; 陈荣冰

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the optimum baking temperature for granular shaped oolong tea processing, final firing tea was used to bake at 120℃, 100℃and 80℃, respectively. By sensory evaluation, we found that the score of Jiulongpao Oolong teas with 80℃baking temperatures were higer than other Jiulongpao oolong teas. The quality of Jiulongpao Oolong tea baked with 80℃ temperature was the best. Chemical analysis indicated that the contents of the major biochemical components of oolong tea, such as tea polyphenols, the water extract and the amino acid decreased with the increase of baking temperature, but the contents of caffeine, the total catechins and the flavonoid constituents revealed no significant differences. The contents of L-Theanine, Aspartic aicd, Serine, Glutamic acid were decreased while the content of EGC and C were increased with the raise of baking temperature. The aroma constituents of Jiulongpao Oolong tea with different baking temperature treatment were determined by HS-SPME/GC-MS. The content of alcohols, esters, ketones and nitrogenous compounds were decreased but the alkane and the vinyl compounds were increased. Concentration of aromatic constituents with aroma of flowers such as linalool, linalool oxides, nerolidol, hexanoic acid, 3-hexenyl ester, (Z)-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, hexyl ester, β-phenylethyl butyrate, benzoic acid, hexyl ester, methyl jasmonate, hexanoic acid, hexyl ester,α-Jonone, 5,9-Undecadien-2-one,6,10-dimethyl-, cis-Jasmone, indole decreased. The Hydrocarbon compounds such as β-Myrcene, Limonene, 5-Methylenecycloocta-1,3-diene, β-sesquiphellandrene, 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene, dodecane and the nitrogenous compounds such as benzyl nitrile increased distinctively.%采用九龙袍品种颗粒型乌龙茶的毛茶样为材料,在120℃(高火)、100℃(中火)和80℃(低火)3个温度下分别烘焙2 h,分析比较了不同烘焙温度对颗粒型乌龙茶感官品质、主要理化成分及

  7. Qualidade industrial do trigo em resposta à adubação verde e doses de nitrogênio Baking quality of wheat in response to green manure and nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilas Pinnow

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de adubos verdes cultivados entre a cultura do milho e a do trigo e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a qualidade industrial do trigo. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada: sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e seis manejos outonais: quatro com o cultivo de espécies de cobertura (ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e tremoço, um cultivo de feijoeiro com fins comerciais e outro com a permanência em pousio no período compreendido entre a colheita do milho e a semeadura do trigo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. O rendimento de proteína aumentou linearmente com a aplicação de nitrogênio mineral. As doses de 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio afetaram positivamente o desempenho dos parâmetros indicativos da qualidade industrial. A ervilha forrageira, o nabo forrageiro e a ervilhaca comum permitem combinar indíces de qualidade tecnológica ideais para panificação e satisfatórios patamares de produtividade de grãos, reduzindo a demanda de adubação nitrogenada mineral.The objective this study was to investigate the effects of green manures cultivated between the maize and wheat crop and nitrogen rates on baking quality of spring wheat. Treatments consisted of four nitrogen fertilization rates: without N addition, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 using the amidic form, and six managements before wheat crop: four green manures forage pea, common pea, oilseed radish and lupine, common bean grown for commercial purposes, and the fallow between the corn harvest and wheat cropping. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and factorial scheme, with three replicates. The protein yield increased linearly with the application of mineral N rates. The nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 improved the baking wheat quality. The forage pea, oilseed radish and common pea allowed ideal

  8. Qualidade industrial do trigo em resposta à adubação verde e doses de nitrogênio Baking quality of wheat in response to green manure and nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilas Pinnow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de adubos verdes cultivados entre a cultura do milho e a do trigo e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a qualidade industrial do trigo. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada: sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e seis manejos outonais: quatro com o cultivo de espécies de cobertura (ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e tremoço, um cultivo de feijoeiro com fins comerciais e outro com a permanência em pousio no período compreendido entre a colheita do milho e a semeadura do trigo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. O rendimento de proteína aumentou linearmente com a aplicação de nitrogênio mineral. As doses de 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio afetaram positivamente o desempenho dos parâmetros indicativos da qualidade industrial. A ervilha forrageira, o nabo forrageiro e a ervilhaca comum permitem combinar indíces de qualidade tecnológica ideais para panificação e satisfatórios patamares de produtividade de grãos, reduzindo a demanda de adubação nitrogenada mineral.The objective this study was to investigate the effects of green manures cultivated between the maize and wheat crop and nitrogen rates on baking quality of spring wheat. Treatments consisted of four nitrogen fertilization rates: without N addition, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 using the amidic form, and six managements before wheat crop: four green manures forage pea, common pea, oilseed radish and lupine, common bean grown for commercial purposes, and the fallow between the corn harvest and wheat cropping. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and factorial scheme, with three replicates. The protein yield increased linearly with the application of mineral N rates. The nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 improved the baking wheat quality. The forage pea, oilseed radish and common pea allowed ideal

  9. Influence of baking on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} solid solutions grown on Inp substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishurnyi, V.A.; Gorbatchev, A.Y.; Anda, F. De; Nieto N, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The influence of thermal treatments on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} epitaxial layers of various compositions grown by LPE on In P substrates has been studied. To prevent the epitaxial layers from degradation, due to phosphor evaporation during the baking, their surface was covered by spin-on SiO{sub 2} layers. The photoluminescence spectra did not change for solid solutions whose compositions were near In P and InGaAs. For compositions in the middle of the lattice-matched region, the variations were very noticeable because the appearance of additional peaks in the luminescence spectra. This could be related to the decomposition of those solid solutions whose compositions lie inside a theoretically predicted miscibility gap. (Author)

  10. EFFECT OF BAKING ON THE PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE HYGIENICAL QUALITY OF BISCUITS / EFFET DE LA CUISSON SUR LES CARACTERISTIQUES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES ET LA QUALITE SANITAIRE DES BISCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED MAMOUMI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The food safety is necessary of development of agro-food industries. We opted for the introduction of a concept to ensure a sanitary control of products-wares, including the pastry. We chose for our project three parameters as: water activity (aw, pH and moisture. Also, we defined the target values for these parameters to ensure the safety of our pastry. Otherwise, we incorporated the factor temperature to ensure complete control of safety knowing that cooking is a major industry in the pastry. We defined the temperature of microbial destruction to reduce the microbial load of the pastry after baking. This study was approved by microbiological analysis carried out on the cake having undergone the following parameters (aw, pH, moisture, temperature of microbial destruction.

  11. 烘虫温度和时间对中小型土壤动物烘虫分离效果的影响%Baking Temperature and Time on the Effect of Soil Meso-and Micro-fauna Separation Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铁烈华; 张林成; 冯茂松; 白文玉; 王玲; 何沛

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探明中小型土壤动物烘虫分离效果随烘虫温度和时间的变化特征,为中小型土壤动物的研究提供分离技术支持。【方法】采用 Tullgren 干漏斗法和 Baermann 湿漏斗法分别分离干生和湿生土壤动物,并用温控器精确控制箱体内温度,对两种林分、不同土层深度中小型土壤动物进行调查。【结果】老板山中小型土壤动物数量较庞大,且深层土壤动物多度不如浅层;深层干生和湿生中小型土壤动物分别在温度中值为34℃、32℃时烘虫分离效果最理想,而浅层土壤最好将烘虫温度控制在36℃;一般在适宜温度下整个烘虫分离过程可在18 h 内完成,且主要集中在前13 h,开始烘虫4 h 后烘虫分离效果仍然较高。【结论】烘虫分离效果随烘虫温度的变化一般呈单峰曲线规律,烘虫温度过低或者过高都会影响分离效果;烘虫分离效果与林分结构无关、与土层深度有关;烘虫时间的长短与林分结构和土壤动物的多度没有直接关系;干生土壤动物烘虫分离效果与土壤动物类别有关。%[Objective]To explore the variation characteristics of soil meso-and micro-fauna baking insect separation effect with baking temperature and time,and to provide separation technology the basis for the study of soil meso-and micro-fauna research methods.[Method]The fauna bak-ing of dry soil and wet soil were using Tullgren funnel method and Baermann funnel method re-spectively,and the thermostat was used to control cabinets temperature precisely.According to this,soil meso-and micro-fauna in two different species woodland and different soil depth were in-vestigated.[Results]The number of soil meso-and micro-fauna was relatively large,and the a-bundance on per unit area of deep soil abundance was more than shallow.While the separation re-sults of deep dry and wet soil meso-and micro-fauna were the ideal,the temperature were 34

  12. Designing polymorphic ISSR primers in order to study gene sequences x and y types glutenin subunits in 1D locus controlling favourable baking quality in elite mutant lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baking quality is one of important traits in qualitative improvement of bread wheat. Gluten prolamins determine wheat flour quality for different technological process such as bread making. Between gluten proteins, High Molecular Glutenin (HMW) group and specially, d allele in 1D locus with x-type and y-type subunits are very valuable in baking quality. In this study, amino acid sequences of x-type subunits (2.1, 2.2, 2.2*, 5) and y-type subunits (10, 12) related to 1D locus were searched, found and compared together using Genedoc software. After amino acid sequences alignment of y-type subunits and x-type subunits, it was characterized that deletion, insertion (duplication) and point mutations in these subunits involved in biological function of proteins. most important insertion and deletion mutations were 185 amino acids sequence insertion of 2.2* subunit and 102 amino acids sequence insertion of x2.2 subunit in position 486 of amino acid sequence and six amino acid sequence deletion IGQGQQ in position 203 of y10 subunit. From important point mutations can be pointed to conversion of serine to cysteine in position 118 of x 5 subunit and substitution of glutamine to histidine in position 626 of x5 subunit. Finally, polymorph ISSR primers in repetitive domains were designed on similarities and differences in subunits of x and y-types. These primers show good banding polymorphisms in elite mutant lines, standard commercial cultivars and F2 populations from crosses. (author)

  13. 针式烟夹夹烟烘烤应用效果研究%Study on Application Effect of Needle-style Tobacco Clip for Tobacco Leaf Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周孚美; 谷云松; 孟可爱

    2013-01-01

    The application effects of the needle - style tobacco clip for nipping tobacco leaf and the traditional tobacco pole for weaving tobacco leaf during tobacco leaf baking were compared. The results showed that applying the needle - style tobacco clip to nip tobacco leaf had the advantages of simple operation, less labor cost and time spending, which had 1 ~3 times tobacco - weaving speed and 2 times tobacco - unbinding speed of the traditional tobacco pole. The application of the needle - style tobacco clip could save tobacco - weaving lobar cost by 350 ~ 490 yuan per kang, decrease the cost of planting tobacco, enhance the comparative benefit of planting tobacco, and increase the total weight of fresh tobacco per kang by 20% ~ 30% . There was no significant difference in the quality of flue - cured tobacco leaf between the application of the needle - style tobacco clip and the application of the traditional tobacco pole. Thus, under the condition of the same baking barn, applying the needle - style tobacco clip to nip tobacco leaf could save the fuel cost and enlarge the planting area of tobacco as compared with using the traditional tobacco pole to weave tobacco.%比较了针式烟夹夹烟与传统烟杆编烟的装烟烘烤效果,结果表明:烟夹夹烟操作简单、省工省时,是传统烟竿编烟速度的1~3倍,是传统烟竿解烟速度的2倍,每烤次可节省编烟用工成本350~490元/炕,降低了种烟成本,提高了种烟的比较效益;每炕鲜烟总重量可增加20% ~30%,且烤后烟叶质量无明显差异,因此,在烤房相同的情况下,采用烟夹夹烟比烟竿编烟可以节省燃料成本和扩大种植面积.

  14. Effect of compound colloids on the quality of the baking jam applied in long shelf-life bread%复配胶体对长保质期面包用耐烘焙果味酱品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少梅; 郭桦; 周雪松

    2012-01-01

    Colloids applied in baking jam contained in long shelf-life bread was studied. The effects of compound colloids on the sense and taste, texture, water holding capacity of the baking jam, and the quality of the bread contained the baking jam were researched with orthogonal experiments. The results indicated that adding 0.5% Iow-methoxy pectin, 0.3% sodium alginate and 0.3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose could provide a jam with uniform texture, suitable viscosity, resistance to baking and being used in three-month shelf-life bread, as well as 0.3% sodium alginate and 0.3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.%研究了可用于长保质期面包夹心耐烘焙果味酱的胶体,通过正交试验探讨了复配胶体对耐烘焙果味酱感官、质构、保水性及含耐烘焙果味酱面包品质的影响。结果表明,以低甲氧基果胶0.5%、褐藻酸钠0.3%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.3%或褐藻酸钠0.3%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.3%,可生产出酱体均匀细腻、流散性适宜、耐烘烤,与长保质期面包配合可保存3个月的耐烘焙果味酱。

  15. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  16. 英国电视美食节目最新模式与创意趋势初探 ——以《The Great British Bake Off》等为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雨玲

    2016-01-01

    在世界最大电视节目模式输出国英国,生活服务类节目创意不断、种类丰富,收视各显神通、屡创新高.比如播出了6季的BBC《The Great British Bake Off》(英国家庭烘焙大赛),收视率竟能超越《达人秀》《x元素》这类超大型综艺节目.本文从分析英国电视美食节目最新模式入手,深刻阐述英国电视美食节目高收视的原因;从节目成功、失败两方面案例,总结电视美食类节目的制作规律,探讨这类节目的发展趋势.

  17. Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors%烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and their taste contributions, it was found that the main contributors for the bitterness of the baked green tea were EGCG and caffeine, and for the astringency were catechins and flavonoid glycosides. EGCG was the main catechin component for astringent taste, and EGC and ECG also had significant contribution. Que-rut and Que-gala were the main flavonoid glycosides, other glycosides including Myr-gala, Que-glu, Vit-rha, Kae-gala, Kae-rut, Kae-glu also had significant contribution for astringent taste. The analysis of the Dot values showed that free amino acids had no significant contribution to the umami tatste. This research preliminarily illuminated the main chemical contributors for the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and provided theory basis for the tea-quality improvement and taste-chemistry study.%对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也

  18. STUDY OF Mn AND P SOLUTE DISTRIBUTIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE TENSILE BEHAVIOR IN ULTRA LOW CARBON BAKE HARDENING STEELS%Mn和P在超低碳烘烤硬化钢中的分布形态及其对拉伸行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 史文; 何燕霖; 符仁钰; 李麟

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing requirement of vehicle weight reduction and energy conservation from automobile industry, the investigation and development of high strength steel sheet has been stressed extensively. Bake hardening steel, as a new kind of automotive steel, exhibits low strength and good formability before drawing, after which increases obviously in the yield strength during baking process, and is then widely used in the outer plate of modern cars. Mn and P are often added to sheet steel to increase the strength, and their distributions have significant effect on drawability,bake hardening property and surface quality of bake hardening steels. In this paper, the distributions of Mn and P and their effect on tensile behavior in bake hardening steels were studied. For investigation,two kinds of bake hardening steels (BH-Mn and BH-P steels) were heated to 800 ℃, held for 2 min and cooled by water quenching. Three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) technique, internal friction experiments and tensile tests were carried out to analysis the effect of Mn and P distribution patterns on the interstitial atom distribution and Cottrell atmosphere in the matrix, so as to obtain the influence of solute distributions on tensile behavior. The results indicate that P segregates mainly in bake hardening steel, and part of P segregates together with C, which strongly pin the dislocations and is the main reason that induces the yield point elongation during tensile process. In BH-Mn steel,Mn hardly segregates in the matrix and C segregates very little, so the strength of BH-Mn steel is lower than that of BH-P steel, whereas the plasticity is better than BH-P steel. The segregation of P together with C and its pinning of dislocations will influence Snoek -Ke-Koster internal friction, and makes the disappearance of Snoek-Ke-Koster peak.%将2种不同成分的烘烤硬化钢(BH-Mn钢和BH-P钢)加热至800℃,保温2 min后水淬;采用3DAP技术、内耗实验及拉伸性能检测分

  19. Desenvolvimento de uma massa funcional pronta para tortas utilizando o método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD Developing a functional ready to bake dough for pies using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Daibert Pinto

    2010-05-01

    stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria which are beneficial to the health of the body. The aim of the present work is the development of a functional ready to bake dough for pies using inulin as a prebiotic. The development of this product was based on the tool QFD (Quality Function Deployment, and it was presented as a means to organize the development of new products, especially prototypes. Hence, studies, tests, and analysis suggested by the QFD were undertaken. According to the results of the matrix of quality obtained, it can be said that the characteristics that the consumers attribute as the most important for baking dough are: be functional, do not shatter, have a neutral flavor, and present uniform diameter and thickness. Consequently these characteristics were prioritized during the development of the product. The sensorial analysis indicated that the tasters really enjoyed all the quality attributes of the dough. On the other hand, the QFD proved useful for planning and conducting the necessary activities for the process of developing the product.

  20. LML型中长链结构酯在烘焙产品中的应用%Application of LML Medium and Long-Chain Triglycerides in Baking Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源媛; 张阳

    2015-01-01

    在我国,西式点心越来越受到人们的青睐,但其加工过程使用的原料均为高热量原料,尤其是所使用的油类多含有很高的饱和脂肪,容易引起肥胖和危害人体健康。本文对几种常用食用乳化剂进行了考察,筛选出一种最佳的乳化剂,并经起酥油制备工艺将以LML型结构脂和棕榈油硬脂通过复配制备起酥油用的基料油加工成起酥油成品。通过烘焙试验制备面包,参考GB/T 20981-2007,从感官和理化性质两个方面来分析和评价起酥油的应用效果。%In our country, more and more people are in favor of western-style dessert, but those raw materials are all high quantity of heat. Saturated fat contains are very high, that easy to cause obesity and endanger human body health. Several food emulsifying agent were investigated, and the best one were selected. LML-medium-and long-chain triglycerides and palmi-toleostearin were used for prepared shortening, and applied in bread baking. Basing on GB/T 20981-2007, sensory and physic-chemical properties were analyzed.

  1. The experimental study on new type baking-free brick prepared the circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB) ash%循环流化床锅炉灰渣制备新型免烧砖的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫; 夏举佩; 周新涛

    2014-01-01

    本文以循环流化床锅炉(C FBB )灰渣为主要原料,通过实验获得了其制备免烧砖的最佳工艺配料为:石灰7%、飞灰43%、底渣30%、骨料瓜子石20%。通过蒸汽养护和自然养护对比,发现在低石灰掺量时,自然养护效果明显低于蒸汽养护,但随着石灰用量的增加,二者差异逐渐缩小,当高于7%时,检测结果基本一致,在此基础上,通过扩大性工业试验,采用自然养护方式,可生产标号为150的免烧砖砌块。%In this paper ,circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB) ash is used as the main raw material for preparing baking free brick to obtain through experiment the optimal ingredients as follows :7% lime ,43%fly ash ,30% bottom ash ,20% aggregate of oval stone .By steam curing and natural curing contrast ,we find that the effect of nature curing is significantly lower than the steam curing .But with the increasing of lime dosage ,the difference is gradually reduced .When lime dosage is higher than 7% ,the test results are basically consistent .On this basis ,unburned block labeled 150 can be produced using natural curing method through the expansion of industrial test .

  2. 小麦蛋白淀粉品质指标与面包品质关系的研究%The Relationship between Protein Quality and Starch Pasting Parameters and Bread Baking Quality in Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美芳; 赵石磊; 雷振生; 吴政卿; 晁岳恩; 徐福新; 杨攀; 杨会民; 刘加平

    2013-01-01

    parameters and bread baking quality.The parameters of GMP,SDS sedimentation value,wet gluten index and degree of softening were significantly and positively correlated with most protein quality parameters at the 0.01 or 0.05 levels.The parameters of GMP quantity,SDS sedimentation value,wet gluten index,dry gluten quantity,flour protein quantity,glutenin quantity,development time,stability were significantly and positively correlated with bread baking quality parameters at the 0.01 level.The quantity of wet gluten was significantly and positively correlated with loaf volume and loaf score at the 0.01 and 0.05 levels respectively.Both quantity of glidian and degree of softening were significantly and negatively correlated with loaf volume and loaf score at the 0.01,0.05 levels respectively.Water absorption of dough was significantly and negatively correlated with pasting temperature,final viscosity and setback at the 0.01 level.The development time was significantly and positively correlated with peak viscosity and breakdown at the 0.05 level.GMP was significantly and negatively correlated with pasting temperature at the 0.05 level.The contribution of individual parameter could be ranked for loaf volume as wet gluten index > degree of softening > development time > wet gluten quantity > pasting temperature et al and for loaf score as glutenin quantity > stability > glidian quantity > flour protein quantity > water absorption of dough et al,respectively.There existed significant correlation among quality parameters of common wheat.Wet gluten index,degree of softening and glutenin quantity,stability were important indexes to evaluate bread baking quality.The parameters of GMP or SDS sedimentation value could be determined in the early generation and the parameters of Glutomatic and Farinograph could be determined in the medium and high generations.Great attention should be paid to the importance of wet gluten index and degree of softening at the quality detection

  3. Process Optimization of Potato Flour Steamed and Baked Bread by Minitab Combined with Orthogonal Test%Minitab联用正交设计优化马铃薯粉蒸烤馒头工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松; 孙国玉; 王磊鑫; 白春启

    2015-01-01

    以高筋面粉和马铃薯全粉为主要原料,采用二次发酵工艺,研究马铃薯全粉蒸烤馒头加工工艺.以感官得分为指标,通过单因素试验,Plackett-Burman因素筛选、结合正交试验设计对生产工艺进行优化.评价了和面时间、压面次数、醒发时间、马铃薯全粉添加量、SSL添加量、GMS添加量、起酥油添加量、PGE添加量、谷朊粉添加量、黄原胶添加量10个因素对蒸烤馒头感官评分的影响.最终确定最优生产工艺为:和面时间11 min、醒发时间45 min、马铃薯全粉添加量24%、SSL添加量0.19%、GMS添加量2.7%、起酥油添加量3%、PGE添加量0.009%、谷朊粉添加量4.5%、黄原胶添加量1%.该产品具有良好的感官性状,是一种营养丰富,开发前景广阔的产品.%The processing technology of the whole flour steamed bread was studied by using the two fermentation technology of high gluten flour and potato as the main raw material. Taking the sensory score as the index, through the single factor experiment, Plackett-Burman factor screening, combined with orthogonal experimental design to optimize the production process. Evaluation stir time, knead times, ferment time, potato powder additions, SSL additions, GMS additions, shortening additions, PGE additions, wheat gluten additions, xanthan gum additions of 10 factors on effect of steaming and baking bread sensory score. Finally to determine the optimal production process: stir time 11 min , ferment time 45 min , potato powder additions 24%, SSL additions 0.19%, GMS additions 2.7%, shortening additions 3%, PGE additions 0.009%, wheat gluten additions 4.5%, xanthan gum additions 1%. This product has good sensory characteristics , is a kind of nutrition, the development prospects of the product.

  4. Curriculum Cake: Baking Your Curriculum Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Food is talked about endlessly in the media, at local, regional, national and indeed global levels. People are always wondering, therefore, about what is "good" or "right" to eat. To look for answers without giving enough consideration to trends and fashions, without thinking of the bigger picture, the implications of what people eat and how they…

  5. 环境条件与基因型对面包烘烤品质及相关流变学特性的影响%Effects of Different Environment and Genotype on Bread Baking Quality and the Correlated Dough Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵石磊; 雷振生; 林作楫; 崔党群

    2011-01-01

    The research have studied the effects of different genotype and environment on bread baking quality and dough rheological parameters. Wheat samples of high quality cultivar Zhengmai 366 collected from 34 different sites in Henan province and 15 popularized wheat varieties of different quality type were selected for study of the relation between early generation selection characters,dough rheological parameters and bread baking quality. The results indicated that the environmental effect on wheat quality mainly showed in the change of protein quantity;loaf volume was not only affected by protein quantity but also by the protein quality;much attention should be paid to the degree of softening in Farinograph, and the W value was the most important parameter in Alveograph. Therefore, quality selection in early generation for different genotype was effective,both quantity and quality of the protein were important to the bread baking quality.%以优质强筋小麦品种郑麦366在河南34个不同地点的样品和在河南有较大推广面积的15个不同品质类型的品种为材料,研究了不同基因型和环境条件对小麦面包烘烤品质和面团流变学特性的影响.分析其早代选种指标、面团流变学特性与面包烘烤品质之间的相关关系,结果表明:环境条件对小麦品质的影响主要表现在蛋白质含量的变化上;面包体积不仅受蛋白质含量影响,也与蛋白质质量有关;粉质仪参数要重视弱化度的重要性;吹泡仪参数应以W值为主.因此,利用早代品质选种指标对不同基因型的分离材料选择是有效的,提高蛋白质含量与质量对提高面包烘烤品质均有积极作用.

  6. Study of Cajal Interstitial Cells in Stomach and Small Intestine of Rats with Crude, Honey-stir-baked Radix Polyalae and its Saponins%生远志及其总皂苷与蜜远志对胃肠Cajal间质细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟峰; 王建; 刘丽娜; 肖武

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in stomach and small intestine of rats with honeystir-baked Radix Polygalae ,crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins, so as to study mechanism of crude Radix Polygalae reducing the motility disorder in gastrointestinal tract. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the distribution of c-kit positive ICC in stomach and small intestine. Results: Compared with control group, the c-kit positive ICC in stomach and small intestine of crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins groups were both markedly decreased in model group( both P < 0. 01 ), while honey-stir-baked Radix Polygalae group can not(P >0. 05 ). Conclusion:The motility disorder in gastrointestinal tract caused by crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins may be associated with the changes of ICC number in stomach and small intestine. honey-stir-baked Radix Polygalae can protect ICC in some extent.%目的:考察生远志及其总皂苷与蜜远志对大鼠胃肠Cajal间质细胞(ICC)的影响,探讨蜜炙降低生远志胃肠动力障碍的相关机制.方法:采用免疫组织化学染色法对比观察各组大鼠胃、小肠c-kit阳性ICC的变化.结果:生远志组和总皂苷组能显著降低胃、小肠肌问神经丛c-kit阳性ICC细胞的含量(P0.05).结论:生远志与总皂苷导致胃肠动力障碍的机制,可能与减少胃肠ICC相关;远志总皂苷是引起胃动力异常的主要物质基础;远志经蜂蜜炮制后从某种程度上保护胃肠ICC.

  7. 高砷煤烘玉米粉致大鼠砷中毒模型的建立%The establishment of the arsenic poisoning rats model caused by corn flour baked by high-arsenic coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂琳; 张爱华; 于春; 徐玉艳; 胡勇; 肖婷婷; 王蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish coal arsenic poisoning rat model by feeding the rats with the corn powder baked by high arsenic coal as the main raw material.Methods Fifty Wistar rats,healthy,were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the figures of their weights,including control group,drinking arsenic poisoning water group,low,medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group,10 rats for each.Rats in control group and drinking arsenic poisoning water group were fed with standard feed without any arsenic containing.Rats in water group would drink 100 mg/L As2O3 solution and the rats in arsenic grain groups would be fed with the arsenic contaminated grain at the dose of 25,50 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.The duration would last for 3 months.General situation and weight were observed.At the same time,the arsenic contents of urine,hair,liver and kidney of the rats in each group were detected,as well as the histopathology changes of liver and kidney,and the ultra structure of liver was observed.Results The arsenic contents of urine (median (min-max)) of the rats in the arsenic water group,low,medium and high arsenic grain groups were separately 3055.59 (722.43-6389.05),635.96 (367.85-1551.31),1453.84 (593.27-5302.94) and 3101.11(666.64-6858.61) μg Cr; while the arsenic contents of hair of the rats in the above groups were separately (23.07 ± 10.38),(8.87 ± 3.31),(12.43 ±6.65) and (25.68 ± 7.16) μg/g; the arsenic contents of liver of the rats in the above groups were separately (5.68 ± 3.13),(2.64 ± 1.52),(3.89 ± 1.76) and (5.34 ± 2.78) μg/g; and the arsenic contents of kidney were separately (6.90 ± 1.94),(3.48 ± 1.96),(5.03 ± 2.08) and (7.02 ± 1.62) μg/g; which were all significantly higher than those in the control group (86.70 (49.71-106.104) μg/g Cr,(1.28 ± 0.37) μg/g,(1.01 ± 0.34) μg/g and (1.82 ± 1.09) μg/g,respectively).The difference showed significance (P < 0.05).Under electron microscope detection,we observed the reduction of mitochondrial

  8. Effect of honey powder on thermomechanical properties of dough,baking and staling properties of bread%蜂蜜干粉对面包面团热机械学、烘焙及老化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君; 王凤; 贾春利; 黄卫宁; 郑建仙; RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia

    2013-01-01

    采用Mixolab、质构仪和差式扫描量热仪(DSC)研究蜂蜜干粉对面包面团热机械学、烘焙和老化特性的影响.Mixolab实验表明,蜂蜜干粉对蔗糖的取代提高了面团的吸水率和稳定时间,当蜂蜜干粉取代比例超过50%时,蛋白质弱化值C1-C2和弱化度α显著增加(p<0.05);此外蜂蜜干粉会降低淀粉的回生值C5-C4,蜂蜜干粉的取代比例为100%时,C5-C4降低了21.03%.新鲜面包的烘焙数据表明,与空白组相比,蜂蜜干粉使得面包比容变大,硬度减小,当蜂蜜干粉的取代量为总蔗糖量的50%时,面包烘焙品质最佳.面包老化实验发现,蜂蜜干粉加入面包中,可以减小面包硬化速率和水分减少速率;长时间储藏使得面包的老化焓值△H增加,与空白组相比,面包储藏7d后,蜂蜜干粉取代比例为25%、50%、75%和100%时,使得老化焓值分别降低了4.93%、9.87%、16.92%和22.77%,这表明,蜂蜜干粉在面包中的应用可延缓淀粉回生,延长面包货架期.%Mixolab, Texture Analyzer and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) were used to investigate the effect of honey powder on thermomechanical characteristics of dough, baking quality and staling properties of bread. Mixolab experiment showed that,compared to the control,honey powder increased the water absorption and stabilization time significantly. When the substitution level of honey powder was more than 50%,C1-C2 and ocincreased significantly (p<0.05). In addition,with the increasing replacement level of honey powder,C5-C4 decreased,compared to the control,C5-C4 was reduced by 21.03%. Baking quality of fresh bread showed that the specific volume of bread increased, while the hardness decreased. The bread made with 50% addition of honey powder showed the best baking performance. The staling of bread was investigated and it was found that, during storage, the bread containing honey powder had lower rate of hardness and water loss. During

  9. Analysis of volatile compounds in oleoresin obtained from wind-dried and baked chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) using solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass%固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用分析辣椒油树脂挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雁平; 张东

    2011-01-01

    Volatile components emitted from oleoresin of wind-dried and baked Capsicum annuum L. with cultivation place of Wangdu of Hebei were analyzed by using solid- phase micro- extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass. 28 Volatile components were identified in oleoresin from wind-dried chilli. Acetic acid ( 14.43 % ) ,2 ,4a,5,6 ,7 ,8,9,9a- octahydro-3,5,5 - trimethyl-9- methylene- 1H- benzocycloheptene ( 5.74% ), 1 -methoxy-4- (1-propenyl) - benzene ( 5.67% ) and 10s, 11 s- himachala-3 ( 12 ) ,4- diene (41.14%) were the primary volatile components. On the other hand,32 volatile components were identified in oleoresin from baked chilli, beta-Myrcene(3.14% ) ,2,6- dimethyl-2,6-octadiene(5.54% ) ,2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one( 10.15% ),1 a,2,3,4,4a,5,6, 7 b- octahydro- 1,1, 4,7- tetramethyl- 1H- cycloprop [ e ] azulene ( 3.51% ) ,4- ( 1 - methylethyl ) -benzaldehyde ( 6.54% ), phenyl ethyl tiglate( 8.12% ), 1 - methoxy-4- ( 1 - propenyl ) - benzene ( 23.45 % ) and 1, 6-dimethyl-4 - ( 1 - methylethyl ) - naphthalene ( 3.69% ) were the primary volatile components. The composition of volatile components clearly differed between wind-dried and baked chilli.%以河北望都产朝天椒为原料,利用固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用技术分析风干辣椒和焙烤辣椒油树脂挥发性成分.从风干辣椒中共鉴定出28种挥发性成分,其中主要挥发性成分为:乙酸(14.43%),2,4a,5,6,7,8,9,9a-八氢-3,5,5-三甲基-9-亚甲基1H-苯(并)环庚烯(5.74%),1-甲氧基-4-(1-丙烯基)-笨(5.67%),10s,11s-Himachala-3(12),4-diene(41.14%).从焙烤辣椒中共鉴定出32种挥发性成分,其中主要挥发性成分为:β-月桂烯(3.14%),2,6-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯(5.54%),2-异丙基-5-甲基-3-环己烯-1-酮(10.15%),1a,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7b-八氢-1,1,4,7-四甲基-环丙苷菊(3.51%),4-(1-甲乙基)-苯甲醛(6.54%),苯基乙酸酯(8.12%),1-甲氧基-4-(1-丙烯基)-苯(23.45%),1,6-二甲基-4-(1-甲乙基)-萘(3.69%).风干

  10. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in full- and reduced-fat pepperoni after manufacture of sticks, storage of slices at 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C under air and vacuum, and baking of slices on frozen pizza at 135, 191 and 246 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, N G; Wierzba, R K; Ihnot, A M; Roering, A M; Lorang, T D; Kaspar, C W; Luchansky, J B

    1998-04-01

    Pepperoni batter was prepared with fat contents of about 15, 20, and 32% (wt/wt) and inoculated with a pediococcal starter culture and > or = 2.0 x 10(7) CFU/g of a five-strain inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The batter was fermented at 96 degrees F (ca. 36 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) to pH cheese pizzas that were subsequently baked at 275 degrees F (ca. 135 degrees C), 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C), or 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 0 to 20 min. Appreciable differences related to fat levels were observed after drying; pathogen numbers decreased by 1.04, 1.31 and 1.62 log10 units in sticks prepared from batter at initial fat levels of 15, 20, and 32%, respectively. During storage, the temperature rather than the atmosphere had the greater effect on pathogen numbers, with similar viability observed among the three fat levels tested. At 70 degrees F (ca. 21 degrees C), compared to original levels, pathogen numbers decreased by > or = 5.56 and > or = 4.53 log10 units within 14 days in slices stored under air and vacuum, respectively, whereas at 39 degrees F (ca. 4 degrees C) numbers decreased by pizza at 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 10 min or at 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C) for 15 min. The calculated D values for all three temperatures tested increased as the fat content of the batter increased from 15 to 20 to 32%. The present study confirmed that fermentation and drying were sufficient to reduce levels of E. coli O157:H7 in pepperoni sticks by 5.5-log10-unit total reduction of the pathogen. Baking slices on frozen pizza for at least 15 min at 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) or 20 min at 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C) was necessary to reduce pathogen numbers to below detection by both direct plating and enrichment. PMID:9709198

  11. Determination of 28 phthalate esters in baked foods by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry%气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱法同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 薄艳娜; 卢俊文; 林勤保; 黄志强; 陈丽斯

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 28 phthalate ester residues in bakery foods was established. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate,and cleaned up with neutral alumina. The separation was per-formed on a TR-5MS capillary column( 30 m × 0. 25 mm × 0. 25 μm )by programmed temperature vaporization( PTV)with splitless mode. Meanwhile the identification and quantification were per-formed by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring(SRM)mode and using the internal stand-ard method. The calibration curves of the 27 phthalate esters showed good linearities in the range of 0. 05-10 mg/L,except diisononyl ortho-phthalate( DINP)which was in the range of 0. 1-20 mg/L,with the correlation coefficients not less 0. 996 2. The limits of detection( LODs)were 0. 1-9. 8 μg/kg and the limits of quantification( LOQs)were 0. 4-32. 6 μg/kg. With the proposed method,the spiked recoveries were evaluated in four types of baked foods( bread,biscuits, cakes,stuffing)at low,medium and high concentrations. The results showed that the average recoveries of the 28 PAEs were in the range of 81. 0%-117%,and the relative standard deviations (RSDs,n=6)were in the range of 1. 3%-13. 6%. The method was successfully applied in the investigation of the PAEs distribution in baked foods. The method is suitable for the determina-tion of the 28 PAEs in baked foods with easy operation,high accuracy and precision.%建立了气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱( GC-MS/MS)同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯类( PAEs)物质残留量的方法。样品经乙酸乙酯超声提取,用中性氧化铝净化后进行检测。经程序升温气化进样口( PTV)不分流进样,TR-5MS色谱柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25μm)进行色谱分离,在选择反应监测(SRM)模式下进行质谱扫描,采用内标法定量。28种邻苯二甲酸酯的线性范围,除邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯( DINP

  12. The Effects of Pre-processing, Stir-flying and Stir-bake to Brown of Sanxian on Gastric Juice, Gastric Acid and Pepsin of Rats%“三仙”的不同炮制品对大鼠胃液、胃酸、胃蛋白酶分泌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 李毅; 陈勇; 杨敏; 张钟俐; 舒波; 张廷模

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察“三仙”不同炮制品对实验大鼠胃酸、胃液、胃蛋白酶分泌的影响.方法:实验大鼠末次灌胃后采用大鼠幽门结扎法造模,3h后观察各组大鼠胃液、胃酸、胃蛋白酶分泌的变化.结果:和空白组相比,养胃舒颗粒组的胃液量增加(P<0.05),生品的中剂量组胃液分泌量增加(P<0.05);养胃舒颗粒组的胃酸(PH)降低(P<0.05),生品的中剂量组胃酸(PH)明显降低(P<0.05);养胃舒颗粒的胃蛋白酶活性升高(P<0.05),生品的中剂量组胃蛋白酶活性显著升高(P<0.01),生品的低剂量组胃蛋白酶活性升高(P<0.05).结论:三仙的生品具有促进大鼠胃酸分泌、增加胃液分泌量、促进胃蛋白酶活性的作用.%Objective; To observe the effects of Pre-processing Sanxian, stir-flying and stir-bake to brown of Sanxian on gastric juice, gastric acid and pepsin of rats. Methods: Model rats were induced by ligating pylorus after three hours, then observed the change of gastric juice, gastric acid and pepsin. Results; Compared with normal group, the gastric juice quantity of Yangweishu granule group was increased (P<0. 05) ; the gastric juice quantity of middle dose group was increased in the preprocessing Sanxian (P<0.05) ; the gastric acid (PH) of Yangweishu granule group was decreased (P<0. 05) ; the gastric acid ( PH) of middle dose group was decreased in the pre-processing Sanxian (P<0. 05) ; the pepsin of YangWeiShu granules group was increased ( P<0. 05 ) ; the pepsin of middle dose group was obviously increased in the pre-processing Sanxian (P<0.01) ; the pepsin of low dose group was increased in the pre-processing Sanxian ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion; The pre-processing Sanxian can promote the secretion of gastric juice, gastric acid and pepsin of rats.

  13. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  14. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability. PMID:24188269

  15. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  16. Baking Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, PETR; Moudry, Jan; Capouchova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The technological value of wheat is negatively influenced by organic methods of cultivation. The critical factor is the crude protein content and quality. The aim of this paper is to identify diferences in the quality of eight varieties and two strains of wheat recommended in conventional or organic conditions. Correlation analysis of the qualitative parameters of wheat shows a clear relationship between crude protein content, wet gluten content and Zeleny - sedimentation value. According to ...

  17. NUTRITIONAL AND BAKING QUALITY OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  18. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    OpenAIRE

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-01-01

    Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  19. CD 1805 - Wheat with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CD 1805, indicated for the wheat growing in Regions 1, 2 and 3 in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar has quality standards for cookie production and high yield performance with a mean of 3899 kg ha-1, exceeding the controls by 4%.

  20. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  1. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, H. K.; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R. J.; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distrib...

  2. Freeze-Etch of Emulsified Cake Batters During Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Cloke, J. D.; Gordon, J; Davis, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryofixation, freeze-etch techniques were used to study the structure of cake batters made from a lean cake formulation before heating and after heating to temperatures up to l00-l02°C. Batters were prepared without added emulsifiers and with saturated and unsaturated monoglycerides replacing 5 and l 0% of the oil. Unsaturated monoglyceri des were more effective than saturated monoglycerides in dispersing oil droplets through the batter. Saturated monoglycerides formed liquid crystals during ...

  3. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  4. Definition of rational modes of operation of baking ovens

    OpenAIRE

    Ковальов, Олександр Володимирович

    2014-01-01

    The flue gas temperature  is one of the main variables that are most sensitive to changes in load in industrial ovens. This temperature in turn is associated with the loss of heat from the flue gases. The last value determines the change in fuel consumption, not directly related to the load. Therefore, the problem of determining a rational oven load is reduced mainly to establish the exact or approximate relation tf1=f(G).The authors is studied the work at alternating mode of ovens with recir...

  5. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  6. Study on improvement of carboxyl methyl cellulose in frozen batter cake by modifying thermal and baking properties%羧甲基纤维素改善冷冻蛋糕体系热力学与烘焙特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春利; 汤晓娟; 黄卫宁; 邹奇波; 甘小红; RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of frozen condition (frozen storage time and freeze-thaw cycles) and carboxyl methyl cellulose(l%, 2% and 3%) on thermal, rhological and baking properties of angel food cake batter were investigated. Batter ice melting enthalpy(AHm),viscosity,specific gravity and bubbles distribution,and cake specific volume and hardness were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry,viscometer,digital microscopy and texture analyzer,respectivly. Results showed that as frozen storage and freeze-thaw cycles continued,batter AHm and specific gravity increased,viscosity and bubbles uniformity decreased,resulting in a decrease in the specific volume and an increase in hardness of cake. Carboxyl methyl cellulose retarded an increase in AHm,specific gravity and cake hardness,and retarded a decrease in viscosity,bubbles uniformity and cake specific volu~ne. And the cake with 1% carboxyl methyl cellulose was the best when the amount of carboxyl methyl cellulose was added at level range from 1% to 3%.%研究了冻藏条件(冻藏时间和冻融循环次数)和羧甲基纤维素添加量(1%、2%、3%)对天使蛋糕面糊热力学、流变学和烘焙特性的影响。应用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、粘度计、数码显微镜和质构仪等分别测定了羧甲基纤维素面糊冻藏过程中冰晶熔化焓(△Hm)、粘度、比重和气泡分布(尺寸和均匀性),以及蛋糕比容和质构的变化。结果发现冻藏和冻融循环显著增加了面糊△Hm、减小了面糊粘度、增大了面糊比重、增加了面糊气泡分布的不均匀性,最终导致蛋糕比容减小、硬度增大;而羧甲基纤维素作为一种亲水胶体,延缓了面糊△Hm的增加、粘度的减小、比重的增大、气泡分布的不均匀化、蛋糕比容的减小和硬度的增大,且当羧甲基纤维素用量在1%~3%范围内时,添加量越少效果越好,羧甲基纤维素添加量为1%的面糊制作的天使蛋糕比容最大、硬度最小。

  7. The glycaemic index of muffins baked with extruded dried bean flour compared to muffins baked with whole wheat flour / Jacqueline Gouws

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Emphasis on using the glycaemic index (GI) in addition to carbohydrate exchange lists has led to a greater variety of foods from which to choose for the diabetic population. Breakfast is regarded as the most important meal of the day and the glycaemic response to lunch can be improved by decreasing the GI of breakfast. However, most conventional breakfast cereals and bread exhibit a high GI. Dried beans have a low GI and various processes such as cooking and canning increase GI...

  8. Worn surface characteristics of Cu-based powder metallurgy bake materials for aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ping-ping; SHENG Hong-chao; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials are used for aircraft widely and successfully. The characteristics of worn surface of Cu-based powder metallurgy brake materials for aircraft after working under service condition were studied, and two main wear mechanisms were discussed. The results show that the main components of worn surface are graphite, SiO2, Fe, Cu and oxide of Fe (Fe3O4 and FeO); the worn surface can be divided into three zones: severe wear zone, mild wear zone, and low wear zone; fatigue wear and grain wear are the main wear mechanisms of Cu-based materials. Some debris kept between brake discs reduce the wear rate to a certain extent by taking part in the regeneration of friction film.

  9. Mechanism of Strength Loss of No-bake Phosphate Bonded Sand Mold/Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Youshou; XUE Yiyu; HUANG Jin; LI Sinian; XIA Lu; HUANG Caihua

    2009-01-01

    The strength loss mechanism of the phosphate bonded sand mold/core was studied. The morphology and composition of phosphate membrane on the surface of sands was analyzed with electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. Results show that magnesium causes cracks in cured phosphate membrane and results in the decrease of sand molds/cores strength. However, the addition of magne-sium significantly enhanced hygroscopy resistance of phosphate membrane. In addition, the phosphate binder added with the magnesium modifier has more rapid hardening reaction speed compared that without or with low magnesium binder. It can be concluded that the phosphate binder with the addition of magnesium modifier is favorably used in high humid and cold circumstance.

  10. MODELLING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATION PROCESSES DIRECTION IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kublikova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the economic interaction between organizations and enterprises within the system of cluster type and the direction of their investment and innovation transformation through the implementation of the integration processes in the bakery industry.

  11. Exposure-sensitization relationship for alpha-amylase allergens in the baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D J; Doekes, G; van Run, P E

    1996-07-01

    Fungal alpha-amylase is an important occupational allergen in the bakery industry. Epidemiologic studies focusing on the relationship between alpha-amylase allergen exposure and work-related respiratory allergy, however, have not been reported yet. In this cross-sectional study, sensitization to occupational allergens and work-related symptoms were studied in 178 bakery workers and related to allergen exposure. Alpha-amylase allergen concentrations were measured in personal dust samples, using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. All workers were categorized into groups on the basis of their job histories and the alpha-amylase exposure levels of their job titles. Of all workers 25% had one or more work-related symptoms. As much as 9% of the bakery workers showed a positive skin prick test reaction to fungal amylase, and in 8% amylase-specific IgE was demonstrated. Alpha-amylase exposure and atopy appeared to be the most important determinants of skin sensitization, with prevalence ratios for atopy of 20.8 (95% CI, 2.74 to 158) and for medium and high alpha-amylase exposure groups of 8.6 (95% CI, 1.01 to 74) and 15.9 (95% CI, 1.95 to 129), respectively. Furthermore, a positive association was found between positive skin prick tests to alpha-amylase and work-related respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, this study has shown that there is a strong and positive relationship between alpha-amylase allergen exposure levels in bakeries and specific sensitization in bakery workers. PMID:8680668

  12. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D; Doekes, G

    1998-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 393 workers from 21 bakeries to study the relationship between wheat allergen exposure and wheat sensitization and work-related allergic symptoms. Exposure to wheat allergens was characterized by a recently developed and validated immunoassay. Specific IgE antibodies against wheat flour and common allergens were measured by immunoassays, and work-related allergic symptoms were registered by questionnaire. A strong and positive association was found between wheat flour allergen exposure and wheat flour sensitization. This relationship was steepest and strongest in atopics. Prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure were 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-16.2), and 2.7 (0.5-14.5) for atopic workers, and 2.5 (0.8-7.5) and 1.4 (0. 3-6.4) for nonatopics, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. In sensitized bakers those with an elevated allergen exposure had more often work-related symptoms, with prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure of 3.5 (CI 1.6-7. 5) and 2.6 (CI 0.9-7.8), respectively, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. The existence of exposure-sensitization gradients suggests that work-related sensitization risk will be negligible when exposure levels will be reduced to average exposure concentration of 0.2 microgram/m3 wheat allergen or approximately 0.5 mg/m3 inhalable dust during a work shift. PMID:9817699

  13. Analysis of baking industry. Extended energy survey reports 1984-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walshe, N.M.A.

    1992-05-01

    The analysis contained in this report represents 17 Extended Energy Survey reports from bakers producing bread or flour confectionery or both. The sites involved represent around 3% of the energy use of the Food and Drink Sector in the United Kingdom and range from small master bakers to large plant bakeries employing over 700 people. No comparison of energy efficiency has been attempted since the number of similar sites in relevant groups was too small. Potential energy savings of Pound 0.74 million/annum were identified in the 17 reports. These savings were classified in two ways, by measure type and by cost. The most important measure types were energy management, boilers, heat recovery and ovens. In terms of cost of measures, 55% of the energy savings were attributable to techniques costing Pound 5k or more. Overall, all but one of the measure types yielded a payback of less than 2 years, with all 17 sites taken into account. The ratio of national benefit to Government cost for the 17 EES reports analysed would be approximately 19:1 if all recommended measures were taken up by the participating bakeries. (author).

  14. A study of energy conservation potential in the baking industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    Energy audits that were conducted in five bakeries, varying in size and end product are described. Methods of conducting a plant energy audit, resultant energy savings from taking energy conservation measures, and ways to continue monitoring energy use and savings are discussed.

  15. [Effectiveness of secondary preventive programs for patients with asthma and rhinitis in the baking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, R; Nolting, H D; Rosenau, C; Stauder, J; Vonier, J

    1998-11-01

    Since 1992 the German industrial professional association for the food industry and gastronomy (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten), which is responsible for statutory accident insurance has been offering a specific patient education programme to bakers suffering from occupationally induced obstructive pulmonary disease or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, who do not quit their jobs and wish to continue working as bakers. The programme aims at preventing aggravation of the disease 74 male bakers with a mean duration of illness of 10 years on entering the programme were examined between 1 and 5 years (mean: 2.9) after participating in the patient education seminar. For a subpopulation of 55 of these patients spirometric measurements were available for the time before programme entry and at follow-up. Data on time spent at the bakehouse, prevalence of symptoms, frequency of symptoms at the site of working and during leisure hours, sleep disturbances and emergency situations were collected at the follow-up examination both for the time before programme entry and at follow-up, respectively. Direct ratings of the amount of changes in distress caused by the disease and of the quality of life were also obtained. The prevalence of 8 of the 9 most frequently reported symptoms decreased significantly, e.g. dysponoea from 70% to 42% and fear of suffocation from 30% to 3%. Participants reported on highly significant reductions in the frequency of disease-specific complaints during work and outside the working place, sleep disturbances and situations requiring immediate medical intervention. Between 64% and 85% of the patients experienced improvement of distress, physical and work performance, private and family life, and ability for self-management. Lung function did not deteriorate: mean FEV1 was 88% (+/- 23) at first and 90% (+/- 19) at second measurement. These results could not be explained by changes in medication. It is concluded that the programme is effective in reducing symptoms and distress and in improving quality of life in bakers with occupational respiratory disease who voluntarily continue to work as bakers. PMID:9885514

  16. [Alpha-amylase as an occupational allergen in baking industry employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 226 bakers and pastry makers and in 88 students of a training school for bakers, we evaluated skin sensitization to the common allergens, wheat and alpha amylase. Skin prick tests were positive to the enzyme in 17 exposed subjects (7.5%) and in one student with previous occupational exposure as a baker; 27 exposed subjects (11.9%) and 2 students were sensitized to wheat. Among the 42 exposed workers who complained of work-related symptoms, 12 (28.6%) cases were skin positive to amylase and 17 (42.9%) to wheat. Among the 17 workers who were positive to amylase, 16 were also sensitized to wheat and/or common allergens, 12 complained of symptoms at work but since in many cases there was a positive response to wheat, too, it is impossible to speculate on the role of each allergen in inducing symptoms. One case, with work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, had skin sensitization only to alpha amylase but no specific IgE in the serum. These findings confirm that bakers are at risk of sensitization not only to wheat allergen but also to amylase from Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme should be included in the list of substances to be tested among bakers in whom an occupational allergy is suspected, but particular care should be taken in evaluating the cutaneous response, especially if compared to wheat wheals. Further investigations are also needed to identify the source of risk and to better define the characteristics of the enzyme and the relationship between skin reaction to amylase, sensitization to wheat and atopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8072442

  17. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. PMID:26686115

  18. The rehydroxylation dating of archeological baked-clay artifacts for determination paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Georgii; Gareev, Bulat; Nourgaliev, Danis; Fedorchenko, Diana

    2016-04-01

    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement for archeological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clay artifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered from old buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeological issues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecular variations. We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A variety of archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement versus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagnetic investigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecular variations (PSV) for Volga region.

  19. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition. PMID:27349134

  20. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  1. PERBEDAAN SEKRESI SALIVA SEBELUM DAN SESUDAH BERKUMUR MENGGUNAKAN BAKING SODA PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Budiman Putra Pratama, Moh.

    2014-01-01

    Latar Belakang: Diabetes Melitus (DM) adalah penyakit metabolik dengan karakteristik utamanya hiperglikemia, yaitu tingkat kadar glukosa dalam darah yang tinggi akibat kelainan sekresi insulin, kelainan kerja insulin, ataupun keduanya. Salah satu manifestasi DM dalam rongga mulut yang dapat dilihat secara kasat mata adalah mulut kering (serostomia) akibat berkurangnya aliran saliva dalam rongga mulut. Salah satu bahan yang dapat menstimulasi aliran ...

  2. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  3. Investigation of different wall profiles on energy consumption and baking time in domestic ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onbasioglu S. U.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This present study, has aimed to examine and improve the momentum and heat transport mechanism in a domestic oven. At the beginning, the experimental study has been carried out in the oven that analyzing heat transfer behavior of the oven. During the preparation and procedure of the energy consumption experiments, standards determined in EN 50304 had been used. In addition to experimental results, the numerical simulation has showed that increasing diffusion over the walls and advection in the center, the performance of the oven can be improved. Using this idea, two different models have been set up in the oven walls and have been experimentally and numerically studied. Finally, the results have been compared with the original case that validates the initial idea by improving the performance of the oven.

  4. MODELLING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATION PROCESSES DIRECTION IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana Kublikova; Svetlana Stupak

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the economic interaction between organizations and enterprises within the system of cluster type and the direction of their investment and innovation transformation through the implementation of the integration processes in the bakery industry.

  5. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  6. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  7. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  8. A thermodynamic recipe for baking the Earth's lower mantle and core as a whole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Max; Faak, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    A rigorous understanding of the thermal and dynamic evolution of the core and the interaction with the silicate mantle cannot preclude a non-empirical petrological description of the problem which takes the form of a thermodynamic model. Because the Earth's core is predominantly made of iron such model may seem relatively straightforward, simply delivering a representation of the phase transformations in the P,T space. However due to well known geophysical considerations, a certain amount of light elements should be added. With the Occam's razor principle in mind, potential candidates could be the most abundant and easily accessible elements in the mantle, O, Si and Mg. Given these premises, the challenging problems on developing this type of model are: - a thermodynamic formulation should not simply describe phase equilibrium relations at least in the Fe-Si-O system (a formidable task itself) but should be also consistently applicable to evaluate thermophysical properties of liquid components and solids phases at extreme conditions (P=500-2000 kbar, T=1000-5000 K). Presently these properties are unknown for certain mineral and liquid components or partially available from scattered sources. - experimental data on the phase relations for iron rich liquid are extremely difficult to obtain and could not cover the entire P,T,X spectrum. - interaction of the outer core with the silicate mantle requires a melt model that is capable of describing a vast range of compositions ranging from metal-rich liquids to silicate liquids. The compound energy formalism for liquids with variable tendency to ionization developed by Hillert and coworkers is a sublattice model with varying stoichiometry that includes vacancies and neutral species in one site. It represents the ideal candidate for the task in hand. The thermodynamic model unfortunately is rather complex and a detailed description of the formulation for practical applications like chemical equilibrium calculations is nowhere to be found, while the model is only accessible on few commercial thermodynamic programs. The latest developments regarding all these related issues will be discussed in this contribution. In particular some self-consistent but preliminary results will be presented addressing the following topics: - some details regarding the implementation of the liquid model for Gibbs free energy minimizations, - the physically consistent behavior of thermodynamic properties of certain solid phases like (Fe,O,Si) BCC, FCC, HCP and liquid components, - selected phase diagrams at core conditions in the system Fe-Si-O, - derived geotherms linking the inner-outer core with the core-mantle boundary. - brief outline of the future geodynamic applications.

  9. Polycrystalline GaN layer recrystallization by metal-induced method during the baking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagoda, A.; Stanczyk, B.; Dobrzanski, L.; Diduszko, R. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw 118 (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    Radio frequency reactive sputtering was used to produce gallium nitride films on thermally oxidized silicon substrates at room temperature. Metallic Ga (purity 6N) was used as the target, N{sub 2} and Ar were utilized as sputtering gases. Amorphous GaN was obtained by metal-induced crystallization with a Ni assistance. The nickel particles were scattered onto the surface by rf sputtering and their density was 2 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} or 4 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to 0.02 nm and 0.04 nm thick layer. These values are less than a monolayer thickness, so they are not continuous. Samples were annealed at 700 C for 3 h and at 900 C for 5 min in a RTP furnace. The 2.5 {mu}m GaN layers grown on the Ni-coated SiO{sub 2} surface recrystallized during annealing forming crystals of (002) orientation. The catalytic regrowth mechanism of GaN is discussed on the basis of experimental results. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. NMR signal analysis to characterize solid, aqueous, and lipid phases in baked cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, F; Cambert, M; Mariette, F

    2007-12-26

    Proton mobility was studied in molecular fractions of some model systems and of cake using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation technique. For cake, five spin-spin relaxation times (T2) were obtained from transverse relaxation curves: T2 (1) approximately 20 micros, T2 (2) approximately 0.2 ms, T2 (3) approximately 3 ms, T2 (4) approximately 50 ms, and T2 (2) approximately 165 ms. The faster component was attributed to the solid phase, components 2 and 3 were associated with the aqueous phase, and the two slowest components were linked to the lipid phase. After cooking, the crust contained more fat but less water than the center part of the cake. The amount of gelatinized starch was lower in the crust, and water was more mobile due to less interaction with macromolecules. This preliminary study revealed different effects of storage on the center and crust. PMID:18044835

  11. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured. PMID:731029

  12. Effect of Lupine Flour on Baking Characteristics of Gluten Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Maghaydah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease in genetically susceptible individuals caused by intolerance to gluten protein in some cereals, resulting in mucosal inflammation, which causes malabsorption. An effective treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that excludes cereals containing gluten. One of the most desirable wheat products is the cookie, which is considered suitable for all ages due to its low manufacturing cost, convenience, long shelf life and good eating quality. Therefore, the production of local, high quality and affordable gluten-free cookies was the main objective of this study in which lupine flour was used as a main wheat flour alternative. Eight gluten-free cookie flour blends were prepared: 100% Lupine Flour (AF, 50% lupine flour and 50% corn starch (BF, 40% lupine flour and 60% corn starch (CF, 30% lupine flour and 70% corn starch (DF, 30% lupine flour, 40% rice flour and 30% corn starch (EF, 30% lupine flour, 40% corn flour and corn starch 30% (FF, 20% lupine flour, 30% corn flour, 20% rice flour and 30% corn starch (GF and 20% lupine flour, 30% rice flour, 20% corn flour and 30% corn starch (HF, with equal amounts of hydrocolloids (1.5% xanthan and 1.5% carrageenan which were used as a functional gluten alternative, as well as a control sample with Wheat flour (WC. The chemical composition, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation of all treated flour blends and cookies were determined. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that corn and wheat flour were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in moisture content, while lupine flour had significantly (p≤0.05 higher contents of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. Starch significantly (p≤0.05 showed the highest carbohydrate content. The moisture of blend BC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than all blends and blend AC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher in ash, protein, lipid and fiber content. The carbohydrate content of blend DC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other blends, in which blend AC significantly (p≤0.05 contained the lowest amount. Physical analysis revealed that the spread factor of blend GC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other blends, while blend CC significantly (p≤0.05 had the lowest value. The results of color measurements (L*, a* and b* using a Milolat colorimeter revealed that the L* parameter had the highest value in the control sample WC, while the a* parameter was highest in blend AC and b* was highest in blend EC. The results of the sensory evaluation, judged by panelists, indicated that blend BC received the highest score in overall impression, while the control sample WC received the overall highest score in flavor and crust color, blend GC in overall color and the control sample WC in overall texture, blend AC in crust color, crumb color, hardness and after taste. Finally, blends BC and GC had the best acceptability compared to the control sample.

  13. Making Dough or Baking Dough? Spousal Housework Responsibilities in Germany, 1992-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Procher, Vivien; Ritter, Nolan; Vance, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Basierend auf deutschen Haushaltsdaten von 1992 bis 2011 wird in diesem Papier untersucht, wie verheiratete Paare die Hausarbeit untereinander aufteilen. Der Fokus richtet sich auf die folgenden Fragen: (1) Wird die Hausarbeitszeit, die eine Person aufbringt, vom absoluten bzw. relativen individuellen Einkommen beeinflusst? (2) Wenn ja, sind die Einkommenseffekte für Frauen und Männer gleich? (3) Wie wichtig sind heutzutage noch traditionelle Geschlechterrollen in Bezug auf die Verteilung der...

  14. Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating," said Samantha Heller. She's a senior clinical nutritionist at New York University Langone Medical Center in ... York City; Samantha Heller, R.D., senior clinical nutritionist, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York ...

  15. Evaluation of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese content in wheat, flour, bran and selected baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawiec Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.

  16. Effect of Lupine Flour on Baking Characteristics of Gluten Free Cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan Maghaydah; Selma Abdul-hussain; Radwan Ajo; Yousef Tawalbeh; Noor Elsahoryi

    2013-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease in genetically susceptible individuals caused by intolerance to gluten protein in some cereals, resulting in mucosal inflammation, which causes malabsorption. An effective treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that excludes cereals containing gluten. One of the most desirable wheat products is the cookie, which is considered suitable for all ages due to its low manufacturing cost, convenience, long shelf life and good eating quality. Therefor...

  17. Energy efficiency opportunities in the U.S. commercial baking industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Commercial bakery products in the United States such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, cookies, and crackers consume over $870 million of energy annually. Energy efficiency measures can reduce the energy costs of significant energy processes and increase earnings predictability. This a

  18. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. PMID:25922214

  19. Energy saving in the baking industry by more selective use of energy and by recovery of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, L.; Nieman, W.; Rouwen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 7000 Tj energy are used yearly by the bakery industry in the Netherlands. Until now, very little is known about energy use in this sector, this being partly due to the extremely decentralised production. The aim of the study is to pinpoint and evaluate methods for energy saving and heat recovery in the bakery. Priority was given to the procedures or places where a large amount of energy is used or is lost. A second important part of the study is to identify the situations where energy can easly be saved in very simple ways. The study was subsidised by the European Economic Community, the Industry group for bakeries and the Dutch Ministry for Economic Affairs. Monitoring was in the hands of a committee, with representation by the Nederlandse Bakkerijstichting (Dutch Bakery Organisation), the Stichting Voorlichting Energiebesparing Nederland (Organisation for Information about Energy Conservation), the Ministry of Agriculture/Fisheries and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  20. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijster, Tim; Tielemans, Erik [TNO Quality of Life, Business unit Quality and Safety, Zeist (Netherlands); Warren, Nick [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire (United Kingdom); Heederik, Dick, E-mail: Tim.meijster@tno.n [Utrecht University, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies which allowed estimation of exposure response relationships and disease transition probabilities This model allows us to study the development of diseases and transitions between disease states over time in relation to determinants of disease including flour dust and/or allergen exposure. Furthermore it enables more realistic modelling of the health impact of different intervention strategies at the workplace (e.g. changes in exposure may take several years to impact on ill-health and often occur as a gradual trend). A large dataset of individual full-shift exposure measurements and real-time exposure measurements were used to obtain detailed insight into the effectiveness of control measures and other determinants of exposure. Given this information a population wide reduction of the median exposure with 50% was evaluated in this paper.

  1. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies which allowed estimation of exposure response relationships and disease transition probabilities This model allows us to study the development of diseases and transitions between disease states over time in relation to determinants of disease including flour dust and/or allergen exposure. Furthermore it enables more realistic modelling of the health impact of different intervention strategies at the workplace (e.g. changes in exposure may take several years to impact on ill-health and often occur as a gradual trend). A large dataset of individual full-shift exposure measurements and real-time exposure measurements were used to obtain detailed insight into the effectiveness of control measures and other determinants of exposure. Given this information a population wide reduction of the median exposure with 50% was evaluated in this paper.

  2. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, ...

  3. Effect of Protein Molecular Weight Distribution on Kernel and Baking Characteristics and Intra-varietal Variation in Hard Spring Wheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific wheat protein fractions are known to have distinct associations with wheat quality traits. Research was conducted on 10 hard spring wheat cultivars grown at two North Dakota locations to identify protein fractions that affected wheat kernel characteristics and breadmaking quality. SDS ext...

  4. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery. PMID:27173527

  5. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  6. A Bake-Off Between CMFGEN and FASTWIND: Modeling the Physical Properties of SMC and LMC O-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Philip; Hillier, D John; Puls, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The model atmosphere programs FASTWIND and CMFGEN are both elegantly designed to perform non-LTE analyses of the spectra of hot massive stars, and include sphericity and mass-loss. The two codes differ primarily in their approach towards line blanketing, with CMFGEN treating all of the lines in the co-moving frame and FASTWIND taking an approximate approach which speeds up execution times considerably. Although both have been extensively used to model the spectra of O-type stars, no studies have used the codes to independently model the same spectra of the same stars and compare the derived physical properties. We perform this task on ten O-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds. For the late-type O supergiants, both CMFGEN and FASTWIND have trouble fitting some of the He I lines, and we discuss causes and cures. We find that there is no difference in the average effective temperatures found by the two codes for the stars in our sample, although the dispersion is large, due primarily to the various difficulties ...

  7. Onward treatment of irradiated liquid egg: Detection in sponge cake mixture after baking by means of LC-GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated whole liquid egg used for preparation of sponge cake could be identified using gaschromatographic/mass spectrometric detection of the radiation induced hydrocarbons for doses from 1 kGy. Separation of the hydrocarbons out of the fat was carried out by HPLC coupled on-line to the GC. That means, for the first time an irradiated component of a heat treated food could be detected. (orig.)

  8. Dolní Věstonice IIa: Gravettian microstratigraphy, environment, and the origin of baked clay production in Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, J.; Hladilová, Š.; Horáček, I.; Kaiser, J.; Králík, M.; Novák, J.; Novák, Martin; Pokorný, P.; Sázelová, S.; Smolíková, L.; Zikmund, T.

    359-360, 2 March 2015 (2015), s. 195-210. ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0181 Keywords : Dolní Věstonice * Early Gravettian * Microstratigraphy * Environment * Burnt clay * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  9. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: Mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer for a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads to...... uncertainty in the model predictions. The aim of the current paper is to address this uncertainty challenge in the modelling of food production processes using a combination of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, where the uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis were applied to a heat and mass...

  10. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002, the average values for actual evapotranspiration obtained by using the water balance and energy balance, were 4.33 and 3.98 mm day-1 respectively. In the year of 2003, were respectively 4.2 and 4.1 mm. day-1. Also, it was verified that the crop did not suffer water stress in the two-year period of study

  11. Nutritional impact of whole grain ingredients on the composition of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and baked products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee to increase daily intake of whole grains have enhanced interest in whole grain ingredients. We have investigated the impact of these ingredients on levels of nutrients such as selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg) in grain-based foods. The...

  12. Allerginicity of wheat proteins: the effect of thermal processing (baking and cooking), high pressure treatment and enzymatic digestion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitanovičová, Andrea; Janatková, I.; Houska, M.; Tučková, Ludmila

    Latina : Allergy data laboratories, 2007, s. 43-43. [International Symposium on Molecular Allergology /2./. Roma (IT), 22.04.2007-24.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food allergy * wheat proteins * thermal processing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Research on Palate Hulless Oat Huangqiao Baked Wheat Cake%莜麦黄桥烧饼口感研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美; 姜慧; 于会丽

    2012-01-01

    以莜麦面替代面粉,以植物油替代动物脂调制干油酥开发莜麦黄桥烧饼.应用L9(34)正交试验极差分析和综合模糊评判模型对成品进行评价.结果表明:酵面皮与莜麦干油酥比值、发酵面中酵母的用量、干油酥中植物油的用量和焙烤温度是影响成品口感的重要因素.L9(34)正交试验确定最优工艺条件为:酵面皮与干油酥的比值为7∶3,发酵面中酵母用量为16 g,莜麦干油酥中植物油用量为260 g,焙烤温度为220℃.模糊综合评判模型评价结果,9个莜麦黄桥烧饼成品的口感优劣顺序为1#>3#>8#>6#>7#>9#>2#>4#>5#,与L9(34)正交试验结果相同.

  14. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM. PMID:26604385

  15. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  16. Development of Low-calorie Baked Dessert%低能量焙烤点心的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永军

    2006-01-01

    利用填充型甜味剂和强力型甜味剂,碳水化合物型模拟油脂分别代替焙烤点心中的蔗糖和油脂;并利用膳食纤维的添加来降低焙烤点心的能量,进而开发出低能量焙烤点心,既满足了糖尿病、肥胖病、高血脂等病人的需求,又解决了人们在享受美食的同时会导致能量过剩的难题.

  17. Chromosomes 3B and 4D are associated with several milling and baking quality traits in a soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years a...

  18. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.

  19. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this study. Pitch itself is a very complex material. Studying the binding between pitch and the porous coke even adds another level of complexity to this subject. The high-temperature 1H NMR has been shown to be a promising technique to study the molecular interaction between different materials. The fraction of the mobile protons in the sample and their mobility as measured by the spin-spin relaxation time ( T*2 ), which is inversely proportional to the peak width at half maximum height (DeltaH1/2), seem to have a potential to probe the extent of the interaction between pitch and coke. Understanding of the interaction between coke and some simple compounds which are commonly found in pitch, i.e. model compounds, should help identify the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The knowledge of (1) pitch chemistry and structure, (2) interaction between model compounds and filler cokes would lead to an understanding of the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The mass distribution by MALDI analysis showed that the majority of the compounds in these pitches is in the range of 200-700 Da. The hexane-soluble (HS) fractions of all of the pitch samples in this study mainly consist of four-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) as observed by GC/MS and Pyrolysis-GC/MS techniques. Coal-derived pitches contained mainly cata- and peri-condensed PACs and a few alkyl- and heteroatomic-substituted PACs, whereas those peteroleum-derived pitches consisted of a number of alkyl-substituted PACs with high sulfur substitution. Solid-state NMR results show that SCTP-2 and PP-1 contain six and five fused rings on average, respectively, whereas GP-115 and WVU-5 contain two and three fused rings on average, respectively. The latter two pitches contained mostly methyl substituents with a few ethyls. WVU-5 contains a higher degree of naphthenic substituents as compared to other pitches as confirmed by the GC/MS analysis. HTCCP and OXCCP contained three peri-condensed fused rings on average per molecule. 1H in-situ high temperature NMR and the solid echo pulse program were employed t

  20. 中餐面点专业人才培养模式探索%On Talent Cultivation Mode among Chinese Baking and Pastry Arts Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建凤

    2012-01-01

    There are some problems in the teaching of pastry making speciality which are more attention paid on qualifications than on quality, more on inheritance of established products than on creation of new prod- ucts. The curriculum reform is far from perfect. And corresponding reforms should be implemented in order for better talent cultivation. First, determine the scale of school admittance in accordance with social needs, and build a "3 in 1" curriculum system. Second, improve teaching methods by constructing a "1 + 0. 5 + 1 + 0. 5" talent cultivation mode combining work and study. Third, establish an evaluation system of expansibility aca- demic achievement. Fourth, improve the quality of the teaching staff.%中餐面点专业教学目前存在着重视学生的技能训练,忽视职业素养教育;重视菜肴品种的传承,忽视成品的创新;课程改革不是很到位等问题。为更好地培养中餐面点专业人才,应实施相关的教学改革:根据市场合理定位人才培养规格,构建“三位一体”的项目课程体系;改进教学方法,构建“1+0.5+1+0.5”的工学结合的人才培养模式;构建发展性学业评价体系;加强师资队伍建设。

  1. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Watts Michael J; Jenkins Richard O; Al-Rmalli Shaban W; Haris Parvez I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As) and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor A...

  2. 腰果酚/氨基树脂烘漆的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Properties of Cardanol/Amino Resin Baking Paint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丰; 杨珠; 林金火

    2006-01-01

    以腰果酚为原料,六甲氧基甲基三聚氰胺为交联剂,对甲苯磺酸为催化剂制备了无溶剂型腰果酚/氨基树脂烘漆.用IR 、UV、元素分析等手段对产物的结构和理化性能进行表征.讨论了腰果酚与六甲氧基甲基三聚氰胺的质量比、催化剂用量、固化温度和固化时间对产物涂膜物理机械性能的影响.结果表明,腰果酚的酚羟基与六甲氧基甲基三聚氰胺的甲氧基甲基发生醚交换反应,然后进一步聚合成为高聚物.当腰果酚与六甲氧基甲基三聚氰胺的质量比为4:1,催化剂用量1%,固化温度140℃,固化时间2 h时,制得的腰果酚/氨基树脂的附着力2级、硬度4 H、耐冲击性50 cm、光泽106%、柔韧性1 mm.

  3. Specific Features of Diagnostics of Efficiency of Management of Innovation Risks at Enterprises of the Baking Industry (Cost-is-no-object Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilynska Juliana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses diagnostics of efficiency of management of innovation risks through cost optimisation. Management of costs on innovation grounds is carried out with the aim of their reduction. In order to realise measures on reduction of influence of innovation risks in the system of cost management the article specifies the most important factors and builds multi-factor models. The process of study of influence of the innovation risk upon the cost value of the sold products of bakeries is presented in the form of a scheme of logically united stages. The article takes into account all restrictions and requirements, eliminates multi-collinearity and uses MS Excel Regression analysis for modelling dynamic multi-factor models of cost value of sold products of the studied bakeries. In the result of the study the article obtains main factors that would be used for forecasting tendencies of development of the studied enterprises, development of the decision making system and improvement of methodical provision of innovation risk management.

  4. Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Romina Pedreschi; Jørgen Nørgaard; Alain Maquet

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via...

  5. Application of Anti-slip/skid Re-adhesion Control System Based on Disturbance Observer to a Skid Control Considering Cooperation Control of Air Bake and Electric Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Satoshi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Sano, Takashi; Yasukawa, Shinobu

    We have already proposed the anti-slip re-adhesion control based on disturbance observer and sensor-less vector control at acceleration mode. This paper proposes a new anti-skid re-adhesion control based on disturbance observer at braking mode. The numerical simulation and experimental results point out that the proposed anti-skid re-adhesion control system has the desired driving wheel torque response for the tested bogie system of electric train. An actual train uses both electric brake and air brake in the high-speed range. Hence, this paper proposes a new anti-skid re-adhesion control considering the air brake, which carries out the cooperation control of electric brake and air brake in order to realize a fine re-adhesion control. The numerical simulation results point out that the proposed system has the desired driving wheel torque response and a fine anti-skid re-adhesion control.

  6. Advanced cooler and dough kneader for the baking industry%面团和混合料的连续生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    典型面团制品和混合料生产工艺中所涉及的冷却和揉搓程序,一般是独立进行的,生产过程繁复费时一人力资源需求量高。鉴于此,Schr6der公司升发了Schrooder Kombinator冷却器和揉面团机,使附有结晶油脂的面团和混合料的加工程序,可在单次操作中连续进行。

  7. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  8. Strain rate sensitivity of automotive sheet steels : influence of plastic strain, strain rate, temperature, microstructure, bake hardening and pre-strain

    OpenAIRE

    Larour, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This experimental work shows the different parameters influencing the strain rate sensitivity behaviour of automotive sheet steel grades in crash conditions. Most investigations have been performed in the strain rate range [0,001-200/s] and temperature range [233-373K] with servohydraulic tensile testing machines. Additional Split-Hopkinson bar testing results up to 1000/s have also been included at room temperature. The focus has been laid on the “apparent” strain rate sensitivity, determine...

  9. Är allt butiksbakat bröd bake-off? : En studie om att ändra förutfattade meningar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattfelt, Maria; Sjöstrand, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    Problemformuleringen i denna uppsats har framställts på uppdrag av ICA Maxi Karlstad. De upplever att deras kunder inte är medvetna om att ICA Maxi erbjuder ett bageri i sin butik, där sex bagare bakar allt bröd från grunden. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka och beskriva vilka faktorer som påverkar de förväntningar som en kund har på en produkt samt att ge förslag på hur man kan förändra dessa. I uppsatsen återfinns dels en enkätundersökning där 105 personer fick besvara 18 frågo...

  10. Effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing oxidation of palm oil enriched with heme iron: A model for iron fortification in baked products

    OpenAIRE

    Alemán Ezcaray, Mercedes; Nuchi, C. D.; Bou Novensà, Ricard; Tres Oliver, Alba; Polo Pozo, Francisco Javier; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Codony Salcedo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Bakery products such as biscuits, cookies, and pastries represent a good medium for iron fortification in food products, since they are consumed by a large proportion of the population at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia, mainly children. The drawback, however, is that iron fortification can promote oxidation. To assess the extent of this, palm oil added with heme iron and different antioxidants was used as a model for evaluating the oxidative stability of some bakery products, such ...

  11. Archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence investigation of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, northern Italy: contribution to the rescue of our cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokia Tema; Fulvio Fantino; Enzo Ferrara; Silvia Allegretti; Alessandro Lo Giudice; Alessandro Re; Federico Barello; Silvia Vella; Luigi Cirillo; Monica Gulmini

    2014-01-01

    Combining different dating techniques is fundamental to constrain the ages of archaeological findings, mainly when direct evidences for their chronological context are not available. This paper presents the results of a combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study of a kiln discovered during a rescue excavation at Chieri, northern Italy. The archaeological site is quite complex mainly due to the interposition of different stratigraphic levels that span from Roman time...

  12. Fundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Anika

    2013-01-01

    The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofer...

  13. Specific Features of Diagnostics of Efficiency of Management of Innovation Risks at Enterprises of the Baking Industry (Cost-is-no-object Approach)

    OpenAIRE

    Bilynska Juliana V.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses diagnostics of efficiency of management of innovation risks through cost optimisation. Management of costs on innovation grounds is carried out with the aim of their reduction. In order to realise measures on reduction of influence of innovation risks in the system of cost management the article specifies the most important factors and builds multi-factor models. The process of study of influence of the innovation risk upon the cost value of the sold products of bakeries ...

  14. 麦苗微波蛋糕的配方研究%Study on Formulation of Barley Grass Cake with Microwave Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚熠; 杨静; 卢利群; 韩宇斌; 姜启兴

    2015-01-01

    [目的]开发以微波加热为基础的麦苗蛋糕.[方法]以感官评分和蛋糕厚度为指标,分析了玉米淀粉与低筋粉配比、白砂糖、泡打粉、柠檬酸、奶粉、麦苗粉、鸡蛋的用量和加热时间等因素对麦苗蛋糕的影响,并通过正交试验对泡打粉、柠檬酸、麦苗粉和鸡蛋添加量等进行了优化.[结果]试验表明,麦苗蛋糕的最佳配方为:玉米淀粉10.0 g、低筋粉4.0g、白砂糖16.0 9、泡打粉3.0 g、柠檬酸0.4g、奶,粉2.0 g、麦苗粉0.8 9、鸡蛋65.0g,应用该配方微波加热80s,得到的蛋糕综合品质最佳.[结论]研究可为进一步开发天然、绿色或者具有功能性的即食食品提供参考依据.

  15. Study on the Baking Processing of Banana Almond Cakes%香蕉杏仁饼的焙烤工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 黄玮; 邬海雄; 黄惠华

    2010-01-01

    将富含抗性淀粉的香蕉粉应用于粤式传统焙烤食品杏仁饼加工中,研究其焙烤工艺,为新产品的开发奠定基础.通过正交试验,以感官评分为评价指标的优化焙烤工艺结果为:焙烤前期时间35min,上火温度调0℃,下火温度100℃;焙烤后期时间10min,上火温度调120 ℃,下火温度0℃.以产品抗性淀粉含量为指标的优化焙烤工艺结果为:焙烤前期时间40min,上火温度调0℃,下火温度100℃;焙烤后期时间10min,上火温度调120 ℃,下火温度0℃.

  16. 小麦粉海绵蛋糕烘焙试验方法探讨%Study on baking test of sponge cake of wheat flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇莉; 孙辉

    2009-01-01

    对小麦粉海绵蛋糕的实验室制作方法和评分方法进行研究和改进,并选取不同面筋含量和质量的小麦粉样品进行验证.结果表明:利用该方法能够很好的评价不同品质小麦粉的海绵蛋糕烘焙品质,为优质低筋小麦粉的品质评价提供了一个可操作性较好的方法.

  17. 不同淀粉对微波蛋糕品质的影响%Effect of different starch on quality of cake baked with microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菁笛; 吕萍; 孟嫚; 张延杰; 徐学明

    2014-01-01

    采用质构分析与感官评定相结合的方法研究了不同淀粉对微波蛋糕品质的影响.结果表明,TPA的硬度指标和感官评分呈极显著负相关(p<0.01),当指标值在200~300g之间时,感官评定分值均在9分以上;粘着性和凝聚性指标与感官评分呈显著正相关(p<0.05),当凝聚性值大于0.77,弹性值高于0.87时感官评定分值均8分以上;当粘着性值小于-20时,蛋糕粘牙,感官不可接受.不同种类和添加量的淀粉实验表明,当蜡质玉米淀粉的添加量为1.5%时,微波蛋糕的凝聚性可达0.793,硬度可降至296.55g,明显改善其内部组织结构,提高其柔软性;当加入2%的蜡质玉米淀粉时,蛋糕重量损失最小.籼米淀粉对微波蛋糕品质没有显著影响.

  18. 新疆葱油曲奇的焙烤工艺研究%Baking Processing of Scallion Oil QuQi Cakes in Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广林; 徐效圣; 王鹏; 张群

    2011-01-01

    将富含多种微量元素的新疆香葱应用于西式焙烤食品曲奇饼加工中,研究其焙烤工艺,为适合新疆口味的新产品开发奠定基础.通过正交试验,以感官评价为评价指标的优化焙烤工艺结果为:焙烤前期时间35 min,上火温度调0℃,下火温度100℃;焙烤后期时间10 min,上火温度调140℃,下火温度0℃.以产品感官评价为指标的优化焙烤工艺结果为:感官综合的评分为82分.

  19. 无糖燕麦微波蛋糕的研制%Study of Microwave-baked Oats Cake without Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    采用正交试验法对无糖燕麦微波蛋糕制作工艺和配方进行研究,无糖燕麦微波蛋糕的最佳配方和生产条件为:低筋粉100 g、木糖醇70 g、燕麦粉45 g、泡打粉7 g、奶粉15g、单甘酯0.3 g、柠檬酸0.3 g、鸡蛋250g、羧甲基纤维素0.3 g、香兰素0.3 g,800W的微波加热1.5 min.用此法做出的微波蛋糕其成品风味、口感及稳定性较为理想.

  20. 高考前后的蛋糕分割战%The War of Cutting the Cake Baked from University Entrance Examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉晶

    2007-01-01

    转眼间中国恢复高考制度30年了,从1977年中国恢复高考制度开始,中国几百万个家庭毫无例外地受到高考的冲击和影响。中国的国情决定了中国的高考必然成为每个家庭的头等大事。十年寒窗苦读的学子为的就是有朝一日顺利迈入大学殿堂,据统计,2006年900多万个考生来自900多万个家庭,这也是意味着从2006年开始每年都会有至少2700多万人在关注着这场没有硝烟的战争。

  1. 蛋糕微波制作技术问题的探讨%Probe into the Technology of Baking Sponge Cake by Microwave Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桦

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了在微波烘制蛋糕过程中常遇到的技术问题,包括加热不均匀和蛋糕口感及风味的改变等,分析其成因,并提出其相应的解决方法.最后,展望了微波蛋糕制作技术的应用前景.

  2. 燕麦微波蛋糕制作工艺及配方研究%Optimization of Microwave Baking of Oats Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安军; 王玥晗; 郑捷; 刘东岳; 罗建涛

    2010-01-01

    对燕麦微波蛋糕制作工艺及配方进行了研究,燕麦微波蛋糕的最佳配方和生产条件为:粉料100%(燕麦粉35%,小麦特制粉65%)、鸡蛋250%、白砂糖60%、泡打粉4%、牛奶50%、黄油35%、食盐2%、香草粉1%,以1个鸡蛋量为基准配置的蛋糕面糊,用750W家用微波炉在高火的条件下加热3min 30 s.用微波方式加热制作燕麦微波蛋糕,简单易行,而且有益于家庭制作的推广.

  3. 谁在为孩子们制作"蛋糕"--世界动画片漫议%Who are Baking "Cakes" for Children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚朔纯

    2003-01-01

    @@ 动画世界这块全球孩子们都喜爱无比的硕大蛋糕,在世界动画业界的全力打造下,正在越发美妙无比,香味迷人.综观目前的动画影视领域,我们看到的是一片"乱花渐欲迷人眼"的异彩纷呈景象.进入我们视线的堪称佳作的动画片已不是"寥若晨星",而是"你方唱罢我登场"了.

  4. К вопросу о соотношении категорий «Банковская операция», «Кредитная операция», «Банковская сделка»

    OpenAIRE

    Егорова, Н.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and practical problems of law qualification and differentiation credit transaction from analogous categories «baking transaction», «baking deal», «credit contract» are analyzed. Economic and judicial substance of baking transaction is viewed. Legally significant signs of baking transaction as civil deal are emphasized. Detailed law characteristic of credit transaction as unilateral baking deal is given. Correlation of private and public commencements in credit transaction on the b...

  5. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Pineapple Breads

    OpenAIRE

    Seye Lasekan; Kalla Reddi Mohan Naidu; Ola Lasekan; Saw Ying

    2012-01-01

    Sensorial analysis of pineapple breads (conventionally baked, Cpb; fully baked frozen, Fpb and partially baked, Ppb) showed no significant differences in terms of aroma and taste. On the contrary, the scores for the overall quality between the partially baked and conventionally baked breads showed significant (p < 0.05) differences. At the same time, headspace analysis using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method identified 59 volatile compounds. The results of the aroma extracts ...

  6. Development of technology of bakery products supplemented with kelp laminaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bobylov Yuriy A.

    2015-01-01

    It is suggested to use as part of the filling baked pies. The paper presents the developed recipes baked pies, the results of studies of the effect of making seaweed organoleptic properties, is a flow chart of production

  7. Development of technology of bakery products supplemented with kelp laminaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Blagonravova Majya V.; Mishchenko Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    It is suggested to use as part of the filling baked pies. The paper presents the developed recipes baked pies, the results of studies of the effect of making seaweed organoleptic properties, is a flow chart of production.

  8. Stability of DON and OTA during the breadmaking process and determination of process and performance criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, A.; Morales-Valle, H.; Sanchis, V.; Ramos, A. J.; Marín, S.

    2014-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during the breadmaking process was studied. In particular, toxin content was analysed in mixed baking ingredients before kneading, after fermentation and proofing, and finally after baking. Fermentation and proofing were carried out at 30 C for 1 h, while baking was performed at different temperature levels (from 170 to 210 C) and baking times from 45 to 135 min, in a full factorial design. DON increased from unkneaded mix to fermented d...

  9. Research on photolithography graphic pattern transfer technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongping; Cheng, Yue; LU Wuyue; TAN Jiahui; ZHAO Gaojie; Liu, Yihong; SUN Yujun; CHEN Zhizhan; SHI Wangzhou; LI Wanrong; Lu, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    The process of the photolithography were introduced in this paper,including pre-baking,the photoresist coating,soft baking,alignment and exposure,post-exposure baking,development,hard baking.Then we mainly discussed the problems in the photolithography process and the solutions of these problems. We did large number of experiments,and the results were carefully analyzed. Finally,reliable and stable solutions were provided via analyzis and experiments.

  10. Contrast Research on Preventing Cough and Eliminating Phlegm Actions between Various Honey- stir- baked and Crude Radix Polygalae%远志及其不同蜜炙品的镇咳祛痰作用对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤武; 吴晖晖; 王建; 赵海平; 田徽

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察生远志与不同蜜远志(1,2,3,6号)对小鼠镇咳、祛痰作用的影响.方法 采用浓氨水喷雾诱咳法和气管段酚红比色法,探索不同条件蜜炙后,对远志化痰功效有无影响.结果 蜜远志2,3,6号和生远志8,4 g·kg-1组以及蜜远志1号4 g·kg-1组均组能显著减少小鼠的咳嗽次数(P<0.05);而生远志、蜜远志2号8 g·kg-1组又能极显著增加气管酚红的分泌量(P<0.01),蜜远志1,3,6号8 g·kg-1组、蜜远志1,2,3号4 g·kg-1组亦能显著增加气管酚红的分泌量(P<0.05).结论 各蜜远志与生远志均不同程度呈现镇咳、祛痰作用;远志通过不同条件蜜炙后,其祛痰、止咳作用仍然存在,并未受影响.

  11. Effects of Acrylamide Inhibition by Asparaginase and Sugar Substitution on Cookie Dough Rheology and Baking Attributes%丙烯酞胺抑制剂对曲奇面团流变学和烘焙特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed ABDEL-SHAFI ABDEL-SAMIE; 黄卫宁; 李珍妮; Okkyung Kim CHUNG

    2011-01-01

    通过引入天冬酞胺酶和/或甜菊苷到曲奇配方中替代部分糖以抑制其生产过程中丙烯酞胺的生成,分析单独或同时添加这两种配料时曲奇面团的动态流变学特性、硬度和曲奇饼干的烘焙感官特性.结果表明:当单独添加天冬酸胺酶(1000 ASNU)时可降低曲奇样品中天冬酞胺含量(0.045mg/g)的67%,从而抑制95%丙烯酞胺的生成,且不会影响曲奇产品的烘焙特性.而天冬酞胺酶和甜菊苷同时添加时可抑制样品中96%丙烯酞胺的生成.动态流变学结果表明:引入天冬酞胺酶不会影响曲奇面团的流变学性质,而甜菊苷的加入会增加面团的弹性模量G,和黏性模量G",这是因为甜菊苷替代面团中糖成分后促进曲奇面团面筋网络的形成.但是,部分糖被取代后会改变曲奇的一些烘焙特性,如:水分含量增加,曲奇饼干颜色变淡,延展率和破碎力降低.感官分析结果表明:感官评定者不能接受45%和60%糖取代量的曲奇,但可以接受15%或30%糖取代量的曲奇.

  12. 生品和蜜炙款冬花不同提取物的镇咳祛痰作用%Antitussive and Expectorant Activity of Different Extracts from the Crude and Honey-stir-baked Tussilago farfara Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌珊; 易炳学; 龚千锋; 肖永庆

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究款冬花生品与蜜炙品不同溶媒提取物的镇咳、祛痰作用.方法:镇咳实验:昆明种小鼠,随机分成空白、阴性(溶剂)对照、阳性枸橼酸喷托维林对照组(0.01 g·kg-1)、生品和蜜炙款冬花(按生药量计,下同)水提物高、低剂量组(6.20,3.10 g·kg-1)、醇提取物高、低剂量组(6.0,3.0 g·kg-1)、乙酸乙酯和石油醚提取物高、低剂量组(0.5,0.25 g·kg-1).给药体积为25 mL·kg-1,连续ig给药5d,然后观察25%浓氨水定量喷雾后出现咳嗽的潜伏期及2 min内的咳嗽次数.祛痰实验:SD大鼠随机分成空白、阴性、阳性氯化铵对照组(0.16 g·kg-1)、生品和蜜炙款冬花水提物高、低剂量组(2.70,1.35 g·kg-1);醇提物高、低剂量组(3.0,1.5 g·kg-1)、乙酸乙酯和石油醚提取物高、低剂量组(0.25,0.125 g·kg-1).给药体积为25mL· kg-,连续ig给药3d,毛细玻管法记录末次给药后2h大鼠痰液分泌量.结果:与模型对照组相比,生品和蜜炙款冬花醇提物镇咳效果显著,咳嗽潜伏期明显延长(P<0.05),咳嗽次数明显减少(P<0.01).两者水提物也有部分镇咳作用.与模型对照组痰量相比,蜜炙款冬花水提物高、低剂量组,生款冬花乙酸乙酯提取低剂量组,蜜款冬花乙酸乙酯提取物高剂量组痰量明显增多(P<0.05).此外,生款冬花各溶媒提取物组小鼠体重下降显著(P<0.05).结论:款冬花具有镇咳、祛痰作用.其镇咳成分极性较大,易溶于水和乙醇;祛痰成分极性较小,脂溶性较大.生款冬花各溶媒提取物可能具有一定毒性.

  13. Desarrollo de la formulación base para productos horneados con adición de un biopolímero / Development of the base formulation for baked products with addition of a biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Moreno, Nancy Paola

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el comportamiento del biopolímero BILAC® en diferentes matrices alimentarias para luego desarrollar, diferentes formulaciones para productos horneados con la adición de este. Previamente se evaluaron diferentes características físicas determinando principalmente su dispersabilidad, su capacidad de retención, sus condiciones de hidratación e hinchamiento entre otras; para la definición de los tipos de producto a elaborar se ensayaron diferentes formulaciones correspondientes a produc...

  14. 红外线加热技术应用于汽车烤漆工艺的节能效益分析%Energy-saving benefit analysis of infrared heating technology in the automobile paint baking process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱肖晶; 杨蕾

    2014-01-01

    红外线烤漆房采用红外线加热技术,依靠辐射能迫使油漆内部分子迅速排列、剧烈振动,形成光电子激发态,产生强大内能,提高加热速度及干燥速度,相比传统的燃油式烤漆房,红外线加热提高了能源利用效率,减少柴油消耗量,降低产品的综合单耗,社会效益和经济效益明显。%The new spray booth which was developed by the company using the infrared heating technology,relying on the radi-ant energy forcingthe molecular inside the paint arranged rapidly, severe vibration,formingthe photoelectron excited states,produc-ing strong internal energy with the feature of high heating speed and fast drying,compared to conventional fuel type of Spray booth. The measures improve energy efficiency,reduce diesel oil con-sumption,lower the product integrated unit consumption,improve product quality,social and economic benefit.

  15. The Application of Frequency Converting Control Multifunctional Overhead Traveling Crane in Bake System%炭素焙烧多功能天车变频控制的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧向军

    2015-01-01

    Control of roasting multifunctional overhead traveling crane with frequency control technology, improve working conditions, improve equipment level, to meet the requirements of all process of roasting.%利用变频调速技术对焙烧多功能天车的控制,改进工作条件,提高设备装备水平,满足焙烧各种工艺要求。

  16. Vergleich von Ertrag und Backqualität von Winter- und Sommerweizen im ökologischen Landbau [Comparison of yield and baking quality of winter wheat and summer wheat in organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Pommer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Über vier Jahre wurden an vier Standorten Winterweizen und Sommerweizen Sortenversuche am gleichen oder an eng benachbarten Standorten angebaut. Verglichen wurden die arttypischen Erträge und die Backqualität. Der dominierende Einfluss auf die artspezifischen Ertragsdifferenzen ging von der Witterung aus. Eine häufig auftretende frühe Sommertrockenheit hat in acht Fällen die Erträge des Sommerweizens stark vermindert. Auf Standorten mit guten Böden bzw. Vorfrüchten war der Winterweizen überle...

  17. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil; Balanco hidrico e de energia em solo cultivado e sem vegetacao, para as condicoes do brejo paraibano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa

    2004-02-01

    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002, the average values for actual evapotranspiration obtained by using the water balance and energy balance, were 4.33 and 3.98 mm day{sup -1} respectively. In the year of 2003, were respectively 4.2 and 4.1 mm. day{sup -1}. Also, it was verified that the crop did not suffer water stress in the two-year period of study.

  18. Quality Changes of Mulberry Leaf Health Moon Cake before and after Baking%桑叶健康月饼焙烤前后品质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 廖森泰; 邹宇晓; 施英; 刘凡; 穆利霞; 沈维治

    2014-01-01

    以雪皮莲蓉月饼为代表,比较了桑叶粉的添加量对月饼焙烤前后的外观色泽、营养活性成分、质构和风味成分的影响.结果表明:高温焙烤能明显增加月饼饼皮的亮度、绿色和黄色,引起桑叶皮中的叶绿素损失从203.88 μg/g降到101.70 μg/g,但表皮的绿色进一步加深定型;桑叶粉的添加能明显增加月饼中酚类物质含量,经高温焙烤后还能保留更多的活性成分;质构分析(TPA)确定桑叶粉的添加(特别是在皮料中)有利于增加月饼的硬度、弹性、凝聚性、咀嚼性和回复性,降低其粘着性;采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱(SPME-GC-MS)联用技术分析发现,焙烤导致月饼的挥发性风味物质种类逐渐增加,其中以烷烃类和呋喃类为主,而2,4-二甲基庚烷、3,6-二甲基癸烷很可能为桑叶馅月饼的特征性风味物质.

  19. 威伦天然食用色素在烧烤肉制品和蛋糕中的应用%The application of the Weilon Natural Pigment in Baked Meat and Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜荣标

    2003-01-01

    随着人们健康意识的提高及食品卫生管理的加强,合成色素在食品中的应用越来越受消费者的抵制,用天然食用色素替代合成色素是食品发展的必然趋势.为了促进天然食用色素的发展,本文对威伦天然食用色素在在烧烤肉制品和蛋糕中的应用进行了试验,发现在烧鸡制作中采用威伦天然草莓食用着色,效果显著,解决了长期以来烘烤肉制品不得采用合成色素着色; 用威伦天然芒果食用色素制作的蛋糕色泽鲜美、气孔细致均匀、表面平滑柔顺、口感松化细腻香甜可口,弥补了传统配方产品颜色浅而暗、外观粗糙、口感不佳有苦涩味等缺点,同时使蛋糕生产成本下降了21.74%,提高企业效益.

  20. Cognition of "latent marker" turn means of "baking cake" type of isomerism compound werds%"烙饼"类同形异构复合词"潜标记"转指的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩红

    2010-01-01

    汉语缺乏形态变化,所以汉语中的一个词一般不能通过词形的变化来实现词性的转变.但是,汉语谓词性成分可以通过一定的方式实现"名词化",从而在语义上由陈述变成指称.揭示了现代汉语复合词中的一类"同形异构复合词"在词类转化过程中存在"潜标记"转指--异构现象,并从认知角度对这种现象进行了分析.