Sample records for baking

  1. Baking soda overdose (United States)

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  2. First results on fast baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)


    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  3. First results on fast baking (United States)

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J. P.


    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120 °C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the “fast baking” (145 °C/3 h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to: time reduction and possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  4. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes


    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  5. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion. (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew


    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  6. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc


    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  7. Natural gas profile: the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on the number of establishments and employment in each segment, natural gas consumption for each segment in each U.S. state, natural gas prices in various U.S. regions, fuel conservation possibilities in the baking industry, FEA policy on curtailment of gas supplies, and the economic impact of such possible curtailments. (LCL)

  8. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality. (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta


    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC.

  9. The secret to baking a good loaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Martin


    Full Text Available Bread has been produced and consumed for many thousands of years – long before science existed. A new book provides a comprehensive review of the latest scientific developments in baking.

  10. Investment analysis baking industry in Ukraine


    Oleksandr S. Balan; Zoya A. Stepanjuk; Julia O. Dubenchuk


    The investment attractiveness of the baking industry in Ukraine is considered in the article. The factors that affect the investment attractiveness of the industry are considered. Dedicated key issues bakery products.

  11. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.


    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.



    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto; AJB van Boxtel


    Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally pro...

  13. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.


    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).

  14. IBL Thermal Mockup Bake-Out Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiry, FX


    This note summarizes different bake-out tests that have been performed with the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) mockup. Two beam pipe configurations have been tested: one with the aerogel insulation layer all along the pipe and one without insulation over 622 mm around Z0. These tests have been crucial for decisions about aerogel removal, choice of heaters for the LHC beam pipe bake-out, and choice of temperature setpoints for the cooling system during nominal IBL operation. They also revealed very useful information on integration issues and the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the IBL detector.

  15. Energy cost reduction in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand for lighting, cooling, and heating bakeries. (LCL)

  16. Baking results of KSTAR vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. M.; Im, D. S.; Joung, N. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, Y. S.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is an advanced superconducting tokamak designed to establish a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. The fusion energy in the tokamak device is released through fusion reactions of light atoms such as deuterium or helium in hot plasma state, of which temperature reaches several hundreds of millions Celsius. The high temperature plasma is created in the vacuum vessel that provides ultra high vacuum status. Accordingly, it is most important for the vacuum condition to keep clean not only inner space but also surface of the vacuum vessel to make high quality plasma. There are two methods planned to clean the wall surface of the KSTAR vacuum vessel. One is surface baking and the other is glow discharge cleaning (GDC). To bake the vacuum vessel, De-Ionized (DI) water is heated to 130 .deg. C and circulated in the passage between double walls of the vacuum vessel (VV) in order to bake the surface. The GDC operation uses hydrogen and inert gas discharges. In this paper, general configuration and brief introduction of the baking result will be reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto


    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  18. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong [Centre for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)


    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels%Effect of Overaging on Solute Distributions and Bake Hardening Phenomenon in Bake Hardening Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; SHI Wen; HE Yan-lin; LU Xiao-gang; LI Lin


    Specimens of two different kinds of bake hardening steels (BH-Mn and BH-P) were prepared and treated with different annealing processes (water quenching and overaging). A novel technique of three dimensional atom probe was used to investigate solute distributions in these steels. The results indicate that C concentration decreases, whereas V increases during overaging in both bake hardening steels. The conclusion that no vanadium carbides pre- cipitate during the overaging is therefore originally obtained by microanalysis in bake hardening steels. Moreover, bake hardening values of all the specimens were tested by tensile experiments with 2 0/~ pre-deformation. However, those of overaged specimens were further measured with higher levels of pre-deformation because no bake hardening phenomenon was present at 2% pre-deformation. As the pre-deformation increases from 2% to 6% and 8%, both overaged steels show bake hardening values, and the value data are almost the same.

  20. Specific development of the baking industry in Kemerovo oblast


    Kiryukhina, A.; Guk, N.


    The article shows the dynamics of the output of baked goods over the past five years in Russia and in the Siberian Federal District. The main trends in the development of the baking branch of the food industry of Kemerovo oblast are specified. Factors that determine the dynamics of baked goods production in the Kuznetsk Basin are considered. Practices of transfer from administrative bread price regulation to targeted subsidies for the least protected strata are shown. Analytical results of th...

  1. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies. (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James


    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  2. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich


    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  3. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M


    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  4. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... in this thesis. The oven was successfully validated against a 10 m tunnel oven. Besides the ability to emulate the baking conditions in a tunnel oven, the new batch oven is designed and constructed for experimental research work. In the design options to follow the product continuously (especially weight...... and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing...

  5. Usage of enzymes in a novel baking process. (United States)

    Keskin, Semin Ozge; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil


    In this study, the effects of different enzymes (alpha-amylase, xylanase, lipase, protease) on quality of breads baked in different ovens (microwave, halogen lamp-microwave combination and conventional oven) were investigated. It was also aimed to reduce the quality problems of breads baked in microwave ovens with the usage of enzymes. As a control, bread dough containing no enzyme was used. Specific volume, firmness and color of the breads were measured as quality parameters. All of the enzymes were found to be effective in reducing the initial firmness and increasing the specific volume of breads baked in microwave and halogen lamp-microwave combination ovens. However, in conventional baking, the effects of enzymes on crumb firmness were seen mostly during storage. The color of protease enzyme added breads were found to be significantly different from that of the no enzyme and the other enzyme added breads in the case of all type of ovens.

  6. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station (United States)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.


    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  7. Graphitizing Process of the Self—Baking Carbon Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXiaojun; XUEXiangxin; 等


    The different specimens of the Self-Baking Carbon Block are obtained by charging the baking temperature and time.The graphitizing degree G of the specimen is determined by the quantitiative X-ray diffraction.The relationships between G and temperature are expressed.The results show that the graphitizing process from amorphous carbon to graphite is apparent quasi-one-order and should be conducted above a critical temperature.1200K The transition rate increases with tenperature.



    Завертаний, Д. В.


    The transformation processes taking place in the Ukrainian economy show the necessitate of the innovative approaches formation at baking enterprises. To improve the efficiency, enterprises in baking industry should not only optimize transport and energy costs, but also develop an effective pricing strategy for finished products. It should be noted that there is a need to run modern technological production lines that will make possible to reduce the prime cost of the finished product. Despite...

  9. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E


    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  10. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, E A


    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we hav...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keniyz N. V.


    Full Text Available The main component of food pyramid is bakery products. Consumers of bakery products offer fresh bakery in any time of day, in wide assortment, produced by traditional way and possessing the beneficial properties, hypoallergenic and mainly tasty. In Russia, there is an intensive development of the new technologies, which are based on the freezing of semi-finished bakery. There was considered a possibility of pectin use with a new purpose as a crioprotector in the article. On the first stage of the researches there was a work on study of the influence of different crioprotectors on rheology of dough, dough water-absorbing ability, change of formation time and dough stability at addition of crioprotectors, change of valometric assessment of dough at addition of crioprotectors. There was an analysis of the index of “flour power”. On the results of the research, there was calculated the optimal dose of pectin introduction. There was studied the influence of different crioprotectors on structure of frozen by-products. There were cited the microphotos of frozen yeast dough. There was revealed that the best indexes of a quality of ready bread was reached at use of EMP microwave frequency of defrosting dough by-products taking into account energy expenses there was chosen the rational way of baking. There was worked out the technological scheme of bread production from frozen by-products with pectin as a crioprotector

  12. Mathematical modeling of fish burger baking using fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bainy Eduarda M.


    Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. is the most important and abundant fish species in Brazil due to its adaptability to different environments. The development of tilapia-based products could be an alternative in order to aggregate value and increase fish meat consumption. However, there is little information available on fishburger freezing and cooking in the literature. In this work, the mathematical modeling of the fish burger baking was studied. Previously to the baking process, the fishburgers were assembled in cylindrical shape of height equal to 8mm and diameter 100mm and then baked in an electrical oven with forced heat convection at 150ºC. A T-type thermocouple was inserted in the burger to obtain its temperature profile at the central position. In order to describe the temperature of the burger during the baking process, lumped-parameter models of integer and fractional order and also a nonlinear model due to heat capacity temperature dependence were considered. The burger physical properties were obtained from the literature. After proper parameter estimation tasks and statistical validation, the fractional order model could better describe the experimental temperature behavior, a value of 0.91±0.02 was obtained for the fractional order of the system with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Therefore, with the better temperature prediction, process control and economic optimization studies of the baking process can be conducted.

  13. Study of energy conservation potential in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The U.S. baking industry consumes more than 82 trillion BTU/yr or 7% of the gross energy used by the U.S. food system. In order to establish energy saving possibilities in the baking industry, energy audits were performed for 5 bakery plants. These audits resulted in suggestions for formal programs for energy conservation and involve changes in operating procedures, equipment improvement, increased thermal insulation in buildings and equipment, recovery of waste heat, and the substitution of fossil fuel for higher cost electric power for heating. The economic advantages of such modifications are given. (LCL)

  14. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li


    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  15. Shake, Bake, & Sprout: Nutrition Education at Vinton Farmer's Market


    Butterfield, KM


    Presentation on healthy breakfast options for parents and children attending the Shake, Bake, & Sprout event at the Vinton Farmer's Market. Children participated in creating their own breakfast pizzas and parents received nutrition education handouts. This program reached twenty participants. true (Invited?) false (Extension publication?)

  16. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection......A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...

  17. [Baking ingredients, especially alpha-amylase, as occupational inhalation allergens in the baking industry]. (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Baur, X


    Baker's asthma is the most frequent occupational lung disease in Switzerland and West Germany. Cereal flours, and more rarely flour parasites, are implicated as the responsible allergens. Based on an observation of a case of baker's asthma due to monovalent sensitization to alpha-amylase used as additive to flour, 31 bakers with occupational asthma and/or rhinitis were routinely tested by skin tests and serological RAST examinations for allergic sensitivity to flour, alpha-amylase and other bakery additives. 17/31 subjects (55%) reacted positively in scratch tests to a commercial powdered alpha-amylase and 13/20 (65%) to a lecithin preparation. 23/31 (74%) and 19/31 (61%) were RAST positive to wheat and to rye flour respectively. 32% had RAST specific IgE to alpha-amylase (from Aspergillus oryzae), 19.3% to soya bean flour and 16% to malt. 7/12 and 5/12 respectively reacted to trypsin inhibitor and lipoxidase, the main allergens in soya bean. In two patients monosensitization to alpha-amylase was present. In accordance with other reports we recommend that baking additives, especially alpha-amylase, should be tested in allergological diagnosis of occupational diseases in flour processing workers. Full declaration of all additives used in the bakery industry is needed.

  18. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;


    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria


    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.



    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian


    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  1. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier


    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová


    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  3. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg


    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane


    Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room tempera...

  4. Modeling and simulation of an anode carbon baking furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Gundersen


    Full Text Available The anode temperature profile in a Hydro Aluminium baking furnace is obtained by solving the three dimensional heat equation. The main heat transfer and chemical processes are taken into account. Due to symmetry, one half of a pit is modeled. Along the gas path, submodels are derived for the under-pit area, pit area and under-lid area. For the gas flow, a stationary model is derived, whereas the heat equations are dynamically solved. The numerical model is derived from the control volume formulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić


    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  6. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe


    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  7. Paleointensities From a Baked Contact: a Multi-Method Experiment (United States)

    Bohnel, H.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Hill, M. J.; Yamamoto, Y.


    The baked contact test is traditionally used to prove the origin of a NRM in old rocks. It consists in the comparison of the NRM from an igneous rock with that of the rock which has been reheated by that igneous rock. In the vicinity of the City of Queretaro (Mexico) such a situation is given by an upper Tertiary lava flow which has reheated profoundly underlying lake/alluvial sediments. This situation was deemed to be ideal for testing different PI methods, as the lava flow and baked sediments are thought to have different rock magnetic properties, but should have recorded the same paleointensity. As the success of paleointensity experiments is often dependent on the rock magnetic properties, such a situation may provide information about the conditions that may be responsible for the success or failure in a particular PI method. The PI methods applied to the lava and sediment rocks are: Thellier-Coe, microwave, multi-specimen pTRM, LTD-DHT Shaw.

  8. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  9. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.


    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  10. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker


    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with lo...

  11. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  12. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake. (United States)

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo


    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process.

  13. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking. (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene


    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB


    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  15. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.


    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  16. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova


    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  17. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread. (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W


    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread.

  18. Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.


    In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.

  19. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties. (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A


    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network.

  20. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  1. Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy. (United States)

    Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor


    The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 °C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 °C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.23×0.23×1.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types.

  2. Energy use in the biscuit-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.


    A survey was carried out to ascertain the level of energy use in the New Zealand biscuit baking industry. All firms in the New Zealand food processing industry that produce biscuits were sent a questionnaire requesting information on energy consumption and production. Replies were received from five factories and the information from these was supplemented by detailed factory surveys in two other factories. Measures to reduce energy consumption are proposed. Replacement of existing steam boilers with boilers better suited to provide the requirements for process steam would lead to significant reductions in baseload boiler fuel use. Small savings both in boiler fuel consumption and oven fuel consumption can be made by improvements to insulation. Further savings in oven fuel consumption are unlikely except by replacement of the existing ovens with more energy-conscious designs. The design of the biscuit coolers used in the industry can be improved to reduce the electricity consumed by the refrigeration equipment for these coolers. Process flow charts are presented. An analysis of energy consumption was made. (MCW)

  3. High coercivity remanence in baked clay materials used in archeomagnetism (United States)

    McIntosh, Gregg; Kovacheva, Mary; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Donadini, Fabio; Lopez, Maria Luisa Osete


    A study of the high coercivity remanence in archeological baked clays has been carried out. More than 150 specimens from 46 sites across Europe have been analyzed, selected on the basis of the presence of a fraction of their natural remanence that was resistant to alternating field demagnetization to 100 mT. The study was based on the stability of isothermal remanence to alternating field and thermal demagnetization and its variation on cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature. Results indicate that the high coercivity remanence may be carried by magnetite, hematite, and in isolated cases partially oxidized magnetite and goethite. In addition, a high coercivity, thermally stable, low unblocking temperature phase has been identified. The unblocking temperatures of both the isothermal remanence and the alternating field resistant natural remanence exhibit similar unblocking temperatures, suggesting that the same phases carry both signals. The high coercivity, low unblocking temperature phase contributes to the natural remanence, sometimes carrying a stable direction and behaving ideally during palaeointensity experiments and sometimes not. An unambiguous mineralogical identification of this phase is lacking, although likely candidates include hemoilmentite, related to clay source lithology, and substituted hematite or magnetic ferri-cristabolite, both possible products of thermal transformation of iron-bearing clays.

  4. Morphological Evaluation of Variously Intercalated Pre-baked Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Hameed


    Full Text Available The use of porous materials is enjoying tremendous popularity and attention of the advance scientific communities due to their excellent adsorptive and catalytic activities. Clays are one of the most important candidates in the porous community which shows the above mentioned activities after modifing with a different intercalating agent. The paper is focused on the infiuence of some inorganic intercalating agents (NaOH on the morphology of the variously intercalated clay samples. The alkali metal was used as the inorganic intercalating agent. The effect of intercalation temperature, intercalation agent concentration and intercalation time on the pre-baked clay morphology were also part of the study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM study was performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the resultant intercalates. Different morphological properties were improved significantly in the case of the inorganically modified clay samples. Thus, such intercalations are suggested to be effective if the clays under study are to be used for different industrial process at elevated conditions.

  5. Soft-Bake Purification of SWCNTs Produced by Pulsed Laser Vaporization (United States)

    Yowell, Leonard; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga; Allada, Rama Kumar; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram


    The "soft-bake" method is a simple and reliable initial purification step first proposed by researchers at Rice University for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) produced by high-pressure carbon mon oxide disproportionation (HiPco). Soft-baking consists of annealing as-produced (raw) SWCNT, at low temperatures in humid air, in order to degrade the heavy graphitic shells that surround metal particle impurities. Once these shells are cracked open by the expansion and slow oxidation of the metal particles, the metal impurities can be digested through treatment with hydrochloric acid. The soft-baking of SWCNT produced by pulsed-laser vaporization (PLV) is not straightforward, because the larger average SWCNT diameters (.1.4 nm) and heavier graphitic shells surrounding metal particles call for increased temperatures during soft-bake. A part of the technology development focused on optimizing the temperature so that effective cracking of the graphitic shells is balanced with maintaining a reasonable yield, which was a critical aspect of this study. Once the ideal temperature was determined, a number of samples of raw SWCNT were purified using the soft-bake method. An important benefit to this process is the reduced time and effort required for soft-bake versus the standard purification route for SWCNT. The total time spent purifying samples by soft-bake is one week per batch, which equates to a factor of three reduction in the time required for purification as compared to the standard acid purification method. Reduction of the number of steps also appears to be an important factor in improving reproducibility of yield and purity of SWCNT, as small deviations are likely to get amplified over the course of a complicated multi-step purification process.

  6. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography. (United States)

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane


    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova


    Full Text Available Summary.Research priorities is the development of food therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, innovative methods of complex processing of raw materials with maximum preservation of the original chemical composition and on the basis of a new product release in generation functionality. This article explores the many reasons for the lag of the Patriotic-owned enterprises in terms of technological development, analyzes the features of innovation in the bakery production of Russia, proposed the current directions for the innovative development of grain-processing industry. The observation revealed that during the years of market transformations in the bakeries have been significant changes, especially in the volume of products sold. Based on the results of statistical studies, it was found that at least 75% of the population consume daily baked goods and this makes them appropriate nutrient enrichment. The current state and bakeries, bakeries and revealed a high degree of wear of the process equipment. Over the past 14 years, marked by a decline in production, which led to a decline in production output and profitability constraints. It was found that in bakeries and bakeries deterioration index technique is approximately 67%. With respect to raw materials for bread production, noted that the creation of a civilized grain market in Russia requires the solution of a number of key issues. It is established that is currently happening aggression from industrialized countries to seize the Russian food market, leading to a narrowing of the domestic demand for domestic products, and this causes the drop in the economic growth of the food industry. The analysis revealed that there is considerable potential for the development of the industry.

  8. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki


    Full Text Available Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room temperature. In contrast, the cake using hen egg increased drastically a hardness of the cake and decreased an adhesion of the cake. Though water content of the sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change on 10 days of storage at room temperature, the cake using hen egg significantly decreased water content of the cake. The sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides for 10 days in storage at room temperature. In contrast, the cake using hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides for 10 days. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl egg could improve a quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  9. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H. [Chungnam National University Graduate School, Taejeon (Korea); Im, K.H.; Cho, S.Y. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Kim, J.B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (Korea); Woo, H.K. [Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)


    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6} {approx} 10{sup -7} Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. for this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 deg.C, 350 deg.C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The baking analysis for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Woo, H. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Im, K. H.; Cho, S. Y. [korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. B. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The base pressure of vacuum vessel of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) Tokamak is to be a ultra high vacuum, 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}Pa, to produce clean plasma with low impurity containments. For this purpose, the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components need to be baked up to at least 250 .deg. C, 350 .deg. C respectively, within 24 hours by hot nitrogen gas from a separate baking/cooling line system to remove impurities from the plasma-material interaction surfaces before plasma operation. Here by applying the implicit numerical method to the heat balance equations of the system, overall temperature distributions of the KSTAR vacuum vessel and plasma facing components are obtained during the whole baking process. The model for 2-dimensional baking analysis are segmented into 9 imaginary sectors corresponding to each plasma facing component and has up-down symmetry. Under the resulting combined loads including dead weight, baking gas pressure, vacuum pressure and thermal loads, thermal stresses in the vacuum vessel during bakeout are calculated by using the ANSYS code. It is found that the vacuum vessel and its supports are structurally rigid based on the thermal stress analyses.

  11. Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer during a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Ashokkumar, Saranya


    model equations (unsteady state heat transfer, liquid water and water vapour) were solved using the Finite Element Method (COMSOL Multi-physics® version 3.5). During the baking process, local temperatures and overall moisture loss were measured continuously. The model – predicting temperature, liquid......A mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer of a contact baking process is developed. In the current model formulation, a local evaporation of water is described with a reaction–diffusion approach, where a simultaneous diffusion and evaporation of water takes place. The resulting coupled...... water content in the product and water in the vapour phase – was calibrated and partially validated using data obtained during baking of a representative food model (a pancake batter) under controlled conditions on a specially designed experimental rig. The unknown parameters in the model equations were...

  12. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E


    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  13. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)


    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  14. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking. (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh


    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes.

  15. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.;


    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... use of N-fertiliser in three successive years. A standard recipe for semi-sweet biscuit dough was used, and the amount of water added was adjusted to the water absorption capacity. The theological properties of the dough were characterised by creep recovery and oscillation. The fundamental methods...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...

  16. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL


    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  17. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza. (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen


    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a Weissella confusa dextransucrase and its application in high fibre baking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Kajala

    Full Text Available Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using (14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding K(m and V(max values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg ∙ min, respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking.

  19. Rock magnetic and paleointensity results from Mesozoic baked contacts of Armenia (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Perrin, M.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Pavlov, V. E.; Ayvaz'yan, A.; Zhidkov, G. V.


    Samples were obtained from three baked contacts and one lava flow along the upper Turonian-lower Coniacian Tovuz section, two baked contacts along the upper Coniacian-lower Santonian Paravakar section in the northern part of Armenia, and three baked contacts along the Titonian-Valanginian Kafan section in southern Armenia. A total of 130 samples were studied. Updated mean paleomagnetic poles were calculated for the Upper Cretaceous Tovuz-Paravakar sections (65.6°N, 162.2°E, A95 = 4.3, paleolatitude = 27.0 ± 3.4°) and the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kafan section (61.7°N, 158.9°E, A95 = 4.8°, paleolatitude = 24.7 ± 3.8°). Paleointensity determinations could be estimated from two of the upper Cretaceous and three of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous baked contacts, corresponding to a 30% success rate. The mean virtual dipole moments obtained were low (1.7-5.5 × 1022 A m2), which is in agreement with data published by Bol'shakov and Solodovnikov (1981a, 1983) for the same sections (3.0-4.4 × 1022 A m2). Our results support the hypothesis of the Mesozoic Dipole Low, even though the overall data are widely dispersed.

  20. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  1. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli


    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of a Weissella confusa Dextransucrase and Its Application in High Fibre Baking (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Shi, Qiao; Nyyssölä, Antti; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Hou, Yaxi; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija; Juvonen, Riikka


    Wheat bran offers health benefits as a baking ingredient, but is detrimental to bread textural quality. Dextran production by microbial fermentation improves sourdough bread volume and freshness, but extensive acid production during fermentation may negate this effect. Enzymatic production of dextran in wheat bran was tested to determine if dextran-containing bran could be used in baking without disrupting bread texture. The Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 dextransucrase gene was sequenced and His-tagged dextransucrase Wc392-rDSR was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Purified enzyme was characterized using 14C-sucrose radioisotope and reducing value-based assays, the former yielding Km and Vmax values of 14.7 mM and 8.2 μmol/(mg∙min), respectively, at the pH optimum of 5.4. The structure and size of in vitro dextran product was similar to dextran produced in vivo. Dextran (8.1% dry weight) was produced in wheat bran in 6 h using Wc392-rDSR. Bran with and without dextran was used in wheat baking at 20% supplementation level. Dextran presence improved bread softness and neutralized bran-induced volume loss, clearly demonstrating the potential of using dextransucrases in bran bioprocessing for use in baking. PMID:25603169

  3. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  4. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams (United States)

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  5. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds. (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre


    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake.

  6. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructo

  7. Baking-powder driven centripetal pumping controlled by event-triggering of functional liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinahan, David J.; Burger, Robert; Vembadi, Abhishek


    This paper reports radially inbound pumping by the event-triggered addition of water to on-board stored baking powder in combination with valving by an immiscible, high-specific weight liquid on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. This technology allows making efficient use of precious real estate...

  8. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese. (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J


    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  10. Effect of radio frequency postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product. (United States)

    Koray Palazoğlu, T; Coşkun, Yunus; Kocadağlı, Tolga; Gökmen, Vural


    Effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product was investigated in this study. Control cookies were prepared by baking in a conventional oven at 205 °C for 11 min. Cookies partially baked for 8 and 9 min were postdried in a 27.12 MHz RF tunnel oven until attainment of the moisture content of control cookies. Internal temperature of cookies was monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Cookies were analyzed for acrylamide content using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Texture measurements were performed using a Texture Analyzer, while digital image analysis was used for color measurement. The results showed that RF postdrying of partially baked cookies resulted in lower acrylamide levels (107.3 ng/g for control cookies, 74.6 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 9 min, 51.1 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 8 min). Instrumental texture analysis showed no significant difference among the texture of cookies, whereas RF postdried samples had a lower degree of browning. According to sensory evaluation results, control had a more crumbly texture, and RF postdried sample that was conventionally baked for 8 min had a slightly uncooked flavor.

  11. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough. (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik


    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb.

  12. Determination of suitable drying curve model for bread moisture loss during baking (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, A. R.; Jafary, A.; Rafiee, S.


    This study presents mathematical modelling of bread moisture loss or drying during baking in a conventional bread baking process. In order to estimate and select the appropriate moisture loss curve equation, 11 different models, semi-theoretical and empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their correlation coefficients, chi-squared test and root mean square error which were predicted by nonlinear regression analysis. Consequently, of all the drying models, a Page model was selected as the best one, according to the correlation coefficients, chi-squared test, and root mean square error values and its simplicity. Mean absolute estimation error of the proposed model by linear regression analysis for natural and forced convection modes was 2.43, 4.74%, respectively.

  13. Simulation of the influence of the baffle on flowing field in the anode baking ring furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 梅炽; 周孑民; 周乃君; 徐琼辉


    In an anode baking horizontal flue ring furnace, the temperature distribution is one of the key factors influencing the quality of baked anode and is closely correlated with the gas flow. To understand the gas flow distribution in the flue, Navier-Stokes equation with "k-ε" two-equation turbulence model was adopted and the simulation on the gas flow was performed. The numerical simulation results showed that the even direction of gas flow should be considered in the design of flue baffles and the gas flow distribution was really uneven in the flue in practical use. By adjusting the number and location of flue baffles rationally, the even distribution of gas flow can be improved obviously.

  14. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake. (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O


    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  15. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Baked Bread Concerning Recrystallization of Starch Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fuckerer


    Full Text Available Bread is one of the most important foods in industrial countries and it is at its best when consumed fresh. One of the major problems during storage of baked products is staling. Bread staling incorporates a combination of physical and chemical changes resulting in a decrease of bread quality. The predominant mechanism of staling is the time-dependent recrystallization of starch molecules. Avoiding this recrystallization is one of the most desired topics in science of bread technology but still not solved. Therefore, this study investigates a new possibility by trying to influence the recrystallization of starch with microwave heating. For this, the differences between microwave and conventional baked rye-wheat bread were examined concerning the difference of water activity and firmness of the bread during time. As result, a faster water loss during storage period could be observed in microwave heated bread, which probably implies an even more rapid recrystallization instead the desired avoiding of recrystallization of starch.

  16. Microbial Proteases in Baked Goods: Modification of Gluten and Effects on Immunogenicity and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina G. Heredia-Sandoval


    Full Text Available Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are still missing due to the technological challenge of substituting the special gluten properties. Instead of using alternative ingredients for baking, some attempts have been done to decrease gluten immunogenicity by its enzymatic degradation with microbial proteases. Although the gluten immunogenicity reduction has been reached to an acceptable level, some quality parameters of the products are affected. This review focus on the use of microbial peptidases to prepare less immunogenic baked goods and their effect on product quality.

  17. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread. (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof


    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb.

  18. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail:; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata


    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10{sup –8} mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m{sup 2} current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H{sub 2}O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O{sub 2}) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10{sup −8} mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  19. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar


    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  20. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking. (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev


    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  1. The use of exhausted olive husks as fuel in the Calabrian bread-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, G. [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)


    Exhausted olive husks are a biomass by-product from the olive oil working cycle that has very interesting energy characteristics. This paper considers the use of this biomass as an alternative to or integrative energy source with conventional fuels in the Calabrian bread baking sector, and it outlines its potential and economic viability. Various energy scenarios are suggested for a Calabrian bakery, by means of a detailed analysis of economic convenience. (author)

  2. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts. (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy


    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  3. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail:; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.


    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  4. Minimizing wafer defectivity during high-temperature baking of organic films in 193nm lithography (United States)

    Randall, Mai; Longstaff, Christopher; Ueda, Kenichi; Nicholson, Jim; Winter, Thomas


    Demands for continued defect reduction in 300mm IC manufacturing is driving process engineers to examine all aspects of the apply process for improvement. Process engineers, and their respective tool sets, are required to process films at temperatures above the boiling point of the casting solvents. This can potentially lead to the sublimation of the film chemical components. The current methods used to minimize wafer defectivity due to bake residues include frequent cleaning of bake plate modules and surrounding equipment, process optimization, and hardware improvements until more robust chemistries are available. IBM has evaluated the Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK TM ACT TM 12 high exhaust high temperature hotplate (HHP) lid to minimize wafer level contamination due to the outgasing of a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) films during the high temperature bake process. Goal was to minimize airborne contamination (particles in free space), reduce hotplate contamination build up, and ultimately reduce defects on the wafer. This evaluation was performed on a 193nm BARC material. Evaluation data included visual hardware inspections, airborne particle counting, relative thickness build up measurements on hotplate lids, wafer level defect measurements, and electrical open fail rate. Film coat thickness mean and uniformity were also checked to compare the high exhaust HHP with the standard HHP lid. Chemical analysis of the HHP module residue was performed to identify the source material. The work will quantify potential cost savings achieved by reducing added wafer defects during processing and extending PM frequency for equipment cleaning.

  5. Par-baked Bread Technology: Formulation and Process Studies to Improve Quality. (United States)

    Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Steel, Caroline Joy; Chang, Yoon Kil


    Extending the shelf-life of bakery products has been an important requirement resulting from the mechanization of this industry and the need to increase the distance for the distribution of final products, caused by the increase in production and consumer demand. Technologies based on the interruption of the breadmaking process represent an alternative to overcome product staling and microbiological deterioration. The production of par-baked breads is one of these technologies. It consists of baking the bread in two stages, and due to the possibility of retarding the second stage, it can be said that the bread can always be offered fresh to the consumer. The technology inserts logistics as part of the production process and creates the "hot point" concept, these being the locations where the bread is finalized, such as in the consumers' homes or sales locations. In this work, a review of the papers published on this subject was carried out, and aspects related to both the formulation and the process were considered. This technology still faces a few challenges, such as solving bread quality problems that appear due to process modifications, and these will also be considered. The market for these breads has grown rapidly and the bakery industry searches innovations related to par-baked bread technology.

  6. Analysis of modes of heat transfer in baking Indian rice pan cake (Dosa,) a breakfast food. (United States)

    Venkateshmurthy, K; Raghavarao, K S M S


    Heat transfer by individual modes is estimated during baking of rice (Oryza sativa) pan cake (Dosa), a traditional food. The mathematical expressions proposed could be used to modify the baking oven for controlling the individual modes of heat transfer to obtain the desired product texture, colour and flavour. Conduction from the rotating hot plate is found to be the most prominent mode of heat transfer and is critical for obtaining the desired product characteristics such as texture and flavour. Temperature profiles along the thickness of Dosa are obtained and compared with those obtained experimentally. Heat transfer parameters such as thermal conductivity and emissivity of Dosa are determined (0.42 W/m K and 0.31, respectively). The effect of material of construction of the hot plate such as alloy steel, teflon coated aluminum, cast iron and stainless steel on product texture was studied and stainless steel was found to give good surface finish to the product, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Sensory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the product acceptability. The thermal efficiency of the baking oven was 51.5%.

  7. Impact of local hydrothermal treatment during bread baking on soluble amylose, firmness, amylopectin retrogradation and water mobility during bread staling. (United States)

    Besbes, Emna; Le Bail, Alain; Seetharaman, Koushik


    The impact of hydrothermal processing undergone by bread dough during baking on the degree of starch granule disruption, on leaching of soluble amylose, on water mobility, on firmness and on amylopectin retrogradation during staling has been investigated. Two heating rates during baking have been considered (4.67 and 6.31 °C/min) corresponding respectively to baking temperature of 220 and 240 °C. An increase in firmness and in the amount of retrogradated amylopectin accompanied by a decrease in freezable water has been observed during staling. Although a lower heating rate yielded in larger amount of retrogradated amylopectin retrogradation, it resulted in a lower firmness. Additionally, the amount of soluble amylose and the relaxation times of water measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR (T20, T21 and T22) decreased during staling. It was demonstrated that the amount of soluble amylose was higher for bread crumb baked at lower heating rate, indicating that an increasing amount of amylose is leached outside the starch granules. This was corresponding to a greater amount of retrograded amylopectin during staling. Moreover, it was found that the degree of gelatinization differs locally in a same bread slice between the top, the centre and the bottom locations in the crumb. This was attributed to the differences in kinetics of heating, the availability of water during baking and the degree of starch granule disruption during baking. Based on first order kinetic model, it was found that staling kinetics were faster for samples baked at higher heating rate.

  8. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.


    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  9. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化研究%Optimization of salty baked chili powder technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 吴灿


    The effect of baking temperature,baking time and salt concentration on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder were studied,and the optimum processing technology was obtained through sensory score.Results showed that:baking time was the main influencing factors on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powde,and then baking temperature,adding salt only made the aroma more gentle.The optimal processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder was,baking temperature 120 ℃,baking time 10 min,and salt concentration 5%.%以野山椒为原料,通过感官评分的方法,探究了烘烤温度、烘烤时间以及加盐量对其加工的影响,并得出了焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺。结果表明,烘烤时间为焦盐野山椒粉生产的主要影响因素,其次是烘烤温度,而添加食盐只会让其香气变得更加柔和。焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺为烘烤温度120℃,烘烤时间10min,加盐量为干辣椒粉质量5%。

  10. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven. (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A


    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  11. Internal Friction on the Bake-Hardening Behavior of 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renyu Fu; Yu Su; Ping Ye; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li; Jicheng Zhang


    The bake-hardening (BH) values and the "internal friction-temperature" spectrums were studied for the baked 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) specimens with 0%, 2% and 6% prestrain. Results show that the experimental TRIP steel deserves good bake-hardening ability and Cottrell atmosphere is the reason for its bake hardening characteristic. It is also concluded that both the number and the saturation degree of Cottrell atmosphere might affect the BH value of TRIP steel.

  12. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology. (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge


    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  13. Relationship Between Bake Hardening, Snoek-Köster and Dislocation-Enhanced Snoek Peaks in Coarse Grained Low Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijuan


    Full Text Available In the present work, specimens prepared from coarse grained low carbon steel with different prestrains were baked and then, their bake hardening (BH property and internal friction were determined. TEM was used to characterize the dislocation structure in BH treated samples. The measurements of internal friction in prestrained samples and baked samples were carried out using a multifunctional internal friction apparatus. The results indicate that, in coarse grained low carbon steel, the bake hardening properties (BH values were negative, which were increased by increasing the prestrain from 2 to 5%, and then were decreased by increasing the prestrain from 5 to 10%. In the specimen with prestrain 5%, the BH value reached the maximum value and the height of Snoek-Köster peak was observed to be the maximum alike. With increasing the prestrain, both of the BH value and Snoek-Köster peak heights are similarly varied. It is concluded that Snoek-Köster and dislocation-enhanced Snoek peaks, caused by the interactions between interstitial solute carbon atoms and dislocations, can be used in further development of the bake hardening steels.

  14. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  15. Genetic locus half baked is necessary for morphogenesis of the ectoderm. (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N; Warga, Rachel M; Kane, Donald A


    The zebrafish epiboly mutants partially block epiboly, the vegetalward movement of the blastoderm around the giant yolk cell. Here, we show that the epiboly mutations are located near the centromere of Linkage Group 7 in a single locus, termed the half baked locus. Nevertheless, except for the similar mutants lawine and avalanche, we find the epiboly traits of each of the alleles to be distinguishable, forming an allelic series. Using in situ analysis, we show that the specification and the formation of the germ layers is unaffected. However, during early gastrulation, convergence movements are slowed in homozygous and zygotic maternal dominant (ZMD) heterozygous mutants, especially in the epiblast layer of the blastoderm. Using triple-mutant analysis with squint and cyclops, we show that ablating involution and hypoblast formation in hab has no effect on the epiboly phenotype on the ventral and lateral sides of the embryo, suggesting that the hypoblast has no role in epiboly. Moreover, the triple mutant enhances the depletion of cells on the dorsal side of the embryo, consistent with the idea that convergence movements are defective. Double-mutant analysis with one-eyed pinhead reveals that hab is necessary in the ectodermal portion of the hatching gland. In ZMD heterozygotes, in addition to the slowing of epiboly, morphogenesis of the neural tube is abnormal, with gaps forming in the midline during segmentation stages; later, ectopic rows of neurons form in the widened spinal cord and hindbrain. Cell transplantation reveals that half baked acts both autonomously and nonautonomously in interactions among cells of the forming neural tube. Together, these results suggest that half baked is necessary within the epiblast for morphogenesis during both epiboly and neurulation and suggest that the mechanisms that drive epiboly possess common elements with those that underlie convergence and extension.

  16. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.


    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  17. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins. (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W


    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  18. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco


    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77°K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 °C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 °C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of ˜0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20°K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20°K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in

  19. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.


    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  20. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A. [Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)


    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author).

  1. Energy use in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.; Serrallach, G.F.


    A survey was carried out to determine energy consumption in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industry. Information was obtained from 11 bread bakeries. Energy use in the bread bakeries over the period 1977/78 was found to average 2.45 MJ/kg of which 0.46 MJ/kg was electricity and the rest oven and boiler fuels. Process flow charts are shown. The purposes for which electricity are used are described. An energy consumption analysis is presented and energy conservation measures are described. (MCW)

  2. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality. (United States)

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony


    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  3. Storage of parbaked bread affects shelf life of fully baked end product: a ¹H NMR study. (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Ooms, Nand; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A


    Full baking of earlier partially baked (parbaked) bread can supply fresh bread to the consumer at any time of the day. When parbaked bread loaves were stored at -25, 4 or 23°C, the extent of crumb to crust moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation differed with storage temperature, and the firming rate was evidently lowest during frozen storage. The extent of crumb to crust moisture migration during parbaked bread storage largely determined the mass of the fresh finished bread, and its crumb and crust moisture contents. Initial NMR proton mobility, initial resilience, the extent of amylopectin retrogradation and changes in firmness and resilience during storage of fully baked bread were affected by its crumb moisture content. The lowest firming rate was observed for finished bread resulting from parbaked bread stored at -25°C, while the highest firming rate was observed for finished bread from parbaked bread stored at 23°C.

  4. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough. (United States)

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A


    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products.

  5. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing. (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini


    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production.

  6. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin


    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  7. Effect of temper rolling on the bake-hardening behavior of low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fu Kuang; Shen-gen Zhang; Jun Li; Jian Wang; Pei Li


    In a typical process, low carbon steel was annealed at two different temperatures (660°C and 750°C), and then was temper rolled to improve the mechanical properties. Pre-straining and baking treatments were subsequently carried out to measure the bake-hardening (BH) values. The influences of annealing temperature and temper rolling on the BH behavior of the steel were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructure evolution during temper rolling was related to carbon atoms and dislocations. After an apparent increase, the BH value of the steel significantly decreased when the temper rolling reduction was increased from 0%to 5%. This was attributed to the increase in solute carbon concentration and dislocation density. The maximum BH values of the steel annealed at 660°C and 750°C were 80 MPa and 89 MPa at the reductions of 3%and 4%, respectively. Moreover, increasing the annealing temperature from 660 to 750°C resulted in an ob-vious increase in the BH value due to carbide dissolution.

  8. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K


    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation.

  9. Production of crude xylanase from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756 aiming the baking process. (United States)

    Oliveira, Denise S; Meherb-Dini, Carolina; Franco, Célia M L; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto


    In recent years, the baking industry has focused its attention on substituting several chemical compounds with enzymes. Enzymes that hydrolyze nonstarch polysaccharides, such as xylanase, lead to the improvement of rheological properties of dough, loaf specific volume, and crumb firmness. The purpose of this study was to find a better solid-state fermentation substrate to produce high levels of xylanase and low levels of protease and amylase, which are enzymes involved in bread quality, from Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI 756. Wheat bran, corncob, and corn straw were used as energy sources. The enzyme extract of corncob showed high xylanase activity (130 U/mL) and low amylase and protease activity (baking industry, because it results in a slower degradation of gluten. Our results confirm this finding, because the enzyme obtained by fermentation in corncob resulted in a gluten with a higher specific volume than all the other substrates that were tested. The crude xylanase presented maximum activity at a pH of 5, and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. It was stable up to 70 °C for an hour and at a pH range from 4 to 10.

  10. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Junichiro, E-mail:; Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-PARC Center, Ooaza Shirakata 2-4, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, Yuichi [SAKAGUCHI E.H VOC CORP., Sakura Dai-san Kogyodanchi 1-8-6, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-0802 (Japan)


    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  11. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo


    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  12. Deprotection blue in extreme ultraviolet photoresists: influence of base loading and post-exposure bake temperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.


    The deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP5496 extreme ultraviolet photoresists has been determined as their base weight percent is varied. They have also determined the deprotection blur of TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist as the post-exposure bake temperature is varied from 80 C to 120 C. In Rohm and Haas XP 5435 and XP5271 resists 7x and 3x (respective) increases in base weight percent reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features by 16 nm and 8 nm with corresponding reductions in deprotection blur of 7 nm and 4 nm. In XP 5496 a 7x increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 48 nm to 38 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 resist, a reduction in post-exposure bake temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces deprotection blur from 21 nm to 10 nm and reduces patterned LER from 4.8 nm to 4.1 nm.

  13. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products (United States)

    Engmann, Jan


    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  14. Intensive Baking Room Baking on the Intensive Management%密集烤房集约化烘烤管理初议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Digest Since the development and application of bulk and intensive flue curing barn from 2005, it was accepted the tobacco barn has unique advantages such as capacity-installing, cost-reducing, energy-saving and lower consumption reduction, etc. Barn in recent years has achieved rapid development in China, in particular, the implementation of Technical standard for barn (No.418 document of National Tobacco Management Department [ the barn, 2009]) has made intensive flue curing technology the leading role among the tobacco curing system in China. By the end of 2011, China has built up more than 700,000 bulk flue curing barn, in which has more than 30,000 serious curing barn and baking workshop connected with the tobacco curing work of 14,000,000 mu. Although the popularization and application of bulk and intensive flue curing barn has been rapidly recognized through the country, resulting in a large number of baking workshop’s establishing. However, the management of bulk flue curing is still an important subject to study..%  自2005年正式开始密集烤房的研发及推广应用以来,公认了密集烤房有装烟量大、减工降本、节能降耗等独特的优势,最近几年密集烤房在我国得到了迅速的发展,特别是国烟办[2009]418号《密集烤房技术标准》的实行,确立了密集烘烤在我国烟叶烘烤体系中的主体地位.到2011年,全国建造密集烤房总量达到70万座以上,其中烤房群和烘烤工场3万多处,承担烤烟面积约93.3万公顷.虽然,密集烤房的推广应用,很快在全国各个烟区得到了普遍认可,产生了一大批烘烤工场.但是,密集烤房的集约化烘烤管理还是一个重要的课题.

  15. Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers. (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy


    Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers.

  16. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Baked in Convention Oven (United States)

    Frozen fish fillets designed to be baked or reheated in the home oven have been one of the major ways fish are consumed in the US. Examples includes frozen salmon, tilapia, pollock, and cod with different types of pre-treatment such as precooked, marinated, or breaded and par-fried products. However...

  17. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition). (United States)

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered…

  18. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast. (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi


    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast.

  19. Thermal stability and kinetics of degradation of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol conjugates and ochratoxin A during baking of wheat bakery products. (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia


    The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during thermal processing has been studied. Baking temperature, time and initial mycotoxin concentration in the raw materials were assayed as factors. An improved UPLC-MS/MS method to detect DON, DON-3-glucoside, 3-ADON, 15-ADON and DOM-1 in wheat baked products was developed in the present assay. The results highlighted the importance of temperature and time in mycotoxin stability in heat treatments. OTA is more stable than DON in a baking treatment. Interestingly, the DON-3-glucoside concentrations increased (>300%) under mild baking conditions. On the other hand, it was rapidly reduced under harsh conditions. The 3-ADON decreased during the heat treatment; while DOM-1 increased after the heating process. Finally, the data followed first order kinetics for analysed mycotoxins and thermal constant rates (k) were calculated. This parameter can be a useful tool for prediction of mycotoxin levels.

  20. Analysis of thin baked-on silicone layers by FTIR and 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy. (United States)

    Funke, Stefanie; Matilainen, Julia; Nalenz, Heiko; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang


    Pre-filled syringes (PFS) and auto-injection devices with cartridges are increasingly used for parenteral administration. To assure functionality, silicone oil is applied to the inner surface of the glass barrel. Silicone oil migration into the product can be minimized by applying a thin but sufficient layer of silicone oil emulsion followed by thermal bake-on versus spraying-on silicone oil. Silicone layers thicker than 100nm resulting from regular spray-on siliconization can be characterized using interferometric profilometers. However, the analysis of thin silicone layers generated by bake-on siliconization is more challenging. In this paper, we have evaluated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after solvent extraction and a new 3D-Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D-LSM) to overcome this challenge. A multi-step solvent extraction and subsequent FTIR spectroscopy enabled to quantify baked-on silicone levels as low as 21-325μg per 5mL cartridge. 3D-LSM was successfully established to visualize and measure baked-on silicone layers as thin as 10nm. 3D-LSM was additionally used to analyze the silicone oil distribution within cartridges at such low levels. Both methods provided new, highly valuable insights to characterize the siliconization after processing, in order to achieve functionality.

  1. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality. (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Steffolani, María Eugenia; Barrera, Gabriela N; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E


    The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  2. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends. (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta


    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  3. Hypertension after ingestion of baked garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog. (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung


    A 6-year-old, intact male Schnauzer was referred 2-days after accidental ingestion of baked garlic. Regenerative anemia (Hematocrit 22%) and the elevated methemoglobin (8.7%) concentration were detected upon hematological examination. Eccentrocytes, Heinz bodies and ruptured red blood cells were also noted on blood smear films, which were the results from the oxidative injury of the Allium species. The dog was hypertension (systolic mean 182 mmHg) concurrent with other clinical signs, such as vomiting and dark brown urination. Treatment with continuous oxygen, antioxidant drugs and antihypertensive therapy resulted in good progress. The dog was discharged 4 days after hospitalization. There were no remarkable findings in the follow up hematologic examination 24 days after discharge, but the dog still had a high blood pressure and continued on antihypertensive therapy. No recurrence was noted and the blood pressure returned to normal levels 4 months later.

  4. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil. (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E


    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  6. Formation of melatonin and its isomer during bread dough fermentation and effect of baking. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Cemile; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural


    Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. Also, melatonin and its isomer are found in foods. Investigating the formation of melatonin and its isomer is of importance during bread dough fermentation and its degradation during baking since bread is widely consumed in high amounts. Formation of melatonin was not significant during dough fermentation. The melatonin isomer content of nonfermented dough was found to be 4.02 ng/g and increased up to 16.71 ng/g during fermentation. Lower amounts of isomer in crumb and crust than dough showed that the thermal process caused a remarkable degree of degradation in melatonin isomer. At the end of the 180 min fermentation Trp decreased by 58%. The results revealed for the first time the formation of a melatonin isomer in bread dough during yeast fermentation.

  7. The magnetic properties of baked clays and their implications for past geomagnetic field intensity determinations (United States)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.


    Burnt clays provide a vital source of information about the archaeomagnetic field but their magnetic properties, and the dependency of these on thermal history, are diverse, complex and poorly understood. Here, we attempt to shed light on this problem through the investigation of artificial clay samples prepared from three different clay types repeatedly heated in known magnetic field to two different temperatures (400 and 700 °C). Combined rock-magnetic and X-ray analyses were carried out to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the diverse raw and heated clays, and also their evolution during the course of multiple heating/cooling treatments. The magnetic behaviour of the three clay types evolved significantly during the course of being repeatedly heated to both 400 and 700 °C. Phyllosilicates containing iron-substitutions in their matrix apparently played an important role in supplying iron- oxides during the heatings and the iron oxides themselves underwent progressive oxidation. The samples heated to the higher temperature exhibited more ideal magnetic behaviour but even those heated only to 400 °C achieved magnetic stabilization after multiple heatings. After 10 reheating treatments, samples heated to both peak temperatures yielded reliable palaeointensity results and a grand mean intensity value Fa = 48.57 ± 1.19 μT which differs by less than 2 μT (or about 3 per cent) from the known intensity of the inducing field. The results confirm that the thermoremanent magnetization produced as a result of multiple heatings even to moderate temperature in the antiquity can give reliable palaeointensity determination. They also highlight that materials from repeatedly used baked clay structures (kilns, hearths, etc.) may be far more appropriate for archaeointensity study than singly baked clay structures (destruction layers, floor plasters, etc.).

  8. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven. (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil


    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  9. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H


    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range.

  10. Modelling of structure and properties of soft carbons with application to carbon anode baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Oeyvind


    This work deals with topics related to modelling and control of ring furnaces for the baking of carbon anodes used in aluminium electrolysis. Anodes made of a granular coke and coal tar pitch are used in aluminium electrolysis. The anode properties are imperative for successful operation of the aluminium smelters. After mixing and forming the anode paste, heat treatment of the carbon blocks takes place in so-called ring furnaces. A ring furnace consists of a series of heat treatment sections where each section is loaded with a batch of anodes. The heat treatment of the anodes in a section consumes a lot of energy, and the anode properties partly depend on the heat treatment program. Previous work in the field of ring furnace modelling, operation and control is shortly reviewed. Both petroleum coke and coal tar pitch belong to the group of soft carbons. Models for structural parameters and porosity of soft carbons are developed. Furthermore, a new model for pyrolysis of coal tar pitch is proposed. Based on the models for pyrolysis, structure and porosity, new models for properties of single phase carbons and composite anodes are developed. These models are suitable for use in optimization of the baking process. A detailed mathematical model of a part of the heat treatment process is formulated in three spatial dimensions. The model is based on first principle descriptions of fundamental physical and chemical phenomena and the resulting model appears as a set of partial differential equations. The spatial differential operators are discretized by using the finite volume approach. In this way, a high dimensional nonlinear state space model is obtained. The model has been simulated using the method of lines. A vector of quantities which describes the anode properties is defined. This property vector constitutes a systematic definition of anode quality where the quality parameters are calculated as nonlinear transformations of the state space vector. Models are derived

  11. Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.


    Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

  12. Structure optimization of the dispensing house in a combustion train for a thermal bake-out aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengbo; CHANG Baolong; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Binghuai


    The fume bake-out aluminum reduction cell is a novel technology possessing such advantages as easy control for the speed of heating-up, well-distributed temperature, and little cathode and anode oxidation. The key equipment of fume bake-out is a combustion train whose one important part is a dispensing house. This work deals with the numerical model and the flow and temperature fields of the dispensing house, which suggests that uniformity of flow and energy distribution is influenced by the position, shape and direction of the nozzle and cross dimension of dispensing house mainly, but is less influenced by entry speed The parameters of the dispensing house structure are optimised to satisfy the requirements for a combustion train in fume bakeout, and appropriate dimensions are obtained for a dispensing house structure.

  13. Accumulation of Protein Fractions during Grain Filloing of Wheat Genotypes Differing in Protein Content and Baking Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiaobing; LiWenxiong; 等


    The accumulation of protein fractions was analyzed on developing and mature wheat grains of three cultivars differing in protein content and baking quality.There was a slight difference in the accumulation of cytoplasmic proteins in the cultivars used.The high yield but low protein cultivar showed a consistent decline of protein content during grain filling but the high-protein cultivars increascd their psotein contant after 25 days post-anthesis.The accumulation of storage proteins was different from that of cytoplasmic protein.and there were also cultivar variations,However,all cultivars reached their.Maximum-synthesizing capacity for storage proteins at maturity.The relationship between the protein fractions or their ratio and baking quality was also discussed.

  14. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia


    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  15. Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan


    Full Text Available Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1 after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2 was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS, ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb.

  16. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing


    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  17. 麦精在面包中的应用%Application of malt extract in bread baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菊芬; 粟婉媛; 陈小泉


    The effect of malt extract in different addition dose on bread baking performance was studied,a bread preservation test was carried out,and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated.Results indicate that adding the malt extract can improve the performance in bread baking.The sensory evaluation proves that the bread texture and water binding capacity are improved by a proper addition of malt extract,especially the bread taste,flavor and inner textural structure.Furthermore,dough time and baking time of bread are shortened by the malt extract addition.The optimum addition dose of the malt extract in bread production is 4%.%研究了麦精的不同添加量对面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了面包中麦精的最适添加量。研究发现,麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的感官品质、质构以及面包的持水性。此外添加麦精可以缩短发酵时间和烘焙时间,面包中麦精的最适添加量为4%。

  18. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread. (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H


    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  19. Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough. (United States)

    Novotni, Dubravka; Curić, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Colić Barić, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina


    Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ≤ 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI.

  20. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties. (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Raineri, Andrea; Fongaro, Lorenzo; Foschino, Roberto; Mariotti, Manuela


    The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  1. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread. (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas


    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  2. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread. (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał


    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention.

  3. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry. (United States)

    Brisman, J; Belin, L


    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme.

  4. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa


    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  5. Half-Baked Logo Microworlds as Boundary Objects in Integrated Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chronis KYNIGOS


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of fragmentation of the communities involved in the design of digital media for education. It draws on the experience gained at the Educational Technology Lab in the design of Logo-based microworlds with three different platforms respectively based on component computing, 3D game engines and 3D navigation with a GIS. In this paper I use the term half-baked to describe a microworld which is explicitly designed to engage its users with changing it as the main aspect of their activity. I discuss this kind of microworld as a tool for integrated design involving people with diverse expertise and/or roles to communicate. These kinds of microworlds implicitly exist within the community, but they can be explicitly designed mediated and put to use in the role of facilitators for integrated design and development to enable a growing communication amongst researchers, technicians, teachers and students. A template for presenting microworlds which was constructed through the experience with four such integrated communities is used to describe for each respective case the design principles, the affordances, the histories of development and the variety of emergent microworlds.

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin


    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  7. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry. (United States)

    Shamssain, M H


    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Baking Gender Into Social Media Design: How Platforms Shape Categories for Users and Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Bivens


    Full Text Available In recent years, several popular social media platforms have launched freeform custom gender fields. This decision reconstitutes gender categories beyond an oppressive binary only permitting “males” and “females.” In this work, we uncover many different user-facing gender category design strategies within the social media ecosystem, ranging from custom gender options (on Facebook, Google+, and Pinterest to the absence of gender fields entirely (on Twitter and LinkedIn. To explore how gender is baked into platform design, this article investigates the 10 most popular English-speaking social media platforms by performing recorded walkthroughs from two different subject positions: (1 a new user registering an account, and (2 a new advertiser creating an ad. We explore several different spaces in social media software where designers commonly program gender—sign-up pages, profile pages, and advertising portals—to consider (1 how gender is made durable through social media design, and (2 the shifting composition of the category of gender within the social media ecosystem more broadly. Through this investigation, we question how these categorizations attribute meaning to gender as they materialize in different software spaces, along with the recursive implications for society. Ultimately, our analysis reveals how social media platforms act as intermediaries within the larger ecosystem of advertising and web analytics companies. We argue that this intermediary role entrusts social media platforms with a considerable degree of control over the generation of broader categorization systems, which can be wielded to shape the perceived needs and desires of both users and advertising clients.

  9. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment. (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály


    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments.

  10. Choice and use of standards for dynamic headspace trapping and application to the analysis of the volatiles of baked potato. (United States)

    Ames, J M; Duckham, S C; Bakker, J


    When attempting to quantify the volatile components of a food isolated by dynamic headspace trapping onto an adsorbent, the analyst has to select the most appropriate compounds to use as standards and at which stage of the analysis to add them. Factors to be borne in mind include the volatility of the standard, the response of the GC detector, and whether to add the standard to the sample or to the adsorbent trap. This chapter considers the issues and describes the application of one chosen method to the quantitation of the volatile components of baked potato.

  11. Effects of semolina replacement with gluten-free ingredients on properties of poultry baked pâtés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effects of semolina replacement with millet flakes and corn grits on selected properties of poultry pâtés. Yield after baking, moisture and fat contents, colour values (L*, a*, b*, and compression force were investigated. Sensory analysis was also conducted. Most of pâté chemical and physical characteristics (except higher compression force in the case of pâté with corn grits did not differ significantly. Most of sensory properties of pâtés with corn grits were scored higher compared to products with millet flakes.

  12. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking. (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia


    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking

  13. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients. (United States)

    Buelow, Becky J; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G; Vasudev, Monica


    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the egg-allergic children who underwent EBP oral food challenge (OFC) in our allergy clinic to help define any specific predictors to be used in predicting the outcome of such challenges. We performed a retrospective chart review and 43 egg-allergic patients underwent EBP OFC in our outpatient allergy office from January 2011 to December 2012 were excluded. Nine patients who did not have a prior history of symptomatic egg ingestion. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of the remaining 34 patients were all recorded and analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 22 (64.7%) were boys. Average age of first reaction to egg was 12.90 months, with average age at EBP OFC of 71.32 months. The average of the most recent skin-prick test wheal size was 10.10 mm and serum-specific IgE to egg white was 3.21 kU/L. Twenty-eight of the 34 patients (82.4%) passed the EBP OFC. Of the six patients who failed, none required epinephrine. After analysis of all of the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings, no risk factors, such as skin-prick test wheal size, were identified to be associated with an increased risk of failing EBP OFC. EBP OFC is a valuable tool to assess tolerance. As seen in our group of patients, the majority of egg-allergic patients pass EBP OFC. Thus, OFC should be considered as a clinical tool to expand a patient's diet and to improve quality of life as early as possible. Because we were unable to determine any clinical or laboratory predictors helpful to select egg

  14. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  15. 采运烤一体化烤房挂筐式烘烤烟叶的效应%Effects of Tobacco Harvesting Roast Integration Barn Basket Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘久羽; 阚宏伟; 胡向丹; 张大斌; 孙建生; 邓泳; 张纪利


    In order to simplify the baking process of tobacco and reduce tobacco baking cost,the current widespread use of tobacco baking bulk curing barn was transformed and the tobacco harvesting roast basket type curing effect of hanging barn integration was studied in this paper.The results showed that logging roast integration barn basket baking could promote the transformation of tobacco inclusions and aroma precursors,promote the coordination of chemical composition,increase the content of neutral aroma substances and improve the proportion of high class could save labor quantity 8.45,reduce baked cost 659.01 Yuan when baked fresh tobacco 4000 kg,and net income increased 939.01 Yuan each 600 kg dry tobacco.%为简化烟叶烘烤工作环节和降低烟叶烘烤成本,利用目前烟叶烘烤普遍使用的密集烤房进行改造,研究了烟叶采运烤一体化烤房的挂筐式烘烤效应。结果表明:采运烤一体化烤房挂筐式烘烤能够促进烟叶内含物和香气前体物质的转化,促进化学成分的协调性及中性香气物质的含量,提高上等烟叶比例。采烤4000 kg 鲜烟可节约用工数量8.45个,烟叶采烤成本降低659.01元;烤后干烟叶(600 kg)纯收入增加939.01元。

  16. Validation of Baking To Control Salmonella Serovars in Hamburger Bun Manufacturing, and Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Nonpathogenic Surrogate Indicators. (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Holmgren, Elizabeth S; Michael, Minto; Sevart, Nicholas J; Milke, Donka; Schwan, Carla L; Krug, Matthew; Wilder, Amanda; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Milliken, George


    This study was conducted to validate a simulated commercial baking process for hamburger buns to destroy Salmonella serovars and to determine the appropriateness of using nonpathogenic surrogates (Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for in-plant process validation studies. Wheat flour was inoculated (∼6 log CFU/g) with three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium, Newport, or Senftenberg 775W) or with E. faecium. Dough was formed, proofed, and baked to mimic commercial manufacturing conditions. Buns were baked for up to 13 min in a conventional oven (218.3°C), with internal crumb temperature increasing to ∼100°C during the first 8 min of baking and remaining at this temperature until removal from the oven. Salmonella and E. faecium populations were undetectable by enrichment (>6-log CFU/g reductions) after 9.0 and 11.5 min of baking, respectively, and ≥5-log-cycle reductions were achieved by 6.0 and 7.75 min, respectively. D-values of Salmonella (three-serovar cocktail) and E. faecium 8459 in dough were 28.64 and 133.33, 7.61 and 55.67, and 3.14 and 14.72 min at 55, 58, and 61°C, respectively, whereas D-values of S. cerevisiae were 18.73, 5.67, and 1.03 min at 52, 55, and 58°C, respectivly. The z-values of Salmonella, E. faecium, and S. cerevisiae were 6.58, 6.25, and 4.74°C, respectively. A high level of thermal lethality was observed for baking of typical hamburger bun dough, resulting in rapid elimination of high levels of the three-strain Salmonella cocktail; however, the lethality and microbial destruction kinetics should not be extrapolated to other bakery products without further research. E. faecium demonstrated greater thermal resistance compared with Salmonella during bun baking and could serve as a conservative surrogate to validate thermal process lethality in commercial bun baking operations. Low thermal tolerance of S. cerevisiae relative to Salmonella serovars limits its usefulness as a surrogate for process validations.

  17. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.


    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  18. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition. (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  19. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method. (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O


    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds.

  20. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志成; 任文明


    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: Mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer for a contact baking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads to uncertai......Similar to other processes, the modelling of heat and mass transfer during food processing involves uncertainty in the values of input parameters (heat and mass transfer coefficients, evaporation rate parameters, thermo-physical properties, initial and boundary conditions) which leads...... transfer model of a contact baking process. The Monte Carlo procedure was applied for propagating uncertainty in the input parameters to uncertainty in the model predictions. Monte Carlo simulations and the least squares method were used in the sensitivity analysis: for each model output, a linear...

  3. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars. (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani


    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  4. Study on the Best Baking Technology of Frankincense by Orthogonal Test%正交法优选乳香最佳烘制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素连; 蒋孟良; 陈卫红; 蒋晓煌


    Objective In order to select the best baking process of frankincense. Methods Taking the indexes of stimulating components, peak area and number of essential oil and irritant test (hyp ere mia and hydroncus in rabbit eye),baking temperature, time, thickness, diameter of Frankincense were optimizated by orthogonal design test. Results The best baking technology were A2B3C1D1, diameter of Frankinceuse 0. 5 cm, thickness 1 cm, 120 ℃ baking for 2 h. Conclusion The baking method was reasonable, simple, feasible and high efficiency, it can provide a certain reference for mass - production.%目的 优选乳香烘制法的最佳炮制工艺.方法 以刺激性成分挥发油的总峰面积、峰数目和刺激性试验(兔眼充血与水肿)等4个评价指标,采用正交试验法,对温度、时间、放置厚度、药材直径等4个因素的水平进行优选.结果 乳香最佳烘制工艺为A2B3C1D1,即乳香直径0.5 cm,放置1 cm厚,120 ℃烘制2 h o结论优选出的炮制工艺合理、简单、可行、效率高,可为大规模生产提供参考依据.

  5. Antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl egg: comparison with White Leghorn egg. (United States)

    Toyosaki, T; Koketsu, M


    1. The antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and White Leghorn eggs were studied. The mechanism of the antioxidant effect was also investigated. 2. The antioxidant effect on the oxidation of linoleic acid increased in the water-soluble fraction of cake made with silky eggs. In contrast, Leghorn eggs significantly decreased the rate of antioxidant activity. The browning index of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl eggs changed from 0.052 to 1.240 after 20 min at 180 degrees C, while that made with Leghorn eggs changed from 0.037 to 0.710. 3. There are correlations between the rate of browning index and antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in water-soluble fractions of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and hen's eggs were formed during light exposure for 20 min at 10,000 lux, and their formation could be significantly inhibited by the addition of tryptophan or mannitol, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). These results were strong evidence of direct participation of *OH, formed by the Haber-Weiss reaction, in the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes. The rate of decrease in active oxygen by scavengers decreased in Leghorn eggs more efficiently than in silky eggs. 4. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl eggs could improve the quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晨丽; 陈洁; 王春; 吕莹果


    In this paper, we studied the effects of pre-baking conditions, such as water amount, proofing time, pre-baking temperature, and pre-baking time on the quality of pre-baked frozen bread dough by measuring the specific volume, texture(TPA) and other indexes of baked bread. The optimum conditions were as follows;water amount 50% , proofing time 135 min, pre-baking temperature 165℃ , and pre-baking time 10 min.%通过测定复烤面包后的比容、质构( TPA)、感官等各项指标,研究了不同加水量、醒发时间、预烤温度、预烤时间等加工条件对预烤冷冻面包面团品质的影响.确定其制作的最佳工艺:加水量50%、醒发时间135 min、预烤温度165℃、预烤时间10 min.

  7. 无铝多效泡打粉在面制食品中的应用%Application of Aluminium-free Multiple-effect Baking Powder in Wheat Flour Food Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜炤; 许喜林; 蒋清君; 何松; 段慧琴


    将研制的Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型无铝泡打粉与市售的含铝泡打粉A、无铝泡打粉B和C应用到磨堡蛋糕、甜馒头和油条中,通过比较及分析其产品的感官、比容、质构等特性,确定研制的泡打粉的性能.结果表明、研制的Ⅱ型泡打粉在所有产品中都能起到比较好的作用,在蛋糕(2%)、馒头(2.5%)、油条(3.5%)产品中的比容分别为2.65 mL/g、1.76 mL/g、4.11 mL/g,同时质构特性各指标达到或优于市售泡打粉的产品水平,具有较好的应用前景.%Two new aluminum-free baking powders (named as baking power Ⅰ and Ⅱ) and three commercially available baking powder (including aluminum-containing baking powder A, aluminum-free baking powder B and C) were applied to the baked cake, the cooked sweet steamed bun and the deep-fried dough sticks. The performances of the tested baking powders were determined through analyzing and comparing the products' senses, specific volume and texture by using different baking powder. The results showed that the baking powder Ⅱ could work better in all tested wheat flour food products. Its specific volumes of cake (2%), sweet steamed bun(2.5%), deep-fried dough sticks (3.5%) were 2.65 mL/g, 1.76 mL/g and 4.11 mL/g, respectively. The texture characteristics of the baking powder are close or superior to those of commercially available baking powder.

  8. Structure-function relationships of bacterial and enzymatically produced reuterans and dextran in sourdough bread baking application. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Yan; Levy, Clemens; Gänzle, Michael G


    Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria may improve texture and shelf life of bread. The effect of exopolysaccharides on bread quality, however, depends on properties of the EPS and the EPS producing strain. This study investigated structure-function relationships of EPS in baking application. The dextransucrase DsrM and the reuteransucrase GtfA were cloned from Weissella cibaria 10M and Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.656, respectively, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis of GtfA was generates reuterans with different glycosidic bonds. NMR spectrum indicated reuteranPI, reuteranNS and reuteranPINS produced by GtfA-V1024P:V1027I, GtfA-S1135N:A1137S and GtfA-V1024P:V1027I:S1135N:A1137S, respectively, had a higher proportion of α-(1→4) linkages when compared to reuteran. ReuteranNS has the lowest molecular weight as measured by asymmetric flow-field-flow fractionation. The reuteransucrase negative mutant L. reuteri TMW1.656ΔgtfA was generated as EPS-negative derivative of L. reuteri TMW1.656. Cell counts, pH, and organic acid levels of sourdough fermented with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and TMW1.656ΔgtfA were comparable. Reuteran produced by L. reuteri TMW1.656 during growth in sourdough and reuteran produced ex situ by GtfA-ΔN had comparable effects on bread volume and crumb hardness. Enzymatically produced dextran improved volume and texture of wheat bread, and of bread containing 20% rye flour. ReuteranNS but not reuteranPI or reuteran was as efficient as dextran in enhancing wheat bread volume and texture. Overall, reuteran linkage type and molecular weight are determinants of EPS effects on bread quality. This study established a valuable method to elucidate structure-function relationships of glucans in baking applications.

  9. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties. (United States)

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K


    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  10. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries


    Miśkiewicz, K.; Nebesny, E.; Rosicka-Kaczmarek, J.; Budryn, G.; Krysiak, W.


    The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents). For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air...

  11. Study on process of Inner mongolia traditional meat products-baking lamb chop%内蒙古传统肉制品-烤羊排制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海英; 李正英


    以8~10月的小尾寒羊分割肋骨为试验材料进行烤制,研究其最佳的烤制温度及时间。结果表明,羊排烤制的最佳工艺是先低温后高温的烤制方法,最佳工艺参数是先在110℃下烤制60 min,然后在170℃下烤制40 min,此工艺条件下烤制出的羊排烤香浓郁,无焦苦味,口感好,易嚼碎。%This experiment selected split ribs of 8~10 mouths ' Small Tailed Han Sheep as test materials to bake , and focused on research of the best baking temperature and time. The results show that the best baking technological process is first baking for 60 min under 60℃low temperature, and then baking for 40 min under 170℃. The products under the process are full of baking flavour, without caramel flavour and easy to masticate.

  12. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter. (United States)

    Risner, Charles H


    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  13. Preparation and Use of Water-borne Aluminium Powder Baking Varnish%水性铝粉烤漆的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商培; 董立志; 刘宝勇; 赵建成


    介绍了一种水性铝粉烤漆的研制方法,阐述了润湿分散剂、流平剂、助溶剂、树脂、定向剂等对铝粉定向效果的影响。通过试验筛选出水性铝粉烤漆所需的原材料,制成高性能的涂膜,确定最终配方。试验多次优化配方和生产工艺,为研制高性能的水性铝粉烤漆提供设计思路和理论依据。%This paper introduces a preparation method of water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish and narrates the influence of wetting dispersant, leveling agent, co-solvent, resin, orientation agent on the orientation effect of aluminum powder. Through experiments, the materials for water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish are selected to prepare high performance coatings and the final formula is determined. The optimization of formulation and production technology in this paper provides design idea and theoretical basis for the preparation of water-borne aluminum powder baking varnish.

  14. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products. (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd


    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer.

  15. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads. (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K


    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  16. [What is hidden behind the Baking Tray Task? Study of sensibility and specificity in right-hemispheric stroke patients]. (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Juan; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Sanchez-Carrion, Rocío; Ensenat, Antònia; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Roig-Rovira, Teresa


    Introduccion. Tham y Tegner propusieron el Baking Tray Task (BTT) como una prueba de evaluacion rapida y simple para la deteccion de negligencia espacial. No obstante, apenas existen estudios que hayan examinado su validez como prueba diagnostica. Objetivo. Analizar la validez diagnostica del BTT, midiendo su especificidad y sensibilidad, en una muestra de sujetos con ictus hemisfericos derechos. Sujetos y metodos. Cuarenta y ocho pacientes con lesiones vasculares hemisfericas derechas distribuidos en dos grupos (grupo negligencia, n = 35; grupo no negligencia, n = 13) en funcion de las puntuaciones obtenidas en una bateria de exploracion visuoespacial. La ejecucion de los participantes en el BTT se comparo con un grupo control sano (n = 12). Resultados. Los resultados mostraron una alta sensibilidad del BTT, pero una baja especificidad. Ocho de los 13 integrantes del grupo no negligencia obtuvieron un rendimiento en el BTT sugestivo de negligencia. Conclusiones. El BTT se muestra como un test sensible para la deteccion de la negligencia espacial. Sin embargo, basandonos en su baja especificidad, no es recomendable su uso aislado como prueba unica de diagnostico.

  17. Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes. (United States)

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S; Domingo, M V


    Forty-five harvests corresponding to the two predominating domestic species of amaranth in Mexico were studied. The proximate analysis revealed some statistically significant differences throughout three years of observation. The Ca, P and Fe content did not vary greatly in 15 samples. No chemical differences were either manifested in the Mercado and Aztec types of A. hypochondriacus, nor in the Mexican type of A. cruentus. The latter exhibits a higher grain yield and a shorter life cycle; however, its baking quality is apparently inferior to that of the Mercado type of A. hypochondriacus. The heat treatment of the seeds (toasting, popping and cooking) affected protein and lysine contents as does in cereals and leguminous seeds although toasting in particular improves its sensory characteristics without altering digestibility and PER. Popping only improves PER. Heating at 90 or 170 degrees C for three to five minutes, at the usual seed's moisture rate of 6 to 15%, does not affect protein content and does so only slightly in the case of the fatty acids content. Amylographic and farinographic values of the starchy fractions indicate similarities to C. quinoa and differences with respect to wheat. In the case of "amaranth milk", viscosity and gelatinization temperature produced satisfactory values. The extension of amaranth cultivation in the country is hereby suggested in view of the seed's nutritional quality, and considering the behavior of whole amaranth flour and its fractions.

  18. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance. (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong


    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread.

  19. Estimation of the lifetime of resin insulators against baking temperature for JT-60SA in-vessel coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M., E-mail:; Murakami, Haruyuki; Matsunaga, Go; Sakurai, Shinji; Takechi, Manabu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka


    Highlights: • The lifetime of resin insulators at about 200 °C was estimated. • We make use of the Arrhenius plot by the Weibull analysis for the estimation. • A suitable temperatures for the in-vessel coils were discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, the thermal endurance of epoxy-based, bismaleimides, and cyanate ester resins for the current design of the in-vessel coils was measured by performing acceleration tests to assess their insulation properties using the thermal endurance defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC-60216 Part1–Part 6) for a minimum of 5,000 h in the 180–240 °C temperature range. It was found that none of the resin insulators could tolerate the baking conditions of 40,000 h at ∼200 °C in the JT-60SA vacuum vessel. Therefore, the design of the in-vessel coils, including the error field correction coils (EFCC), was changed from the type without water cooling to with water cooling on JT-60SA.

  20. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran


    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  1. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E


    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  2. Detrital zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology of intercalated baked sediments: a new approach to dating young basalts (United States)

    Cooper, F. J.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.


    Placing accurate age constraints on young volcanic eruptions, particularly in populated areas such as New Mexico, is important for not only tectonic and climate studies, but also for geohazard analysis. A primary lack of zircon and apatite crystals in basaltic rocks leaves K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating as the most favored methods, though extraneous Ar and low K contents can often reduce precision. Alternative techniques suggested in recent years include (U-Th)/He dating of U and Th rich inclusions in olivine phenocrysts and other phenocrysts (Min et al., 2006; Aciego et al., 2007), (U-Th)/He dating of zircon xenocrysts (Blondes et al., 2007), and (U-Th)/He dating of magnetite phenocrysts (Blackburn et al., 2007). Unfortunately, zircon xenocrysts are not very abundant in basalts, and not all basalts contain suitably sized olivine, magnetite, or other phenocrysts. Here, we present a new application of the (U-Th)/He method to dating young volcanic eruptions in an area where the emplacement of basalt flows has reset the (U-Th)/He systematics of zircons and apatites in intercalated baked sediments. The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in New Mexico formed in Middle to Late Miocene time in association with extensional processes in the Rio Grande Rift. The voluminous (>200 km3) basalt flows of the TPVF have been carefully dated with 40Ar/39Ar (Appelt, 1998) and therefore provide a sound basis for comparison with the (U-Th)/He results. Two fluvial sand and gravel samples were collected from directly beneath the Upper member of the Servilleta Basalt (40Ar/39Ar age: 3.57 ± 0.19 Ma [2 S.E., n = 3]; Appelt, 1998) in the Rio Grande River Gorge just west of Taos. These two samples yielded a distinct population of single-crystal (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite ages of 3.54 ± 0.11 Ma [2 S.E., n = 4] and 3.44 ± 0.25 Ma [2 S.E., n = 2] respectively. Sixteen additional grains (6 zircons and 10 apatites) gave significantly older dates (~ 9 to 27 Ma). We interpret the older dates as

  3. Effect of the addition of hydrocolloids on the rheological and baking properties of the products with added spelt flour (Triticum spelta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the evaluation of the effect of additives on the rheological properties of composite flour made of wheat flour in the amount of 70% and spelt flour at 30%. As additives guar gum (0.5% by weight of flour and xanthan gum (0.16% by weight of flour were used. Properties of produced control dough and doughs with hydrocolloids were evaluated by means of rheological appliances by Farinograph, Extenzograph, Amylograph and Rheofermentometer. Based on the observed results it can be concluded that the addition of xanthan gum has a positive effect on increasing of farinographic water absorption capacity, extension of dough development time and dough stability and generally positively affected farinographic properties. The addition of guar gum has improved especially extensographic properties as extensographic energy and extensographic resistance. Based on amylographic evaluation of control doughs and doughs with additives it can be stated that in the dough with guar gum the amylographic maximum has slightly increased. Hydrocolloid guar gum contributed to an increased retention capacity of dough observed. Based on our measurements we can indicate that addition of guar and xanthan gum contributed to an increased rheological quality of doughs prepared with addition of flour from spelt wheat. With reference to the baking experiment it was found that the use of hydrocolloids has a positive effect on the improvement of the baking properties, in particular larger volume, specific volume, and the volume yield of the dough with the addition of guar and xanthan gum compared to the control. Our results showed that aditives significantly influenced rheological qualities of dough and a baking quality of products. These findings thus allow optimizing the recipe in order to increase the technological quality of leavened bakery products.

  4. Preparation of Water-borne Color Baking Varnish for Christmas Glass Ball%圣诞玻璃球用水性彩色烤漆的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许映云; 石德付; 邱绕生; 李纯


    This paper is about the preparation method of water-borne color baking varnish for Christmas glass ball, and analyzes the influence of the ratio of binder resin/compound crosslinking agent and the amount of silane coupling agent on waterresistance, ethanol tolerance, salt water resistance and wet adhesion. Experiments show that baking coatings with uniform, delicate and bright appearance and excellent comprehensive performances can be gotten under the conditions: the ratio of binder resin/compound crosslinking agent being 4 : 1, amount of silane coupling agent being 1%, ratio of coatings/deionized water/ xylin being 100 : 40 : 7, by spraying application method and baking 10min at the temperature of 160 ℃,%研制了一种圣诞玻璃球用水性彩色烤漆的制备方法,探讨了基体树脂/复合交联剂配比、硅烷偶联剂用量对涂膜耐水、耐乙醇、耐盐水、耐湿附着力的影响。试验证明,基体树脂/复合交联剂为4∶1,添加1%的硅烷偶联剂,采用m(涂料):m(去离子水):m(水性色精)为100∶40∶7的比例进行淋涂施工,160℃条件下烘烤10 min,制得的涂膜外观均匀、细腻、鲜艳、综合性能优异。

  5. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz, K.


    Full Text Available The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air humidity during baking caused a decrease in the melting temperature of the fractions of fats used in the process, compared to fats from pastries baked in dry air. This may be indicative of a product with a high degree of unsaturation in the lipid fraction.

    Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el tipo de grasa utilizada en el horneado de mantecadas tienen una influencia evidente en las propiedades de la fracción lipídica y una correlación entre estas propiedades (acidez, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados. Para grasas bajas en trans la correlación entre la acidez y el índice de peróxido es inversamente proporcional, para grasas conteniendo trans esta correlación fue directamente proporcional. Un aumento de la humedad del aire durante el horneado causa una disminución de la temperatura de fusión de las fracciones de grasas utilizadas en el proceso, en comparación con las grasas de repostería horneadas en aire seco. Esto puede indicar la presencia de productos con alto grado de insaturación en las fracciones lipídicas.

  6. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters. (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A


    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products.

  7. Paleomagnetism and Mineralogy of Unusual Silicate Glasses and Baked Soils on the Surface of the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile: A Major Airburst Impact ~12ka ago?. (United States)

    Roperch, P. J.; Blanco, N.; Valenzuela, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Lorand, J. P.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Arriagada, C.; Rochette, P.


    Unusual silicate glasses were found in northern Chile in one of the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert. The scoria-type melted rocks are littered on the ground at several localities distributed along a longitudinal band of about 50km. The silicate glasses have a stable natural remanent magnetization carried by fine-grained magnetite and acquired during cooling. At one locality, fine-grained overbank sediments were heated to form a 10 to 20 cm-thick layer of brick-type samples. Magnetic experiments on oriented samples demonstrate that the baked clays record a thermoremanent magnetization acquired in situ above 600°C down to more than 10cm depth and cooled under a normal polarity geomagnetic field with a paleointensity of 40μT. In some samples of the silicate glass, large grains of iron sulphides (troilite) are found in the glass matrix with numerous droplets of native iron, iron sulphides and iron phosphides indicating high temperature and strong redox conditions during melting. The paleomagnetic record of the baked clays and the unusual mineralogy of the silicate glasses indicate a formation mainly by in situ high temperature radiation. Paleomagnetic experiments and chemical analyses indicate that the silicate glasses are not fulgurite type rocks due to lightning events, nor volcanic glasses or even metallurgical slags related to mining activity. The existence of a well-developped baked clay layer indicates that the silicate glasses are not impact-related ejectas. The field, paleomagnetic and mineralogical observations support evidence for a thermal event likely related to a major airburst. The youngest calibrated 14C age on a charcoal sample closely associated with the glass indicates that the thermal event occurred around 12 to 13 ka BP. The good conservation of the surface effects of this thermal event in the Atacama Desert could provide a good opportunity to further estimate the threats posed by large asteroid airbursts.

  8. 烤烟叶温实时监测仪的设计%Design of real-time tobacco baking temperature monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏飞; 李东升; 胡佳成; 金亮冰


    Tobacco baking is an important part of the tobacco production, the baking temperature and humidity have a decisive impact on the quality of the flue-cured tobacco. For the accuracy of tobacco baking temperature and humidity measuring instrument was low, many instruments measured ambient temperature instead of the leaf surface temperature, a new real-time tobacco baking temperature monitor based on platinum thermal resistance and the measuring chips is designed. The monitor can directly measure the surface temperature of tobacco leaf with the self-designed mechanical fixture, also has the function of air temperature and humidity measurement, it can be powered by lithium battery, high-portable, low-power consumption and large-storage. This monitor was calibrated, the results showed that:the linearity error of measuring leaf surface temperature is 0.0035, the biggest display error is 0.4℃ and the expanded uncertainty come up to 0.2℃.%烟叶烘烤是烤烟生产的重要环节,烘烤温湿度变化决定了烤烟质量的优劣。针对目前烟叶烘烤温湿度测量精度低、用测量烤房环境温度来代替烟叶表面温度的现状,设计了基于铂热电阻和温湿度测量芯片的烤烟叶温实时监测仪。该监测仪通过自行设计的机械夹具可实现对烟叶表面温度的直接测量,同时集成了环境温湿度传感器和内置锂电池,具有便携式、低功耗和大存储量的特点。对该仪器进行了温度标定,结果表明:烟叶温度测量的线性度误差为0.0035,最大示值误差为0.4℃,扩展不确定度为0.2℃。

  9. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats


    Héctor Flores-Chávez; Julio Montañez-Saenz


    The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The s...

  10. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba


    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  11. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division


    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  13. Atom probe analysis on interaction between Cr and N in bake-hardening steels with anti-aging properties at RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Jun, E-mail: [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1, Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Maruyama, Naoki; Kawakami, Kazuto; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Sugiyama, Masaaki [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1, Shintomi, Futtsu-city, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Ping, De-hai; Hono, Kazuhiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    One-dimensional atom probe (1DAP) analysis was performed on chromium and nitrogen added bake hardening steel sheets that have both high bake-hardenability and anti-aging properties at room temperature (RT). The atomic data of more than 2 million atoms were collected for sample steels with and without low-temperature aging after recrystallization annealing and quenching. The correlation in atomic position between chromium and nitrogen atoms in a solid solution was investigated by a statistical analysis using the binomial distribution function. In the samples with low-temperature aging, the probability that a chromium atom was observed near a nitrogen atom was significantly higher than that estimated from the null hypothesis that there was no attractive atomic interaction. This suggests that there is an attractive interaction between a nitrogen atom and a chromium atom in bcc iron, which led to the anti-aging properties at RT. In contrast, such correlation was not observed definitely in the samples without low-temperature aging, which implied that the atomic pair formation is a thermal activation process.

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation. (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun


    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D10-values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D10-value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality.

  15. Optimization on SPME conditions of volatiles in baked quail eggs%烤制鹌鹑蛋挥发性成分SPME条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴巧; 王武; 章立新; 董琪; 夏新武


    The solid phase microextraction (SPME)conditions of volatiles in baked quail eggs were researched,using quail eggs as raw materials.The types of extraction fibers,the extraction time,the extraction temperature and desorption time were optimized by single factor experiments and the orthogonal tests.The results showed that using DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber,extracting for 30min under 65℃ and adding amount of sample for 2g and desorption time for 2min were the optimized extraction conditions.Under these conditions,34 kinds of volatile components were identified in the baked quail eggs.%以鹌鹑蛋为原材料,研究了烤制鹌鹑蛋挥发性成分的固相微萃取(SPME)条件.通过单因素和正交实验对萃取头种类、样品萃取量、萃取时间、萃取温度以及解吸时间进行优化.结果表明,较佳的萃取条件为:DVB/CAR/PDMS萃取头,萃取时间为30min,萃取温度为65℃,样品萃取量为2g,解析时间为2min.在此条件下,检测到烤制鹌鹑蛋中的挥发性成分34种.

  16. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化及其挥发性成分分析%Optimization of Technology for Salty Baked Capsicum Powder Making and Analysis of Volatile Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 张晓; 邓后勤


    作者研究了焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺与香气特征,以野山椒为材料,通过正交试验方法确定焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺,采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱—质谱联用技术,分析灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒和野山椒四种焦盐辣椒粉的香气特征.结果表明:烘烤温度120℃、烘烤时间10 min、加盐量5%为焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺;最佳工艺条件下,4种焦盐辣椒粉共检出69种挥发性成分,其中灯笼椒、红干椒、越野椒、野山椒分别为22种、39种、33种、50种,18种成分为4种辣椒粉共有.%To study the processing technology and aroma constitution of salty baked chili powder i the optimum processing technological parameters of salty baked capsicum frutescens var was investigated through orthogonal array experiment and the results listed as follows : baking temperature 120℃ ,baking time l0min,and salt concentration 5%. Furthermore,the volatile components from salty baked bell pepper,salty baked chili hot pepper,salty baked Vietnam capsicum frutescens var and salty baked capsicum frutescens var prepared by the optimum processing were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS),it was Found that a total of 69 volatile components with bell pepper 22,chili hot pepper 39,Vietnam capsicum frutescens var 33,and capsicum frutescens var 50,including 18 common components are identified under the optimum processing technology.

  17. 感受器辅助微波烘焙的面包性质研究%Study on the properties of breads baked by microwave with susceptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明敏; 杨哪; 徐学明


    Properties of breads baked by traditional oven,microwave with susceptor,traditional microwave oven were studied. Researched of the effect of susceptor on the change of temperature,baking loss,specific volume,water content of the core,hardness,texture and sensory evaluation of the breads. The results showed that compared with the traditional microwave oven,the external temperature of the breads were raised 18.80%, at the same time,the internal temperature of the breads were declined 15.71%. The baking moss decreased 2.05% ,specific volume were increased 18.00%~23.35%. The water content of the core were improved 7.10%~ 27.42% ,most of all ,the hardness were reduced 80.81%~85.52%. The texture and sensory characteristic of the breads were all improved. Microwave with susceptor was slightly less than the control group of traditional oven, it needed to be improved.%摘要:分别以传统烤箱和微波炉加热为参照,研究了感受器辅助微波对面包烘焙过程中的温度变化、质量损耗、比容、面包芯水分分布、硬度、质构及感官特性的影响,结果表明,与传统微波对照组相比,面包外部温度提高18.80%,内部温度降低15.71%,质量损耗降低2.05%,比容提高18.00%-23.35%,面包芯水分含量提高7.10%~27.42%,硬度值降低80.81%-85.52%,质构和感官特性得到有效改善;但与传统烤箱对照组相比,还有待改进。

  18. 广陈皮炮制工艺研究%Study on the baking processing technology of Citrus reticulate ‘Chachi’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霞; 叶勇树; 王国才; 李药兰


    Objective To select the best processing paramerter of stir-fry Citrus reticulate ‘Chachi’. Methods The contents of hesperidin, polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs, nobiletin and tangeretin) in the aqueous extract of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ as index, three factors including the baking times, baking temperatures, and shapes of the materials were investigated by orthogonal experiment. Results The optimum processing technology was finally determined to bake the filamentous crude materials for 2 h under 80 ºC. Conclusion This processing technology of Citrus reticulate ‘Chachi’ decided in the present study is simple, feasible, and convenient for applying in the industry.%目的::优化广陈皮烘烤炮制的最佳工艺。方法:采用正交设计实验法,以广陈皮水提物中有效成分橙皮苷、多甲氧基黄酮(川陈皮素和橘皮素)含量为指标,考察了陈皮形状、烘烤温度和恒温时间对广陈皮有效成分的影响。结果以水提物中有效成分为指标时的最优工艺是广陈皮丝状,在80℃烘烤温度下,恒温2 h。结论:本研究建立的炮制工艺在有效成分含量没有减少的前提下,该炮制工艺与传统的炮制工艺相比,具有操作简便,省时和成本较低的优点,适宜应用于工业化生产中,为广陈皮产品的开发利用提供科学依据。

  19. Study on quality properties of seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings%7种盐焗鸡翅产品品质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李汴生; 阮征; 郭伟波; 林光明


    To compare the quality properties differences among the salt-baked chicken wings in the market,seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings were selected to conduct instrumental analysis,sensory evaluation,correlation analysis and principal component analysis.The result indicated that seven kinds of salt-baked chicken wings ranked in the order of product 7,6,1,5,2,4,3 according to the shear force value and hardness.Product 1,5,2,7 ranked in the top four according to the sensory score.The correlation analysis showed that,the sensory score had positive relation with shear force,hardness,chewiness and cohesiveness and negative relation with tear force and weak negative relation with springiness,puncture force,resilience and water content while the correlation coefficient was close to zero.Principal component analysis was performed based on 12 parameters of quality.Top 3 factors were selected and the cumulative contribution to variance was up to 87.902%,muscle shear force and hardness were the dominant factors.%为了研究市场上盐焗鸡翅的品质特性以及差异,对7种盐焗鸡翅的品质进行了仪器分析、感官评价、相关性分析、主成分分析。结果表明,7种盐焗鸡翅的剪切力、硬度大小依次为:产品7〉6〉1〉5〉2〉4〉3,感官得分较高的鸡翅分别为:产品1、5、2、7。相关性分析表明,感官总分与剪切力、硬度、咀嚼性、内聚性呈正相关;但是感官总分与撕裂力呈负相关,与弹性、刺破力、回复性、水分含量呈相关系数接近于零的负相关。主成分分析结果表明,12个仪器指标中可以提取3个主分量,累积方差贡献率达到87.902%,剪切力和硬度是反映鸡翅肉品质的主要因素。

  20. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality (United States)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  1. Applications of Technology of Compound Lining of Semi—gr aphitized Self—baking Carbon Block Ceramic Brickwork in Large—sized Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYung-zhong; CHENQian-wan


    Based on the analyses of the lining technologies of the hot press formed carbon brick iu U.S.A., of the ce-ramic cup in France and of the creative self-baking car-bon brick in China,the technology of semi-graphitized car-bon block-ceramic brickwork has been studied and developed ,and has successfully ben used in No.7 blast furnace (2580m3) at Anshan Irom and Steel Company and in No.3 blast furnace (1200m3) at Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company,This paper puts fourward a feasible scheme for realization of long service lives of the bootms and the hearths of large-sized blast furaces in China.

  2. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui


    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  3. Energy-Saving Start-Up of Firing System in Anode Baking Furnace%阳极焙烧炉火焰系统的节能启动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aiming at the deficiencies of the traditional cold boiler ignition start-up method of anode baking furnace firing system, the energy-saving start-up method, by which firing system was igniting at high temperature by using the waste heat, was presented and applied. The practical result indicated that the method could effectively shorten the start-up time and save a lot of fuel consumption.%针对阳极焙烧炉火焰系统传统的冷炉点火启动方法存在的不足,提出并应用了利用余热进行高温点火的节能启动方法.实践结果表明,该方法能有效缩短烘炉启动过程时间,大幅减少燃料消耗.

  4. Study on the Quick-Freezed Mud Production with the Flavor of Baked Ipomoea batatas Lam%速冻烤紫薯风味泥制品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁曹雯; 邓后勤


    以紫薯为原料,通过设置温度梯度研究了烤制温度对紫薯花色苷的影响,得出最佳烘烤温度,通过正交试验研究了配料比对烤紫薯风味调理制品质量的影响,确定产品的最优配方。结果表明:最佳烘烤温度为200℃;产品最优配方为:100 g紫薯泥,添加糖粉2.0%、吉士粉2.0%、奶粉2.5%、黄油4.0%,该配方生产的速冻烤紫薯风味泥制品紫薯风味浓郁,口感细腻。%UsingIpomoea batatas Lam as material, researched the effect of baking temperature on the anthocyanins by setting the temperature gradient, and obtained the optimum baking temperature; studied the effect of ratio of ingredients on the quantity of conditioning products with the lfavor of baked purple sweet potato by the method of orthogonal experiment, and determined the optimum formula of products. The results showed that the best baking temperature was 200℃; the optimal formula for the products was each 100g purple potato mud, adding 2.0% of powdered sugar, 2.0% of custard powder, 2.5% of milk powder and 4.0% of butter. With this formula, the quick-freezed mud production with the lfavor of bakedIpomoea batatas Lam presented rich lfavor and delicate taste.

  5. 液体大麦精在面包烘焙中的应用%Application of Liquid Malt Extract in Bread Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龄; 丁文平; 曹银


    研究了液体大麦精的不同添加量对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并进行了面包的贮藏试验,得出了大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量.研究发现,液体大麦精的添加会改变面团的流变学性质,对面包的理化指标有所改善.经过感官品质分析可得出:液体大麦精的添加在一定程度上提高了面包的口感,改善了面包的风味和内部结构.同时,面包添加液体大麦精,延缓了面包的陈化速率,延长了面包的保质期.试验结果显示,大麦精面包中大麦精的最适添加量为蔗糖替代量的60%.%The effects of liquid malt extract in different addition dose on the rheological characteristics of wheat dough and bread baking performance were studied, a bread preservation test was carried out, and the optimum malt extract dose was investigated. Results indieate that adding the malt extract to wheat dough changes the theological characteristics of dough and improves the performance in bread baking. The sensory evaluation proves that the bread quality is improved by a proper addition of malt extract, especially the bread taste, flavor and inner textural structure. Furthermore, the stale rate of bread is reduced and bread quality assurance period is extended by the malt extract addition. The optimum addition dose of the maltextract in bread produetion is 60% substitution amount of sugar.

  6. 闽南乌龙茶烘焙的研究进展%The research advance of baking process in Minnan Oolong tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 孙威江


    With fierce competition, the sale of Fen-flavor Oolong tea ran to difficulty. The manufacturing of high-aroma Oolong tea becomes popular in Minnan district. The roasting process plays a critical role in shaping of flavor and improvements of tea quality. The black brown color of leaves developed from browning reactions during roasting process; baking odors came from browning reactions while the flower and fruit smell preserved and promoted in baking process; isomerizations of tea polyphenol compounds reduced the bitter and astringency taste, sugars added the sweet taste by means of decomposition and participation of browning reactions. The study on improvements of the leaf color, smell and taste of Oolong tea were reviewed in this paper, aroma and flavor substances were summarized, with the anticipation of the possible contribution to prove its chemical mechanism and provide theoretical basis and reference for further studies.%激烈市场环境下,闽南清香型乌龙茶销售陷入困境,浓香型乌龙茶开始回归,“清转浓”正如火如荼地进行。烘焙是形成浓香型乌龙茶风味的关键工艺,具有提升茶叶品质的重要作用。烘焙型茶叶通过褐化反应形成乌润色泽;烘烤香由褐化反应产生,焙火前已形成的花果香在烘焙中得以保留和提升;多酚类物质异构化减少茶汤苦涩味,糖类物质通过分解、参与褐化反应的方式增加甜醇滋味。本文对焙火提高乌龙茶色、香、味等方面品质的研究进行了综述,总结了已发现的呈香、呈味物质,为探索烘焙对茶叶品质形成的化学机制提供理论依据和参考。

  7. 试述小苏打系统加液碱生产工艺%Discussion on Manufacturing Technique of Adding Liquid Caustic Soda in Baking Soda System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将离子膜液碱加入小苏打生产系统进行探索试验,通过不断优化生产条件,对离子膜液碱加入小苏打系统技术进行研究,得出其生产工艺的可行性。%It has been experimented that adds ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in the production system of baking soda. With the increasing improvement of production conditions, the technique of adding ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in baking soda system has been researched. Finally, the feasibility of this technique can be obtained.

  8. 响应面法优化马铃薯脆饼焙烤工艺研究%Optimization of the Baking Technology of Potato Cracknel by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林; 蒋长兴; 叶华


    [目的]研究马铃薯脆饼的最佳焙烤工艺.[方法]通过中心组合设计和响应面分析法,对马铃薯脆饼的焙烤工艺进行优化.[结果]最佳焙烤条件为马铃薯淀粉与玉米淀粉的配比为3.16∶1、和面温度77℃、焙烤温度144℃、焙烤时间16 min、脆饼厚度0.9 cm;在该工艺条件下,马铃薯脆饼的感官评分值为43.9.[结论]该研究为马铃薯焙烤脆饼的实际生产与加工提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] To study the optimal baking technology of potato cracknel. [ Method ] Central composite design combined with response surface analysis were used to optimize the baking technology of potato cracknel. [ Result] The optimal conditions were as follows: potato starch/corn starch ratio was 3.16:1, dough making temperature was 77 ℃, baking temperature was 144 ℃ , baking time was 16 min, and cracknel thickness was 0.9 cm. Under this condition, the sensory evaluation score was 43.9. [ Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for production and processing of potato cracknel.

  9. 基于逆模型解耦的绿茶烘焙变论域模糊控制%Method of variable universe fuzzy control base on inverse-model decoupling for green tea baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 周国雄


    绿茶烘焙过程,伴随着复杂的物质交换和热交换,温、湿度变化耦合严重。针对这一问题该文提出了一种基于逆模型解耦的变论域模糊控制方法。采用支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)方法辨识绿茶烘焙过程,建立精度相对较高逆模型,根据试验结果,电热丝电流平均误差为4.3%,而风机转速为8.5%。将该模型并与被控对象进行串联,建立伪线性系统,实现温、湿度解耦。同时采用模糊控制器对温、湿度分别进行独立控制,同时对模糊控制器的论域进行改进,增强系统的环境适应能力。性能试验结果表明,该控制系统能够将温度误差控制在小于1.4℃,相对湿度控制误差仅为2.8%;品质试验表明,绿茶橙花叔醇成分平均提升15.2%,α-法呢烯成分平均提升17.4%,芳樟醇成分平均提升14.2%。该文方法能够有效提升绿茶烘焙过程的控制效果,提供了一种控制绿茶烘焙过程的新途径。%Baking technology is the key technology of the Green Tea refining process, and it directly affects the preservation of tea time, aroma and taste. At present, there are two ways for Green Tea baking;charcoal baking and roasting. Machine baking of charcoal, the main process by manual operation, greatly rely on the experience of workers and a low degree of standardization, but the tea quality is not stable; machine baking with an electric oven for baking is widely used, but due to the lack of systematic research, the control algorithm is simple, the temperature error is higher than 5℃, and the humidity error is greater than eight percent. Therefore, studies of one kind of advanced green tea baking process control method should be of vital significance. The key of the baking process is precise control of temperature and humidity, however, the roasting process physics, complex chemical changes, system temperature, and humidity influence each other, forming

  10. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores-Chávez


    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  11. Vinegar-Baked Radix Bupleuri Regulates Lipid Disorders via a Pathway Dependent on Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with VBRB or fenofibrate, once daily for further twelve weeks. VBRB (1.0 g kg−1 per day produced effects similar to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 in reducing body weight (BW gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as hepatic TG and cholesterol content of HFD-fed rats. VBRB also lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. VBRB and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1 proteins were reversed by VBRB and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs in HFD-fed rats was lowered by VBRB and fenofibrate. The results of this study show that VBRB suppresses BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely mediated via upregulation of PPARα and downregulation of SREBP expression in the liver of HFD-fed rats.

  12. Multi-allergen Quantitation and the Impact of Thermal Treatment in Industry-Processed Baked Goods by ELISA and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Parker, Christine H; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Ross, Mark M; Fu, Tong-Jen; Fan, Xuebin; Wu, Yan; Williams, Kristina M; DeVries, Jonathan; Pulvermacher, Brian; Bedford, Binaifer; Zhang, Xi; Jackson, Lauren S


    Undeclared food allergens account for 30-40% of food recalls in the United States. Compliance with ingredient labeling regulations and the implementation of effective manufacturing allergen control plans require the use of reliable methods for allergen detection and quantitation in complex food products. The objectives of this work were to (1) produce industry-processed model foods incurred with egg, milk, and peanut allergens, (2) compare analytical method performance for allergen quantitation in thermally processed bakery products, and (3) determine the effects of thermal treatment on allergen detection. Control and allergen-incurred cereal bars and muffins were formulated in a pilot-scale industry processing facility. Quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut in incurred baked goods was compared at various processing stages using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a novel multi-allergen liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method. Thermal processing was determined to negatively affect the recovery and quantitation of egg, milk, and peanut to different extents depending on the allergen, matrix, and analytical test method. The Morinaga ELISA and LC-MS/MS quantitative methods reported the highest recovery across all monitored allergens, whereas the ELISA Systems, Neogen BioKits, Neogen Veratox, and R-Biopharm ELISA Kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of industry-processed bakery products.

  13. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread. (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane


    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Baked Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Loaded by Different Patterns in Bulk Curing Barn%烤烟密集烤房不同装烟方式烘烤效果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张警予; 娄元菲; 王文超; 李昂; 董艳辉; 杨彦明; 贺帆; 宫长荣


    The comparative tests for the baked effect of flue -cured tobacco loaded by 3 different ways ( hanging rod , tobacco clamping, and dispersal leaf ) were carried out in bulk curing barn .The results indicated that: in comparison with the traditional hanging-rod baking , the dispersal-leaf baking could save labor and energy .The labor efficiency in tobacco -loading of hanging -rod way was basically the same as that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way , but the labor used in tobacco -weaving of the for-mer was 0.39 workers/667 m2 higher than that of the latter .The labor used in all links of dispersal -leaf way was 1.60 workers/667 m2 less than that of hanging -rod way, and 1.21 workers/667 m2 less than that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way.The energy-consumption cost in tobacco -baking of dispersal -leaf way and needle -type tobacco-clamping way was respectively 0.22 and 0.07 yuan/kg lower than that of hanging -rod way.The chemical compositions in the baked tobacco leaves loaded by tobacco -clamping way had the best harmony .The average price of baked dry tobacco leaves of needle -type tobacco-clamping way and dis-persal-leaf way was respectively 0.9 and 0.5 yuan/kg higher than that of hanging -rod way, and the medium-superior proportion of baked tobacco leaves of these two tobacco -loading ways was also higher than that of hanging -rod way .%挂竿、烟夹、散叶等3种装烟方式的烘烤对比试验表明:与传统挂竿烘烤相比,较散叶烘烤省工、节能,挂竿装烟和针式烟夹装烟环节用工效率基本一致,差异不明显,但编烟环节针式烟夹明显省工,总体节省了0.39个工/667 m2;散叶堆积较挂竿的各个环节均明显省工,散叶堆积较挂竿节省了1.60个工/667 m2,较针式烟夹节省用工1.21个工/667 m2。针式烟夹和散叶堆积较挂竿烘烤能耗成本略有降低,散叶堆积干烟较挂竿节省能耗成本0.22元/kg,针式烟夹干烟节省0.07元/kg。烟夹

  15. Job categories and their effect on exposure to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust in the U.K. baking industry. (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Beckett, Paul; Griffin, Peter; Evans, Paul; Sams, Craig; Roff, Martin; Curran, Andrew D


    Enzymes in flour improver, in particular fungal alpha-amylase, are known to be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in the baking industry. This study measured total inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures in U.K. bakeries, mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and determined whether assignment of job description could identify individuals with the highest exposures to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust. A total of 117 personal samples were taken for workers in 19 bakeries, 2 mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and were analyzed using a monoclonal based immunoassay. Occupational hygiene surveys were undertaken for each site to assign job description and identify individuals who worked directly with flour improvers. Analysis of exposure data identified that mixers and weighers from large bakeries had the highest exposures to both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase among the different categories of bakery workers (p<.01). Currently, the maximum exposure limit for flour dust in the United Kingdom is 10 mg/m(3) (8-hour time-weighted average reference period). In this study 25% of the total dust results for bakers exceeded 10 mg/m(3), and interestingly, 63% of the individuals with exposure levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3) were weighers and mixers. Individuals who worked directly with flour improvers were exposed to higher levels of both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase (p<.01) than those who were not directly handling these products. Before sensitive immunoassays were utilized for the detection of specific inhalable allergens, gravimetric analysis was often used as a surrogate. There was a weak relationship between inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures; however, inhalable dust levels could not be used to predict amylase exposures, which highlights the importance of measuring both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures.

  16. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods. (United States)

    Lattanzi, Anna; Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Diviccaro, Annamaria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco


    The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of some traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods were studied through culture-dependent method and pyrosequencing. Flours used for back slopping and sourdoughs were also biochemically characterized. Principal component analysis was applied to explore eventual correlations between process parameters applied during back slopping, some flour nutrients, profile of microbiota, and biochemical characteristics of sourdoughs. The median values of the cell density of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were 8.05 and 7.03 log CFU/g, respectively. As shown by culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo. For eleven sourdoughs, all the lactic acid bacteria isolates were allotted to this species. For Buccellato di Lucca, Mbriagotto, Pandoro, and Nadalin sourdoughs, at least 80% of the isolates was allotted to this species. Other lactic acid bacteria isolated with a relatively high frequence were Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum. Pyrosequencing confirmed and complemented the culture-dependent approach, detecting L. sanfranciscensis also in Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Mbriagotto, Ciambella di Mosto and Pandolce Genovese. These latter sourdoughs harbored strains of Candida humilis, whereas five sourdoughs combined the presence of both yeast species. Positive correlations were found between time of back slopping and cell density and main metabolites of lactic acid bacteria. Percentage of sourdough used as inoculum was mainly correlated with the cell density of yeasts and the concentration of ethanol. This study provided a comprehensive and comparative approach to highlight the dominant microbiota of Italian sourdoughs, which could be exploited further to guarantee a highly

  17. Effect of different baking conditions on the amino acids of white rib tobacco%不同烘焙条件对白肋烟氨基酸含量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张明文; 岳先领; 黄国三; 张委员


    应用 HPLC 考察了不同烘焙条件下对白肋烟中氨基酸含量的变化,得到了其变化规律,为提高混合型卷烟产品内在质量提供了依据。研究结果表明:随着加工强度的增加,白肋烟中脯氨酸含量呈下降趋势;随着烘焙温度的升高,脯氨酸的含量下降趋势越明显;随着终端水分的下降,烘烤时间的增长,脯氨酸含量也逐渐下降,空气含湿量对脯氨酸的影响与终端水分相同;随着烘焙温度的增加,由于氨基酸参与合成 amadori 化合物,导致游离氨基酸总量逐渐下降。%The effects of amino acids on the white rib tobacco were studied under different baking conditions, and the change rules were obtained, which provided the basis for improving the intrinsic quality of the mixed type cigarette. The results of the study show that: With increasing of the processing intensity, proline content in burley tobacco showed a downward trend. With elevated torrefaction temperature, the content of proline downward trend is obvious. With decline of the terminal water, baking time of growth, proline content by decrease gradually, and air humidity effect is the same on the amount of proline and terminal moisture; With increasing the baking temperature and the total content of free amino acid decreased gradually, the reason is amino acid involved in the synthesis of the Amadori compounds.

  18. 铝土矿生料浆烘干与烧结特性的试验研究%Test study on the Raw Slurry Baking and Sintering Feature of Aluminate Sodium Sintered Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Combining with alumina production practice by the alkali - lime sintering process, referring to foreign study achievements, the author studied the law of the viscosity, baking process and sintering feature of the raw slurry in the laboratory conditions. The test results showed that the true calcium ratio change had no effect on the viscosity of the raw slurry at the same moisture, but when the raw slurry moisture was less than 38% , its moisture and temperature increasing had a large effect on its viscosity. The slurry baking temperature in the gas suspension baking oven should be higher than 6001. Sintering temperature, the time of sintering retaining temperature, the cluster particle size and the structure consistency of the sintered material were the key to ensure a high quality of the sintered material.%在试验室条件下,参照国外研究成果,结合我国碱石灰烧结法氧化铝生产实际,从生料浆黏度变化规律、生料浆烘干过程及生料浆烧结特性等方面进行了试验.研究试验结果表明:真钙比的变化对同一水分下生料浆黏度的影响不明显,当生料将水分<38%时,生料浆水分和生料浆温度升高对生料浆黏度值影响较大;气态悬浮干燥器中料浆烘干温度应不低于600℃;熟料的烧成温度、烧结保温时间、料团粒径的大小及结构密实程度是保证熟料烧成质量的关键.

  19. Determination of Aluminum Residue in Baking and Flour Foods and Regulatory Proposals%焙烤和面制食品中铝残留量的测定及监管建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奕水明; 钱文捷


    Objective To perform a sampling survey on the amount of aluminum residue in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing city. Methods According to GB/T 5009. 182-2003 Method Standard for Determination of Aluminum in Pasta, the samples were prepared by microwave digestion or dry or wet digestion. The amount of aluminum residue in the final products was measured by spectrophotometer. Results The content and qualified rate of aluminum residue was determined accrding to the requirements of State Food and Drug Administration. The qualified rate of aluminum residue in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing city was 95.1%. Conclusion The overall situation for the use of additives containing aluminum in baking and flour foods in Jiaxing is good, but the usage of aluminum of a few products exceeds the standard.%目的:抽样调查嘉兴地区生产的焙烤和面制食品中铝残留量。方法按GB/T 5009.182-2003《面制食品中铝的测定》方法标准,样品前处理采用微波消解、干法或湿法消解,终产品中铝残留量用分光光度计测定。结果按照国家食药总局规定要求,对其铝残留量检测和判定,合格率为95.1%。结论嘉兴地区焙烤和面制食品中使用含铝添加剂的总体情况较好,少数产品使用量超标。

  20. Texture evolution of 390 MPa grade ultra low carbon bake hardening steel%390MPa级超低碳BH钢织构演变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银莉; 苏岚; 赵爱民; 吴雷; 李本海; 刘光明; 滕华湘


    Texture evolution in a 390 MPa grade high strength ultra low carbon bake hardening( ULCBH )steel in the process of hot rolling, cold rolling and annealing is studied by utilizing ODF texture analysis method. The effect of cold rolling reduction and annealing parameters on texture is measured. The results show that the ULC-BH sheet steel after cold rolling has a highly preferred orientation with typical /112/ 〈 110 〉 and /lll/ 〈 110 〉 texture, and strong unfavorable deformation texture /001 / 〈 110 〉. The increase of cold rolling reduction influeneed the strength ratio of favorable components to unfavorable components in the annealing textures. After annealing, a very strong y texture was obtained when cold rolling reduction reached 80% , which intensity peak was at 1111 / 〈 112 〉 component with f(g) value of 11.7. The annealing temperature and time had little influence on a texture, while increasing annealing temperature and extending holding time enhanced y texture intensity and r value.%采用ODF织构分析方法,对390MPa级超低碳BH钢板热轧、冷轧、退火过程织构演变规律进行研究,并对不同冷轧月下量和不同退火工艺织构进行分析。结果表明:经冷轧变形后的钢板有较强的择优取向,具有典型的{112}〈110〉和{111}〈110〉织构,形变织构中的不利织构{001}〈110〉较强;冷轧压下率为80%时再结晶退火后钢板具有较强的Y织构,{111}〈112:织构取向密度高达11.7;退火温度和保温时间对a织构影响不大,提高退火温度和延长保温时间使y织构增强,r值增加。

  1. 面包焙烤过程中茶褐素含量变化及其检测方法研究%Theabrownin content variation during the baking process of bread and its test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秀娟; 宋文军; 李长文; 徐咏全; 李丽维


    为了考察普洱茶面包焙烤过程中茶褐素含量的变化,本文对传统的茶褐素检测方法进行了改进,根据新的公式计算了焙烤前后茶褐素的含量。结果表明茶褐素在焙烤过程中的保留率约为60%,说明茶褐素在面包焙烤过程中的损失较小,可以增强面包的营养、保健作用。%To inspect the variation of theabrownin content during the baking process of Pu-erh tea bread,this article improved traditional test method of theabrownin,and calculated theabrownin content of before and after baking according to new formula.The result indicated that the retention rate of theabrownin during the process of torrefaction was approximately 60%.This concluded that the loss of theabrownin during the process of torrefaction was small,and it can strengthen the nutrition and health care effects of bread.

  2. Feedback control system for baking temperature of vacuum chamber on HL-2A tokamak%HL-2A装置真空室烘烤温度反馈控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婕; 董方正; 唐芳群; 田培红


    Temperature feedback control system of the HL-2A tokamak vacuum chamber baking is designed. The approximate mathematical model was adopted by experimental method, and the step response model of HL-2A baking system was established. Design analysis of system performance index was applied by the control theory, stability analysis of control system was conducted by Simulink software, and the system of hardware and software was implemented with Siemens PLC300 system.%设计了HL-2A装置主机真空室烘烤温度反馈控制系统,用实验法获得系统近似数学模型,建立了HL-2A装置烘烤系统阶跃响应模型。运用控制理论对系统性能指标进行了设计分析,利用Simulink软件对控制系统进行了稳定性分析,通过西门子PLC300系统对此控制系统进行了软硬件实现。

  3. Cooling rate correction and Detection of mineralogical evolution during Thellier-Thellier's experiments on baked clays. Applications to French protohistoric structures (United States)

    Lanos, P.; Hervé, G.; Chauvin, A.; Perron d'Arc, M.


    Archaeointensity protocols have been considerably improved since the last years to better detect multidomain (MD) grains effects or mineralogical evolutions during Thellier's experiments. Current published data respect more strict criteria and take into account the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). However the effect of the cooling rate on the intensity of the TRM acquired during cooling, which depends on the type of the ferromagnetic grains, remains difficult to precisely quantify. The main problem is to estimate the true cooling rate of the archeological structures and usually a 24 hours cooling is assumed. An experimental study of 35 small bricks baked in two kilns during summer 2007 and 2008 (in Sallèles d'Aude, southern France) gives new elements about the cooling rate correction. The used kilns are of two different sizes, similar to classical archaeological structures. Intensity of the geomagnetic field (43 μT) in the kilns and the temperature decrease during the cooling (around 12 hours for the small kiln and 70 hours for the other one) were measured. Discrepancies between the TRM intensity after fast (1.5 hour in the laboratory) and low cooling of 24 hours are over a very wide range between -5 and +30%. The use of the true cooling rate of the kilns (respectively 12 and 72 hours) gives mean archaeointensities (43.8±1.8 μT and 42.7±2.2 μT) corresponding to the intensity of the field measured within them. By applying the usual cooling of 24 hours, the intensity of the field is underestimated by 3 μT in the small kiln and is overestimated by 3 μT in the bigger kiln. Consequently, a wrong cooling rate correction may explain the dispersion between archaeointensities. The second aspect of the presentation corresponds to the detection of mineralogical evolution during successive heatings of the Thellier-Thellier's protocol. This problem is particularly important for the millennia BC in Europe, as very well heated structures are less common

  4. Qualidade industrial do trigo em resposta à adubação verde e doses de nitrogênio Baking quality of wheat in response to green manure and nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilas Pinnow


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de adubos verdes cultivados entre a cultura do milho e a do trigo e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a qualidade industrial do trigo. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada: sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 e seis manejos outonais: quatro com o cultivo de espécies de cobertura (ervilha forrageira, ervilhaca comum, nabo forrageiro e tremoço, um cultivo de feijoeiro com fins comerciais e outro com a permanência em pousio no período compreendido entre a colheita do milho e a semeadura do trigo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. O rendimento de proteína aumentou linearmente com a aplicação de nitrogênio mineral. As doses de 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio afetaram positivamente o desempenho dos parâmetros indicativos da qualidade industrial. A ervilha forrageira, o nabo forrageiro e a ervilhaca comum permitem combinar indíces de qualidade tecnológica ideais para panificação e satisfatórios patamares de produtividade de grãos, reduzindo a demanda de adubação nitrogenada mineral.The objective this study was to investigate the effects of green manures cultivated between the maize and wheat crop and nitrogen rates on baking quality of spring wheat. Treatments consisted of four nitrogen fertilization rates: without N addition, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 using the amidic form, and six managements before wheat crop: four green manures forage pea, common pea, oilseed radish and lupine, common bean grown for commercial purposes, and the fallow between the corn harvest and wheat cropping. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and factorial scheme, with three replicates. The protein yield increased linearly with the application of mineral N rates. The nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 improved the baking wheat quality. The forage pea, oilseed radish and common pea allowed ideal

  5. Influence of baking on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} solid solutions grown on Inp substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishurnyi, V.A.; Gorbatchev, A.Y.; Anda, F. De; Nieto N, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)


    The influence of thermal treatments on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} epitaxial layers of various compositions grown by LPE on In P substrates has been studied. To prevent the epitaxial layers from degradation, due to phosphor evaporation during the baking, their surface was covered by spin-on SiO{sub 2} layers. The photoluminescence spectra did not change for solid solutions whose compositions were near In P and InGaAs. For compositions in the middle of the lattice-matched region, the variations were very noticeable because the appearance of additional peaks in the luminescence spectra. This could be related to the decomposition of those solid solutions whose compositions lie inside a theoretically predicted miscibility gap. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The food safety is necessary of development of agro-food industries. We opted for the introduction of a concept to ensure a sanitary control of products-wares, including the pastry. We chose for our project three parameters as: water activity (aw, pH and moisture. Also, we defined the target values for these parameters to ensure the safety of our pastry. Otherwise, we incorporated the factor temperature to ensure complete control of safety knowing that cooking is a major industry in the pastry. We defined the temperature of microbial destruction to reduce the microbial load of the pastry after baking. This study was approved by microbiological analysis carried out on the cake having undergone the following parameters (aw, pH, moisture, temperature of microbial destruction.

  7. Process of Automatic No Bake Resin Sand Molding & Core Making Production Line for Manufacturing Steel Castings%铸钢件树脂自硬砂造型、制芯自动线工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper introduces process analysis, equipment selection andlayout arrangement of the no bake resin sand molding & core making production line for manufacturing steel castings. This production line utilizes flask molding for manufacturing case shaped steel casting with thin wall. Quality of the steel casting meets the standards of Ministry of Railway,TB/T-2238 and TB/T-2239.%介绍了生产铸钢件的树脂自硬砂造型、制芯线的工艺分析,设备选择和平面布置;该线采用有箱造型工艺,生产箱形结构薄壁铸钢件,所产铸件品质达到了铁道部标准TB/T-2238和TB/T-2239。

  8. Caracterização de amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e utilização em produtos panificados Characterization of native and modified cassava starches and their use in baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz


    starch are its acidity, degree of expansion, viscosity, clarity of the starch paste, freeze-thaw stability and reducing power. Four different starches were used in the production of baked products: native cassava starch, sour cassava starch, starch modified with hydrogen peroxide and a commercial modified starch named Expandex® 160003. The baked products were evaluated to determine their physicochemical properties and to assess how the different starches affected the products’ internal and external characteristics and flavor. The baked samples were subjected to a sensory analysis of acceptability on a nine-point hedonic scale by untrained tasters. The cheese bread samples containing modified starch oxidized with hydrogen peroxide showed the best results. In the case of the cassava starch biscuits, those made with sour cassava starch and Expandex® 160003 showed the best results, which did not differ statistically.

  9. 添加超细粉碎盐煸鸡骨泥对鸡肉肠品质的影响%Effect of adding superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste on quality of chicken sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 蔡蕊; 阮征; 李汴生; 郭伟波; 林光明


    Adding a certain proportion of superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste into chicken sausage would increase sausage's flavor and nutrition,but decreased its texture quality to a certain degree.Based on normal formula and processing conditions of ordinary chicken sausage,the effects of adding 4%,8%,12%,16%(db) superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste on quality of chicken sausage were studied.The color,TPA and sensory evaluation were used to indicate the quality of the chicken sausage.With bone paste addition increasing,L value of minced chicken meat and chicken sausage decreased,and b value increased;while the gel strength,hardness and chewiness decreased,and spring decreased firstly(0%~8%) and then increased(8%~16%);sensory evaluation score increased firstly and then decreased.The sausage with 12%(db) of bone paste was of the highest sensory-acceptance.%在鸡肉肠中添加一定比例的超细粉碎盐焗鸡骨泥会增加肉肠的风味和营养,但添加后可能会对鸡肉肠凝胶的质构带来不利影响。以普通鸡肉肠的加工为基础,分别添加4%、8%、12%、16%(按干基计)的骨泥,通过采用单因素实验,根据色泽和质构特性测定,并结合感官评定分析,探讨了盐焗鸡骨泥对鸡肉肠品质特性的影响。当骨泥添加量增加,鸡肉肠和鸡肉糜的L*值下降,b*值上升;鸡肉肠的凝胶强度、硬度、咀嚼性均下降,弹性先下降(0%~8%骨泥添加量)后上升(8%~16%骨泥添加量);鸡肉肠的感官得分先上升后下降。当骨泥添加量为12%时,鸡肉肠的感官接受度最高,为最佳盐焗鸡骨泥添加量。

  10. Termomechanical and Baking Characteristics of High Dietary Fiber Dough%高膳食纤维面团热机械学及面包的烘焙特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 王宏兹; 黄卫宁; 郑建仙; RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia


    研究大豆纤维粉(soybean dietary fibre,SDF)和玉米抗性淀粉(resistant starch,RS)及其混合物以20%、30%比例部分替代小麦粉在高膳食纤维面包中的应用,并分析高膳食纤维对面团热机械学特性及面包烘焙特性的影响。结果表明:SDF与RS的引入可提高面团持水性与吸水率(分别提高43.3%~63.3%和5%~7.6%),降低C5-C4值,对淀粉回生产生一定的抑制作用。两者对面团稳定时间和C1-C2的影响不同,RS会显著降低面团稳定时间(为对照组的53.52%~66.46%)%This study was focused on partial replacement of wheat flour in breads with soybean dietary fibre(SDF),corn resistant starch(RS) and their mixtures at 20% and 30% levels.The effects of high fibre levels on the thermomechanical property and baking performances of dough were investigated.The addition of SDF and RS increased dough water binding capacity and water absorption by 43.3%-63.3% and 5%-7.6%,respectively,decreased C5-C4,and inhibited the retrogradation of starch.SDF and RS had different influences on stabilization time and C1-C2 of dough.RS decreased the stabilization time by 53.52%-66.46% compared with control and increased C1-C2 by 24.14%-27.59%,while SDF played positive roles.Based on the baking performance analysis,it was found that SDF acted in synergy with RS,which not only increased dietary fibre and protein contents and improved the effects of SDF alone on bread texture and flavor,but also enhanced the moisture content of breads compared with RS alone and improved the bread yield.When bread specific volume,colour,texture and nutrition were all together concerned,the best quality of high-fibre breads could be obtained under conditions of 5% SDF-15% RS and 10% SDF-10% RS,with better mouthfeel.

  11. 密集烘烤上部烟叶适宜采收成熟度研究%Study on the Optimal Harvest Maturity of Upper Tobacco Leaves in Intensive Baking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀德红; 张东峰; 孙西坤; 朱景伟; 王红军; 孟智勇


    [目的]提高河南烤烟上部叶烘烤质量的工业可用性。[方法]以中烟100为供试品种,进行上部叶适宜成熟度密集烘烤试验。[结果]试验表明,上部叶提前采收烤后烟叶油分减少,身份较厚,组织紧密。适度推迟采收,烤后烟叶橘色烟比例增加,组织变疏松,油分增多,色度变强;促进叶内致香物质转化,提高烟叶香气,减少杂气、刺激性,使余味更加舒适。采收过晚,容易导致烟叶干物质过度消耗,烤后杂色烟增多,经济效益明显下降。[结论]上部烟叶推迟7d左右采收,可有效改善烟叶外观质量,主要化学成分协调,提高评吸香气质、香气量,杂气、刺激性减轻,值得在烟区推广应用。%Objective] The aim was to improve curing quality of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco in Henan.[ Method] With Zhongyan 100 as tested varieties, suitable harvest maturity of upper leaves in intensive baking was studied.[ Result] The results showed that the upper leaves harvest in advance, tobacco leaf oil content decreases, identity is thicker and organization is tightly.Moderate delayed recovery, roast tobacco leaf orange smoke ratio increases, organizations become loose, oil increases, chromaticity is stronger;Promote aroma substance transformation within the leaf, improve tobacco aroma, reduce mixed gas, irritant, the aftertaste is more comfortable.Too late harvested, easily leading to excessive consumption of tobacco leaf dry matter after baking mixed smoke increases, economic benefit is significantly lower.[ Conclusion] Delayed 7 days to harvest upper tobacco leaves can effectively improve the appearance quality of tobacco leaf, coordinate major chemical com-ponents, improve aroma quality and quantity, alleviate miscellaneous gas and irritating, which is worth popularizing and applying in tobacco growing area.

  12. Study on the Influence of Carbonization Tower Operation on the Total Alkali Content of the Production Process of Baking Soda%小苏打生产工艺之碳化塔运行对总碱量的影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将着重分析对碳化塔的运行控制和碳化工序原理及流程,通过分析碳化工序对小苏打质量、总碱量的稳定和存在问题,并采取针对性的措施,以降低消耗,稳定产品质量,以期提高小苏打产品在市场中的竞争力。%This paper focuses on the analysis of the operation and control of carbonization tower , carbonization technology principle and process. Based on the analysis of the influence of carbonization process on the quality of baking soda, total alkali quantity and the existing problems, this paper takes the measures to reduce consumption, makes the product quality stable to improve product competitiveness in the market of baking soda.

  13. CDIC纯钛种植体与金属烤瓷冠修复体在磁共振成像检查中的伪影影响%The Influence of CDIC Dental Implant and Baked Porcelain Metal Crown on Diagnosis of Coronal by MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 刘宏


    目的:观察在颅脑磁共振成像(MR)检查中,口腔内种植体和烤瓷金属冠对MRI影像学诊断的影响。方法:观察在颅脑MRI检查中,CDIC种植体与金属烤瓷修复体的伪影变化。结果:种植体伪影最小,烤瓷钢伪影仅为铸造钢合金的三分之一左右。结论:CDIC种植体和口腔内特定位置的烤瓷金属修复体不影响头颅MRI诊断。%To investigate the influence of CDIC dental implant and baked porcelain metal crown on MRI image. Method: The pseudomorphs of two kinds of metal implants were observed during coronal MRI. Results:CDIC dental implantd produces little influence on coronal MRI and the baked porcelain metal crown makes only one thirds of less pseudomorphs than that made by fasting steel. Conclusions: There are no negative effects on diagnosis of coronal MRI with regard to CDIC dental implants and baked porcelain metal crown.

  14. An Experimental Study on Improving the High Temperature Deformability of No-Bake Furan Resin%改善自硬呋喃树脂砂高温退让性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文英; 陈亚东


    自硬呋喃树脂砂砂型有较高的常温强度和高温刚性,金属液浇注后,铸型退让性较差,阻碍铸件收缩,产生较大应力,诱使铸件产生裂纹缺陷,尤以铸钢件为甚.为攻克自硬呋喃树脂砂高温退让性这一技术难题,从多技术方案中优选丙酮改性和特殊助剂的技术方案,取得了事半功倍的效果.%The no-bake furan resin sand mold has comparatively higher room temperature strength and high temperature rigidity. After pouring liquid metal, the poor deformability of the mold impedes the contraction of castings, and generates relatively higher stress which leading to the crack defects of the castings, especially for steel castings. In order to solve the problem above, the technical scheme of acetone modification with special accessory ingredient was preferentially chosen from many schemes, and twice the results were obtained with half the effort.

  15. 烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析%Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娜; 陈根生; 刘阳; 许勇泉; 汪芳; 陈建新; 尹军峰


    对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也显著下降。通过分析茶叶滋味化学成分含量及其滋味 Dot 值,发现烘青绿茶苦味的主要贡献物质是 EGCG 和咖啡碱;而涩味的主要贡献物是儿茶素和黄酮苷,其中儿茶素以 EGCG 为主,包括 EGC 和 ECG,黄酮苷以槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(Que-rut)和槲皮素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Que-gala)为主,包括杨梅素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Myr-gala)、槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Que-glu)、牡荆素-2"-O-鼠李糖苷(Vit-rha)、山柰酚-3-O-半乳糖苷(Kae-gala)、山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(Kae-rut)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Kae-glu)等。Dot 值分析表明氨基酸对烘青绿茶鲜爽味没有显著贡献。本研究初步明确了烘青绿茶苦涩味的主要贡献物质,为茶叶品质提升和滋味化学研究提供理论基础。%The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and

  16. Ti+Nb和Ti+V超低碳烘烤硬化钢的组织和性能研究%Research on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti+Nb and Ti+V Ultra-low Carbon Bake Hardening Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继平; 钱健清; 李胜祗; 康永林


    Deformation resistance and dynamic continuous cooling transformation of Ti+Nb and Ti+V bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steels were studied using Gleeble-1500 thermal simulator. The microstructures of two experimental steels under different cooling conditions were also analyzed. The results showed that the deformation resistance of Ti+Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake harden-ing steel was 13MPa higher than that of Ti +V bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steel at 1100°C with the strain rate of ls~'. The morphology of the microstructures and the grain size have big difference for two experimental steels under the same deformation conditions. The room temperature microstructures of the two experimental steels are polygonal ferrites under various cooling conditions. The ferrites of Ti + Nb bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steel are finer and have irregular shape with the average grain size of 16μm, while for Ti + V bearing ultra-low carbon bake hardening steel, the ferrites are coarse and have regular shape with the average grain size of 26μm.%采用Gleeble-1500热模拟试验机对Ti+Nb和Ti+V复合处理超低碳BH钢的变形抗力和动态连续冷却转变进行研究,并观察了两种实验钢在不同冷却工艺条件下的金相组织.结果表明:在1100℃、应变速率ls-1时Ti+ Nb超低碳BH钢的变形抗力比Ti+V超低碳BH钢高出约13MPa,在相同的变形条件下,两种实验钢的组织形貌及晶粒尺寸差别较大.两种超低碳BH钢在不同冷却条件下的室温金相组织均是多边形的铁素体,Ti+Nb超低碳BH钢铁索体晶粒较为细小,形状不规则,平均晶粒尺寸为16μm,Ti+V超低碳BH钢铁素体晶粒则较为粗大,形状规则,平均晶粒尺寸为26μm.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 史文; 何燕霖; 符仁钰; 李麟


    With the increasing requirement of vehicle weight reduction and energy conservation from automobile industry, the investigation and development of high strength steel sheet has been stressed extensively. Bake hardening steel, as a new kind of automotive steel, exhibits low strength and good formability before drawing, after which increases obviously in the yield strength during baking process, and is then widely used in the outer plate of modern cars. Mn and P are often added to sheet steel to increase the strength, and their distributions have significant effect on drawability,bake hardening property and surface quality of bake hardening steels. In this paper, the distributions of Mn and P and their effect on tensile behavior in bake hardening steels were studied. For investigation,two kinds of bake hardening steels (BH-Mn and BH-P steels) were heated to 800 ℃, held for 2 min and cooled by water quenching. Three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) technique, internal friction experiments and tensile tests were carried out to analysis the effect of Mn and P distribution patterns on the interstitial atom distribution and Cottrell atmosphere in the matrix, so as to obtain the influence of solute distributions on tensile behavior. The results indicate that P segregates mainly in bake hardening steel, and part of P segregates together with C, which strongly pin the dislocations and is the main reason that induces the yield point elongation during tensile process. In BH-Mn steel,Mn hardly segregates in the matrix and C segregates very little, so the strength of BH-Mn steel is lower than that of BH-P steel, whereas the plasticity is better than BH-P steel. The segregation of P together with C and its pinning of dislocations will influence Snoek -Ke-Koster internal friction, and makes the disappearance of Snoek-Ke-Koster peak.%将2种不同成分的烘烤硬化钢(BH-Mn钢和BH-P钢)加热至800℃,保温2 min后水淬;采用3DAP技术、内耗实验及拉伸性能检测分

  18. Desenvolvimento de uma massa funcional pronta para tortas utilizando o método de Desdobramento da Função Qualidade (QFD Developing a functional ready to bake dough for pies using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Daibert Pinto


    stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria which are beneficial to the health of the body. The aim of the present work is the development of a functional ready to bake dough for pies using inulin as a prebiotic. The development of this product was based on the tool QFD (Quality Function Deployment, and it was presented as a means to organize the development of new products, especially prototypes. Hence, studies, tests, and analysis suggested by the QFD were undertaken. According to the results of the matrix of quality obtained, it can be said that the characteristics that the consumers attribute as the most important for baking dough are: be functional, do not shatter, have a neutral flavor, and present uniform diameter and thickness. Consequently these characteristics were prioritized during the development of the product. The sensorial analysis indicated that the tasters really enjoyed all the quality attributes of the dough. On the other hand, the QFD proved useful for planning and conducting the necessary activities for the process of developing the product.

  19. 薄板烘丝工艺参数对卷烟焦油释放量的影响%The influence of bake thin wire process parameter on tobacco tar delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军; 赵科文; 王强春; 刘舒畅; 李皓; 侯鹏娟; 张峻松


    By designing different single-factor test,the influence of five process parameters of cylinder wall tem-perature,temperature of hot air,opening of hot air valve,moisture discharge valve,and revolving-speed of casing cylinder on the cigarette tar delivery were investigated.Through the establishment of a uniform design quadratic regression model of drying leaves set of samples and the corresponding parameters between tar deliv-ery,according to the theoretical model,optimal bake thin wire process parameters of cut tobacco leave samples were obtained:the cylinder wall temperature was 1 35 ℃,air temperature was 1 30 ℃,opening of hot air valve was 1 00%,moisture discharge valve was 50%,revolving-speed of casing cylinder was 8 r/min.%通过设计不同的单因素试验,分别考察了筒壁温度、热风温度、热风风门开度、排潮风门开度和滚筒转速5个薄板烘丝工艺参数对卷烟焦油释放量的影响.通过均匀试验设计,建立了叶组样品烘丝工艺参数与对应焦油释放量之间的二次回归模型,根据模型得到叶组样品的理论最优烘丝工艺参数:筒壁温度135℃,热风温度 130℃,热风风门开度100%,排潮风门开度50%,滚筒转速8 r/min.

  20. Effect of solid solute carbon on hardening property of ultra-low carbon bake hardened steel%固溶碳含量对 ULC-BH 钢烘烤硬化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晰; 李维娟; 金晓龙; 刘洋; 孙成钱


    研究了固溶碳含量对ULC-BH钢烘烤硬化性能的影响,测量了不同烘烤时间下的烘烤硬化( BH )值,通过内耗试验分析固溶碳含量变化。结果表明,对试样进行相同预变形、不同时间烘烤硬化处理后,随烘烤时间增加,BH值先快速增大再基本不变最后增大;Snoek峰峰高随烘烤时间的延长而降低,固溶碳含量随时间延长而降低;对于试验钢,常规的烘烤工艺170℃×20 min没有达到最大的BH值,但继续增加烘烤时间BH值提高缓慢。%Effect of solid solute carbon on hardening property of ULC-BH steel was studied in this paper .The BH value of the samples with different aging time were measured and the variation of solid solute carbon amount was analyzed by internal friction test .The result shows that the BH value increases rapidly at first , then basically remains the same and increases slowly at last with the increasing aging time dealing with same pre-strain;The height of Snoek peak and solute carbon amount decreases with the increasing aging time ;The BH value does not increase to maximum with the normal baking process 170 ℃×20 min, but increases slowly if samples are increased aging time .

  1. The experimental study on new type baking-free brick prepared the circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB) ash%循环流化床锅炉灰渣制备新型免烧砖的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫; 夏举佩; 周新涛


    本文以循环流化床锅炉(C FBB )灰渣为主要原料,通过实验获得了其制备免烧砖的最佳工艺配料为:石灰7%、飞灰43%、底渣30%、骨料瓜子石20%。通过蒸汽养护和自然养护对比,发现在低石灰掺量时,自然养护效果明显低于蒸汽养护,但随着石灰用量的增加,二者差异逐渐缩小,当高于7%时,检测结果基本一致,在此基础上,通过扩大性工业试验,采用自然养护方式,可生产标号为150的免烧砖砌块。%In this paper ,circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB) ash is used as the main raw material for preparing baking free brick to obtain through experiment the optimal ingredients as follows :7% lime ,43%fly ash ,30% bottom ash ,20% aggregate of oval stone .By steam curing and natural curing contrast ,we find that the effect of nature curing is significantly lower than the steam curing .But with the increasing of lime dosage ,the difference is gradually reduced .When lime dosage is higher than 7% ,the test results are basically consistent .On this basis ,unburned block labeled 150 can be produced using natural curing method through the expansion of industrial test .

  2. Effects of pre-aging treatments on the microstructures and properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminum alloy%预时效对6016铝合金烤漆前后组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯佳妮; 陈江华; 刘春辉; 廖元飞; 李祥亮


    本文利用显微硬度测试、拉伸试验、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和透射电子显微镜观察,研究了预时效对汽车车身板用6016铝合金烤漆前后微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明:经预时效处理的铝合金在室温放置1个月后硬度可保持在65 HV以下,延伸率可保持在25%以上,再经短时间烤漆处理后其硬度和屈服强度分别可提高至100 HV和220 MPa以上.与单级预时效处理后的合金相比,多级预时效处理后的铝合金烤漆前的力学性能更为稳定,烤漆后的硬度和强度更高.6016铝合金快速的烤漆强化效应与预时效处理后合金中形成的细小析出相在烤漆过程中快速长大有关.合金经预时效处理后铝基体内会形成非常细密且与基体完全共格的析出相,其长度约为2~3 nm,而经过烤漆处理后析出相沿〈001〉Al显著增长,长度大于10 nm.高分辨透射电镜分析显示烤漆后样品中形成的是具有单斜结构的针状GP区和β"前驱相.%The effects of pre-aging treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminium alloy were investigated by micro-hardness measurement, tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) , and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) . The experimental results show that the hardness and elongation rate of the alloy treated by pre-aging after 1 month's duration at room temperature could remain below 65HV and above 25% , respectively. Then, after paint bake cycle for a short time, the hardness and yield strength increased to over 100HV and 220MPa, respectively. Compared with samples through one-step pre-aging, the stability of the mechanical properties of samples treated by two-step pre-aging were higher, and the hardness and strength after paint bake were even higher. The quick bake hardening response in 6016 alloy was associated with the marked growth of the fine precipitates formed in the pre

  3. 同时蒸馏萃取和动态顶空萃取法提取焙烤小麦胚芽中风味物质%Analysis of Volatile Aroma Components in Baked Wheat Germ by Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction or Dynamic Headspace Extraction Coupled with GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼德; 张颖; 张甜甜; 侯建军; 任雅琳; 陈存社


    The purpose of this study was to compare the analytical results obtained for the volatile composition of baked wheat germ by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and dynamic headspace extraction (DHE) coupled with GC-MS. A total of 101 volatile compounds were identified from baked wheat germ by both methods, including 15 aldehydes, 8 alcohols, 11 hydrocarbons, 12 ketones, 6 ester, 5 phenols, 10 acids, 6 ethers and 28 nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds. Among them, aldehydes and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds were identified as dominant volatile compounds responsible for the flavor of baked wheat germ. Great differences were observed among the peak areas of the same volatile compounds measured by both methods, but almost the same types of volatile compounds were identified from baked wheat germ, especially the critical aroma-active compounds. Therefore, similar results could be obtained for the composition of aromatic compounds by SDE/GC-MS and DHE/GC-MS.%为研究焙烤小麦胚芽中的挥发性风味成分,采用动态顶空萃取(DHS)与同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)两种方法提取焙烤小麦胚芽中的风味物质,并通过气质联机(GC-MS)进行风味成分的分离与鉴定,结果共鉴定出101种化合物,包括醛类15种、醇类8种、烃类11种、酮类12种、酯类6种、酚类5种,酸类10种、醚类6种、含氮杂环类28种,其中挥发性的醛以及含氮类杂环化合物构成了焙烤小麦胚芽的风味主体。两种方法检测出的香味化合物的峰面积偏差较大,但鉴定出的化合物种类大致相同,特别是焙烤麦芽香味中的关键香味成分。从香味成分的构成考虑,DHs/GC-MS与sDE/GC-MS的分析结果较为相似。

  4. Process Optimization of Potato Flour Steamed and Baked Bread by Minitab Combined with Orthogonal Test%Minitab联用正交设计优化马铃薯粉蒸烤馒头工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松; 孙国玉; 王磊鑫; 白春启


    以高筋面粉和马铃薯全粉为主要原料,采用二次发酵工艺,研究马铃薯全粉蒸烤馒头加工工艺.以感官得分为指标,通过单因素试验,Plackett-Burman因素筛选、结合正交试验设计对生产工艺进行优化.评价了和面时间、压面次数、醒发时间、马铃薯全粉添加量、SSL添加量、GMS添加量、起酥油添加量、PGE添加量、谷朊粉添加量、黄原胶添加量10个因素对蒸烤馒头感官评分的影响.最终确定最优生产工艺为:和面时间11 min、醒发时间45 min、马铃薯全粉添加量24%、SSL添加量0.19%、GMS添加量2.7%、起酥油添加量3%、PGE添加量0.009%、谷朊粉添加量4.5%、黄原胶添加量1%.该产品具有良好的感官性状,是一种营养丰富,开发前景广阔的产品.%The processing technology of the whole flour steamed bread was studied by using the two fermentation technology of high gluten flour and potato as the main raw material. Taking the sensory score as the index, through the single factor experiment, Plackett-Burman factor screening, combined with orthogonal experimental design to optimize the production process. Evaluation stir time, knead times, ferment time, potato powder additions, SSL additions, GMS additions, shortening additions, PGE additions, wheat gluten additions, xanthan gum additions of 10 factors on effect of steaming and baking bread sensory score. Finally to determine the optimal production process: stir time 11 min , ferment time 45 min , potato powder additions 24%, SSL additions 0.19%, GMS additions 2.7%, shortening additions 3%, PGE additions 0.009%, wheat gluten additions 4.5%, xanthan gum additions 1%. This product has good sensory characteristics , is a kind of nutrition, the development prospects of the product.

  5. 超细粉碎盐焗鸡骨泥流变学特性的研究%Study on rheological properties of superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蕊; 周厚源; 李汴生; 阮征; 郭伟波; 林光明


    采用R/S+型数字流变仪对不同温度(10、25、40、55、70、85℃)下不同粒径水平(A1、A2、A3、A4平均粒径分别为51.722、62.276、70.654、81.675μm)的超细粉碎盐焗鸡骨泥的流变特性进行研究。结果表明,鸡骨泥为非牛顿流体,典型的剪切变稀,具有屈服应力。A1、A2、A3、A4四种鸡骨泥分布中随着大颗粒的逐渐增多,平均粒径的增大,鸡骨泥粘度下降,触变性先减弱(A1~A2)后趋于平缓(A2~A4),屈服应力先增大(A1~A2)后减小(A2~A4);随着温度的升高,鸡骨泥粘度和屈服应力下降,触变性无显著变化。%Rheological properties of superfine-smashed salt-baked chicken bone paste were studied at different temperature(10,25,40,55,70,85℃)and different particle size(A1,A2,A3,A4 which average particle size was 51.722,62.276,70.654,81.675μm)by the R/S+ Rheometer.The result showed that the chicken bone paste was non-Newtonian and exhibited typical shear-thinning behavior and yield stress.The distribution of large particles increased in the four kinds of chicken bone paste,the viscosity of chicken bone paste decreased with the average particle size increasing.The thixotropy declined(A1~A2)first,then changed slightly with the average particle size increasing(A2~A4),yield stress first increased(A1~A2)then declined(A2~A4).As the temperature increased,the viscosity and yield stress of chicken bone paste decreased,while no significant change in thixotropy.

  6. 不同仪器品质指标与面包烘焙品质关系研究%Dough Rheological Parameters from Different Instruments vs Bread Baking Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美芳; 雷振生; 吴政卿; 林作楫; 赵献林; 杨攀; 徐福新


    The dough rheological parameters of 30 common wheat varieties or lines with different gluten strength were determined by Glutomatic, Farinograph, Mixograph and Alveograph, and the relations between the obtained parameters and bread baking quality were analyzed. Results: There exist significant correlations among majorities of the quality characters, while these characters have extremely significant correlation with bread quality. Factor analysis and gradual regression analysis indicate that four instrument parameters, i. e. the peak time of Mixograph, the wet gluten index of Glutomatic, the softening degree of Farinograph and the P of Alveograph can be used individually to reflect bread quality. The peak time, peak integral (or time 8'peak integral) , wet gluten content, degree of softening, P/L, etc. can be taken as a comprehensive index to reflect bread quality. Based on dough rheological parameters , the fitting degree of the instruments for reflecing bread quality is ranked as Mixograph > Glutomatic > Farinograph > Alveograph.%利用面筋仪、粉质仪、吹泡仪及揉面仪测定了30个不同筋力小麦品种的面团流变学特性,并分析了各仪器品质指标间及其与面包烘焙品质的相关性.结果表明,大多数品质指标之间存在显著的相关性,并与面包烘焙品质存在极显著的相关性.进一步的因子分析和逐步回归分析表明,揉面仪的和面时间、面筋仪的湿面筋指数、粉质仪的弱化度、吹泡仪的韧性等是单一仪器反映面包烘焙品质的重要指标;而和面时间、峰积分(或8分钟积分)、湿面筋含量、弱化度、曲线形状等则可作为多种仪器反映面包烘焙品质的综合评判指标.各种仪器通过检测面团流变学特性反映面包烘焙品质的适合程度依次为揉面仪、面筋仪、粉质仪、吹泡仪.

  7. Effect Debranning on Purple Waxy Wheat Flour Characteristics and Bread Baking Quality%脱皮对紫糯小麦粉特性和面包焙烤品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琴琴; 张宪省; 罗斐斐; 侯汉学


    研究了不同脱皮时间下制得紫糯小麦粉的理化特性和面团的流变特性,以及对面包焙烤品质和贮藏过程中老化程度的影响.紫糯小麦的脱皮时间分别设定为0、1、3、5、7 min,相当于约0%、1%、3%、5%、9%的皮层被去除.结果表明,随着紫糯小麦脱皮时间的延长,小麦粉的出粉率提高,蛋白质和灰分含量及面团的粉质和拉伸特性也发生改变.脱皮5 min后制得的紫糯小麦粉以15%比例添加到普通面包粉中,面包含水量显著增加,体积和质量呈增大趋势,并且面包结构变好,面包评分显著上升.此外,添加紫糯小麦粉的面包较长时间放置后仍然松软,能有效延迟贮藏期间面包的老化,在一定程度上延长了其货架期.%In this paper, we study the effect different debranning time on the physico - chemiscal characteristics of purple waxy wheat and rheological properties of dough, as well as bread baking quality and the degree of ageing during storage. The debranning time of purple waxy wheat was set to 0,1,3,5,7 minutes, respectively. Equivalently, a-bout 0%,1%,3%,5%,9% of the outer layers were removed. Results showed that with the extension of debranning time,the yield of flour was improved. The protein and ash content and farinograph and extensograph properties of dough also changed. Made purple waxy wheat flour after debranning 5 minutes was added as 15% to regular bread flour so that the moisture content increased significantly; volume and weight of bread tended to increase; bread structure and score raised. In addition,bread added the purple waxy wheat after a long time was still soft,that could effectively retard the staling of bread during storage and extend its shelf life in a certain extent.

  8. 采收后热风烘烤对小枣制干效果的影响%Effects of Hot Blast Baking after Harvse t on Drying Efect of Small Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮松青; 岳明强; 陈善义


    In order to improve the system dry jujube harvest rate , taking Cangzhou ziziphus jujube which in the same piece of orchard and harvest in the same day as the material , two drying methods of natural drying after hot blast baking 20 min and directly natural drying in the sun of jujube fruit were setted , the effects of different treatments on drying time and yield of jujube were analyzed by contrasting experiment design .The results showed that the drying time was significantly shortened , the rotting rate of fruit during the process of drying was significantly reduced and the yield was increased under the treatment of natural drying after a short heat after harvest.The technology was well drying method for small jujube .%  为提高枣果采收后的制干率,利用同一块枣园内、同一天收获的沧州金丝小枣,采用对比试验设计,制干方法设枣果采收后先热风烘烤20 min然后自然晾晒(简称“烘后晾晒”)和枣果采收后直接在晒场上自然晾晒(简称“直接晾晒”, CK)2个处理,比较了不同处理方法对枣果制干时间和成品率的影响。结果表明:枣果收获后经过短暂的高温处理不仅能明显缩短制干所需的时间,还能显著降低晾晒过程中的浆烂率,提高成品率。该技术是值得枣农推广应用的良好的小枣制干方法。

  9. The Shake and Bake Noncommissioned Officer (United States)


    TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College,Combat Studies ...offered a correspondence "preparatory course" for those who anticipated attending NCOCC or had not benefited from such formal military schooling. do things that make them heroes. Ayers 7 Works cited United States. US Army Museum of the Noncommissioned

  10. Curriculum Cake: Baking Your Curriculum Cake (United States)

    Rees, Rob


    Food is talked about endlessly in the media, at local, regional, national and indeed global levels. People are always wondering, therefore, about what is "good" or "right" to eat. To look for answers without giving enough consideration to trends and fashions, without thinking of the bigger picture, the implications of what people eat and how they…



    Keniyz N. V.; Shledevits V. P.


    The main component of food pyramid is bakery products. Consumers of bakery products offer fresh bakery in any time of day, in wide assortment, produced by traditional way and possessing the beneficial properties, hypoallergenic and mainly tasty. In Russia, there is an intensive development of the new technologies, which are based on the freezing of semi-finished bakery. There was considered a possibility of pectin use with a new purpose as a crioprotector in the article. On the first stage of...

  12. 糯麦粉对冷冻面团发酵流变特性和面包烘焙特性的影响%Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour on Rheological, Fermentation and Baking Properties of Frozen Dough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 尚珊; 王宏兹; 黄卫宁; 王凤; 郑风平; RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia


    The rheological, fermentation and baking properties of frozen dough with different levels of waxy wheat flour were analyzed by rheofermentometer and texture analyzer, respectively. The results showed that: (1) the Hm and R of normal and frozen doughs along with the increasing addition of waxy wheat flour gradually decreased, while the total gas production (Vco2) and H-' increased. As the freezing time was prolonged, the Hm, H and R gradually declined, but the decreasing amplitude decreased along with the increasing addition of waxy wheat flour. The Hm values of doughs with waxy wheat flour added at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% decreased by 12.9%, 9.6%, 7.7% and 7.5% after 60 days of freezing compared with 7 days, and the R values by 2.8%, 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.7% waxy wheat flour, respectively. Frozen storage of dough caused a decrease in the quality of bread, but the quality of breads with the addition of waxy wheat flour showed a slow decrease along with the increasing storage period of dough, and good anti-aging performance. The bread with 10% addition of waxy wheat flour had the best consumer acceptability according to sensory evaluations.%采用发酵流变测定仪和质构分析仪研究不同比例的糯麦粉对冷冻面团发酵流变学特性和面包烘焙特性的影响。结果表明:无论面团冷冻与否,随着糯麦比例增加,面团发展的最大高度(Hm)和持气率(R)逐渐下降,而气体释放曲线最大高度(H'm)和CO2产气量(Vco2)在一定程度上增加。随着冻藏时间的延长,面团各种参数(Hm、H'm、R等)逐渐降低,但是下降的幅度随糯麦粉添加量的增加而减小,如与冻藏7d相比,添加质量分数0%、10%、20%和30%的糯麦面团经冻藏60d后Hm分别下降了12.9%、9.6%、7.7%和7.5%,而R则分别下降了2.8%、2.1%、1.6%和1.7%。在冷冻贮藏过程中,面包品质虽有一定程度的下降,但添加糯麦粉的面包品质下降程度较慢,抗老化效果好,且

  13. 发酵葡萄干对面包烘焙特性及风味的影响%Influence of fermented raisins on the baking properties and volatile compound of bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂雅俊; 黄田苗; 赵宝; 杨哪; 徐学明


    研究发酵葡萄干添加量为3.33%、6.67%、10%对面包烘焙特性的影响.并应用固相微萃取技术(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)研究分别添加3.33%葡萄干或发酵葡萄干的面包和普通面包之间挥发性风味物质的差异.结果表明:发酵葡萄干的添加可以抑制面包芯水分的迁移,添加量越大,面包水分迁移速率越小;添加量为3.33%时,对面包比容和硬度的影响最小,与普通面包之间无显著性差异(P<0.05).葡萄干发酵液面包含有甲乙酐、癸醛、2-甲基丁酸等12种独有的风味物质.2,3-丁二醇、糠醛、异戊酸、丙位庚内酯、反式-2,4-癸二烯醛、香叶基丙酮和丙位癸内酯共同存在于葡萄干面包与葡萄干发酵液面包中,而普通面包中未检出.%The influence of breads made with 3.33% ,6.67% and 10% of fermented raisins on the baking properties were analyzed in this paper,respectively.The difference between common breads and breads containing 3.33% of fermented raisins in composition of volatile compound were quantified using solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The result indicated that adding fermented raisins could inhibit the moisture migration in crumb.The rate of moisture migration decreased with the amount of fermented raisins added.There was no significant difference between common breads and breads made with fermented raisins,when the added level of fermented raisins was 3.33% and its impact on bread specific volume and crumb firmness was smallest.12 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were only examined in bread made with fermented raisins,for example of decanal,2- methyl butyric acid and etc.2,3-butanediol, furfuraldehyde, isovaleric acid, heptanolide,trans-2,4-Decadienal,Geranylacetone and gamma-Decalactone were found both in breads made with raisins and the ones made with fermented raisins,but not in common breads.

  14. Effect of partial drying and partial baking on starch degradation, on related enzymatic activities and on chemical composition of upper flue-cured tobacco leaves%半晾半烤对上部烟叶淀粉降解和相关酶活性及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文超; 贺帆; 徐成龙; 王涛; 石盼盼; 宫长荣


    The upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco of tobacco cultivars Zhongyan 100 and Yunyan 87 were used to study the effect of different drying periods (48, 60, 72 h) on the activities of amylase and starch phosphorylase. Compared to the routine baking process, amylase activity of the leaves pretreated with air drying reached its first peak 12 h earlier during the baking process, which extended the life time of amylase; the starch phosphorylase activity in the early period of baking process decreased, but in the late period the decrease was not obvious. The leaves pretreated with 60 h of air drying had high activities of amylase and starch phosphorylase, high amylase degradation, and the amylase content was low while the contents of water-soluble total sugar and reducing sugar were high in these leaves, these cured upper leaves with balanced chemical components are considered highly applicable.%以烤烟品种中烟100和云烟87的上部叶为材料,研究不同晾黄时间(48、60、72 h)对烟叶烘烤过程中淀粉降解及淀粉酶和淀粉磷酸化酶活性的影响.结果表明:与对照(常规烘烤)相比,晾制处理的烟叶在烘烤过程中淀粉酶活性提前12h达到第1次高峰,适当延长了淀粉酶的有效活性时间;与对照相比,烘烤前期淀粉磷酸化酶活性有所降低,在烘烤后期下降不明显,其中,晾黄60 h后烘烤烟叶的淀粉酶和淀粉磷酸化酶活性、淀粉降解量均较高,烤后烟叶淀粉含量较低,水溶性总糖、还原糖含量较高,各种化学成分较为协调,上部烟叶的可用性较高.

  15. 高温预变形对 Al-Mg-Si 合金自然时效及烘烤硬化的影响%Effects of high temperature pre-straining on natural aging and bake hardening response of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志宏; 丁立鹏; 翁瑶瑶; 文章; 刘庆


    The influences of high temperature pre-straining (HT-PS) on the natural aging and bake hardening of Al−Mg−Si alloys were investigated by Vickers microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The results show that pre-straining at 170 °C immediately after quenching can effectively resolve the rather high T4 temper hardness caused by the conventional room temperature (RT) pre-straining treatment, and give a better bake hardening response (BHR) after paint-bake cycle. HT-PS 7% at 170 °C for 10 min is chosen as the optimum process as it provides lower T4 temper hardness and better BHR. The simultaneous introduction of dislocations and Cluster (2) can significantly suppress the natural aging and promote the precipitation of β″ phase, and reduce the effects of deformation hardening by dynamic recovery.%采用显微硬度测试、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和透射电镜(TEM)测试研究高温预变形工艺对 Al−Mg−Si 合金自然时效和烘烤硬化的影响。结果表明:合金固溶处理后立即进行170°C 预变形可以有效降低常温预变形工艺的T4态硬度过高等有害作用,并产生更好的烘烤硬化效果。170°C 预变形7%并保持10 min 是最佳的高温预变形工艺,可以使合金获得较低的 T4态硬度和良好的烘烤硬化效应。高温预变形过程中同时产生的位错和 Cluster(2)可以显著地抑制合金的自然时效,并促进烤漆过程中β″相的析出,同时产生的动态回复可以有效抑制加工硬化产生的不利影响。

  16. 环境条件与基因型对面包烘烤品质及相关流变学特性的影响%Effects of Different Environment and Genotype on Bread Baking Quality and the Correlated Dough Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵石磊; 雷振生; 林作楫; 崔党群


    The research have studied the effects of different genotype and environment on bread baking quality and dough rheological parameters. Wheat samples of high quality cultivar Zhengmai 366 collected from 34 different sites in Henan province and 15 popularized wheat varieties of different quality type were selected for study of the relation between early generation selection characters,dough rheological parameters and bread baking quality. The results indicated that the environmental effect on wheat quality mainly showed in the change of protein quantity;loaf volume was not only affected by protein quantity but also by the protein quality;much attention should be paid to the degree of softening in Farinograph, and the W value was the most important parameter in Alveograph. Therefore, quality selection in early generation for different genotype was effective,both quantity and quality of the protein were important to the bread baking quality.%以优质强筋小麦品种郑麦366在河南34个不同地点的样品和在河南有较大推广面积的15个不同品质类型的品种为材料,研究了不同基因型和环境条件对小麦面包烘烤品质和面团流变学特性的影响.分析其早代选种指标、面团流变学特性与面包烘烤品质之间的相关关系,结果表明:环境条件对小麦品质的影响主要表现在蛋白质含量的变化上;面包体积不仅受蛋白质含量影响,也与蛋白质质量有关;粉质仪参数要重视弱化度的重要性;吹泡仪参数应以W值为主.因此,利用早代品质选种指标对不同基因型的分离材料选择是有效的,提高蛋白质含量与质量对提高面包烘烤品质均有积极作用.

  17. 高砷煤烘玉米粉致大鼠砷中毒模型的建立%The establishment of the arsenic poisoning rats model caused by corn flour baked by high-arsenic coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂琳; 张爱华; 于春; 徐玉艳; 胡勇; 肖婷婷; 王蕾


    Objective To establish coal arsenic poisoning rat model by feeding the rats with the corn powder baked by high arsenic coal as the main raw material.Methods Fifty Wistar rats,healthy,were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the figures of their weights,including control group,drinking arsenic poisoning water group,low,medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group,10 rats for each.Rats in control group and drinking arsenic poisoning water group were fed with standard feed without any arsenic containing.Rats in water group would drink 100 mg/L As2O3 solution and the rats in arsenic grain groups would be fed with the arsenic contaminated grain at the dose of 25,50 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.The duration would last for 3 months.General situation and weight were observed.At the same time,the arsenic contents of urine,hair,liver and kidney of the rats in each group were detected,as well as the histopathology changes of liver and kidney,and the ultra structure of liver was observed.Results The arsenic contents of urine (median (min-max)) of the rats in the arsenic water group,low,medium and high arsenic grain groups were separately 3055.59 (722.43-6389.05),635.96 (367.85-1551.31),1453.84 (593.27-5302.94) and 3101.11(666.64-6858.61) μg Cr; while the arsenic contents of hair of the rats in the above groups were separately (23.07 ± 10.38),(8.87 ± 3.31),(12.43 ±6.65) and (25.68 ± 7.16) μg/g; the arsenic contents of liver of the rats in the above groups were separately (5.68 ± 3.13),(2.64 ± 1.52),(3.89 ± 1.76) and (5.34 ± 2.78) μg/g; and the arsenic contents of kidney were separately (6.90 ± 1.94),(3.48 ± 1.96),(5.03 ± 2.08) and (7.02 ± 1.62) μg/g; which were all significantly higher than those in the control group (86.70 (49.71-106.104) μg/g Cr,(1.28 ± 0.37) μg/g,(1.01 ± 0.34) μg/g and (1.82 ± 1.09) μg/g,respectively).The difference showed significance (P < 0.05).Under electron microscope detection,we observed the reduction of mitochondrial

  18. Effect of honey powder on thermomechanical properties of dough,baking and staling properties of bread%蜂蜜干粉对面包面团热机械学、烘焙及老化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君; 王凤; 贾春利; 黄卫宁; 郑建仙; RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia


    采用Mixolab、质构仪和差式扫描量热仪(DSC)研究蜂蜜干粉对面包面团热机械学、烘焙和老化特性的影响.Mixolab实验表明,蜂蜜干粉对蔗糖的取代提高了面团的吸水率和稳定时间,当蜂蜜干粉取代比例超过50%时,蛋白质弱化值C1-C2和弱化度α显著增加(p<0.05);此外蜂蜜干粉会降低淀粉的回生值C5-C4,蜂蜜干粉的取代比例为100%时,C5-C4降低了21.03%.新鲜面包的烘焙数据表明,与空白组相比,蜂蜜干粉使得面包比容变大,硬度减小,当蜂蜜干粉的取代量为总蔗糖量的50%时,面包烘焙品质最佳.面包老化实验发现,蜂蜜干粉加入面包中,可以减小面包硬化速率和水分减少速率;长时间储藏使得面包的老化焓值△H增加,与空白组相比,面包储藏7d后,蜂蜜干粉取代比例为25%、50%、75%和100%时,使得老化焓值分别降低了4.93%、9.87%、16.92%和22.77%,这表明,蜂蜜干粉在面包中的应用可延缓淀粉回生,延长面包货架期.%Mixolab, Texture Analyzer and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) were used to investigate the effect of honey powder on thermomechanical characteristics of dough, baking quality and staling properties of bread. Mixolab experiment showed that,compared to the control,honey powder increased the water absorption and stabilization time significantly. When the substitution level of honey powder was more than 50%,C1-C2 and ocincreased significantly (p<0.05). In addition,with the increasing replacement level of honey powder,C5-C4 decreased,compared to the control,C5-C4 was reduced by 21.03%. Baking quality of fresh bread showed that the specific volume of bread increased, while the hardness decreased. The bread made with 50% addition of honey powder showed the best baking performance. The staling of bread was investigated and it was found that, during storage, the bread containing honey powder had lower rate of hardness and water loss. During

  19. 高大豆蛋白营养棒原料的选择及其对质构的影响%Selection of the raw materials and the influence to the texture by making baked high soy protein nutrition bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金郁葱; 杨晓泉; 郭睿


    Selection of baked high soy protein nutrition bars' materials had been studied,changes in dough and in texture of products with different added proportion of raw materials were also investigated.The results showed that in the three testing soy protein products,the defatted deodorized soybean powder was suitable for making baked soy protein nutrition bars.In the production process by replacing traditional materials,the texture test showed that,with the defatted deodorized soybean powder to join,dough's hardness and springiness had a rising trend.The results also showed that with the addition of defatted deodorized soybean powder,the product's hardness would increase.Eventually we could obtain the proportion by the sensory analysis:defatted deodorized soybean powder 90%,whey powder 10%,and the products met the requirement of high protein.%研究了制作焙烤类高大豆蛋白营养棒最适原料的选择,原料物质添加比例对面团性质和产品质构的影响。结果表明,实验所用三种大豆蛋白制品中,脱脂脱腥豆粉最适宜用来制作焙烤类大豆蛋白营养棒。质构测试结果表明,随着脱脂脱腥豆粉替代传统原料比例的增加,面团的硬度、弹性均呈上升的趋势;结果还表明在其替代饼干粉生产营养棒的过程中,脱脂脱腥豆粉的加入会增加营养棒的硬度;最终在脱脂脱腥豆粉添加量90%,乳清蛋白粉10%时,制得的营养棒感官评分最高,并达到了高蛋白的要求。

  20. Study on the Compositions and Dynamic Changes of Anthocyanins during the Manufacturing Process of‘Zijuan’ Baked Green Tea%基于LC-MS的紫娟烘青绿茶加工过程中花青素变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解东超; 戴伟东; 李朋亮; 谭俊峰; 林智


    优化建立了紫娟烘青绿茶中花青素的酸性乙醇提取方法和14种花青素组分的高效液相色谱-质谱联用技术(HPLC-MS)分析方法,并进一步对烘青绿茶加工过程中花青素组分的变化进行了定量分析。结果显示:在紫娟烘青绿茶中,共检测到9种花青素成分:飞燕草-3-O-半乳糖苷、矢车菊素-3-O-半乳糖苷、天竺葵-3-O-葡萄糖苷、矢车菊素、天竺葵素、飞燕草素、芍药素、飞燕草-3-O-(6-香豆酰)-半乳糖苷、矢车菊素-3-O-(6-香豆酰)-半乳糖苷,其中飞燕草类花青素和矢车菊类花青素为紫娟花青素的主要成分。紫娟鲜叶中花青素总量为4.64 mg·g-1,经摊放、杀青、揉捻、毛火干燥、足火干燥处理的茶样中花青素总量呈下降趋势,含量分别为4.83、3.74、3.70、2.83、1.82 mg·g-1。高温处理是导致花青素下降的最主要因素,其中矢车菊素-3-O-半乳糖苷、飞燕草-3-O-(6-香豆酰)-半乳糖苷、矢车菊素-3-O-(6-香豆酰)-半乳糖苷的下降最为明显。%High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of 14 anthocyanins from ‘Zijuan’ baked green tea was established, and successfully applied to analyze the dynamic changes of anthocyanins during the manufacturing process. Acidic ethanol was used to extract anthocyanins. Nine anthocyanins, including delphinidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, peonidin, delphinidin-3-O-(6-coumaroyl)-galactoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-coumaroyl)-galactoside, were detected in ‘Zijuan’ baked green teas. Among them, delphinidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, delphinidin-3- O-(6-coumaroyl)-galactoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-coumaroyl)-galactoside were the major anthocyanin components in ‘Zijuan’. The total anthocyanin content generally declined during the manufacturing process, with its peak at 4


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎琦; 史文; 李麟; 刘仁东; 王越; 刘军友


    The influence of annealing temperature on the solute carbon amount in bake hardening steel was studied by internal friction. The snoek peak was measured to study the variation of solute carbon with the annealing temperature by internal friction after annealed in salt furnace, also the BH values and grain sizes were measured. It showed that the snoek peak and the amount of solute C decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature firstly, then increased when the steels were annealed at 750 ~810 t. The internal friction test result made great agreement with BH value. The coefficient K decreased with the increasing of measuring frequency.%采用内耗方法研究退火温度对含钒超低碳烘烤硬化钢间隙固溶C的影响.对试样进行不同温度盐浴退火处理后,通过内耗法测量Snoek峰来研究固溶C随退火温度的变化规律,并测量相应的BH值和晶粒尺寸变化规律.研究结果显示:含V超低碳烘烤硬化钢在750~810℃盐浴退火,随着退火温度的升高,Snoek峰先逐渐下降后略有升高,间隙固溶C含量亦先减小后增加;但随着退火温度的进一步提高,间隙固溶C的浓度增加,内耗峰又有所上升,此结果与BH值对比取得了较好的一致性.此外随着内耗测试频率的降低,内耗与固溶C含量的比例系数K也随之降低.

  2. Applicability of Bakes Caregiving Outcom Scale in the study of primary family caregivers' burden of stroke survivors%Bakas照顾结果量表评估脑卒中主要居家照顾者负荷的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦玉; 吕探云; 王君俏; 白姣姣; 高键; 钱晓路


    Objective To investigate the applicability of Bakes Caregiving Outcom Scale(BCOS) in the study of primary family caregivers'burden of stroke survivors. Methods The BCOS was used to inves-tigate the 180 primary family caregivers of stroke survivors.The applicability of BCOS was evaluated by in-ternal consistency,construct validity and criterion-related validity. Results The correlation coefficient be-tween the items and the total BCOS score was 0.408~0.725 (P < 0.01 ).The total Cronbach's α was 0.877.Factor analysis used for examining the construct validity showed that 3 components were extracted and their accumulated contribution rate reached 60.93%.Factor loading of each item ranged from 0.510 to 0.875.The criterion-related validity was - 0.461 by using self-rated burden as a criterion(P < 0.01 ). Conclusions BCOS is applicable in the evaluation of the primary family caregivers' burden of stroke survivors.%目的 探讨Bakas照顾结果量表评估脑卒中居家照顾者负荷的适用性.方法 用Bakas照顾结果量表对上海市区180名脑卒中主要居家照顾者进行问卷调查,从内部一致性、结构效度和效标关联效度对量表进行适用性评估.结果 各条目与Bakas照顾结果量表总分的相关系数0.408-0.725(P<0.01);量表总的Cronbach's α值为0.877;用因子分析检验量表的结构效度,提取3个公因子累积贡献率达到60.93%,每个条目的因子负荷0.510~0.875;以负荷可视化标尺作为标准,Bakas照顾结果量表的效标关联系数为-0.461(P<0.01).结论 Bakas照顾结果量表用于评估脑卒中居家照顾者负荷有较好的适用性.

  3. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  4. Does Market Concentration Preclude Risk Taking in Baking?


    Kaniska Dam; Santiago Sanchez Pages


    We analyse risk-taking behaviour of banks in the context of a model based on spatial competition. Banks mobilise deposits by offering deposit rates. We show that when the market concentration is low, banks invest in the gambling asset. On the other hand, for sufficiently high levels of market concentration, all banks choose the prudent asset to invest in, and some depositors may even be left out of the market. Our results suggest a discontinuous relation between market concentration and socia...



    Aleksandar Marić; Slavko Arsovski; Jasna Mastilović


    Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could cre...

  6. CD 1805 - Wheat with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco


    Full Text Available CD 1805, indicated for the wheat growing in Regions 1, 2 and 3 in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar has quality standards for cookie production and high yield performance with a mean of 3899 kg ha-1, exceeding the controls by 4%.

  7. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  8. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview. (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma


    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  9. Using Half-Baked Microworlds to Challenge Teacher Educators' Knowing (United States)

    Kynigos, Chronis


    This article illustrates how four teacher educators in training were challenged with respect to their epistemology and perceptions of teaching and learning mathematics through their interactions with expressive digital media during a professional development course. The research focused on their experience of communally constructing artifacts and…


    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  11. Heat and mass transfer during baking: product quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselman, A.; Straten, van G.; Hadiyanto, H.; Boom, R.M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.


    Abstract Most food product qualities are developed during heating processes. Therefore the internal heating and mass transfer of water are important aspects in food processing. Heating of food products is mostly induced by convection heating. However, the number applications of convective heating in

  12. Cookie dough and baking quality of pulse flour cookies (United States)

    Pulses are globally recognized as a part of a healthy diet to address obesity as well as to prevent and help manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary conditions and cancer. They are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous, and low in sodium and...

  13. 密集烘烤定色阶段不同湿球温度对烤后烟叶品质的影响%Effect of Wet Bulb Temperature of Bulk Curing in Process of Color Setting on Baked Tobacco Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保占; 孟智勇; 马浩波; 马永建; 谢德平; 王伟超; 朱均田; 曹晓涛; 李伟观


    为提高烟叶烘烤质量,优化烟叶密集烘烤工艺技术,研究了密集烘烤过程中不同定色湿球温度对烤后烟叶品质的影响,结果表明:采用较高定色湿球温度(干球温度升至48℃前将湿球温度升高到39℃并保持稳定;超过48℃,湿球温度稳定在40℃)烤后烟叶经济效益较好,每千克烤后烟叶均价提高0.18~0.42元,耗煤量减少0.01~0.07 kg;油分、身份、结构、色度等外观质量改善,嗅香较好;内在化学成分表现为多数样品总糖、还原糖含量增加,分别平均增加14.79%和11.99%,总氮、蛋白质、烟碱、淀粉含量减少,糖碱比(多在7.00~10.44)、氮碱比(多在0.60~0.98)更趋于协调;单料烟评吸质量高半个到一个档次,香气量、杂气、刺激性和余味等指标较优.较高定色湿球温度处理提高了中、上部烟叶的挥发性香气物质总量和新植二烯、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸类降解产物、西柏烷类香气物质含量,以及中部烟叶的棕色化产物含量;下部烟叶以较低定色湿球温度(干球温度升至48℃前将湿球温度升高到38℃并保持稳定;超过48℃,湿球温度稳定在39℃)烤后两糖含量相对较低,化学成分比较协调,挥发性香气物质总量、新植二烯、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸类降解产物、棕色化产物含量得到提高.综合分析认为,下部烟叶采用较低定色湿球温度烤后烟叶化学成分比较协调,香气物质含量高;中上部烟叶采用较高定色湿球温度烤后烟叶经济效益较好,外观质量好,化学成分协调,评吸档次高,香气物质含量高.%To improve the quality of tobacco flue-curing and to optimize the curing technology in bulk curing, we researched the effect of wet bulb temperature in process of color setting on baked tobacco quality. The results showed that higher wet bulb temperature (gradually climbed to and sustained 39 ℃ prior to

  14. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun


    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  15. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1). (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X


    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.



    Tamazova S. U.; Lisovoy V. V.; Pershakova T. V.; Kasimirova M. A.


    The article provides an analysis of currently known technologies and methods of production of food supplements based on vegetable raw materials. It has been established that a great interest from the standpoint of macro and micronutrients we have for nutritional supplements baseв on artichoke. Our analysis led to the conclusion that, despite the significant number of developed and implemented newest technologies, the development of complex processing of vegetable raw materials to produce diet...

  17. [Effectiveness of secondary preventive programs for patients with asthma and rhinitis in the baking industry]. (United States)

    Grieshaber, R; Nolting, H D; Rosenau, C; Stauder, J; Vonier, J


    Since 1992 the German industrial professional association for the food industry and gastronomy (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten), which is responsible for statutory accident insurance has been offering a specific patient education programme to bakers suffering from occupationally induced obstructive pulmonary disease or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, who do not quit their jobs and wish to continue working as bakers. The programme aims at preventing aggravation of the disease 74 male bakers with a mean duration of illness of 10 years on entering the programme were examined between 1 and 5 years (mean: 2.9) after participating in the patient education seminar. For a subpopulation of 55 of these patients spirometric measurements were available for the time before programme entry and at follow-up. Data on time spent at the bakehouse, prevalence of symptoms, frequency of symptoms at the site of working and during leisure hours, sleep disturbances and emergency situations were collected at the follow-up examination both for the time before programme entry and at follow-up, respectively. Direct ratings of the amount of changes in distress caused by the disease and of the quality of life were also obtained. The prevalence of 8 of the 9 most frequently reported symptoms decreased significantly, e.g. dysponoea from 70% to 42% and fear of suffocation from 30% to 3%. Participants reported on highly significant reductions in the frequency of disease-specific complaints during work and outside the working place, sleep disturbances and situations requiring immediate medical intervention. Between 64% and 85% of the patients experienced improvement of distress, physical and work performance, private and family life, and ability for self-management. Lung function did not deteriorate: mean FEV1 was 88% (+/- 23) at first and 90% (+/- 19) at second measurement. These results could not be explained by changes in medication. It is concluded that the programme is effective in reducing symptoms and distress and in improving quality of life in bakers with occupational respiratory disease who voluntarily continue to work as bakers.

  18. Milling and Baking Test REsults for Eastern Soft Winter Wheats Harvested in 2010 (United States)

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organization structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and variety that may be grown in the traditional growing regions of the United States. The SWQC also will establish other activities as requested by the membership. ...

  19. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking. (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E


    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (pbread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (pbread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread.

  20. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods. (United States)

    Jang, Areum; Bae, Woosung; Hwang, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong


    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3% and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of the oleogels was lower than that of the shortening at room temperature. A more rapid change in the viscosity with temperature was observed with increasing levels of candelilla wax in the steady shear measurements. The replacement of shortening with oleogels in the cookie formulation reduced both viscoelastic parameters (G' and G") of the cookie doughs. The level of unsaturated fatty acids in the oleogel cookies was distinctly increased up to around 92%, compared to the shortening cookies (47.2%). The cookies with the oleogels showed desirable spreadable property and the replacement of shortening with the oleogels produced cookies with soft eating characteristics.

  1. Effect of Lupine Flour on Baking Characteristics of Gluten Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Maghaydah


    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease in genetically susceptible individuals caused by intolerance to gluten protein in some cereals, resulting in mucosal inflammation, which causes malabsorption. An effective treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that excludes cereals containing gluten. One of the most desirable wheat products is the cookie, which is considered suitable for all ages due to its low manufacturing cost, convenience, long shelf life and good eating quality. Therefore, the production of local, high quality and affordable gluten-free cookies was the main objective of this study in which lupine flour was used as a main wheat flour alternative. Eight gluten-free cookie flour blends were prepared: 100% Lupine Flour (AF, 50% lupine flour and 50% corn starch (BF, 40% lupine flour and 60% corn starch (CF, 30% lupine flour and 70% corn starch (DF, 30% lupine flour, 40% rice flour and 30% corn starch (EF, 30% lupine flour, 40% corn flour and corn starch 30% (FF, 20% lupine flour, 30% corn flour, 20% rice flour and 30% corn starch (GF and 20% lupine flour, 30% rice flour, 20% corn flour and 30% corn starch (HF, with equal amounts of hydrocolloids (1.5% xanthan and 1.5% carrageenan which were used as a functional gluten alternative, as well as a control sample with Wheat flour (WC. The chemical composition, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation of all treated flour blends and cookies were determined. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that corn and wheat flour were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in moisture content, while lupine flour had significantly (p≤0.05 higher contents of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. Starch significantly (p≤0.05 showed the highest carbohydrate content. The moisture of blend BC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than all blends and blend AC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher in ash, protein, lipid and fiber content. The carbohydrate content of blend DC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other blends, in which blend AC significantly (p≤0.05 contained the lowest amount. Physical analysis revealed that the spread factor of blend GC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other blends, while blend CC significantly (p≤0.05 had the lowest value. The results of color measurements (L*, a* and b* using a Milolat colorimeter revealed that the L* parameter had the highest value in the control sample WC, while the a* parameter was highest in blend AC and b* was highest in blend EC. The results of the sensory evaluation, judged by panelists, indicated that blend BC received the highest score in overall impression, while the control sample WC received the overall highest score in flavor and crust color, blend GC in overall color and the control sample WC in overall texture, blend AC in crust color, crumb color, hardness and after taste. Finally, blends BC and GC had the best acceptability compared to the control sample.



    Tetyana Kublikova; Svetlana Stupak


    The paper presents the characteristics of the economic interaction between organizations and enterprises within the system of cluster type and the direction of their investment and innovation transformation through the implementation of the integration processes in the bakery industry.

  3. A study of energy conservation potential in the baking industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Energy audits that were conducted in five bakeries, varying in size and end product are described. Methods of conducting a plant energy audit, resultant energy savings from taking energy conservation measures, and ways to continue monitoring energy use and savings are discussed.

  4. Exposure-sensitization relationship for alpha-amylase allergens in the baking industry. (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D J; Doekes, G; van Run, P E


    Fungal alpha-amylase is an important occupational allergen in the bakery industry. Epidemiologic studies focusing on the relationship between alpha-amylase allergen exposure and work-related respiratory allergy, however, have not been reported yet. In this cross-sectional study, sensitization to occupational allergens and work-related symptoms were studied in 178 bakery workers and related to allergen exposure. Alpha-amylase allergen concentrations were measured in personal dust samples, using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. All workers were categorized into groups on the basis of their job histories and the alpha-amylase exposure levels of their job titles. Of all workers 25% had one or more work-related symptoms. As much as 9% of the bakery workers showed a positive skin prick test reaction to fungal amylase, and in 8% amylase-specific IgE was demonstrated. Alpha-amylase exposure and atopy appeared to be the most important determinants of skin sensitization, with prevalence ratios for atopy of 20.8 (95% CI, 2.74 to 158) and for medium and high alpha-amylase exposure groups of 8.6 (95% CI, 1.01 to 74) and 15.9 (95% CI, 1.95 to 129), respectively. Furthermore, a positive association was found between positive skin prick tests to alpha-amylase and work-related respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, this study has shown that there is a strong and positive relationship between alpha-amylase allergen exposure levels in bakeries and specific sensitization in bakery workers.

  5. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study. (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D; Doekes, G


    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 393 workers from 21 bakeries to study the relationship between wheat allergen exposure and wheat sensitization and work-related allergic symptoms. Exposure to wheat allergens was characterized by a recently developed and validated immunoassay. Specific IgE antibodies against wheat flour and common allergens were measured by immunoassays, and work-related allergic symptoms were registered by questionnaire. A strong and positive association was found between wheat flour allergen exposure and wheat flour sensitization. This relationship was steepest and strongest in atopics. Prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure were 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-16.2), and 2.7 (0.5-14.5) for atopic workers, and 2.5 (0.8-7.5) and 1.4 (0. 3-6.4) for nonatopics, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. In sensitized bakers those with an elevated allergen exposure had more often work-related symptoms, with prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure of 3.5 (CI 1.6-7. 5) and 2.6 (CI 0.9-7.8), respectively, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. The existence of exposure-sensitization gradients suggests that work-related sensitization risk will be negligible when exposure levels will be reduced to average exposure concentration of 0.2 microgram/m3 wheat allergen or approximately 0.5 mg/m3 inhalable dust during a work shift.

  6. Analysis of baking industry. Extended energy survey reports 1984-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walshe, N.M.A.


    The analysis contained in this report represents 17 Extended Energy Survey reports from bakers producing bread or flour confectionery or both. The sites involved represent around 3% of the energy use of the Food and Drink Sector in the United Kingdom and range from small master bakers to large plant bakeries employing over 700 people. No comparison of energy efficiency has been attempted since the number of similar sites in relevant groups was too small. Potential energy savings of Pound 0.74 million/annum were identified in the 17 reports. These savings were classified in two ways, by measure type and by cost. The most important measure types were energy management, boilers, heat recovery and ovens. In terms of cost of measures, 55% of the energy savings were attributable to techniques costing Pound 5k or more. Overall, all but one of the measure types yielded a payback of less than 2 years, with all 17 sites taken into account. The ratio of national benefit to Government cost for the 17 EES reports analysed would be approximately 19:1 if all recommended measures were taken up by the participating bakeries. (author).

  7. Baking Industry Report%中国焙烤食品市场分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)





    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kublikova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the economic interaction between organizations and enterprises within the system of cluster type and the direction of their investment and innovation transformation through the implementation of the integration processes in the bakery industry.

  9. [Alpha-amylase as an occupational allergen in baking industry employees]. (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Molinari, S


    In a group of 226 bakers and pastry makers and in 88 students of a training school for bakers, we evaluated skin sensitization to the common allergens, wheat and alpha amylase. Skin prick tests were positive to the enzyme in 17 exposed subjects (7.5%) and in one student with previous occupational exposure as a baker; 27 exposed subjects (11.9%) and 2 students were sensitized to wheat. Among the 42 exposed workers who complained of work-related symptoms, 12 (28.6%) cases were skin positive to amylase and 17 (42.9%) to wheat. Among the 17 workers who were positive to amylase, 16 were also sensitized to wheat and/or common allergens, 12 complained of symptoms at work but since in many cases there was a positive response to wheat, too, it is impossible to speculate on the role of each allergen in inducing symptoms. One case, with work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, had skin sensitization only to alpha amylase but no specific IgE in the serum. These findings confirm that bakers are at risk of sensitization not only to wheat allergen but also to amylase from Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme should be included in the list of substances to be tested among bakers in whom an occupational allergy is suspected, but particular care should be taken in evaluating the cutaneous response, especially if compared to wheat wheals. Further investigations are also needed to identify the source of risk and to better define the characteristics of the enzyme and the relationship between skin reaction to amylase, sensitization to wheat and atopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Energy efficiency opportunities in the U.S. commercial baking industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst


    Commercial bakery products in the United States such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, cookies, and crackers consume over $870 million of energy annually. Energy efficiency measures can reduce the energy costs of significant energy processes and increase earnings predictability. This a

  11. The rehydroxylation dating of archeological baked-clay artifacts for determination paleomagnetic data (United States)

    Batalin, Georgii; Gareev, Bulat; Nourgaliev, Danis; Fedorchenko, Diana


    If confirmed, the rehydroxylation dating method proposed by Wilson et al. would be a major achievement for archeological and geological sciences. This method would indeed make it possible to date potentially all fired-clay artifacts (fragments of pottery or of architectural bricks) unearthed in excavation contexts and/or recovered from old buildings, offering to archeologists exceptional time constraints that are at the basis of most archeological issues. Together with that, determination of magnetic characteristics of fired-clay artifacts allows to build paleosecular variations. We present new results obtained from thermo-gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry measurements coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to identify rehydroxylation water and link it with age of ceramic. A variety of archeological artifacts was collected from different excavations conducted on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Magnetic measurements include thermomagnetic analysis, coercitive spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurement versus temperature. Paleomagnetic studies include measurement of paleointensity. The main aim of paleomagnetic investigations is to reconstruct magnetic field behavior during last centuries and made paleosecular variations (PSV) for Volga region.

  12. Fried, Grilled or Baked Foods? They May Affect Type 2 Diabetes Risk (United States)

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Type 2 Diets About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  13. A thermodynamic recipe for baking the Earth's lower mantle and core as a whole (United States)

    Tirone, Max; Faak, Kathi


    A rigorous understanding of the thermal and dynamic evolution of the core and the interaction with the silicate mantle cannot preclude a non-empirical petrological description of the problem which takes the form of a thermodynamic model. Because the Earth's core is predominantly made of iron such model may seem relatively straightforward, simply delivering a representation of the phase transformations in the P,T space. However due to well known geophysical considerations, a certain amount of light elements should be added. With the Occam's razor principle in mind, potential candidates could be the most abundant and easily accessible elements in the mantle, O, Si and Mg. Given these premises, the challenging problems on developing this type of model are: - a thermodynamic formulation should not simply describe phase equilibrium relations at least in the Fe-Si-O system (a formidable task itself) but should be also consistently applicable to evaluate thermophysical properties of liquid components and solids phases at extreme conditions (P=500-2000 kbar, T=1000-5000 K). Presently these properties are unknown for certain mineral and liquid components or partially available from scattered sources. - experimental data on the phase relations for iron rich liquid are extremely difficult to obtain and could not cover the entire P,T,X spectrum. - interaction of the outer core with the silicate mantle requires a melt model that is capable of describing a vast range of compositions ranging from metal-rich liquids to silicate liquids. The compound energy formalism for liquids with variable tendency to ionization developed by Hillert and coworkers is a sublattice model with varying stoichiometry that includes vacancies and neutral species in one site. It represents the ideal candidate for the task in hand. The thermodynamic model unfortunately is rather complex and a detailed description of the formulation for practical applications like chemical equilibrium calculations is nowhere to be found, while the model is only accessible on few commercial thermodynamic programs. The latest developments regarding all these related issues will be discussed in this contribution. In particular some self-consistent but preliminary results will be presented addressing the following topics: - some details regarding the implementation of the liquid model for Gibbs free energy minimizations, - the physically consistent behavior of thermodynamic properties of certain solid phases like (Fe,O,Si) BCC, FCC, HCP and liquid components, - selected phase diagrams at core conditions in the system Fe-Si-O, - derived geotherms linking the inner-outer core with the core-mantle boundary. - brief outline of the future geodynamic applications.

  14. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat (United States)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  15. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat (United States)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  16. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  17. Perspectives to breed for improved baking quality wheat varieties adapted to organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Struik, P.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.


    Northwestern European consumers like their bread to be voluminous and easy to chew. These attributes require a raw material that is rich in protein with, among other characteristics, a suitable ratio between gliadins and glutenins. Achieving this is a challenge for organic growers, because they lack

  18. Managing freshly baked bread: statistical analyses of demand patterns; suggestions for improvement of control principles.


    Mora Rueda, Carlos


    Kahn (1995) señala tres motivaciones básicas por las que los consumidores buscan variedad en los productos: (1) la necesidad de estímulo adicional cuando ciertas necesidades están cubiertas, (2) cambios en el entorno y (3) la incertidumbre de los consumidores acerca de los gustos futuros. El minorista puede influir sobre las dos primeras mediante cambios en los precios o en la disposición de los artículos en el espacio de venta. Sin embargo, estas motivaciones también pueden aparecer naturalm...

  19. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal. (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano


    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  20. In-situ lamination of starch-based baked foam articles with degradable films (United States)

    A technique for making biodegradable food service packaging comprised of a starch/fiber core and a biodegradable film laminate is described. The biodegradable films were made of polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylenesuccinate/terephthalate (PBST), rubber latex and polybutyleneadipate/terephthalate (PB...

  1. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking. (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G


    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery.

  2. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter. (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt


    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  3. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods. (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco


    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and their effects on bread properties are difficult to be identified and categorized due to the extremely large variability in baker's practices. Besides, this review would provide a critical view of this topic in order to avoid the speculation that in this field unavoidably arise.

  4. Energy saving in the baking industry by more selective use of energy and by recovery of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, L.; Nieman, W.; Rouwen, W.


    Approximately 7000 Tj energy are used yearly by the bakery industry in the Netherlands. Until now, very little is known about energy use in this sector, this being partly due to the extremely decentralised production. The aim of the study is to pinpoint and evaluate methods for energy saving and heat recovery in the bakery. Priority was given to the procedures or places where a large amount of energy is used or is lost. A second important part of the study is to identify the situations where energy can easly be saved in very simple ways. The study was subsidised by the European Economic Community, the Industry group for bakeries and the Dutch Ministry for Economic Affairs. Monitoring was in the hands of a committee, with representation by the Nederlandse Bakkerijstichting (Dutch Bakery Organisation), the Stichting Voorlichting Energiebesparing Nederland (Organisation for Information about Energy Conservation), the Ministry of Agriculture/Fisheries and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  5. Have Baking Industry Been Ready%中国烘焙业 准备好了吗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  6. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijster, Tim; Tielemans, Erik [TNO Quality of Life, Business unit Quality and Safety, Zeist (Netherlands); Warren, Nick [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire (United Kingdom); Heederik, Dick, E-mail: Tim.meijster@tno.n [Utrecht University, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies which allowed estimation of exposure response relationships and disease transition probabilities This model allows us to study the development of diseases and transitions between disease states over time in relation to determinants of disease including flour dust and/or allergen exposure. Furthermore it enables more realistic modelling of the health impact of different intervention strategies at the workplace (e.g. changes in exposure may take several years to impact on ill-health and often occur as a gradual trend). A large dataset of individual full-shift exposure measurements and real-time exposure measurements were used to obtain detailed insight into the effectiveness of control measures and other determinants of exposure. Given this information a population wide reduction of the median exposure with 50% was evaluated in this paper.

  7. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Warren, N.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.


    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiologic

  8. 焙烤咖啡豆中铜的测定%Determination of Copper in Baked Coffee Beans by FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅书林; 蓝洁娜


    分别采用混合酸湿法消化、干法灰化对咖啡豆进行处理,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法对焙烤咖啡豆中的铜进行测定,在试验条件下,本法检出限为0.01 mg/L,相关系数为0.9999,样品湿法消化加标回收率为96.9 %~99.1 %,干法灰化加标回收率为92.0 %~97.4%,相对标准偏差为0.49 %~2.20 %,用本法对咖啡豆和3种标准物质中的铜进行测定,结果满意.

  9. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods (United States)


    for this reason vanillin can be incorporated into the product of interest. Also it has a pleasant aroma , similar to vanilla. On the other hand...Rios, R. (2000) Inhibition of fungal growth on bread by volatile components from spices and herbs, and the possible application in active packaging

  10. Effect of fructooligosaccharides on the physicochemical properties of sour cassava starch and baking quality of gluten-free cheese bread


    Rodriguez-Sandoval, Eduardo; Landi Franco, Celia M. [UNESP; Manjarres-Pinzon, Katherine


    The present research was undertaken to explore the influence of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the functional and thermal properties of sour cassava starch and the quality characteristics of gluten-free (GF) cheese bread. Fructooligosaccharides were used to replace sour cassava starch at substitution level of 9% (SF1), 17% (SF2), and 29% (SF3). The functional and thermal properties of the starch-FOS mixtures were determined by the water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), p...

  11. Technology and Outdoor Travel/Education: Baking Bannock, Hauling Your Own Load and Post-Trip Saunas. (United States)

    Henderson, Bob


    Technology is becoming equated solely with the machine. Technology presupposes values, and the new values have become rationality and efficiency. We are surrounded by devices that have lessened our daily burdens, but the "burden" can be engaging. Traditional outdoor practices engage us fully and can re-inspire the latent spiritual impulse to…

  12. A Bake-Off Between CMFGEN and FASTWIND: Modeling the Physical Properties of SMC and LMC O-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Philip; Hillier, D John; Puls, Joachim


    The model atmosphere programs FASTWIND and CMFGEN are both elegantly designed to perform non-LTE analyses of the spectra of hot massive stars, and include sphericity and mass-loss. The two codes differ primarily in their approach towards line blanketing, with CMFGEN treating all of the lines in the co-moving frame and FASTWIND taking an approximate approach which speeds up execution times considerably. Although both have been extensively used to model the spectra of O-type stars, no studies have used the codes to independently model the same spectra of the same stars and compare the derived physical properties. We perform this task on ten O-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds. For the late-type O supergiants, both CMFGEN and FASTWIND have trouble fitting some of the He I lines, and we discuss causes and cures. We find that there is no difference in the average effective temperatures found by the two codes for the stars in our sample, although the dispersion is large, due primarily to the various difficulties ...

  13. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol (United States)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  14. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  15. Effects of transgene-encoded high-molecular weight glutenin proteins in wheat flour blends and sponge and dough baking (United States)

    HMW glutenin subunits are the most important determinants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread-making quality, and subunit composition explains a large percentage of the variability observed between genotypes. Experiments were designed to elevate expression of a key native HMW glutenin subunit (1D...

  16. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer (United States)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  17. Analysis of Application on Installation Power of Low Temperature Electric Baking Oven%低温电烘箱安装功率应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  18. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this study. Pitch itself is a very complex material. Studying the binding between pitch and the porous coke even adds another level of complexity to this subject. The high-temperature 1H NMR has been shown to be a promising technique to study the molecular interaction between different materials. The fraction of the mobile protons in the sample and their mobility as measured by the spin-spin relaxation time ( T*2 ), which is inversely proportional to the peak width at half maximum height (DeltaH1/2), seem to have a potential to probe the extent of the interaction between pitch and coke. Understanding of the interaction between coke and some simple compounds which are commonly found in pitch, i.e. model compounds, should help identify the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The knowledge of (1) pitch chemistry and structure, (2) interaction between model compounds and filler cokes would lead to an understanding of the binding efficiency between pitch and coke. The mass distribution by MALDI analysis showed that the majority of the compounds in these pitches is in the range of 200-700 Da. The hexane-soluble (HS) fractions of all of the pitch samples in this study mainly consist of four-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) as observed by GC/MS and Pyrolysis-GC/MS techniques. Coal-derived pitches contained mainly cata- and peri-condensed PACs and a few alkyl- and heteroatomic-substituted PACs, whereas those peteroleum-derived pitches consisted of a number of alkyl-substituted PACs with high sulfur substitution. Solid-state NMR results show that SCTP-2 and PP-1 contain six and five fused rings on average, respectively, whereas GP-115 and WVU-5 contain two and three fused rings on average, respectively. The latter two pitches contained mostly methyl substituents with a few ethyls. WVU-5 contains a higher degree of naphthenic substituents as compared to other pitches as confirmed by the GC/MS analysis. HTCCP and OXCCP contained three peri-condensed fused rings on average per molecule. 1H in-situ high temperature NMR and the solid echo pulse program were employed t

  19. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm


    Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  20. 蛋糕微波制作技术问题的探讨%Probe into the Technology of Baking Sponge Cake by Microwave Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  1. 小麦粉海绵蛋糕烘焙试验方法探讨%Study on baking test of sponge cake of wheat flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇莉; 孙辉



  2. The Design of ERP System for Baking Industry Based on Web Service%基于WebService的烘焙ERP系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠利; 罗文; 李法平



  3. Advanced cooler and dough kneader for the baking industry%面团和混合料的连续生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    典型面团制品和混合料生产工艺中所涉及的冷却和揉搓程序,一般是独立进行的,生产过程繁复费时一人力资源需求量高。鉴于此,Schr6der公司升发了Schrooder Kombinator冷却器和揉面团机,使附有结晶油脂的面团和混合料的加工程序,可在单次操作中连续进行。

  4. Specific Features of Diagnostics of Efficiency of Management of Innovation Risks at Enterprises of the Baking Industry (Cost-is-no-object Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilynska Juliana V.


    Full Text Available The article analyses diagnostics of efficiency of management of innovation risks through cost optimisation. Management of costs on innovation grounds is carried out with the aim of their reduction. In order to realise measures on reduction of influence of innovation risks in the system of cost management the article specifies the most important factors and builds multi-factor models. The process of study of influence of the innovation risk upon the cost value of the sold products of bakeries is presented in the form of a scheme of logically united stages. The article takes into account all restrictions and requirements, eliminates multi-collinearity and uses MS Excel Regression analysis for modelling dynamic multi-factor models of cost value of sold products of the studied bakeries. In the result of the study the article obtains main factors that would be used for forecasting tendencies of development of the studied enterprises, development of the decision making system and improvement of methodical provision of innovation risk management.

  5. Wheat Pentosans and Their Effect on Baking Industry%小麦戊聚糖及其在烘焙工业中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王学东; 李庆龙; 张声华



  6. 木聚糖酶的分类及其在面包烘焙中的应用%Xylanase Families and its Application in Baking Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  7. Ontology matchmaking of product ramp-up knowledge in manufacturing industries - How to transfer a cake-baking recipe between bakeries



    von Roland Willmann Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht geprueft Abweichender Titel nach Übersetzung der Verfasserin/des Verfassers Technische Universität Wien, Univ., Dissertation, 2016

  8. Effect of elevated CO/sub 2/ growth conditions on the nutritive composition and acceptability of baked sweet potatoes. [Iqomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J.Y.; Biswas, P.K.; Pace, R.D.

    Georgia-Jet sweet potatoes were grown at CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 354, 431, 506, and 659 ppm for 90 days. Elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations decreased protein, total carotenoids and insoluble dietary fiber. An increase in dry matter and a reddish-orange color was observed at 506 and 659 ppm CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Sensory evaluation scores for flavor and moistness indicated that sweet potatoes grown under high CO/sub 2/ concentrations were acceptable and not different from the control.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟波; 赵红征



  10. Porous Features of A Self-baking Carbon Block%一种自焙炭块的孔隙特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛向欣; 李正平; 段培宁; 陈四红; 周敏



  11. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧英; 张龙杰; 唐晓渝; 刘明芳; 刘敏华


    [目的]了解某大学及周边摊点烧烤和油炸食品中亚硝酸盐和苯并芘(Benzo(a)pyrene,BaP)的含量.[方法]采集西南大学食堂及周边8个点共26个烧烤和油炸食品,由西南大学食品科学学院测定其亚硝酸盐和BaP的含量. [结果]摊点4的烤羊肉串的亚硝酸盐35.585 mg/kg,超过国家规定的30 ms/ks;食堂3的烤豆干样本中BaP的含量为5.08 μg/kg,食堂4的炸土豆中BaP的含量为5.98 μs/kg,摊点4的全部样本中BaP的含量超过国家规定的5μg/kg水平. [结论]烧烤和油炸食品中存在亚硝酸盐和BaP超标情况,摊点超标情况高于食堂,BaP高于亚硝酸盐,建议尽量避免食用烤炸食品.

  13. Test Analysis of Vehicle Engine Exhaust Valve Driving Assistant and Baking System%汽车发动机排气门辅助制动系统试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  14. Nutrition and baking properties of mung bean sourdough bread with high γ-aminobutyric acid%高γ-氨基丁酸绿豆酸面团面包营养与烘焙特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓琴; 张可欣; 黄卫宁; 刘若诗; 陈军民; 张峦; 李志斌; 傅贵华; RAYAS-DUARTE Patrica


    通过改良纸层析(modified paper chromatography,MPC)、高效液相色谱(high performance liquid chromatography,HPLC)、16S rRNA基因测序、质构仪(texture anylyzer,TA)及感官分析方法从传统发酵米粉中分离筛选得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的布氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus buchneri,L.bu),以小麦面包和绿豆面包为对照,研究了该乳酸菌发酵对绿豆酸面团面包营养与烘焙特性的影响.结果表明:筛选得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的布氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus buchneri,L.bu),其γ-氨基丁酸产量为3.66±0.05 g/L;L.bu发酵的绿豆酸面团面包中总游离氨基酸含量分别为小麦面包和绿豆面包的3.36和2.77倍,其中γ-氨基丁酸含量为23.44 mg/100 g,显著高于绿豆面包和小麦面包;与绿豆面包相比,绿豆酸面团面包全质构特性得到显著改善,面包品质有所提升;酸面团的引入,使其各项感官特性评分显著高于绿豆面包,整体可接受度接近小麦面包.

  15. 盐焗鸡贮藏品质变化及货架期预测模型%Quality change and shelf life predictive model of the salt baked chicken during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋庭; 吴建文


    为了探讨盐焗鸡在不同贮藏温度(25、30、37℃)下品质变化及货架期预测模型的构建,通过对其在储藏过程中pH值、挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)值、菌落总数及感官变化进行分析,采用指数模型、修正的Gompertz和Logistic模型对盐焗鸡微生物生长情况进行描述,结果表明:pH值先上升后又逐渐下降;挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)和菌落总数随着贮藏时间增加而不断增大;感官评价总分随着贮藏时间延长而不断下降;其中修正的Gompertz模型优于指数模型和Logistic模型,Arrhenius比Bělehr á dek方程更适合描述温度对最大比生长速率(μm)、延滞时间(Lag)2个参数的影响.

  16. Determination of the Pungent Principles in Ginger Powder, Ginger Skin and Baked Ginger%干姜、姜皮、炮姜中辣味成分的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪松; 汪建民; 王兆升


    采用HPLC法测定了干姜、姜皮、炮姜中的姜酚含量分别为1.022、0.28和0.25 g/100 g;姜酮含量分别为0.90、0.18和4.8 g/kg;炮姜中的姜脑含量为0.4 g/kg,姜粉、姜皮中含微量姜脑.该测定方法快速、准确、简便.

  17. Effect of Baked Radix Vladimiriae on the Spasm of in Vitro Intestinal Muscle in Rabbit%煨制川木香对家兔离体肠肌解痉作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿燕; 傅超美; 胡慧玲; 章津铭; 许丽佳



  18. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher SERIN


    Full Text Available Abstract Pogaca is a traditional high-fat bakery product in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat replacement in pogaca formulation by various amounts (5, 10 and 15 g on 100 g wheat flour basis of inulin, polydextrose and maltodextrin on the properties of dough and quality of pogaca. Dough stickiness values were increased by increasing the amount of fat replacer at the all fat reduction levels (20, 30 and 40% studied. Extensibility and resistance to extension values of dough were also significantly changed due to the fat replacement. Sensory analysis of pogaca showed that the formulations prepared by maltodextrin and polydextrose generally received higher scores than the formulation prepared by inulin. Overall, it was observed that up to 30% of the fat can be replaced in pogaca formulation without any decrease in the physical, textural and sensory quality of pogaca.

  19. Onward treatment of irradiated liquid egg: Detection in sponge cake mixture after baking by means of LC-GC-MS. Weiterverarbeitung von bestrahltem Fluessigei: Nachweis in gebackener Biskuitmasse mittels LC-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, H.U. von (Staatliches Lebensmitteluntersuchungsamt Oldenburg (Germany)); Schulzki, G. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Pfordt, J. (Staatliches Lebensmitteluntersuchungsamt Oldenburg (Germany)); Spiegelberg, A. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Helle, N. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Boegl, K.W. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Schreiber, G.A. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany))


    Irradiated whole liquid egg used for preparation of sponge cake could be identified using gaschromatographic/mass spectrometric detection of the radiation induced hydrocarbons for doses from 1 kGy. Separation of the hydrocarbons out of the fat was carried out by HPLC coupled on-line to the GC. That means, for the first time an irradiated component of a heat treated food could be detected. (orig.)

  20. α晶型甘油一酸酯凝胶在焙烤食品中的应用%α-monoglyceride gel and its use in baking industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  1. The "Oscar" of China baking industry%中国烘焙"奥斯卡"——2009广州烘焙食品展览会在穗召开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培珍; 牛牧


    @@ 由中国食品工业协会主办的为期三天的"2009广州烘焙食品展览会"暨"2009中国烘焙年会"于2009年3月11日至13日在广州保利展览中心隆重举行.来自全国各地的100多家烘焙行业生产商参与,全面涵盖了原料、设备、包装及成品制造企业,成为烘焙行业的年度盛会.展会期间,众多高端活动的举办,加之在烘焙行业颇具影响力的优秀品牌展览展示,全国各地重要烘焙企业负责人和行业重要人士汇聚广州.众星云集,上演了精彩的中国烘焙"奥斯卡".

  2. Effect of Tangerine Peel on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Baked Beef Jerky%陈皮对烘烤牛肉干中杂环胺含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏新武; 王武; 陈从贵; 董琪; 金晓丽



  3. Energy-saving benefit analysis of infrared heating technology in the automobile paint baking process%红外线加热技术应用于汽车烤漆工艺的节能效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱肖晶; 杨蕾


    红外线烤漆房采用红外线加热技术,依靠辐射能迫使油漆内部分子迅速排列、剧烈振动,形成光电子激发态,产生强大内能,提高加热速度及干燥速度,相比传统的燃油式烤漆房,红外线加热提高了能源利用效率,减少柴油消耗量,降低产品的综合单耗,社会效益和经济效益明显。%The new spray booth which was developed by the company using the infrared heating technology,relying on the radi-ant energy forcingthe molecular inside the paint arranged rapidly, severe vibration,formingthe photoelectron excited states,produc-ing strong internal energy with the feature of high heating speed and fast drying,compared to conventional fuel type of Spray booth. The measures improve energy efficiency,reduce diesel oil con-sumption,lower the product integrated unit consumption,improve product quality,social and economic benefit.

  4. Influence of the type of coagulante and the heating in the baking of the mass in the composition, income, proteólise and sensorial characteristics of the cheese plate.


    Marta Maria Marquezan Augusto


    Resumo: Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a influência do tipo de coagulante na composição e rendimento do queijo Prato fabricado com e sem lavagem da massa (aquecimento direto e indireto) e avaliar as mudanças ocorridas nas características sensoriais durante o período de maturação. Os coagulantes estudados foram protease do Rhizomucor miehei, coalho bovino (20% quimosina e 80% pepsina) e quimosina obtida por fermentação. O cozimento da massa foi realizado por aquecimento direto no t...

  5. Study on Slica-alumina Separated in Reacted Product of Baked High-alumina Fly Ash%高铝粉煤灰烧结反应产物硅铝分离的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 马鸿文; 张晓云; 李贺香



  6. Development and Application of High Strength Free Baking Scorched Stones Mullite Coating%铝合金炉用微孔高抗渗透高铝浇注料的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成行; 冉江艳; 宋洪武


    本浇注料是由特级转窑矾土熟料为主材, CA-70水泥, SiO2超微粉、α-Al2 O3微粉为结合剂、加入适量的膨胀剂,反润湿剂和减水剂等配制而成。试验结果表明:本微孔高抗渗高铝浇注料不仅气孔率低、气孔孔径小,耐铝合金液态或汽态元素的渗透和侵蚀,而且机械强度高,高温体积稳定,热震性能好,并且有效地避免了三相交界处结瘤、鼓包现象。2012年7月份在某铝厂40 t铝合金炉上使用,至今无剥落,无裂纹,无结瘤,经济、社会效益显著,具有推广应用价值。%The castable is composed of super rotary kiln bauxite as main material, CA-70 cement, SiO2 ultrafine powder,α-Al2 O3 powder adding expansion agent amount as binder, reverse wetting agent and water reducing agent was prepared. The test results showed that the porous high impermeability of high alumina castable had low porosity, small pore size, infiltration and erosion resistance of aluminum alloy in liquid or vapor form elements, and high mechanical strength, high volume stability, thermal shock performance, and effectively avoided the three-phase boundary of nodulation, bulge phenomenon. In July 2012, 40 tons of aluminum alloy furnace were used in an aluminum, so far it had no peeling off, no crack, no nodulation, economic, social benefits significantly, and had popularization and application value.

  7. The Application of the Modern Mathematical Methods in studing of Anode Baking and Heat Transfer%现代数学方法在阳极焙烧及其热工过程研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  8. 醋炙对芫花毒性和药效影响的实验研究%Experimental Study on Toxicity and Efficacy of Genkwa Flos stir-baked with Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To study toxicity and efficacy of Genkwa Flos by processing with Vinegar. Methods : Acute toxicity of LD50 was calculated using Bliss, using diuretic effects to research the effect of the ethanol extracts of from different polar parts of Genkwa Flos and Vinegar - preparing Genkwa Flos. Results : The toxicity of Genkwa Flos processed with vinegar was significantly reduced, the part of ethly acelate was part of toxicity. As compared with the control group, the diuretic effects of alcohol extract and the parts of petroleum ether and ethly acelate of Genkwa Flos and vinegar - preparing Genkwa Flos had significant differences. The diuretic effects of Vinegar - preparing Genkwa Flos were enhanced compared with Genkwa Flos. Conclusion ; Vinegar - preparing Genkwa Flos can significantly reduce toxicity and enhance efficacy. The parts of ethyl acelate are both parts of harmacodynamics and toxicity.%目的:考察醋炙芫花对毒性和药效的影响.方法:急性毒性试验采用BLiss法计算芜花和醋芜花的半数致死量;采用利尿试验试验,观察芫花和醋芜花不同极性溶剂提取物和不同极性部位对小鼠利尿作用的影响.结果:醋炙后芜花毒性明显毒性降低,乙酸乙酯部位是芫花的毒性部位.与对照组相比,芜花、醋芫花醇提物、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位可明显促进利尿作用.与生品比较,醋炙后各组利尿作用皆明显增强.结论:芫花醋炙后毒性显著降低,药效增强.芜花的乙酸乙酯部位既是其毒性部位,又是其药效学主要部位.

  9. Optimización de los Niveles de los Agentes Oxidante/Reductor en la Panificación de Harina de Trigo Optimization of the Levels Oxidant/Reducer Agents in the Baking of Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibia M Alasino


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar los niveles del par oxidante/reductor para mejorar el comportamiento tecnológico de harinas. Para este fin se utilizaron las combinaciones: azodicarbonamida-bisulfito de sodio y ácido ascórbico-bisulfito de sodio. Se realizaron ensayos de panificación, determinando consistencia de la masa al final del amasado, volumen específico de pan y asignación de puntaje al pan y a la textura de miga a través de evaluación sensorial. Los resultados indicaron que el uso simultáneo de azodicarbonamida y un bajo nivel de bisulfito de sodio producen un ablandamiento de la masa con disminución de volumen específico del pan. Esto no ocurre, sin embargo, cuando el agente reductor se agrega en niveles cercanos a 100ppm. El uso simultáneo de ácido ascórbico y bisulfito de sodio, en niveles intermedios, produce un efecto benéfico muy importante por lo que su uso resulta altamente recomendable.The objective of this work was to optimize the levels of oxidant/reducer substances to improve the technological behaviour of flours. Combinations of azodicarbonamide and ascorbic acid with a reducing agent as sodium bisulfite were used. Experiences in bread-making were made determining the dough consistency at the end of mixing and the specific volume of bread. Also, the bread score and the texture score were obtained trough sensorial evaluation. The results indicated that in the case of simultaneous use of azodicarbonamide and low levels of sodium bisulfite produce a softening of the dough with a decrease in specific volume of bread. This does not occur when the reducing agent is added at levels close to 100ppm. The simultaneous use of ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite, at intermediate levels, produces a very significant beneficial effect, so its use is highly recommended.

  10. The effect of baking-soda adding in diet for hen breeding in summer on reproductive performance%夏季种鸡日粮中添加小苏打对生产繁殖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗世乾; 黄建烨; 梁明振



  11. Water and energy balance in the cultivated and bake soil in a montane area in Paraiba, Brazil; Balanco hidrico e de energia em solo cultivado e sem vegetacao, para as condicoes do brejo paraibano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa


    In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002, the average values for actual evapotranspiration obtained by using the water balance and energy balance, were 4.33 and 3.98 mm day{sup -1} respectively. In the year of 2003, were respectively 4.2 and 4.1 mm. day{sup -1}. Also, it was verified that the crop did not suffer water stress in the two-year period of study.

  12. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is baking. Because baking brings you so much happiness, you’ll want your pain and other symptoms ... informed decisions. This is a story about finding happiness in the moment. (more…) Living Well with Serious ...

  13. Brewer’s Spent Grain as a Functional Ingredient for Breadsticks


    Ktenioudaki, Anastasia; Chaurin, Valérie; Reis, Sofia; Gallagher, Eimear


    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) was evaluated for its potential as a functional baking ingredient. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of BSG and wheat flours. Baked snacks (breadsticks) were prepared using 15%, 25% and 35% BSG and evaluated for their baking quality and fibre and protein content (over a period of 3 months). The addition of BSG altered the baking characteristics of the breadsticks by affecting their structure and texture. The snacks appeared to...

  14. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin


    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridg......-extraction bread. This knowledge is important to the baking industry and to plant breeders as wheat aroma could possibly become a future quality parameter in breeding....

  15. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread


    Aneta Kopeć; Barbara Borczak; Mirosław Pysz; Elżbieta Sikora; Marek Sikora; Duska Curic; Dubravka Novotni


    Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected miner...

  16. 7 CFR 54.1002 - Terms defined. (United States)


    .... Cooking, baking, curing, heating, drying, mixing, grinding, churning, separating, extracting, cutting... formulated by the NSF/3-A Joint Committee on Food Processing Equipment (Referred to hereinafter as...

  17. 不同发酵基质的酸面团对酵母面团体系面包烘焙及老化特性的影响%Impacts of Sourdoughs Made from Different Media on Bread Baking and Staling Properties of Yeast Dough System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙银凤; 徐岩; 黄卫宁; 钟京; 张思佳; 王益姝; OMEDI Jacob-Ojobi; 李宁; Arnaut FILIP



  18. 醋柴胡小分子水溶性部位抑制HEK293-Pgp细胞中P糖蛋白的外排功能%Micromolecular hydrophilic extract from vinegar-baked radix bupleuri weakens Pgp efflux function in HEK293-Pgp cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽敏; 张娴; 赵瑞芝


    目的 观察醋柴胡小分子水溶性部位(MHE)对P糖蛋白(Pgp)高表达的HEK293-Pgp细胞中Pgp的影响,分析其可能的分子机制.方法 实验分人胚肾细胞HEK 293和 Pgp高表达的HEK293-Pgp组.MTT法观察醋柴胡小分子水溶性部位对细胞增殖的影响;细胞分别加入秋水仙碱和罗丹明B作底物,Pgp蛋白摄取活性测定实验分别采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法和流式细胞术(flow cytometry)检测胞内底物含量,以分析Pgp外排功能;采用Western blot法检测Pgp蛋白表达水平;实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测Pgp mRNA水平.结果 50 g·L-1 MHE作用于细胞48 h后,HEK293细胞中的Pgp外排功能略呈上调趋势,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而作用于HEK293-Pgp细胞24 h后相应的蛋白表达以及mRNA水平分别降低了68.1%和38.8%(P<0.05),且HEK293-Pgp细胞对罗丹明B的摄取率升高为对照组的3.2倍(P<0.01),呈下调Pgp外排的功能.结论 MHE呈抑制Pgp高表达的细胞中Pgp外排功能的作用,这可能是通过下调Pgp mRNA和蛋白表达实现.初步暗示了MHE可能为一种潜在的Pgp抑制剂.

  19. A comparative research of the influences of maltital,xylitol and erythritol on the rheological,thermal and baking properties of sponge-cake batter%三种糖醇对海绵蛋糕面糊流变学、热力学及烘焙学特性影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝月慧; 贾春利; 王凤; 黄卫宁; 郑建仙; Akihiro Ogawa



  20. Supervision is the Key to Improvement of Baking Industry and Financial Services of Real Economy should be Elevated Both in the Level of Quality and Quantity%监管引领银行业着力提升服务实体经济质量和水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years, the reform of financial institutions in Jilin Province has been accelerated, and the institution has been improved. The economy of Jilin Province has also been supported. The year 2012 which is the first year of the "Twelfth Five-year Plan" is of great significance. Under new circumstance, the reform of banking and financial system should be pushed forward, and make contribution to the development of real economy growth.%近年来吉林省银行业金融机构加快改革发展,不断完善体制机制、提升服务水平,从而有力地支持和促进了全省经济持续健康发展。2012年,是"十二五"规划实施承上启下的重要一年。在新的形势下,应准确把握监管政策导向,引领银行业更加注重服务实体经济发展,努力提升银行业服务实体经济的质量和水平。

  1. 工艺技术条件和阳极更换对预焙铝电解槽槽电压的影响及防治措施%Influence of Technological Process Conditions and Anode Replacement on Pre-baked Aluminum Reduction Cell Voltage and Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. Investigation of ochratoxin A by ELISH method in baking food and isolation and identification of ochratoxin A producing strain%烘焙食品中赭曲霉毒素A ELISA快速检测及主要产生菌分离鉴定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    疏秀林; 施庆珊; 谢小保; 欧阳友生; 陈仪本



  3. 10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates. (United States)

    PTA Today, 1991


    Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

  4. 78 FR 54871 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, NEW YORK, NY Holiday Themed Bags, Containers and Baking Cup-Picks Set NSN: MR 376--Resealable... 380--Set, Baking Cups and Picks, Holiday, 24PC NPA: Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind, Inc... Patriotic Themed Serving Bowls NSN: MR 358--Serving Bowl, Patriotic, Plastic 7Qt NSN: MR 370--Serving...

  5. Healthy Foods under $1 Per Serving (United States)

    ... Value for vitamin A, 135% Daily Value for vitamin C Sweet Potato (cooked, baked in skin) Great for: baked, mashed, steamed What’s a serving? 1 medium potato (2” diameter, 5” long, raw) Nutrition Info per serving: ... 438% Daily Value for vitamin A, 37% Daily Value for vitamin C Brown ...

  6. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans occurs during Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour (United States)

    Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. Fo...

  7. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  8. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  9. USSR Report: Agriculture. No. 1393. (United States)


    elevator industry and 30 for the bread- baking industry . There will be a sharp increase in production volumes. Thus the production of milling-elevator...the quality of mixed feeds and the efficiency of their production. For the bread- baking industry it is intended to produce complete lines for

  10. Baker's asthma due to the enzyme xylanase -- a new occupational allergen. (United States)

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Posch, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M


    The asthmatic baker showed IgE-mediated sensitization to xylanase of Aspergillus niger used as a baking additive. Inhalative challenge with approximately 0.5 microg of the enzyme resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. This case, as well as a preliminary screening of symptomatic bakers, shows that xylanase is a further relevant type I-sensitizer in the baking industry.

  11. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression (United States)

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  12. Biotechnology and the Food Industry. (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others


    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  13. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming. (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A


    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming.

  14. Effect of Firing on Cracking and Warping of Clay Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawab Ali Lakho


    Full Text Available Reinforced baked clay beams may be considered to be a substitute of reinforced cement concrete beams in order to build low cost houses. The baking of these clay beams can pose problems such as cracking and warping. This paper presents the effect of different treatments applied to clay beams during baking to reduce cracking and warping. These clay beams were baked in pottery kiln in which the temperature could not be raised to the extent of fusing of clay beams placed at bottom of firing chamber. As expected, the beams were not baked properly and a number of them got cracked. Then these beams were baked in a commercial Hoffman?s kiln. The beams, in preheating stage, were moistened to full depth due to humidity and moisture of flue gases. As a result, the beams cracked and warped at the time of firing. In order to avoid the beams from being moistened by the moisture of the flue gases, different treatments were opted. Firstly, these beams were covered with plastic sheet, the cracks were reduced to some extent. Secondly, double layer of mud, with a layer of gunny bags between them, was applied. Consequently, a few cracks occurred in the beams. The treatments suggested in this paper can be used for baking of clay beams in Hoffman?s kiln at commercial level

  15. Application of reactive acrylate microgels in water-base coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Sheng-shu; ZHANG Bao-hua; YANG Qing; WANG Xia-qin; MAO Zhi-ping


    Reactive acrylate microgels with different reactive groups such as carboxyl, hydroxide groups had excellent prop-erties such as quick-dry, low viscosity, high adhesion and hardness, which made them extensively used in preparing paints or in coating-modification. Reactive acrylate microgels were prepared by emulsion co-polymerization with zwitterions surfactant, anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant as co-emulsifier. The water-base baking paints made from reactive acrylate micro-gels and melamine-formaldehyde resin had excellent combination properties. The aluminium powder can be well-dispersed in the paints. The influences of monomer components on the properties of the water-base baking paints were discussed in this paper. And the baking paints were also compared with the marketing solvent acrylate baking paints. It was found that the water-base acrylate amino baking paints had better combination properties than the organic solvent acrylate baking paints, which means that the water-base baking paints had a bright marketing future.

  16. Progress of UHV System of HIRFL-CSR in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The great progress of the ultra-high vacuum system of HIRFL-CSR was obtained in 2001.1. Many testing cycles were done on the first dipole chamber prototype with different baking temperatures.250℃ was considered a suitable baking temperature for the vacuum chambers,which can reduce the outgassing rate of the chambers effectively and was not high enough to damage the magnet coils during the bake-out process.At the same time, the residual gas analyzers and vacuum gauges from several companies were tested. ...

  17. Guide to the Salvage of Temperature-Abused Food Products in Military Commissaries (United States)


    8217, SAFE-1, 2, 3, 4 and RISK-1, 2, 3). 1. Baked Goods sect 1.1 Frozen 1. Dough , ready-to-bake 2. Pie crust 3. Pastries, no filling of cream, custard...1. Yeast, baker’s 2. Dough , ready-to-bake 3. Pie crust 4. Tortilla 5. Pastries, no filling of =eam, custard meat 6. Pastries, filled with cream...hard types 4. Lard s. Margarine 6. Buttermilk SAFE-3 7. Cream cheese 8. Dips, sour cream base 9. Eggs in shell " 10. Sour cream " 11. Yogurt

  18. Planning Multisentential English Text Using Communicative Acts (United States)


    N-TI SPOON- DOUGH -T* BAKE -T* REMOVE E A SYMBOL KEYE E I I subaction -- S- BEAT-EGG GREASE-PAN cause/effect - C ->- enablement - E-> KNOWLEDGE BASE...bowl. Add the flour and the baking soda. Stir in the chocolate pieces. Grease a cookie sheet. Spoon the cookie dough onto the cookie sheet. Bake it at...overgeneralization, for example in a syllogism assuming a major premise of "All green apples are sour ." Others include petitio principii (begging the

  19. Beware of the Permanganate Volcano. (United States)

    Snyder, Ellie


    Discusses hazards associated with the permanganate demonstration of volcanic eruptions. Alternate demonstrations are described, including the ammonium dichromate reaction, lava flow demonstration with baking soda and vinegar, and punk to illustrate air pollution from volcanic ash and cinders. (CS)

  20. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan (United States)

    ... and jam Grapes with 1-2 boiled eggs Quinoa Fiesta Salad Glazed Meatloaf with baked beans Side ... green bell peppers (Su, Tu, W) Scallions (Su) Quinoa (Su) Vanilla extract (dessert) White sugar (Sa) Sweet ...

  1. Food & Fun op de boerderij : consumentenpercepties - hoe beleven consumenten multifunctionele 'biologische' landbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de D.; Kamstra, J.H.; Roest, A.E.; Winter, de M.A.


    Multifunctionele landbouw is een begrip wat de consument niet zal begrijpen. Het omvat veel verschillende functies zoals kinderopvang, streekproducten, educatie, recreatie en natuurbeheer. In deze studie staat de beleving van consumenten over multifunctionele landbouw centraal. In dit onderzoek bake

  2. Kunstnike töötsoon Colina Lab / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit


    Kahenädalane kunstilaboratoorium Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis; kus loomingulistel aladel tegutsevad kunstnikud arendasid kõikvõimalikke projekte neljas rühmas. Kuraator Silke Bake valis osalema 19 kunstnikku Eestist, Saksamaalt, Portugalist, Taanist, Inglismaalt, Prantsusmaalt

  3. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  4. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils


    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  5. Healthy Eating for Women (United States)

    ... saturated fat — the kind found in fatty meats, sausages, cheese and full-fat dairy products, baked goods ... Dining Outdoors Find an Expert Need serious help making a plan? The nutrition experts in our professional ...

  6. What Is a Low-Fiber Diet? (United States)

    ... peas, lentils, and legumes Processed meats, hot dogs, sausage, and cold cuts Tough meats with gristle Dairy: ... dried fruit Use white flour for baking and making sauces. Grains, such as white rice, Cream of ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  8. A new bread improver to replace traditional gluten fortifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Scientists with the CAS Changchun Institute for Applied Chemistry recently developed a new plant derivative of polysaccharide to replace the traditional agent of gluten fortifier in the bread-baking industry.

  9. Irradiation of food - the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, V. (International Food Research Association, Leatherhead (UK))


    The author outlines the history of the process for the interest of the baking industry, and discusses the difficulties concerning public relations in this field, before the introduction of irradiation to the British food industry.

  10. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.


    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  11. Coming to grips with the landmine menace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> Asea of sunflowers lay beneath a blood-red sun, the golden yellow blossoms exuding warmthagainst the scarlet background. Early summer sunlight, beautiful and brilliant, baked the border area in Southwest China

  12. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids. (United States)


    ... use: Foods Limitations Bakery mixes Baked products Cake icings, fillings, and toppings Dehydrated... mixes Precooked instant rice Pudding mixes (c) They are used in an amount not greater than required...

  13. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors (United States)

    ... synthetic) Pudding and pie fillings, gelatin dessert mixes, cake mixes, salad dressings, candies, soft drinks, ice cream, BBQ ... fat foods Baked goods, dressings, frozen desserts, confections, cake and dessert mixes, dairy products Olestra, cellulose gel, carrageenan, polydextrose, modified ...

  14. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety (United States)

    ... the remaining 5% representing a combination of fat, carbohydrates and minerals. The leaner the meat, the higher ... altitudes, extra-large eggs give added moisture and structure to baked goods and desserts. Smaller eggs will ...

  15. Method of surface preparation of niobium (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.


    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  16. Portion size (United States)

    ... Romaine lettuce) One medium baked potato is a computer mouse To control your portion sizes when you ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diseases Celiac Disease & Gluten-Free Diet Videos Food Nutrition and Recipes Too Get Involved 2015 Gluten-Free ... Bay Baking Meisters Gluten-Free Mixtures One Source Nutrition Pro Bites Starfish World Wise Grains World Wise ...

  18. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (United States)


    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT... balanced product mix of fruits, vegetables, herbs, value-added products, and baked goods....

  19. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test (United States)

    ... excess calcium supplements or certain antacids, that contain calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Parathyroid glands do ... More 25-hydroxy vitamin D test Bone tumor Calcium ... level Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple ...

  20. Infrared processing of foods (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  1. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements. (United States)


    ... gaseous fluoride and cannot be based on measurement of particulate matter or particulate fluoride alone... anode material placed in the anode bake furnace. The weight of green anode material may be determined...

  2. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating (United States)

    ... poultry, double wrap or place the packages in plastic bags to prevent juices from the raw product from ... like dried pasta, rice, and baking mixes in plastic bags and take only the amount you'll need. [ ...

  3. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.


    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  4. Lonar Crater, India: An Analog for Mars in the Field and in the Laboratory (United States)

    Wright, S. P.


    Fieldwork at Lonar Crater benefits impact studies; lab/sample data of shocked and altered basalts provide analogs for SNCs and rovers. Mission concepts can be evaluated in ejecta. Recent discoveries include shocked soil, shocked baked zones, and spall.

  5. 76 FR 3012 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material Originating in Italy and... (United States)


    ... 1. Architectural Elements--Baked clay (terracotta) elements used to decorate buildings. These are..., tables, and other terracotta objects (masks) with relief decoration. Approximate date: 6th to 4th...

  6. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability. (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar


    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  7. Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Measurements and Protocols for Database and Library Development Relating to Organic Species in Support of the Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Misra, P.; Garcia, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.


    An organic contaminant database and library has been developed for use with the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrumentation utilizing laboratory-based Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry measurements of pyrolyzed and baked material samples.

  8. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming (United States)

    Collins, Donley S.


    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  9. Mountains, Bread, Vegetables, Snow: Nonviolence through Experiential Learning


    DECKER, Warren


    Like baking bread or growing vegetables, the practice of nonviolence is best learned through direct experience. This article describes four experiential learning programs at Momoyama Gakuin University : mountain travel, bread baking, organic vegetable growing and volunteer snow shoveling. Although the specific, concrete objectives are varied, all of these programs share the same objectives of teaching students about nonviolence and helping them to find meaning and fulfillment in their lives.

  10. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation


    白土, 弘子; 井川, 佳子


    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Flight Line Food Service Facility at Travis AFB (United States)


    Potatoes/ Mixed Vegetables TUE - Baked Ham/Home Fries/Peas & Carrots and Fried Chicken/Dotato Puffs/ Mexican Corn WED - Roast Pork...Fried Chicken/Potato Puffs/ Mexican Corn SUN - Baked Ham/Home Fries/Peas & Carrots and Spaghetti with Meat Sauce mmm^mm IWWM&JISW^.iSamS’W...Corn Chips Crackers BEVERAGES Milk Coffee Fruit Juices Carbonated B erages DESSERTS Pie Cake or Cookies >ce Cream Fresh Fruit TABLE 2

  12. The effect of heat treatments on the synthesis of acrylamide and its quantification by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detetector


    Delević Veselin M.; Zejnilović Refik M.; Jančić-Stojanović Biljana S.; Zrnić-Ćirić Milica D.; Đorđević Brižita I.; Stanković Ivan M.


    In this paper, the influence of thermal treatment (cooking, baking and frying) on the content of acrylamide in potato was followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen - phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Sample preparation was performed in the conventional manner, applying heat treatment as follows: in boiling water at 110 0C for 30 minutes, by baking in an oven for 30 minutes at 2200 C, and frying in oil for 15 minutes at 250 0C. Quantification of acrylamide ar...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; Alex Gurevich


    In this contribution, we present the results from a series of RF tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes. After initial buffered chemical polishing, anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C was applied with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system was used allowing to measure the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to RF losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution on the RF surface. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the cavity surface showed that grain-boundaries are not the preferred location. An interesting correlation was found between the Q-drop onset, the quench field and the low-field energy gap, which supports the hypothesis of thermo-magnetic instability governing the Q-drop and the baking effect.

  14. Heat and mass transfer in a vertical flue ring furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Mona


    The main emphasis of this thesis was the design of a mathematical simulation model for studying details in the baking of anodes in the Hydro Aluminium anode baking furnace. The change of thermal conductivity, density, porosity and permeability during heat treatment was investigated. The Transient Plane Source technique for measuring thermal conductivity of solids was used on green carbon materials during the baking process in the temperature range 20-600 {sup o}C. Next, change of mass, density, porosity and permeability of anode samples were measured after being baked to temperatures between 300 and 1200 {sup o}C. The experimental data were used for parameter estimation and verification of property models for use in the anode baking models. Two distinct mathematical models have been modified to study the anode baking. A transient one-dimensional model for studying temperature, pressure and gas evolution in porous anodes during baking was developed. This was extended to a two-dimensional model incorporating the flue gas flow. The mathematical model which included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation and turbulent channel flow, was developed by source code modification of the Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT. The two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke and anode was used for studying the effect of different firing strategies, raw materials properties and packing coke thickness. The model proved useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry and anode properties. 152 refs., 73 figs, 11 tabs.

  15. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao


    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian; Binping Xiao; Michael Kelley; Charles Reece; A. Demasi; L. Pipe; Kevin Smith


    XPS studies have consistently shown that Nb surfaces for SRF chiefly comprise of a few nm of Nb2O5 on top of Nb metal, with minor amounts of Nb sub-oxides. Nb samples after BCP/EP treatment with post-baking at the various conditions have been examined by using synchrotron based XPS. Despite the confounding influence of surface roughness, certain outcomes are clear. Lower-valence Nb species are always and only associated with the metal/oxide interface, but evidence for an explicit layer structure or discrete phases is lacking. Post-baking without air exposure shows decreased oxide layer thickness and increased contribution from lower valence species, but spectra obtained after subsequent air exposure cannot be distinguished from those obtained prior to baking, though the SRF performance improvement remains.

  17. Terahertz wave generation from spontaneously formed nanostructures in silver nanoparticle ink. (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Nakajima, Makoto


    We demonstrate terahertz pulse generation from silver nanoparticle ink, originally developed for printed electronics, under irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Using metal nanoparticle ink, metallic nanostructures can be easily made in a large area without lithographic techniques. Terahertz pulses were emitted from the baked ink, having spontaneously formed nanostructures of ∼100  nm. From the results of the baking temperature dependence and the polarization measurement, the terahertz generation is attributed to the nonlinear polarization induced by the enhanced local fields around these nanostructures. This study paves the way for the future development of terahertz emitters which have resonances in both the near-infrared light and the terahertz wave, by combining micrometer-scale structures drawn by an inkjet printer and nanometer-scale structures formed during the baking process.

  18. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  19. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels. (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar


    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  20. Nanostructural features degrading the performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenikhina, Y., E-mail: [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Romanenko, A., E-mail: [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Kwon, J.; Zuo, J.-M. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zasadzinski, J. F. [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)


    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ∼100 nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride formation in the electropolished cavity after 120 °C baking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adding 800 °C hydrogen degassing followed by light buffered chemical polishing restores the hydride formation to the pre-120 °C bake level. We also show absence of niobium oxides along the grain boundaries and the modifications of the surface oxide upon 120 °C bake.

  1. Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Nionelli


    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination.

  2. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...... of the input parameters involves uncertainty. The objective of this thesis is to develop robust models of heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods. The study consists of formulating the mechanistic models, solving the models by the Finite Element method (FEM), calibrating and validating...

  3. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response? (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar


    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods.

  4. O grau de inovação em diferentes setores da economia: uma abordagem a partir do Grau de Inovação Setorial (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma de Souza-Pinto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of sectoral innovation between the baking and furniture industries in Pernambuco State - Brazil, measured between 2011 and 2013. The innovation radar is a method of generalized analysis of companies in different economic sectors. The degree of sectoral innovation (DSI methodology was used as an alternative to the traditional methodology in order to mitigate the effects of sectoral differences. DSI normalizes the traditional method based on 13 dimensions of innovation, taking into account aspects of sectoral heterogeneity. The study revealed there had been progress in the furniture industry but much less so in the baking industry. The study also indicated that the baking industry in Garanhuns has a slightly greater degree of innovation than the one in the Metropolitan Area of Recife.

  5. Nanostructural features affecting superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed using TEM and EELS

    CERN Document Server

    Trenikhina, Y; Kwon, J; Zuo, J -M; Zasadzinski, J F


    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ~100nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride formation in the electropolished cavity after 120C baking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adding 800C hydrogen degassing followed by light buffered chemical polishing restores the hydride formation to the pre-120C bake level. We also show absence of niobium oxides along the grain boundaries and the modifications of the surface oxide upon 120C bake.

  6. Small-scale rural bakery; Maaseudun pienleipomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkula, R.; Malin, A.; Reisbacka, A.; Rytkoenen, A.


    The purpose of the study was to clarify how running a small-scale bakery can provide a farming enterprise with its primary or secondary source of livelihood. A questionnaire and interviews were conducted to clarify the current situation concerning small-scale rural bakeries. The experimental part of the study looked into different manners of production, devices used in preparing and processing of doughs, and baking of different kinds of pastries in different types of ovens in laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained, solutions serving as examples were formulated for small-scale bakeries run with various modes and methods of production. Additionally, market reviews were conducted concerning appropriate equipment for small-scale bakeries. Baking for commercial purposes on the farm is still something new as ca. 80 % of the enterprises covered by the study had operated for no more than five years. Many entrepreneurs (ca. 70 %) expressed a need for supplementary knowledge from some field related to baking. Rural bakeries are small-scale operations with one-person enterprises amounting to 69 % and two-person enterprises to 29 %. Women are primarily responsible for baking. On average, the enterprises baked seven different products, but the amounts baked were usually small. In the experimental part of the study, loaves of rye bread were baked using five different types and sizes of oven accommodating 5-22 loaves of rye bread at the one time. The oven type was found not to affect bread structure. The energy consumption for one ovenful varied between 2.4 and 7.0 kWh, i.e. 0.25-0.43 kWh per kilo. When baking rolls (30-140 rolls at a time), the power consumption varied between 1.2 and 3.5 kWh, i.e. 0.32-0.53 kWh per kilo. The other devices included in the comparative study were an upright deep-freezer, a multi-temperature cabinet and a fermenting cabinet. Furthermore, making rolls by hand was compared to using a machine for the same job, and likewise manual

  7. Effect of chemical polishing in titanium materials for low outgassing (United States)

    Ishizawa, K.; Kurisu, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Nomura, T.; Murashige, N.


    A chemical polishing using a nitric acid solution was found to be the most suitable for the titanium materials. 1.8 nm of small surface roughness was observed in a microscopic range in 1 μm square, and 7 nm of a thin oxide layer was shown to exist for the chemically polished titanium. The surface processing for the titanium was developed combining the chemical polishing and the precision cleaning. The chemically polished pure titanium of JIS grade 2 showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10-12 Pams-1 after baking process, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for standard vacuum materials under the same baking condition. Outgassing rates of the titanium is about 1/5 of that for a stainless steel without baking process.

  8. Effect of chemical polishing in titanium materials for low outgassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, K; Kurisu, H; Yamamoto, S [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Nomura, T; Murashige, N [CT division San-ai Plant Industries, Ltd, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821 (Japan)], E-mail:


    A chemical polishing using a nitric acid solution was found to be the most suitable for the titanium materials. 1.8 nm of small surface roughness was observed in a microscopic range in 1 {mu}m square, and 7 nm of a thin oxide layer was shown to exist for the chemically polished titanium. The surface processing for the titanium was developed combining the chemical polishing and the precision cleaning. The chemically polished pure titanium of JIS grade 2 showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10{sup -12} Pams{sup -1} after baking process, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for standard vacuum materials under the same baking condition. Outgassing rates of the titanium is about 1/5 of that for a stainless steel without baking process.

  9. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; gurevich, alex


    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the

  10. Pişirme Öncesinde Hamurun Kısa Süre Bekletilmesinin Pandispanya Nitelikleri Üzerine Etkisi


    Dizlek, Halef; Altan, Ali


    In this study, effects of putting the batter into the oven without resting (directly) and (with) short-time resting (10 min) prior to baking were investigated on quality characteristics of sponge cake (volume, grain structure, softness, moisture content etc.). For this purpose, four baking powders which have different compositions were used at three different levels (0.25%, 1.25%, and 2.25%) in cake batter. As a result of this study, it was determined that, short-time resting of sponge cake b...

  11. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun


    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská


    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  13. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail:; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)


    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  14. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA


    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  15. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum


    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...... no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based...

  16. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit


    of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested....... Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68–89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly...

  17. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures,called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described.Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  18. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucai WANG


    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  19. 食パンのライフサイクルCO_2排出量


    津田, 淑江; 原, 奈都子; 鈴木, 彩葉; 岡本, 邦義; Toshie, Tsuda; Natsuko, Hara; Sayaha, Suzuki; Kuniyoshi , Okamoto


    The purpose of this research decided to make the trial calculation of the C02 emissions in production of bread. The C02 emissions of the energy reason of the bread manufacturing process in a factory and a home were surveyed. The heat source of domestic oven has an electric formula and a gas type. Moreover, the C02 emissions of the automatic bread-baking machine UHome Bakery" were measured. As a result, C02 emissions were large when bread was baked in a domestic steam microwave oven and gas ov...

  20. Interaction between photoresist pretreatment and high-aspect-ratio contact and via hole definition (United States)

    Brown, Kevin C.; Insalaco, Linda J.; Szeto, Elina C.


    The relationship between photoresist treatment prior to etch and subsequent oxide sidewall hole profile is investigated. Etched features were examined immediately after resist pattern definition with post-expose bake, then after oven hard bake or deep UV photostabilization. It was observed that taper of the etched oxide profile depends on pre-treatment temperature. Etch chemistry influences the relative change in taper across a range of pre-treatment temperatures. `Bowing,' as well as reticulated or `burnt' resist is eliminated. Profile variation across the wafer is reduced with deep UV photostabilization. Microscopic etch uniformity (RIE lag) also depends on the interaction between resist pre-treatment and oxide etch chemistry.

  1. Rheological Study of Batter Dough for Yorkshire Pudding Production (United States)

    Migliori, M.; Gabriele, D.; Baldino, N.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.


    Batter dough are widely used in manufacturing of baked goods having different texture characteristics. The analysis of "liquid-like" properties of these systems allows the control of product shape and consistency during production, because of the flow pattern definition. This work deals with "batter" for "Yorkshire Pudding" production, having a characteristic shape mainly due to the combination of shear flow and bubble expansion during baking. Some of mechanical properties can be controlled by varying the recipe as normally done during industrial production. Dynamic measurement and viscosity data at some characteristic temperatures are reported in the view of supporting the modeling of the shape variation under shear flow and bubble expansion.

  2. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;


    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  3. Identification and characterization of starch and inulin modifying network of Aspergillus niger by functional genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Xiao-Lian


    Aspergillus niger produces a wide variety of carbohydrate hydrolytic enzymes which have potential applications in the baking, starch, textile, food and feed industries. The goal of this thesis is to unravel the molecular mechanisms of starch and inulin modifying network of A. niger, in order to impr

  4. Wall conditioning of JET with the ITER-Like Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douai, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Esser, H. G.; Joffrin, E.; Keenan, T.; Knipe, S.; Kogut, D.; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R.A.; Shimada, M.; P. de Vries,


    The initial conditioning cycle of \\{JET\\} İLW\\} is analysed and compared with restart and operation in 2008 with a carbon dominated wall. Comparable water and oxygen decay times are observed during bake-out in both cases. Despite a 2 × 10−3 mbar l/s leak rate duri

  5. Infrared radiation industrial application and economic benefits. (United States)

    IR heating has been accepted to be one of the important means for cooking, drying, roasting, baking, blanching and pasteurization of food and agricultural products. This chapter reviews the scientific developments in IR applications, demonstrates the status of selected industrial and pilot scale IR ...

  6. "Supermarket Column Chromatography of Leaf Pigments" Revisited: Simple and Ecofriendly Separation of Plant Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Flavonoids from Green and Red Leaves (United States)

    Dias, Alice M.; Ferreira, Maria La Salete


    A simple and ecofriendly procedure was developed in order to prepare extracts from red and green leaves. This procedure enables the separation of yellow, green, and red band pigments and optimizes the previously reported baking soda "supermarket column". The same extract also led to a novel and colorful potato starch column, which can…

  7. Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells (United States)

    Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T.


    In this demonstration, the students use their knowledge of electrochemistry to determine that tarnish can be removed from silverware by electrochemically converting it back to silver using items commonly available in the kitchen: aluminum foil and baking soda. In addition to using this system as an example of a galvanic cell, an electrolytic cell…

  8. Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions (United States)

    Kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. This research investigated the protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. T...

  9. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar (United States)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  10. Stop the Cravings! (United States)

    ... your cravings. Yearn for potato chips? Buy a brand that's low-fat or fat-free. Desire something crunchy? Skip the chips: try fruit or a salad packed with crisp greens and veggies. Want something sweet? How about baking an apple or even roasting some veggies? Roasting brings out ...

  11. Evaluation of the microbial quality of Tajik sambusa and control of Clostridium perfringens germination and outgrowth by buffered sodium citrate and potassium lactate. (United States)

    Yarbaeva, Shakhlo N; Velugoti, Padmanabha R; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Albrecht, Julie A


    Clostridium perfringens spore destruction, aerobic plate counts (APCs), and counts of Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli during baking of sambusa (a traditional Tajik food) were evaluated. Control of germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores in sambusa during cooling at room or refrigerated temperatures was evaluated using organic acid salts (buffered sodium citrate [Ional] and 1 and 2% potassium lactate, wt/wt). Sambusa were prepared with 40 g of either inoculated or noninoculated meat and baked for 45 min at 180 degrees C. For evaluation of destruction of C. perfringens spores during heating and germination and outgrowth of spores during cooling, ground beef was inoculated and mixed with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and E. coli were enumerated in noninoculated sambusa before and after baking and after cooling at room or refrigeration temperatures. After baking, APCs and Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts were reduced by 4.32, 2.55, and 1.96 log CFU/g, respectively. E. coli counts were below detectable levels in ground beef and sambusa samples. Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, and E. coli counts were below detectable levels (sodium citrate controlled C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth (0.25 log CFU/g), whereas incorporation of up to 2% (wt/wt) potassium lactate did not prevent C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth. Incorporation of organic acid salts at appropriate concentrations can prevent germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens in improperly cooled sambusa.

  12. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia


    A pressure of 5 x 10-11 Torr has been obtained repreatedly in this pilot section of the ISR vacuum system. The pilot section is 45 m long is pumped by 9 sputter-ion pumps pf 350 l/s pumping speed, and is baked out at 200 degrees C before each pump down.

  13. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods. (United States)

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P


    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (Pcooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked.

  14. Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin: Isomalt Blends (United States)

    Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin:Isomalt Blends Rebecca McKemie1, Ruthann B. Swanson1, Elizabeth M. Savage2 and Hong Zhuang2 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605; 2ARS-USDA, Athens, GA 30605 Modified baked product availability may reduce simple ...

  15. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue? (United States)

    Moroni, Alice V; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K


    The increasing demand for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is raising the need for new approaches in GF bread-making. Sourdough is the foremost fermentation used for baking purposes and it has been proven to be ideal for improving the texture, palatability, aroma, shelf life and nutritional value of wheat and rye breads. These characteristic features derive from the complex metabolic activities of the sourdough-resident lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, e.g. acidification, production of exopolysaccharides, proteolytic- amylolytic- and phytase activity, and production of antimicrobial substances. These effects have been extensively studied and well described for traditional baking, whereas little is known about the role of sourdough in GF baking. Yet, the microbiological and qualitative characterisation of local GF fermented products indicate an overlap with the microbiota of wheat/rye fermentation and suggest that the positive metabolic activities of the sourdough microbiota are still retained during fermentation of GF crops. Thus, the use of sourdough in GF baking may be the new frontier for improving the quality, safety and acceptability of GF bread.

  16. Publikuarmastus hotellitubades / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-


    NU Performance Festival IV: Külalislahkusest / On Hospitality Tallinnas Viru hotellis 7.-10.11. 2011, kuraatorid Silke Bake ja Peter Stamer (Saksamaa). Heine Røsdal Avdali ja Yukiko Shinozaki lavastusest "Field Works - hotel". Kümne riigi kunstniku etendatavast performance'ist "The Love Piece"

  17. A Palatable Introduction to and Demonstration of Statistical Main Effects and Interactions (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam


    Because concrete explanations in a familiar context facilitate understanding, we illustrate the concept of an interaction via a baking analogy to provide students with food for thought. The demonstration initially introduces the concepts of independent and dependent variables using a chocolate chip cookie recipe. The demonstration provides an…

  18. Picture Book Power: Connecting Children's Literature and Mathematics (United States)

    Shatzer, Joyce


    The author's experiences in using children's literature to engage her students in mathematics are described in this article. Using the book "The Wolf's Chicken Stew", the author's class participated in an interactive read-aloud, graphed favorite foods from the story, and finally followed a recipe to bake chocolate chip cookies. Reasons for making…

  19. Crispiness of snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtendonk, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Hamer, R.J.


    A batter is provided comprising flour, water and optionally starch, wherein the batter comprises glutenin particles having a volume surface averaged particle size smaller than 10 [mu]m. A batter according to the invention comprises flour and optionally starch, and optionally baking powder and salt.

  20. Batter, food product having a coating compromising the batter and method of making batter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtendonk, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Hamer, R.J.


    A batter is provided comprising flour, water and optionally starch, wherein the batter comprises glutenin particles having a volume surface averaged particle size smaller than 10 µm. A batter according to the invention comprises flour and optionally starch, and optionally baking powder and salt. At

  1. Fabrication of thin SU-8 cantilevers: initial bending, release and time stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Haefliger, D.; Boisen, Anja


    , the rotational deformation at the clamping point allowed a qualitative assessment of the device release from the fluorocarbon-coated substrate. The change of these parameters during several months of storage at ambient temperature was investigated in detail. The introduction of a long hard bake in an oven after...

  2. Alpha-Amylase (United States)


    Both (Porcine and bacterial) starch degrading enzymes highly valued by the biotechnology industry. (Porcine) A major target for protein engineering and the study of diabetes, obesity and dental care. (Bacterial) Major industrial and biotechnology interest used in brewing, baking, and food processing. World's number one industrial protein.

  3. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.


    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  4. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young


    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (pbamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  5. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and anti-asthmatic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Jan


    Many asthmatic patients experience shortness of breath or wheezing, when exposed to cold air, or irritants like baking fumes, exhaust gases or cigarette smoke. This clinical phenomenon has been called bronchial hypemsponsiveness (BHR), which is defined as an exaggerated broncho-obstructive response

  6. Multivariate analysis of 2-DE protein patterns - Practical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Grove, H.;


    Practical approaches to the use of multivariate data analysis of 2-DE protein patterns are demonstrated by three independent strategies for the image analysis and the multivariate analysis on the same set of 2-DE data. Four wheat varieties were selected on the basis of their baking quality. Two...

  7. Funtionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin: Isomalt blends in Oatmeal Cookies (United States)

    Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin:Isomalt blends in Oatmeal Cookies Ruthann B. Swanson1, Rebecca McKemie1, Elizabeth M. Savage2 and Hong Zhuang2 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605; 2ARS-USDA, Athens, GA 30605 Availability of reduced-in-sugar baked products with quality characteristics...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kozlova


    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.



    Kozlova, T.


    Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  10. 78 FR 79391 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 22-Chicago, Illinois, Notification of Proposed Production Activity... (United States)


    ... push nuts; lock washers; spring washers; washer packages; rivets; E-rings; retaining rings; quarter turn retainers; catch springs; flap springs; springs; torque springs; wire racks; bake pans; pizza pans... replacement kits; filter cover assemblies; floor nozzles; front covers; front wheel packages; guards;...

  11. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by... ingredients as prescribed by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The finished food is frozen. (2) The...

  12. 莲子绿豆糕的制作工艺研究%Research on Production Technology of Lotus Seed Green Bean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以绿豆、莲子为主要原料,制作一种新型糕点莲子绿豆糕。以莲子粉与绿豆粉比例、加糖量、加油量、烤制时间、烤制温度为单因素,以正交试验确定最佳制作工艺条件。试验结果表明,莲子绿豆糕最佳工艺条件为:烤制温度为130℃、烤制时间为30 min、莲子粉与绿豆粉比例为1∶2、加油量11 mL。%Green beans,lotus seeds were used to produce a new type of cake as the main raw material.According to the orthogonal experiment , superior production conditions were obtained taking the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds ,the amount of sugar ,the amount of edible oil ,the baking time and the baking temperature as the single factor. The results of the experiments showed that optimum conditions were that baking temperature was 130℃,baking time was 30 min,the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds was 1∶2,the amount of edible oil was 11 mL.

  13. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M


    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  14. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji


    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  15. Festival murrab külalislahkuse barjääre / Oliver Õunmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunmaa, Oliver


    Kunstifestival "NU Performance Festival IV: Külalislahkusest" Tallinnas Viru hotellis 7.-10. novembrini 2011. Tutvustavad kuraatorid Silke Bake ja Peter Stamer (Saksamaa) ning Tallinn 2011 projektijuht Kristiina Kütt. Esineb ligi 50 välis- ja kodumaist etendus- ja tegevuskunstnikku

  16. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit


    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...

  17. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  18. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia


    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  19. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.


    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  20. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun


    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.