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Sample records for bakelite

  1. Recycling Waste Bakelite As A Carbon Resource In Ironmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ransford Dankwah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bakelite is a 3-dimensional cross-linked network structured thermosetting polymer which is difficult to recycle after use. However it contains high levels of carbon and CaCO3 that can be recovered for use as reductant and fluxing agent in ironmaking. In this work we report the use of post-consumer bakelite as reductant for the production of metallic iron from iron oxide in a horizontal tube furnace through the composite pellet approach.Gas emission studies were conducted by pyrolysing raw bakelite at different temperatures within the temperature range 1200-1600 C in a horizontal tube furnace. Following thiscomposite pellets were then formed from mixtures of iron oxide and post-consumer bakelite.The iron oxide-bakelite composites were heated from room temperature to 1200 C and then between 1200-1600 C in a continuous stream of pure argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared IR gas analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its oxygen content using a LECO oxygennitrogen analyser. The extent of reduction after ten minutes was determined from the oxygen content. Gas emission studies revealed the emission of large volumes of the reductant gases CO and CH4along with CO2.It is further demonstrated that post-consumer bakelite is effective at reducing iron oxide to produce metallic iron.

  2. Humidifier for RPC gas mixture for bakelite RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, S.T.; Sehgal, R.; Pant, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bakelite RPCs are very sensitive to environmental parameters, especially the relative humidity (RH) and temperature. As the name suggests, bakelite RPCs are basically fabricated from high quality 2 mm thick high pressure laminates (HPLs). For operating the RPCs in avalanche mode of operation, a typical mixture of R134a. Iso-butane and SF 6 is used in a particular combination of 96.2 : 3.5 : 0.3 in order to achieve an optimal signal output. If the gas mixture inside the gas-gaps has a different humidity, which in case of dry gases is typically of the order of 0.4 - 0.5 ppm, then a drastic change in the humidity inside and outside of the bakelite sheet starts affecting the resistivity of bakelite which in turn has an adverse effect in its performance characteristics. Due to variation of the bakelite resistivity, electric field inside the gas gaps of RPC changes in an uncontrolled fashion which is very unsatisfactory in the proportional mode of operation. Simple estimation for RPC operating at high rate (∼ 1 kHz/cm 2 ) shows that variation in resistivity can cause noticeable voltage drop in electrodes which is resulted by the flow of current across the plates

  3. The transformation of waste Bakelite to replace natural fine aggregate in cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopagon Usahanunth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakelite material has been used to produce the various components for cars and consumer goods industry in Thailand. The growth of Bakelite consumption increases Bakelite waste. Bakelite waste is prohibited from disposing of direct landfilling and open burning because of the improper disposal and emission reasons. A large amount of this waste needs the large safe space of warehouse area for keeping which becomes a waste management problem. Size reduction by milling machine is helpful for waste handling and storing, however, the post-milling waste Bakelite plastic utilization shall be studied to maintain the waste storing capacity. There are some studies of the milling machine used for waste plastic size reduction. However, the particular study of milling machine application for waste size reduction and its milling waste utilization is still insufficient in Thailand. The purpose of this research is the use of waste Bakelite aggregate milling machine for Bakelite waste size reduction and use of the post-milling waste Bakelite as a fine aggregate to replace natural sand material in cement mortar. The waste Bakelite fine aggregate (WBFA was mixed in cement mortar mixture with the proportion 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% by volume for cement mortar sample preparation. The mortar sample was tested for compressive strength follow ASTM standard. The compressive test result of mortar samples will be compared between conventional mortar (0% WBFA and waste Bakelite mortar (WBM as well as comparing with the mortar standard. From an analysis of the sample test data found that the WBFA content in cement mortar mixture can predict the strength of WBM. The compressive strength of WBM at 28 days age with the fraction of WBFA is not exceeded 11.03%, and 23.08% respectively can be met the mortar standard according to the equation. The utilization of WBM to develop mortar non-structural mortar product can be usable from a technical point of view.

  4. Bakelite chambers for time-of-flight measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Górski, M; Królikowski, J

    1999-01-01

    We report on the search of composite organic materials with the volume resistivity ranging from 10 sup 8 to 10 sup 1 sup 1 OMEGA cm. Materials having resistivity in this range may be used for electrodes of thin gap Parallel Plate Avalanche Chambers. Gas detectors of such structure and operated at increased gas pressure allow, potentially, a sub-nanosecond time resolution. Using bakelite-like material with electrical properties well tuned during manufacturing opens the possibility to overcome limitations related to the semi-conductive glass employed usually for ultrafast gas detectors of parallel plate structure for time-of-flight technique.

  5. The bakelite for the RPCs of the experiment CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Mognaschi, E R; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2000-01-01

    Results from aging tests on the bakelite used for the CMS RPCs are presented. Samples of melaminic bakelite were exposed to a heavy gamma and neutron radiation. Data on the bulk resistivity were collected while accumulating gamma and neutron doses and particles fluence up to values well beyond those expected in 10 years of RPCs operation in the barrel region of CMS. The test with gamma radiation was performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) with a 20 Ci /sup 137/Cs source. A total absorbed dose of 5 Gy was accumulated during an irradiation period of about one month. The test with both neutron and gamma radiation was held at the Triga Mark II 250 kW reactor located in Pavia. A total of 80 h of exposure were accumulated integrating a neutron and gamma dose of about 80 Gy and a fast neutron fluence of some 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -2/. Experimental data on dose rate in both the test facilities have been compared to simulation output and show a good agreement. (4 refs).

  6. An extensive aging study of bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, Giovanni; Dominici, Daniele; Ganis, G; Messi, R; Passaleva, G; Santovetti, E; Veltri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present recent results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility, on two bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. With a method based on a model describing the behavior of an RPC exposed to a large particle flux, we have periodically measured the electrode resistivity rho of the two detectors over 3 years. We observed a large increase of rho with time, from initial values of about 10**1**0 Omega cm to more than 200 multiplied by 10**1**0 Omega cm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capability, from about 3 kHz/cm**2 to less than 200 Hz/cm **2, was observed. The reversibility of the process, using a humid gas mixture, has also been studied.

  7. Long term performances of OPERA bakelite RPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Cazes, A.; Corradi, G.; D'Incecco, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Felici, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Gustavino, C.; Klicek, B.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Paoloni, A.; Papalino, G.; Stanco, L.; Stipcevic, M.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2012-01-01

    OPERA is an experiment dedicated to the observation of νμ into ντ oscillations through τ appearance exploiting the CNGS beam. The experiment is composed by two identical super-modules, each with a target section (made of emulsion/lead bricks alternated with a scintillator Target Tracker) and a muon spectrometer (instrumented with bakelite RPCs and drift tubes).The RPCs are operated in streamer mode with the gas mixture Ar/C2H2F4/isoC4H10/SF6=75.4/20/4/0.6. The present performances of the RPC detectors are presented and the aging status of the system after four years of operation is described. The sample of events induced by the CNGS neutrino beam as well as a large sample of cosmic rays have also been used to study general properties of streamer-operated RPCs.

  8. Final results from an extensive ageing test of bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Dominici, Daniele; Messi, R; Passaleva, G; Santovetti, E; Veltri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistivity rho of the two RPC prototypes over 3 years. We observed a large spontaneous increase of rho with time, from the initial value of about 10**1**0 Omega cm to more than 200 multiplied by 10**1**0 Omega cm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm**2 to less than 200 Hz/cm**2, was observed; the reversibility of the process, using a humid gas mixture, has also been studied. We also present a study of the effects of humidity on the bakelite resistivity using two 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 bakelite samples.

  9. Molecular dynamical and structural studies for the bakelite by neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Neutron reaction cross sections were determined by transmission and scattering measurements, to study the dynamics and molecular structure of calcined bakelites. Total cross sections were determined, with a deviation smaller than 5%, from the literature values, by neutron transmission method and a specially devised approximation. These cross sections were then correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. Double differential scattering cross sections, scattering law values and frequency distributions were determined with 15% error using the neutron inelastic scattering method. The frequency distributions as well as the overall results from all experimental techniques used in this work allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons, for calcined bakelite at 800 0 C. (author)

  10. Oxygen ion implantation induced microstructural changes and electrical conductivity in Bakelite RPC detector material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. V. Aneesh, E-mail: aneesh1098@gmail.com; Ravikumar, H. B., E-mail: hbr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Ranganathaiah, C., E-mail: cr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Govt. Research Centre, Sahyadri Educational Institutions, Mangalore-575007 (India); Kumarswamy, G. N., E-mail: kumy79@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangalore-560035 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In order to explore the structural modification induced electrical conductivity, samples of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector materials were exposed to 100 keV Oxygen ion in the fluences of 10{sup 12}, 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion implantation induced microstructural changes have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime and its intensity shows the deposition of high energy interior track and chain scission leads to the formation of radicals, secondary ions and electrons at lower ion implantation fluences (10{sup 12} to10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) followed by cross-linking at 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence due to the radical reactions. The reduction in electrical conductivity of Bakelite detector material is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate implantation energy and fluence of Oxygen ion on polymer based Bakelite RPC detector material may reduce the leakage current, improves the efficiency, time resolution and thereby rectify the aging crisis of the RPC detectors.

  11. The performance of RPCs with bakelite electrodes of various resistivity under high radiation fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Górski, M; Królikowski, J

    2000-01-01

    Three medium-size RPCs with bakelite electrodes having resistivity of 5*10**8 Ohm*cm, 5*10**9 Ohm*cm and 3*10**10 Ohm*cm were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN in 1997, 1998 and 1999. The 2 mm gap modules working in an Inverted Double Gap configuration filled with gas mixtures containing freon C2H2F4 and operated in avalanche mode exhibit wide efficiency plateau, good time resolution and small time walk due to rate variation even at intensities as high as 1 kHz/cm**2/gap of a continuous radiation flux.

  12. Comparative study of 150 keV Ar+ and O+ ion implantation induced structural modification on electrical conductivity in Bakelite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh Kumar, K. V.; Krishnaveni, S.; Asokan, K.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    A comparative study of 150 keV argon (Ar+) and oxygen (O+) ion implantation induced microstructural modifications in Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector material at different implantation fluences have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and its intensity (I3) upon lower implantation fluences can be interpreted as the cross-linking and the increased local temperature induced diffusion followed by trapping of ions in the interior polymer voids. The increased o-Ps lifetime (τ3) at higher O+ ion implantation fluences indicates chain scission owing to the oxidation and track formation. This is also justified by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) results. The modification in the microstructure and electrical conductivity of Bakelite materials are more upon implantation of O+ ions than Ar+ ions of same energy and fluences. The reduced electrical conductivity of Bakelite polymer material upon ion implantation of both the ions is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate energy and fluence of implanting ions might reduce the leakage current and hence improve the performance of Bakelite RPC detectors.

  13. New results from an extensive aging test on bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067339; De Capua, Stefano; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele; Carboni, Giovanni; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Capua, Stefano De; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two single-gap RPC prototypes, developed for the LHCb Muon System. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistance R of the two RPC prototypes over three years: we observe a large spontaneous increase of R with time, from the initial value of about 2 MOhm to more than 250 MOhm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm^2 to less than 0.15 kHz/cm^2 is also found.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of phenol/formaldehyde nanocomposites: Studying the effect of incorporating reactive rubber nanoparticles or Cloisite-30B nanoclay on the mechanical properties, morphology and thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S.E. Solyman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, phenol/formaldehyde nanocomposites were synthesized using reactive rubber nanoparticles (RRNP and cloisite30B nanoclay with different percentages and were fully investigated. A little amount of these nanomaterials enhanced the mechanical properties of the produced composites. This enhancement is attributed to the interaction of these nanomaterials with the bakelite matrix. In bakelite/RRNP, the mechanical properties enhancement is due to the chemical connection of RRNP to the bakelite matrix while in bakelite/Cloisite30B, this enhancement is due to polar/polar interaction. It was observed that the composites exhibited an intercalated disordered structure by means of Xray diffraction (XRD and transmission electronic microscopy. The crosslinking density of the bakelite network was greatly influenced by the presence and type of nanomaterial that was added to the resin. The thermal stability was investigated with TGA/DSC which proved that these nanocomposite are (10–20% more thermally stable than neat Bakelite resin.

  15. Effective atomic numbers of some H-, C-, N-and O-based composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The differential incoherent scattering cross-sections of the composite materials of interest measured at these three angles in the same set-up and substituted in this expression would yield their effective atomic number at the three energies. Results obtained in this manner for bakelite, nylon, epoxy, teflon, perspex and some ...

  16. Guitarra eléctrica Rickenbacker 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    La propuesta consiste en un rediseño de una guitarra para el año 2015, haciendo homenaje a un modelo anterior. El modelo seleccionado es un icono en la historia de Rickenbacker: la Bakelite Model B Spanish Guitar. Facultad de Bellas Artes

  17. 78 FR 38587 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Reasonably Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Newtown, Sumitomo Bakelite North America, Incorporated, located in Manchester, and Cyro Industries in... United States. EPA will submit a report containing this action and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to...

  18. The strength research of the adhesive joints of sheet structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research results of stress-strained condition of constructional sheet materials are given in the article. The strength dependence on type, configuration and sizes of adhesive joints is analyzed. The research of the strength dependence was made on the samples from bakelite plywood with the main types of adhesive joints ...

  19. Thermal stability of phenolic based binders and frictional performance of brake composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudhota, Madhuri

    To enhance frictional performance, wear and to obtain improved thermal stability with a reduction of noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and provide environment friendly brakes for the increasing needs of the population's comfort and safety requirements this study was initiated. The thermal stability of two different phenolic resins as binder on the frictional performance of brake composite material was studied. The two phenolic resins used are Durite phenolic resin and Bakelite phenolic resins. They were tested for friction, wear, thermal stability and degradation. This was executed by using a universal friction tester (UFT) for testing friction and wear, then on thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the TGA results indicate more mass loss of NB samples contrary to test results. When individual materials were heated, Bakelite lost less mass compared to Durite. The friction test indicates more friction when used the NB samples but they had less wear and more stability nevertheless this could vary for other compositions and conditions.

  20. Performances of Resistive Plate chamber Operated in Avalanche Mode under 137Cs Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Gianini, Gabriele; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Ranieri, Antonio; Ratti, Sergio P; Romano, Francesco; Vitulo, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    A 2 mm gas RPC with bakelite plates has been operated in avalanche mode under 137Cs source irradiation. We report on measurements of the efficiency in cosmic rays detection and of the charge developed in the gap, performed for different gas mixtures. We show that C2H2F4 based mixtures exhibit a wide full efficiency plateau with low streamer probability, while the argon based mixtures allow to reduce the detector power consumption

  1. Feasibility of theoretical formulas on the anisotropy of shale based on laboratory measurement and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianyong; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Luan, Xinyuan; Ding, Pinbo

    2015-04-01

    This paper designs a total angle ultrasonic test method to measure the P-wave velocities (vp), vertically and horizontally polarized shear wave velocities (vsv and vsh) of all angles to the bedding plane on different kinds of strong anisotropic shale. Analysis has been made of the comparisons among the observations and corresponding calculated theoretical curves based on the varied vertical transversely isotropic (TI) medium theories, for which discussing the real similarity with the characterizations of the TI medium on the scope of dynamic behaviors, and further conclude a more accurate and precise theory from the varied theoretical formulas as well as its suitable range to characterize the strong anisotropy of shale. At a low phase angle (theta Berryman expressions provide a relatively much better agreement with the measured data for vp, vsv on shale. Also all of the three theories lead to more deviations in the approximation of the vsv than for the vp and vsh. Furthermore, we created synthetic comparative ideal physical models (from coarse bakelite, cambric bakelite, and paper bakelite) as supplementary models to natural shale, which are used to model shale with different anisotropy, to research the effects of the anisotropic parameters upon the applicability of the former optimal TI theories, especially for the vsv. We found the when the P-wave anisotropy, S-wave anisotropy ɛ, γ > 0.25, the Berrryman curve will be the best fit for the vp, vsv on shale.

  2. Characteristics analysis on a superconductor resonance coil WPT system according to cooling vessel materials in different distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In-Sung, E-mail: no21park@hanmail.net; Lee, Yu-Kyeong; Choi, Hyo-Sang, E-mail: hyosang@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • WPT using the superconductor coil was needed research for cooling vessel. FRP, bakelite, polystyrene, aluminum, and iron were applied as the cooling vessel material to analyze the WPT distance efficiency. • When the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils was 2000 mm, FRP being used for the cooling vessel made the transmission efficiency higher than any other materials. The efficiency and distance of sending power can be improved in the superconductor coil if the cooling vessel is made with FRP. - Abstract: The interest in wireless power transfer (WPT) that can send power without using wires has been increasing recently. Especially, there is a great interest in the wireless power devices for portable IT devices. The WPT devices that have been developed so far use the magnetic induction method, and they are not active due to their distance problem. A magnetic resonance WPT method was developed and has been actively researched to resolve this problem. A superconductor coil was applied in this study to increase the efficiency of the magnetic resonance WPT. FRP, bakelite, polystyrene, aluminum, and iron were applied as the cooling vessel material to analyze the WPT distance. The distance between the transmitter and receiver coils started from 800 mm and was increased by 200 mm. The reflection coefficient was measured at each distance. As a result, FRP, bakelite, plastic PVC, polystyrene of the reflection coefficient was similar. From among these FRP being used for the cooling vessel made the transmission characteristics higher than any other materials when the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils was 2,000 mm. On the other hand, the reflection coefficient dropped when iron was used. It is estimated based on the experimental results that the wireless power transmission characteristics and distance of sending power can be improved in the superconductor coil if the cooling vessel is made with FRP.

  3. The trigger of the ALICE dimuon arm architecture and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Barret, V; Bastid, N; Blanchard, G; Chiavassa, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, Philippe; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Dupieux, P; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Gallio, M; Lamoine, L; Luquin, Lionel; Manso, F; Métivier, V; Musso, A; Piccotti, A; Rahmani, A; Ramillien, V; Royer, L; Roig, O; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, Ermanno

    1999-01-01

    The trigger system of the ALICE dimuon arm is based on resistive plate chambers (RPC). Besides a short description of the trigger system, the test results of a RPC prototype with electrodes made of low resistivity bakelite ( equivalent to 3.10/sup 9/ Omega .cm) are presented. Rate capability, time resolution and cluster size have been measured for the RPC operated both in streamer and in avalanche mode. Although the rate capability is obviously higher in avalanche mode (few kHz/cm/sup 2/), remarkable results have been achieved even in streamer mode (several hundreds of Hz/cm/sup 2/). (6 refs).

  4. Design and Fabrication of Graphene Reinforced Polymer Conductive Patch-Based Inset Fed Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, A.; Kannan, P. Muthu; Shankar, P.

    This work explores the design and fabrication of graphene reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) patch-based microstrip antenna. Primarily, antenna was designed at 6GHz frequency and simulation results were obtained using Ansoft HFSS tool. Later fabrication of antenna was carried out with graphene-PVDF films as conducting patch deposited on bakelite substrate and copper as ground plane. Graphene-PVDF films were prepared using solvent casting process. The radiation efficiency of fabricated microstrip patch antenna was 48% entailing it to be adapted as a practically functional antenna. Both simulated and the practical results were compared and analyzed.

  5. The RPC system of the OPERA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Cararra, E.; Castellani, L.; Cazes, A.; Corradi, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Giovanni, A.; Dusini, S.; Felici, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, A.; Lippi, I.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Paoloni, A.; Papalino, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugoniaev, V.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2009-05-01

    The OPERA experiment is designed to study the ν→ν oscillation observing the ν appearance in a pure ν beam over a base line of 732 km from CERN to Gran Sasso Laboratory. The apparatus consists of a lead/emulsion-film target complemented by electronic detectors and muon spectrometers for muon charge and momentum measurements. The tracking inside the magnets is provide by Bakelite RPC chambers in a large scale application. The commissioning of the RPC system ended in August 2006. The paper present the layout of the RPC system and its performances.

  6. High-Rate Glass Resistive Plate Chambers For LHC Muon Detectors Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Laktineh, I; Cauwenbergh, S; Combret, C; Crotty, I; Haddad, Y; Grenier, G; Guida, R; Kieffer, R; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Schirra, F; Seguin, N; Tytgat, M; Van der Donckt, M; Wang, Y; Zaganidis, N

    2012-01-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detector in LHC experiments is behind the absence of such detectors in the high TJ regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10ID O.cm) could be an adequate solution to equip the high TJ regions extending thus both the trigger efficiency and the physics performance. Different beam tests with single and multi-gap configurations using the new glass have shown that such detectors can operate at few thousands Hzlcm2 with high efficiency( > 90%).

  7. 1. Airborne 2. Hangár

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Hangár, Bakelit Multi Art Center 7th L1 Dance Festival, Budapest, Hungary Installation, 2008 AIRBORNE (projection-sound-monitor installation) was sited in the Hangár, B.A.C. as part of the 7th L1 Dance Festival in Budapest, Hungary (March 2008). This work continues Johnson's interest in and use of 'found' material (16mm wind tunnel footage), and performative methods (sound recording of Channel 9 on United Airlines). This immersive work explores the turbulence of suspension and sets ...

  8. Effect of the linseed oil surface treatment on the performance of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Braj, A.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of several bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) without the linseed oil treatment of the internal electrodes will be presented. Efficiency, collected charge and cluster size distributions will be compared to the ones of a standard oiled RPC. Currents and single rate are the quantities most affected by the surface treatment of the electrodes beyond the optical/mechanical properties. A factor 4 less in currents and at least a factor 10 less in single rate is achieved using standard oiled RPCs operated in streamer mode. (orig.)

  9. Determination of scatter fractions of some materials by experimental studies and Monte Carlo calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Meric, N; Bor, D

    1999-01-01

    Scatter fractions have been determined experimentally for lucite, polyethylene, polypropylene, aluminium and copper of varying thicknesses using a polyenergetic broad X-ray beam of 67 kVp. Simulation of the experiment has been carried out by the Monte Carlo technique under the same input conditions. Comparison of the measured and predicted data with each other and with the previously reported values has been given. The Monte Carlo calculations have also been carried out for water, bakelite and bone to examine the dependence of scatter fraction on the density of the scatterer.

  10. The Steerable Microcatheter: A New Device for Selective Catheterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyama, Takeshi [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yoshida, Daisuke [Sapporo Yamanoue Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sakuhara, Yusuke, E-mail: yusaku@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Morita, Ryo; Abo, Daisuke; Kudo, Kohsuke [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    The steerable microcatheter (SwiftNINJA, Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo, Japan), which has a remote-controlled flexible tip manipulated using a dial in the handgrip, was recently developed and delivered to the market. This device enables the user to change the angle of the microcatheter tip manually, and potentially makes selective catheterisation easier. We evaluated its unique characteristics and utility in selective catheterisation and coil embolization. This article describes: (1) the advantages of this device in catheterisations involving acute angle branches, and (2) a new technique of compact coil packing with the use of intentional folding by the bendable tip of the catheter.

  11. The Steerable Microcatheter: A New Device for Selective Catheterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Takeshi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Sakuhara, Yusuke; Morita, Ryo; Abo, Daisuke; Kudo, Kohsuke

    2017-01-01

    The steerable microcatheter (SwiftNINJA, Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo, Japan), which has a remote-controlled flexible tip manipulated using a dial in the handgrip, was recently developed and delivered to the market. This device enables the user to change the angle of the microcatheter tip manually, and potentially makes selective catheterisation easier. We evaluated its unique characteristics and utility in selective catheterisation and coil embolization. This article describes: (1) the advantages of this device in catheterisations involving acute angle branches, and (2) a new technique of compact coil packing with the use of intentional folding by the bendable tip of the catheter.

  12. Tests on OPERA RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Borsato, E.; Brugnera, R.; Buccheri, E.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Corradi, G.; D'Incecco, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mastropietro, F.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zauner, B.

    2006-01-01

    OPERA is an experiment for the observation of ν μ into ν τ oscillations through τ appearance using a 730 km baseline ν μ beam from CERN to Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with high resistivity bakelite RPCs operated in streamer mode. The RPC installation ended in March 2005. As the detectors will be inaccessible during the operation, we performed long term operation as well as quality control tests. The results of the long term and of the Quality Control tests are presented

  13. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1 kHz/cm**2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high- radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50 Hz/cm**2, compared to only 5 Hz/cm**2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100 V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve.

  14. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Ahn, S.H.; Bahk, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Hong, S.J.; Kang, D.H.; Kang, T.I.; Kim, T.J.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.U.; Koo, D.G.; Lee, H.W.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.J.; Lim, J.K.; Moon, D.H.; Nam, S.K.; Oh, J.K.; Park, W.J.; Rhee, J.T.; Ryu, M.S.; Shim, H.H.; Sim, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1kHz/cm2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high-radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50Hz/cm2, compared to only 5Hz/cm2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve

  15. Upgrade to the front-end electronics of the BESIII muon identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jianbo; Liang Hao; Xiang Shitao

    2014-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) built from a new type of Bakelite developed at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences have been used in the BESIII Muon identification system for several years without linseed oil coating, but characteristic aging performances were observed. To adapt to the RPCs in the aging state, the front-end electronics have been upgraded by enhancing the front-end protection, improving the threshold setting circuit, and separating power supplies of the comparator and the field programmable gate array (FPGA). Improvements in system stability, front-end protection and threshold consistency have been achieved. In this paper, the system upgrade and the test results are described in detail. (authors)

  16. Study of the impact of environmental parameters on the operation of CMS RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Assran, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The muon system of the CMS experiment relies on Drift Tubes (DT), Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). RPCs are dedicated for the first level muon trigger and they are characterized by bakelite electrodes delimited in a specialized gas volume filled with operational gas mixture. This analysis has been done for the RPC chambers installed in CMS experiment at CERN. The Currents of CMS RPCs chambers are analyzed as a function of environmental parameters such as Temperature, Humidity and pressure, which are important for the operation of the muon detector system. A novel Neural Network approach has been used to analyze the data and to build a model using experimental measurements and combining the results of the simulations. Data from RPC Chambers in CMS experiment are taken and compared to the results from neural Network.

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR MPA USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATE MATERIALS FOR WLAN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aravindraj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MPA is designed using different substrate materials for analyzing the performance of the MPA. Alumina (Al2O3, Bakelite, Beryllium oxide (BeO, Gallium Arsenide (GaAs, RT-Duroid and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 are the six different substrate used in the design. The size of the rectangular microstrip patch antenna varies according to the dielectric constant of substrate materials used. The operating frequency taken for this analysis is 5.8 GHz. The proposed design provides the study on the performance of rectangular microstrip patch antenna for different substrate materials using the same frequency. This study conveys that which substrate material provides better performance. Moreover, this comparative study conveys that which substrate material provides better performance. The simulation parameters are investigated using HFSS.

  18. Performances of RPCs in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Robert

    2003-09-26

    The BaBar experiment uses a big system based on RPC detectors to discriminate muons from pions and to identify neutral hadrons. About 2000 m{sup 2} of RPC chambers have been working at SLAC since the end of 1998. We report on the performances of the RPC chambers focusing on new problems discovered in the RPC behavior. These problems started very soon after the installation of the chambers on the detector when the high ambient temperature triggered an increase of dark currents inside the chambers and a reduction of the efficiency. Careful analysis of the BaBar data and dedicated R&D efforts in the laboratory have helped to identify the main source of the trouble in the linseed oil varnish on the bakelite electrodes.

  19. Performance and simulation of a double-gap resistive plate chamber in the avalanche mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong Byung Sik; Hong Seong Jong; Ito, M; Kang, T I; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee Hyup Woo; Lee, K B; Lee Kyong Sei; Lee Seok Jae; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee June Tak; Ryu, M S; Sim Kwang Souk

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the time and the charge signals of a prototype double-gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chamber was built with relatively low-resistivity bakelite. The time and the charge results demonstrate that the high- voltage plateau, which satisfies various CMS requirements for the efficiency, the noise cluster rate, the fraction of the large signal, and the streamer probability, can be extended at least up to 400 V with the present design. In addition, a simple avalanche multiplication model is studied in detail. The model can reproduce the experimental charge spectra reasonably well. The charge information enables us to estimate the effective Townsend coefficient in avalanche-mode operation.

  20. Performances of RPCs in the BaBar experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Band, H.; Bionta, R.; Brau, J.; Brigljevic, V.; Buzzo, A.; Calcaterra, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cartaro, T.; Cavallo, N.; Crosetti, G.; De Nardo, G.; De Sangro, R.; Eichenbaum, A.; Falciai, D.; Fabozzi, F.; Ferroni, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, F.; Frey, R.; Johnson, J.; Gatto, C.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Lange, D.; Lista, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lu, C.; Neal, H.; Neri, N.; Macri, M.; Messener, B.; Monge, M.R.; Moore, T.; Morganti, S.; Palano, A.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piredda, G.; Pompili, A.; Robutti, E.; Roodman, A.; Santroni, A.; Sciacca, C.; Sinev, N.; Soha, A.; Storm, D.; Tosi, S.; Va'vra, J.; Xie, Y.; Wright, D.; Wisniewski, W.

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment uses a big system based on RPC detectors to discriminate muons from pions and to identify neutral hadrons. About 2000 m 2 of RPC chambers have been working at SLAC since the end of 1998. We report on the performances of the RPC chambers focusing on new problems discovered in the RPC behaviour. These problems started very soon after the installation of the chambers on the detector when the high-ambient temperature triggered an increase of dark currents inside the chambers and a reduction of the efficiency. Careful analysis of the BaBar data and dedicated R and D efforts in the laboratory have helped to identify the main source of the trouble in the linseed oil varnish on the bakelite electrodes

  1. The Monitor online system of the OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolino, U.; Ambrosio, M.; Acquafredda, R.; Masone, V.

    2008-06-01

    The OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer has been designed for muon detection, tracking and timing. The 44 bakelite Resistive Chambers (RPC) planes, imbibed inside the magnet iron slabs, must provide the tracking of the muon curved in the magnetic field to ease the momentum and charge measurement provided by the HPT. Furthermore, it provides the momentum for muons stopping in the iron. RPC signals will be also used as start of drift tube acquisition thanks to the very good time resolution of RPC detectors. Due to the required performances the tracking detector must be fully efficient and stable. In this conditions an online monitor is mandatory to continuously control stability of run conditions. We report the main characteristics and performances of the monitor system for the OPERA spectrometer and capabilities of the software developed for settings and data acquisition.

  2. The Monitor online system of the OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolino, U.; Acquafredda, R.; Masone, v.

    2008-01-01

    The OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer has been designed for muon detection, tracking and timing. The 44 bakelite Resistive Chambers (RPC) planes, imbibed inside the magnet iron slabs, must provide the tracking of the muon curved in the magnetic field to ease the momentum and charge measurement provided by the HPT. Furthermore, it provides the momentum for muons stopping in the iron. RPC signals will be also used as start of drift tube acquisition thanks to the very good time resolution of RPC detectors. Due to the required performances the tracking detector must be fully efficient and stable. In this conditions an online monitor is mandatory to continuously control stability of run conditions. We report the main characteristics and performances of the monitor system for the OPERA spectrometer and capabilities of the software developed for settings and data acquisition.

  3. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  4. Effect of sample thickness on the measured mass attenuation coefficients of some compounds and elements for 59.54, 661.6 and 1332.5 keV gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    El-Rahman, M A; Abdel-Hady, Y L; Kamel, N

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine gamma-rays attenuation coefficients very accurately by using an extremely narrow-collimated-beam transmission method. The effect of the sample thickness on the measured values of the mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) cm sup 2 /g of perspex, bakelite, paraffin, Al, Cu, Pb and Hg have been investigated at three different gamma-ray energies (59.54, 661.6 and 1332.5 keV). It is seen that for these chosen materials (mu/rho) remains constant in good agreement with the theoretical values up to 3 mean free paths and after that (mu/rho) values for Cu, Pb and Hg decrease with further increase in the absorber thickness. This result may be attributed to the increase in the number of coherent small-angle scattering photons which reach the detector.

  5. Disruptive change and the reconfiguration of innovation ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Dedehayir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper extends the traditional view of disruptive change, which considers the effects of rivalry between an incumbent and new entrant firm, by examining the impact of disruption upon the ‘innovation ecosystem’ in its entirety – the group of organisations that collaborate in creating a holistic value proposition for the end-user. Following Adner’s “ecosystem-as-structure” perspective, we develop propositions that anticipate structural differences between incumbent and disruptive innovation ecosystems, and then review these propositions in the context of three historical, disruptive innovation cases; Bakelite (a synthetic plastic, microwave oven, and photocopier. Through these cases, we illustrate that the manner of innovation ecosystem reconfiguration is likely to depend on the design attributes of the product, as well as the type of disruption experienced. We conclude by reflecting upon contemporary cases of disruption enabled through digital technologies, and proposing a framework that can guide future research.

  6. Development of a magnetic measurement device for thin ribbon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuta; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic measurement device for thin ribbon samples, which are produced by rapid cooling technique. This device enables us to measure magnetic properties easily by only inserting a ribbon sample into a sample holder. The sample holder was made by bakelite to fix any width sample. A long solenoid coil was used to generate a uniform magnetic field and the sample holder was placed at the mid part of the solenoid. The magnetic field strength was measured using a shunt resistor and the magnetic flux density and magnetization in sample ribbons were evaluated by using search coils. The accuracy of measurement was verified with an amorphous metal ribbon sample. Next, we have measured magnetic properties of some magnetic shape memory alloys, which have different compositions. The measured results are compared and we clarified the effect of Sm contents on the magnetic properties

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a 3D Positive ion detector and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Pitchaikannu; Sureka, Chandrasekaran Senbagavadivoo

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest to experimentally evaluate the track structure induced by ionizing particles in order to characterize the radiobiological quality of ionizing radiation for applications in radiotherapy and radiation protection. To do so, a novel positive ion detector based on the multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) technology has been proposed previously, which works under the principle of ion induced impact ionization. Based on this, an upgraded 3D positive ion detector was fabricated in order to improve its efficiency and use it for various applications. To improve the efficiency of the detector, cathodes with different insulators (Bakelite plate and Steatite Ceramics) and conducting layers (ITO, FTO, and Gold coated cathode) were studied under various gaseous media (methane, nitrogen, and air) using Am-241, Co-60, Co-57, Na-22, Cs-137, and Ba-133 sources. From this study, it is confirmed that the novel 3D positive ion detector that has been upgraded using gold as strip material, tungsten (87%) coated copper (13%) as the core wire, gold coated ceramic as cathode, and thickness of 3.483 mm showed 9.2% efficiency under methane medium at 0.9 Torr pressure using an Am-241 source. It is also confirmed that when the conductivity of the cathode and thickness of the detector is increased, the performance of the detector is improved significantly. Further, the scope of the detector to use in the field of radiation protection, radiation dosimetry, gamma spectrometry, radiation biology, and oncology are reported here.

  8. Water Ingress Testing of the Turbula Jar and U-233 Lead Pig Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Understanding the water ingress behavior of containers used at the TA-55 Plutonium Facility has significant implications for criticality safety. The purpose of this report is to document the water ingress behavior of the Turbula Jar with Bakelite lid and Viton gaskets (Turbula Jar) used in oxide blending operations and the U-233 lead pig container used to store and transport U-233 material. The technical basis for water resistant containers at TA-55 is described in LA-UR-15-22781, “Water Resistant Container Technical Basis Document for the TA-55 Criticality Safety Program.” Testing of the water ingress behavior of various containers is described in LA-CP-13-00695, “Water Penetration Tests on the Filters of Hagan and SAVY Containers,” LA-UR-15-23121, “Water Ingress into Crimped Convenience Containers under Flooding Conditions,” and in LA-UR- 16-2411, “Water Ingress Testing for TA-55 Containers.” Water ingress criteria are defined in TA55-AP-522 “TA-55 Criticality Safety Program”, and in PA-RD-01009 “TA55 Criticality Safety Requirements.” The water ingress criteria for submersion is no more than 50 ml of water ingress at a 6” water column height for a period of 2 hours.

  9. Operation of low-noise single-gap RPC modules exposed to ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Górski, M; Królikowski, J; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.123

    2004-01-01

    Two single gap medium-size RPC modules, made of bakelite plates of very good mechanical quality of the surface and having initial volume resistivity of 1 multiplied by 10**1**0 omegacm, were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN at ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm **3. The internal surfaces facing the gas volume of one RPC module were cladded with a thin layer of linseed oil varnish for comparison of oiled and non-oiled RPC operation. The results refer to the gas mixture of C//2H//2F //4/isobutane (97:3) with SF//6 addition below 1%. The single gap modules exhibited full detection efficiency plateau for the high voltage range of about 1 kV at full intensity of gamma rays. Good timing characteristics allowed to reach 95% efficiency at fully opened irradiation source with time window of 20 ns. The intrinsic noise rate for a non-oiled and an oiled RPC gap was, respectively, below 5 and 1 Hz/cm**2 at full efficiency over 1 k V voltage range.

  10. Automation for measuring the surface resistivity of RPC by Arduino motor shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, A.; Kumar, A.; Singh, M.K.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.

    2016-01-01

    India Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is planning to use ∼ 30,000 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors of size 2m x 2m. Each resistive plate chamber is made up of glass or Bakelite whose resistance is of the order 10 12 Ω/cm 2 , and two pick-up panels. Both glass electrodes of the detector have one side (outer) painted with thin and uniform coating of graphite paint. This provides the resistivity of range 100 - 300 kΩ per square. This range of resistivity provides distribution of voltage over the surface of glass electrodes. Uniform coating will provide uniform electric field inside the glass plate chamber and high resistivity value will help in confining the induced charge on the surface. It is one of the necessary criteria for good RPC detector that the coating of graphite paint should be uniform. Therefore it is required to measure the resistivity for the verification of uniformity. Last few years we have been focusing our efforts in this direction. In this connection, we made sequential improvement from the previous work. The present system is cost effective, automatically recording measurement in the computer, fast and accurate. Earlier MOTOR BEE ver. 5.0 microcontroller was used which was an imported and costly material. After massive search in the local market Arduino microcontroller was discovered, which controls the movement of all motors and it also saves the value of resistivity in the computer automatically

  11. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  12. Damage analysis of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hong; Hu Kaiwei; Mu Jingyang; Bai Shuxin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the damage modes of the carbon fiber and the glass fiber reinforced epoxy or bakelite resin matrix composites irradiated by CW laser under different power densities were analyzed, and the changes of the microstructure and the tensile strength of the composites were also researched. When the resin matrix composites were radiated at a power density more than 0.1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix would be decomposed and the tensile properties of the radiated samples were lost over 30% while the carbon fiber hardly damaged and the glass fiber melted. When the power density of the laser was raised to 1 kW/cm 2 , the matrix burned violently and the carbon fiber cloth began to split with some carbon fiber being fractured, therefore, the fracture strength of the radiated sample lost over 80%. The higher the power density of radiation was, the more serious the damage of the sample was. It was also found that the difference of the matrixes had little effect on the damage extent of the composites. The influence of the radiation density on the temperature of the radiated surface of the carbon/resin composite was numerically calculated by ANSYS finite element software and the calculation results coincided with the damage mode of the radiated composites. (authors)

  13. The Muon Spectrometer Barrel Level-1 Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, A; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Ciapetti, G; Di Mattia, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Salamon, A

    2006-01-01

    The proton-proton beam crossing at the LHC accelerator at CERN will have a rate of 40 MHz at the project luminosity. The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed in three levels in order to select only interesting physics events reducing from that rate of 40 MHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 200 Hz. The First Level reduces the output rate to about 100 kHz. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV/c with good resolution (from 3% at 10 GeV/c up to 10% at 1 TeV/c). In the Barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer the Level-1 trigger is given by means of three layers of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors (RPC): a gaseous detector working in avalanche mode composed by two plates of high-resistivity bakelite and two orthogonal planes of read-out strips. The logic of the Level-1 barrel muon trigger is based on the search of patterns of RPC hits in the three layers consistent with a high transverse momentum muon track ori...

  14. Development of a cosmic rack for characterization of RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, S.T.; Pant, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    A newly designed cosmic rack has been commissioned this year in the RPC Lab., in NPD-BARC. The rack consists of nine shelves each providing a clear area of 160 cm x 225 cm. Each of the shelf is separated by a distance of 30 cm, providing sufficient distance for fast electronics to respond and also providing an easy access for loading and removing the RPCs. The total height of the cosmic rack is 2.8 metres. A typical fully integrated RPCs covers an approximate area of 2 m 2 and weighs about 60-70 kg. The rack has been basically designed, keeping in mind the varied requirements as regards to the RPCs based current and futuristic programmes which are listed as follows: 1. Testing of large area trapezoidal bakelite gas-gaps and RPCs for the CMS experiment, keeping in mind the production rate of five RPCs per month. 2. The proposed muon tomography programme with 1m x 1m glass RPCs and 3. Characterization of glass RPCs (1m x 2m) for the INO experiment in near future

  15. Comparison of the sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies among conventional plain radiography, computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M H; Miloglu, O; Barutcugil, C; Kantarci, M; Ozcan, E; Harorli, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies among conventional plain radiography, CT and ultrasonography in in vitro models. Methods Seven different materials were selected as foreign bodies with dimensions of approximately 1×1×0.1 cm. These materials were metal, glass, wood, stone, acrylic, graphite and Bakelite. These foreign bodies were placed into a sheep's head between the corpus mandible and muscle, in the tongue and in the maxillary sinus. Conventional plain radiography, CT and ultrasonography imaging methods were compared to investigate their sensitivity for detecting these foreign bodies. Results Metal, glass and stone can be detected with all the visualization techniques used in the study in all of the zones. In contrast to this, foreign bodies with low radiopacity, which could be detected in air with CT, became less visible or almost invisible in muscle tissue and between bone and muscle tissue. The performance of ultrasonography for visualizing foreign bodies with low radiopacity is relatively better than CT. Conclusions Ultrasonography detects and localizes superficial foreign bodies with low radiopacity in the tissues of the body more effectively than CT and conventional plain radiography. However, CT is a more effective technique for visualization of foreign bodies in air than ultrasound and conventional plain radiography. PMID:20100917

  16. Construction of dry-boxes for plutonium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Pascard, R.

    1958-01-01

    The dry-boxes used at Chatillon are of two main types: a) boxes with a metal frame work of welded angle-pieces, panels of plexiglass, bakelite, duralumin, etc... They include a standard panel which enables them to be connected up to the contaminated repairs workshop; b) boxes made entirely of welded plastic. The working face only is of plexiglas held by screw clamps to a pure rubber joint. These boxes, which cannot be connected to the contaminated workshop, are generally reserved for small pieces of chemical apparatus. None has yet been used for working under argon, although their airtightness is excellent. After an interval of several hours, in fact, no decrease in the pressure inside the box can be detected. Several means can be adopted to ensure that the joints between panels and mountings are absolutely air-tight. Up to the present we are using three types of box with metal framework at the same time, without being able to make a definitive choice. (author) [fr

  17. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gatta, M.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2006-01-01

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study ν μ ->ν τ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m 2 . Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m 2 . Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations

  18. Study on the behavior of resistance strain gages in nuclear radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Katsuaki; Yokoo, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tanemichi; Kaieda, Keisuke

    1975-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments were carried out on the behavior of resistance strain gages in nuclear radiation environments. The gages made of bakelite base and advance (nickel-copper alloy) wire were bonded to stainless-steel or aluminium-alloy plates. They were inserted into an in-pile helium loop TLG-1 installed in the JRR-2 reactor, and irradiated at 80 0 C for nearly 300 hours, during which the apparent strain and the leakage current through the base material between the resistance wire and the plate were measured. The results are summarized in the following: (1) The sensitivity change and the insulation-resistance deterioration of the gage are hardly observed. (2) The apparent strain observed can be divided into two components; one dependent on the radiation intensity and the other on the radiation fluence. Both of them indicate the decrease of the gage resistance. (3) The former apparent strain is possibly due to the leakage current through the base material induced by gamma-rays. The latter may be ascribed to the decrease of the wire resistance caused by the radiation damage. (4) Either the half-bridge or full-bridge method makes it possible to compensate the apparent strain and to measure static strain for a few days satisfactorily as well as dynamic strain. (auth.)

  19. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) collaboration is focusing its efforts on installation and commissioning of the fourth endcap station (RE4) and on the reparation and maintenance of the present system (1100 detectors). The 600 bakelite gaps, needed to build 200 double-gap RE4 chambers are being produced in Korea. Chamber construction and testing sites are located at CERN, in Ghent University, and at BARC (India). At present, 42 chambers have been assembled, 32 chambers have been successfully tested with cosmic rays runs and 7 Super Modules, made by two chambers, have been built at CERN by a Bulgarian/Georgian/Italian team and are now ready to be installed in the positive endcap. The 36 Super Modules needed to complete the positive endcap will be ready in September and installation is scheduled for October 2013. The Link-Board system for RE4 is under construction in Naples. Half of the system has been delivered at CERN in June. Six crates (Link-Board Boxes) and 75 boards, needed to instrument t...

  20. Numerical investigation of natural and mixed convection heat transfer on optimal distribution of discrete heat sources mounted on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinkoppa, M. V.; Hotta, T. K.

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the numerical investigation of natural and mixed convection heat transfer on optimal distribution of five non-identical protruding discrete heat sources (Aluminium) mounted on a substrate (Bakelite) board. The heat sources are subjected to a uniform heat flux of 2000 W/m2. The temperature of heat sources along with the effect of thermal interaction between them is predicted by carrying out numerical simulations using ANSYS Icepak, and the results are validated with the existing experimental findings. The results suggest that mixed convection is a better method for cooling of discrete heat source modules. Also, the temperature of heat sources is a strong function of their shape, size, and positioning on the substrate. Effect of radiation is studied by painting the surface of heat sources by black paint. The results conclude that, under natural convection heat transfer, the temperature of heat sources drops by 6-13% from polished to black painted surface, while mixed convection results in the drop by 3-15%. The numerical predictions are in strong agreement with experimental results.

  1. Compton profiles of some composite materials normalized by a new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarshan, B. M.; Umesh, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, we have shown that as a novel approach, in the case of samples which can be treated as pure incoherent scatterers, the effective atomic number Zeff itself could be conveniently used to normalize their un-normalized Compton profiles. In the present investigation, we have attempted to examine the efficacy of this approach. For this purpose, we have first determined the single differential Compton scattering cross sections (SDCS) of the elements C and Al as well as of some H, C, N and O based polymer samples such as bakelite, epoxy, nylon and teflon which are pure incoherent scatterers. The measurements were made at 120° in a goniometer assembly that employs a high resolution high purity germanium detector. The SDCS values were used to obtain the Zeff and the un-normalized Compton profiles. These Compton profiles were separately normalized with their Zeff values (for Compton scattering) as well as with the normalization constant obtained by integrating their Hartree-Fock Biggs et al Compton profiles based on the mixture rule. These two sets of values agreed well within the range of experimental errors, implying that Zeff can be conveniently used to normalize the experimental Compton profiles of pure incoherent scatterers.

  2. Further advances in aging studies for RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2003-01-01

    Aging phenomena in RPCs have been studied since 1996 in the framework of the ATLAS experiment with small-size detectors, irradiated with a **6**0Co source. The results evidenced a decrease of the detector rate capability at fixed electric field, due to an increase of the total resistance of electrodes. This was confirmed by an extensive aging test performed on the ATLAS RPC "module-0" at GIF-X5, the CERN irradiation facility. A primary cause for this effect was previously shown to be the degradation of the anodic graphite coating, which distributes the electric field on the bakelite electrode. We present here a systematic study of the graphite aging which fully confirms this interpretation. Moreover, we show that detectors with improved graphite coating allow to gain a factor of at least two in lifetime. In the framework of these tests, we also show that the aging behavior of a detector working at high current induced by heavy irradiation can be reproduced by operating the detector, filled with pure Argon, in...

  3. A Mathematical Model of Repeated Impregnation of Porous Bodies with Solutions of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glebov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic methods of impregnating porous bodies with solutions of polymers and their use to manufacture prepregs. It also describes the existing methods of manufacturing multilayer prepregs to produce aerospace coating of the spacecraft "Soyuz". It is shown that these prepregs have to meet high requirements for the content of the polymer, as compared with other composite materials, about 35 - 40% of the mass. Methods used for their manufacturing are long-term and non-controllable. The assumption is made that using the vacuum impregnation technology of a woven material will allow to accelerate the manufacturing process of these prepregs and improve their quality.In reviewing the technical literature have been found works on modeling the processes of impregnation, but they are aimed only at studying the speed of the woven material impregnation by various fluids and determining the time of impregnation. There were no models found to define prepreg parameters during the process of multiple impregnations. The aim of this work is to develop the simple mathematical model, which enables us to predict the polymer content of volatile products in the prepreg after each cycle of multiple impregnation of woven material with a solution of the polymer.To consider the vacuum impregnation method are used the prepregs based on silica and silica-nylon stitch-bonding fabric and bakelite varnish LBS-4 containing 50 - 60% of phenol resin and the solvent with minor impurities of pure phenol and water, as an example. To describe the process of vacuum impregnation of the porous work-piece is developed a mathematical description of the process of filling the porous space of the material with a varnish. It is assumed that the varnish components fill the porous space of the material in the same proportion as they are contained in the varnish.It is shown that a single impregnation cannot ensure the content of phenol resin in the prepreg over 32%, which does

  4. Mechanisms Affecting Performance of the BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers and Searches for Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Changguo

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at PEPII relies on the Instrumentation of the Flux Return (IFR) for both muon identification and KL detection. The active detector is composed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC's) operated in streamer mode. Since the start of operation the RPC's have suffered persistent efficiency deterioration and dark current increase problems. The ''autopsy'' of bad BaBar RPC's revealed that in many cases uncured Linseed oil droplets had formed on the inner surface of the Bakelite plates, leading to current paths from oil ''stalagmites'' bridging the 2 mm gap. In this paper a possible model of this ''stalagmite'' formation and its effect on the dark current and efficiency of RPC chambers is presented. Laboratory test results strongly support this model. Based upon this model we are searching for solutions to eliminate the unfavorable effect of the oil stalagmites. The lab tests show that the stalagmite resistivity increases dramatically if exposed to the air, an observation that points to a possible way to remedy the damage and increase the efficiency. We have seen that flowing an oxygen gas mixture into the chamber helps to polymerize the uncured linseed oil. Consequently the resistivity of the bridged oil stalagmites increases, as does that of the oil coating on the frame edges and spacers, significantly reducing the RPC dark currents and low-efficiency regions. We have tested this idea on two chambers removed from BaBar because of their low efficiency and high dark current. These test results are reported in the paper, and two other remediation methods also mentioned. We continue to study this problem, and try to find new treatments with permanent improvement

  5. Investigation of production of continuous off axis fibre reinforced thermoplastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Philip C.

    Fibre reinforced composites have been used in the engineering industry for many years since the discovery of glass fibre in 1930 and its first use to reinforce phenolic resin to form Bakelite. Since then thermoplastic and thermosetting composites have spread into almost every industry from marine to aerospace, automotive to motorsport, luggage to the hobby industry and even fashion. This vast range of applications for composite materials is due to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent impact absorption properties, lack of corrosion, and reformability. In recent years a government directive has forced automotive manufacturers to look at lighter and more efficient vehicles to reduce carbon emissions. This can be achieved by using fibre reinforced thermoplastics to replace steel panels throughout the vehicle.Steel panels from a Nissan Qashqai were tested to determine the failure loads of each panel which the replacement thermoplastic material had to match or better. After extensive testing in a laboratory a tailored laminate lay-up with 5 laminate layers has been developed to replace structural steel components in vehicles. This tailored laminate stack up has a higher failure load than the steel components tested from the Nissan Qashqai while reducing the mass by at least 50%. The key drivers within the automotive industry are fuel savings and reduced vehicle mass, the use of this material and the potential it has in the mass production automotive industry can have a high impact on the overall mass of the vehicle which would invariably have a positive effect to the fuel consumption, thereby improving fuel economy in petrol and diesel vehicles, and increasing the range of electric vehicles.Throughout this project a prototype machine was developed and built to achieve mass production of this 5 ply laminate at a rate of more than 345,000 laminates per year with a processing cost of 3 1p making it available to the mass production market. The estimated production

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Substrate Composite Materials on External and Internal Handset Antenna EM Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ikbal HOSSAIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular phones are used in the vicinity of a human head, which absorbs power from antenna radiation. This investigation analyzes the effects of antenna substrate materials on electromagnetic (EM absorption in a human head. Antennas are used in analysis with four different dielectric substrate materials, which are Bakelite, FR4 glass epoxy, Rogers R04003, and Taconic TLC. Moreover, two different thicknesses of each substrate are considered in the experimental setup. The EM absorption associated with two types of cell phone antennas is evaluated in the closed vicinity of the human head model. One of them is planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA, which is used as the internal handset antenna and another one is helical antenna, which is used as external handset antenna. This investigation consists of two different operating frequency bands, GSM 900 MHz and DCS 1800 MHz. The EM absorption in the human head is presented using the peak specific absorption rate (SAR and total absorbed power (TAP by the user. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST Microwave studio is utilized in this investigation. The obtained results show that the substrate materials do not effect SAR and TAP values considerably for both antennas, but substrate thickness affects the SAR and TAP values significantly. In addition, the substrate thickness affects the SAR and TAP values significantly in most of the cases Moreover, PIFA produces lower SAR than that of a helical antenna significantly for both GSM and DCS frequency band.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8889