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Sample records for bairros sem voz

  1. Bairros sem voz The voiceless suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Masclet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as relações dos habitantes das periferias francesas com a política, mais precisamente daquela população originada das imigrações argelinas e marroquinas. Pretende explicar as razões pelas quais a militância dos filhos de imigrados é pouco considerada e reconhecida como tal pela esquerda municipal, em particular o Partido Comunista (PC, que administra ainda hoje numerosas prefeituras nas periferias francesas. Com base em uma pesquisa etnográfica desenvolvida nos anos de 1990 e na análise da situação da cidade de Gennevilliers, onde a pesquisa foi realizada, o autor desenvolve duas ordens de razões para explicar o divórcio entre a esquerda e os moradores das periferias. De um lado, as representações particularizantes dos filhos dos imigrados argelinos e marroquinos, que os fazem parecer uma categoria à parte, como "jovens de origem estrangeira", "segunda geração de imigrados", "populações problemáticas". De outro, a história urbana das municipalidades de esquerda nos últimos cinqüenta anos, em particular as circunstâncias que presidiram as evoluções da moradia social, na forma da construção de grandes conjuntos habitacionais nas periferias industriais. É no cruzamento dessas duas leituras que se pode compreender a situação dos bairros populares, hoje duplamente deserdados: no plano econômico, como é correntemente enfatizado, e também no plano político, mais raramente notado.This article examines the relations between residents of the French suburbs and the police - or more precisely, the population formed by generations of Algerian and Moroccan immigrants. It attempts to explain why the militancy of the children of immigrants is infrequently considered and recognized as such by municipal left-wing groups, in particular the Communist Party (PC, which runs numerous local councils in the French suburbs even today. Based on long-term ethnographic research conducted in the 1990s and an analysis

  2. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  3. Plano de Marketing : Iogurteria do Bairro 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Caupers, Margarida Maria Vargas Firmino e Goes

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O presente trabalho de projecto traduz-se na realização de um Plano de Marketing para a Iogurteria do Bairro. Esta empresa foi criada por dois amigos e sócios e foi lançada em Março de 2012 no mercado da restauração, mais propriamente em frozen yogurt. Este Plano de Marketing tem como objectivos aumentar o reconhecimento da marca perante os clientes, fidelizar os clientes existentes e angariar clientes novos e aumentar as vendas e a notoriedade da marca perante os con...

  4. La insustancia de la voz

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    Isabelle Morin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La voz es el punto primitivo deinserción del deseo del Otro. Apartir de este dato fundamentalIsabelle Morin intenta respondera la pregunta planteada por Lacanrespecto a lo que ocurre con la pulsiónal final del análisis. La autorapropone que, al final del análisis, elanalizante se encuentra, así sea porun momento, con una extraccióndel a minúscula del objeto, su sustanciagozante para dejar el objetovoz al desnudo. Esta insustancia delobjeto es interrogada a partir detestimonios de los músicos GlennGould y Pascal Dusapin, quieneshan buscado extraer el sonido de lamúsica para reducirla a la letra.Palabras clave: voz, sonido, insustancia,extracción de goce, objeto a.

  5. Pressão intra-esofágica durante a produção da voz esofágica em pacientes laringectomizados com e sem recuperação da capacidade de comunicação oral Intraesophageal pressure during esophageal speech in laryngectomized patients rehabilitated or no rehabilitated for oral communication

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    Roberto Oliveira DANTAS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Racional — As contrações esofágicas estão alteradas após laringectomia para tratamento de neoplasias de faringe/laringe. Estes pacientes podem ser reabilitados, quanto a comunicação oral, com a voz esofágica. As pressões intra-esofágicas com a produção da voz podem ser diferentes daquelas dos pacientes não reabilitados. Objetivo - Avaliar a pressão intra-esofágica durante a produção da voz esofágica de 25 pacientes laringectomizados com idades entre 40 e 70 anos (mediana de 57 anos, 10 reabilitados com voz esofágica e 15 incapazes de produção da voz. Material e Métodos - Foi utilizado o método manométrico com sonda aberta e perfusão contínua. As pressões foram medidas nos 5 cm proximais do esôfago durante a tentativa da pronúncia da vogal "a" e durante a deglutição de ar. Resultados - A pressão esofágica durante a produção da voz esofágica foi maior nos pacientes reabilitados (26,4 ± 10,1 mm Hg, média ± DP do que nos pacientes inabilitados para comunicação oral (13,7 ± 7,2 mm Hg. Quando a introdução do ar no esôfago foi seguida de contração esofágica, a amplitude destas contrações foi maior nos pacientes reabilitados (45,3 ± 8,6 mm Hg do que nos não reabilitados (33,8 ± 13,1 mm Hg. Conclusão - Pacientes laringectomizados com voz esofágica desenvolvem maior pressão intra-esofágica durante a produção da voz do que aqueles incapazes da produção da voz, o que deve refletir a presença de ar no esôfago.Background — After laryngectomy for treatment of pharyngeal/laryngeal carcinomas the patients may be rehabilitated, for oral communication, with the esophageal speech. Aim - To study the intra-esophageal pressure during the esophageal speech. Patients and Methods - It was measured the intra-esophageal pressure in 25 laryngectomized patients aged 40 to 70 years (median 57 years, 10 rehabilitated with esophageal speech and 15 unable to do so. The manometric method with continuous perfusion

  6. "La inquietante extrañeza" de la voz o la voz del lobo

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    Michel Poizat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando escuchamos la propia vozen un magnetófono, opera el paradigmade la inquietante extrañeza:la familiaridad (es nuestra voz yla "extrañeidad" (es "Otra" voz,alterada, desprendida de nosotrosmismos. El objeto voz está en elfundamento del lazo constitutivode pertenencia a una comunidad,en una relación de sujeción con lafigura de un "gran Otro". Lo queestá en el origen del recurso allobo como figura imaginaria querepresenta al superyó, es su voz. Ellobo tiene la capacidad de hacerlapresente como objeto, porque suaullido evidencia su dimensiónde continuo: apunta a reintroducirlacomo objeto en la enunciaciónconcernida.Palabras clave: voz, lobo,inquietante extrañeza, objeto a,superyó.

  7. A voz do morro na voz de Bezerra da Silva

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    Adriana Evaristo Borges

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo: O final dos anos de 1970 significou um momento de abertura política e redemocratização do país. A produção cultural ia (re encontrando seu espaço, vislumbrando novas possibilidades, ao passo que a mão austera da censura sobre os meios de comunicação, gradativamente, tornavam-se mais brandas. É nesse cenário que surge José Bezerra da Silva, um sambista bem ao estilo “bom malandro” de Noel, mas que encontrou um estilo particular de cantar a realidade das favelas cariocas. Um homem que utilizou seu lugar de fala para dar voz ao morro. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é pensar como a música de Bezerra da Silva, com seu estilo realista e irreverente (que muitas vezes parecia deixá-lo no limiar da marginalidade encontrou não apenas público, mas espaço junto à indústria cultural num momento ainda delicado por qual passava o Brasil.

  8. Voz del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Urra-Barandiarán, A. (Ainhoa); Vázquez-de-la-Iglesia, F. (Francisco); Fernandez-Gonzalez, S. (Secundino); Molina, M.T. (M.T.)

    2006-01-01

    En el curso de la vida la voz sufre diferentes cambios que obedecen a factores de desarrollo y en los que intervienen de manera decisiva el sistema nervioso y el sistema hormonal. La voz del niño y, por tanto la disfonía en el niño requiere una evaluación precisa y específica, no sólo desde el punto de vista instrumental sino también perceptual y en evaluación logopédica. Se insiste en la protocolización de elaboración de trastornos de voz en el niño, la revisión de los f...

  9. Diana Bellessi: la voz de lo amado

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    Valeria Melchiorre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El título de la presente ponencia, « La voz de lo amado », está tomado del de un poema de Diana Bellessi incluido en su libro La rebelión del instante. El sintagma pretende sintetizar el objeto de nuestro estudio : la manera en que la voz poética se constituye para dar cabida a lo amado, y los modos de aparición de lo amado, en sus diferentes versiones, en la poesía última de Bellessi.Aunque no faltarán algunas referencias a Variaciones de la luz, que la editorial « bajo la luna » publicó est...

  10. Condicionamento vocal individualizado para profissionais da voz cantada - relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Behlau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como tema o desenvolvimento de programas de condicionamento vocal individualizado para a demanda específica de três profissionais da voz cantada. Trata-se de um relato de caso de três profissionais da voz cantada: uma cantora e atriz de teatro musical brasileiro, um cantor sertanejo e um cantor de roque. Os três indivíduos foram submetidos à avaliação fonoaudiológica, apresentando queixas relacionadas a cansaço e fadiga após uso da voz e/ou aperfeiçoamento vocal e realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica prévia. Os três pacientes estavam em processo de terapia fonoaudiológica, sendo uma das etapas o desenvolvimento de um programa de condicionamento vocal individualizado, de acordo com a demanda, necessidade e disponibilidade de cada sujeito. A cantora e atriz de teatro musical brasileiro aderiu facilmente à proposta personalizada de condicionamento vocal, pois sentia os ganhos de realização uma mobilização fisiológica antes de passar para a técnica-artística que já executava. O cantor sertanejo aderiu facilmente ao programa de condicionamento vocal individualizado, sem nenhuma dificuldade, e relatou extrema melhora em seu conforto e desempenho vocal durante o canto com os exercícios selecionados. O cantor de roque apresentou maior flexibilização de trato vocal, estabilidade da emissão no canto, ampliação da tessitura vocal, maior precisão articulatória e redução da constrição global excessiva após dar início ao programa de condicionamento vocal individualizado.O condicionamento vocal individualizado mostra efeitos positivos, principalmente para os profissionais da voz, pois os indivíduos trabalham exatamente sob a demanda que será utilizada com o uso profissional da voz,com exercícios específicos e direcionados para suas necessidades.

  11. Voz no amor Voice in love

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    Ana Maria Rudge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O que o amor deve à constituição pulsional? Em especial, o que deve o amor à voz como objeto causa de desejo? A ligação dos objetos pulsionais ao amor é clara. A expressão tão batida "amor à primeira vista", por exemplo, já insinua o vínculo do amor com o olhar. Qual o lugar da voz, como objeto da pulsão invocante, no amor? Se as relações íntimas do amor com as pulsões são inegáveis, elas não deixam de ser complexas como Freud advertiu, mostrando que o amor não se equipara ao campo das pulsões, visto que não compartilha com elas a parcialidade, mas, ao contrário, expressa a aspiração sexual total. A voz, como um objeto que se apresenta desde o início da vida, é central no amor e, como causa de desejo, nele incute a qualidade compulsiva.What does love owe to the drives? Specially, what does love owe to voice as an object cause of desire? The connection of the drive objects to love is clear. The expression "love at first sight", for instance, already insinuates the bond of love with the glance. What is the role of voice, as the object of the invocation drive, in love? Although the intimate relationship between the drives and love is undeniable, it is complex. Freud showed that love does not find its place in the field of the drives, because it doesn't share the characteristic of being partial, but, on the contrary, it is the "expression of the whole sexual current of feeling". The voice as an early object is central to love, but as an object cause of desire it is also responsible for its quality of compulsion.

  12. La voz en el discurso académico

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    Nicolás Polo Figueroa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En aras del positivismo imperante en las aulas académicas, el término voz estaba proscrito del discurso académico. El escritor solo podía hablar en la forma impersonal se; la voz del colectivo científico al que le prestaba la voz. Gracias a renovados vientos en las ciencias humanas, la intersubjetividad en el discurso académico ha salido del clóset; los académicos están dejando oír su propia voz, aunque son muy conscientes de que tras esta hay una sinfonía de voces: la colectiva, la intersubjetiva, la social y la discursiva. Una mirada a estas es el objeto de esta comunicación.

  13. LA VOZ EN EL DISCURSO ACADÉMICO

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    Nicolás Polo Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En aras del positivismo imperante en las aulas académicas, el término voz estaba proscrito del discurso académico. El escritor solo podía hablar en la forma impersonal se; la voz del colectivo científico al que le prestaba la voz. Gracias a renovados vientos en las ciencias humanas, la intersubjetividad en el discurso académico ha salido del clóset; los académicos están dejando oír su propia voz, aunque son muy conscientes de que tras esta hay una sinfonía de voces: la colectiva, la intersubjetiva, la social y la discursiva. Una mirada a estas es el objeto de esta comunicación.

  14. Sintomas vocais de futuros profissionais da voz

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    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar os sintomas vocais de futuros profissionais da voz conforme as variáveis idade, sexo e índice de massa corporal. MÉTODOS: os participantes responderam a Escala de Sintomas Vocais, composta por 30 questões, sendo 15 do domínio limitação, oito do domínio emocional e sete do domínio físico. Os indivíduos foram orientados a assinalar a resposta que correspondesse à frequência de ocorrência para cada um dos sintomas questionados. Foram coletados também dados ocupacionais, antropométricos e de saúde geral.Os dados foram analisados descritivamente e estatisticamente por meio dos testes não paramétricos Correlação de Spearman, Mann Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a amostra constituiu-se de 47 indivíduos, com idades entre 19 e 37 anos (média de 22,17 anos, sendo 28 (59,57% do sexo feminino e 19 (40,43% do sexo masculino,a média foi de 11,38 problemas vocais, de uma possibilidade total de 30. Houve maior frequência dos sintomas "você tosse ou pigarreia" e "você tem dificuldade para falar em locais barulhentos". CONCLUSÃO: o grupo de futuros profissionais da voz analisado apresentou alta média de sintomas vocais, salientando-se a tosse ou pigarro e a dificuldade para falar em locais barulhentos, diretamente relacionados a usos vocais incorretos. Com o aumento da demanda vocal profissional esses indivíduos poderão ser considerados de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios vocais.

  15. La cuestión de la voz

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    Bernard Nominé

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las articulaciones deLacan sobre la voz como objetoa, puro objeto lógico, resto de lainscripción del sujeto en el Otro, elautor desarrolla cómo el sujeto envías de su constitución recibe unaorden primordial: un “tú eres”, “heaquí lo que tienes que ser”, que esuna palabra que lo concierne. Elsuperyó manda que todo le seasacrificado sin resto; enuncia órdenesinsensatas y, además, pretenderestablecer la integridad del Otrocompletándolo por la voz. Hayque considerar la voz como objetoéxtimo. La voz es un hueco en elotro, hueco que reserva un lugarpara el malentendido. El chiste, lainterpretación, la situación de dueloy la vocación ponen a funcionar elespacio vacío de la voz. El artículoculmina con un ejemplo clínico: elcaso Nadar.Palabras clave: voz, superyó, Otro,malentendido, objeto éxtimo.

  16. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H.

    2013-01-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fu...

  17. El programa de reconocimiento de voz Dragon Naturally Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Serrahima

    2009-01-01

    Dragon Naturally Speaking es un programa de reconocimiento de voz que constituye una herramienta útil para los traductores porque permite dictar textos al ordenador en lugar de teclearlos. El entrenamiento previo es muy breve, y el aprendizaje del programa resulta muy intuitivo. Permite dictar en español o en inglés, indistintamente, con mucha precisión, revisar el texto dictado o dejar que el programa nos lo lea en voz alta, e incluso permite trabajar sin tener el ordenador delante. Sus inco...

  18. Comparação dos resultados do limiar de detectabilidade de voz por meio de material gravado e a viva voz Comparing the results of lower voice detection thresholds by means of recorded material and live voices

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    Angela Ribas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados do teste denominado limiar de detectabilidade de voz, utilizando-se uma lista de palavras trissilábicas previamente gravadas e à viva voz em indivíduos com audiograma de configuração plana. MÉTODOS: participaram da pesquisa 60 indivíduos (120 orelhas com exame audiométrico dentro dos padrões da normalidade e audiometria tonal de configuração plana, sem intercorrências auditivas, em faixa etária de 20 a 30 anos. Aplicou-se o teste à viva voz e com material gravado, em cabine tratada acusticamente, por meio do audiômetro AC40 e com o auxílio de um cd player acoplado. RESULTADOS: o limiar de detectabilidade de voz foi encontrado 10 dB melhor que a média tritonal em 35 orelhas (58,5% da amostra quando realizado a viva-voz e em sete orelhas (11,5% quando realizado com material gravado; e foi encontrado 5 dB pior que a média tritonal em uma orelha (1,5% quando realizado a viva-voz e em 23 orelhas (38% com material gravado. CONCLUSÃO: a ao utilizar-se material gravado para o estabelecimento do LDV em curvas de configuração plana, deve-se considerar como padrão de normalidade níveis de intensidade iguais à média tritonal ou pior em 5 dB e b evidenciou-se diferença entre os resultados obtidos com material gravado e a viva voz, o que demonstra a importância da utilização de testes gravados para determinação dos limiares auditivos na logoaudiometria.PURPOSE: to compare the results of the test referred to as voice detection lower thresholds, using a previously-recorded list of trisyllabic words and in live voice in individuals with flat configuration audiogram. METHODS: 60 subjects (120 ears took part in the study, each with an audiometric exam within normal patterns and tonal audiometry at a flat configuration, without auditory incidents, in the age group going from 20 to 30. The test was given with a live voice and with recorded material, in an acoustically-managed booth, by means of an AC40

  19. The future nursing voice La voz futura de la enfermería A voz futura da enfermagem

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    Verena Tschudin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on some articles in the journal Nursing Ethics, the author outlines some of the areas of major importance for nursing in the future. These areas - the care of elderly people, long-term home-based care, genetics, international research and conflict and war - demand a new voice of nursing, which is a political voice. The rationale for a political voice is the ICN Code of ethics for nurses and the fourfold responsibilities laid on nurses: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health, and to alleviate suffering. Some indications are given on how nurses can engage in political work.Basándose en algunos artículos de la Revista Nursing Ethics, el autor resume algunas de las más importantes áreas para la enfermería en el futuro. Estas áreas - atención a la tercera edad, cuidado en el hogar a largo plazo, genética, investigación internacional y conflicto y guerra - demandan de la enfermería una nueva voz que es una voz política. La base para una voz política es Código de Ética para Enfermeras del ICN y las responsabilidades múltiples de éstas: promover la salud, prevenir la enfermedad, recuperar la salud y aliviar el sufrimiento. Se dan algunas indicaciones sobre como las enfermeras pueden enrollarse en trabajo político.Com base em alguns artigos do periódico Nursing Ethics, o autor resume algumas das áreas mais importantes para a enfermagem no futuro. Essas áreas - atendimento aos idosos, cuidado domiciliar de longo prazo, genética, pesquisa internacional e conflito e guerra - demandam da enfermagem uma nova voz que é uma voz política. A base para uma voz política é o Code of ethics for nurses do ICN e as responsabilidades quádruplas das enfermeiras: promover a saúde, prevenir as doenças, recuperar a saúde e aliviar o sofrimento. Algumas indicações são dadas sobre como as enfermeiras podem se engajar em trabalho político.

  20. La voz y nuestro cuerpo : Un análisis funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Gallardo, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    La voz es una de las acciones complejas que puede realizar el cuerpo humano. Cuando hablamos de nuestra voz a menudo nos llevamos la mano al cuello, pero nuestra voz, tanto hablada como cantada, se forma gracias a la acción coordinada de casi todo nuestro cuerpo. El aparato fonador está formado por estructuras del aparato respiratorio, digestivo y de todo un conjunto de músculos de distintas regiones. Gracias al trabajo coordinado de todos estos elementos producimos nuestra voz. La laringe es...

  1. Luces y sombras de la lectura en voz alta

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    En el siguiente artículo aborda una práctica tan extendida en las aulas de todos los niveles educativos como es la lectura en voz alta. A partir de su experiencia personal y profesional, formula un análisis ameno, provocador y fundamentado, una constante en sus textos y conferencias, que suscitará en el lector docente nuevas perspectivas acerca de su trabajo.

  2. Portal de turismo orientado à Web semântica

    OpenAIRE

    Nóbrega, Luís Filipe Barros da

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe um portal de turismo destinado a apresentar aos seus utilizadores ideias e sugestões acerca de destinos e roteiros turísticos para viajar e conhecer. Inspirado na Web 2.0 são adicionados mecanismos colaborativos para que os utilizadores possam partilhar a sua opinião com a restante comunidade, incentivando a sua voz crítica. São analisadas, comparativamente, duas facções da Web Semântica - Uppercase e Lowercase - no sentido de saber qual a que poderá servir me...

  3. CIPESC® Curitiba: o trabalho da enfermagem no Distrito Bairro Novo CIPESC® Curitiba: el trabajo de enfermería en el Districto Bairro Novo CIPESC® Curitiba: the work of nursing at Bairro Novo District

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    Denise Maria Altino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Curitiba implantou em rede o sistema Classificação Internacional das Práticas de Enfermagem em Saúde Coletiva - CIPESC®. O presente estudo objetivou identificar as atividades exercidas pelos profissionais de enfermagem nas unidades de saúde do distrito Bairro Novo de Curitiba. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva em que foram entrevistados auxiliares e enfermeiras utilizando-se de um check-list. Os resultados mostram que: o acolhimento é realizado por todos; as auxiliares se ocupam mais das atividades assistencial-procedimentais; a totalidade das enfermeiras realiza consulta de enfermagem diariamente, recorrendo ao prontuário eletrônico de base CIPESC®. Conclui-se que, excetuando-se as atividades de pesquisa, houve intensificação e ampliação das atividades assistenciais sistematizadas e embasadas no trabalho cotidiano da enfermagem, intra e extramuros.Curitiba implantó el sistema Clasificación Internacional de las Prácticas de Enfermería en Salud Colectiva - CIPESC®. El presente estudio objetivó identificar las actividades ejercidas por personal de enfermería en la red de atención básica de la salud del distrito Bairro Novo, Curitiba. Ha hecho una investigación junto a los trabajadores de enfermería, recorriendo-se a check-list. Los resultados mostrarán: todos realizan el acogimiento; las auxiliares de enfermería se ocupan más de las actividades asistencial-procedimentales; todas las enfermeras realizan consulta de enfermería diariamente, utilizando-se del prontuario electrónico bases CIPESC®. En conclusión, excepto las actividades del investigación, hube intensificación y ampliación de las actividades asistenciales, que se ubican sistematizadas e embasadas en el trabajo cotidiano de la enfermería, así como la educación y planeamiento.Curitiba has been utilized system CIPESC® - International Nursing Practice Classification in Collective Health. This study goal identifies the activities of nursing staff in

  4. El programa de reconocimiento de voz Dragon Naturally Speaking

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    Lorenzo Serrahima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Naturally Speaking es un programa de reconocimiento de voz que constituye una herramienta útil para los traductores porque permite dictar textos al ordenador en lugar de teclearlos. El entrenamiento previo es muy breve, y el aprendizaje del programa resulta muy intuitivo. Permite dictar en español o en inglés, indistintamente, con mucha precisión, revisar el texto dictado o dejar que el programa nos lo lea en voz alta, e incluso permite trabajar sin tener el ordenador delante. Sus inconvenientes principales residen en que exige una mayor atención a la hora de revisar los textos, solamente funciona con el sistema operativo Windows, tiene algunas incompatibilidades con los programas que trabajan con memorias de traducción y exige trabajar en soledad. ----------------------------------------------- A Voice-recognition Software: Dragon Naturally Speaking. Dragon Naturally Speaking is a voice-recognition software which represents a highly useful tool for translators. The user can dictate the texts into the computer instead of typing them. The training period required is short and user-friendly. The program allows the user to dictate in either Spanish or English with a high level of accuracy, to edit the text or to request the system to perform a back-reading aloud. It even allows to work away from the computer. Its main drawbacks are the additional attention required for editing, the exclusive Windows compatibility. the incompatibility with some TM applications and the need to work in an isolated environment.

  5. Teatro do oprimido como ferramenta de inclusão social no bairro Horta da Areia em Faro

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Vânia; Lucio-Villegas Ramos, Emilio Luis

    2014-01-01

    Quando foi criado o bairro Horta da Areia, em Faro, pretendia ser uma solução provisória para albergar famílias das ex-colónias africanas, resistindo até hoje com manifestos problemas de segurança, sanidade, pobreza e exclusão social. No presente artigo expõem-se algumas das características das famílias do bairro e uma metodologia que tem vindo a ser utilizada desde 2010 no trabalho com as crianças e jovens: o teatro do oprimido. Assim, reflete-se sobre os efeitos dessa abordagem num grupo de...

  6. [Re]Ordenação Espacial e Turismo: A Revitalização do Bairro do Recife Antigo

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Sergio Santos

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo busca entender o fenômeno da revitalização do Bairro do Recife Antigo, no Recife, PE. Utiliza-se a fenomenologia hermenêutica, como metodologia. A revitalização buscou reinserir o bairro no cotidiano dos moradores do Grande Recife. O primeiro passo foi reinventar o lugar como local de eventos, para atrair visitantes. É a partir da leitura do fenômeno, que este trabalho busca descrever as várias mudanças ocorridas ...

  7. HABITAÇÃO E ENTORNO NA TRAJETÓRIA DO BAIRRO DE CUSTODÓPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEREDO, V.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Custodópolis é um bairro da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ estigmatizado por localizar-se do outro lado do Rio Paraíba do Sul. Ocupado por uma população vulnerável ante a pobreza em suas dimensões econômicas, de capital social, capital humano, de proteção e de habitat (BUSSO, 2002, p.12. Estas dimensões conjugadas marcam o bairro de sua origem aos dias atuais. O objetivo é resgatar esse percurso, pela via habitacional e de entorno, nas condições de vulnerabilidade e risco socioambiental. Para o alcance desse objetivo utilizou-se os recursos metodológicos de Observação Direta (com registro em diário de campo e uso de fotografia, Fonte Documental e Entrevistas Semiestruturadas (com antigos e atuais moradores. Os resultados apontaram para trajetória de precarizações. Sobre a origem do bairro não há precisão, mas na memória de antigos moradores, se remete as décadas de vinte ou trinta do século passado. O lugar foi pouco a pouco sendo ocupado por cortadores de cana, que o transformaram em ponto de encontro na espera de caminhões que os levassem para as lavouras da região. Para atendimento a essa demanda foi montada uma vendinha e aos poucos tais trabalhadores se apropriaram do território e improvisaram suas casas no meio do mato com materiais como barro, bambu, folhas de palmeira ou sapé. Na falta de telha usavam palha. Vista do alto parecia uma “Cidade de Palha”, denominação antiga do local. No seu entorno havia brejo e lagoa que cederam espaço para canaviais. Não havia ruas, mas trilhas. Nem luz só lamparina. A água era de cacimba, os muros de gaiolinhas (tipo de planta, as camas de pau, os fogões a lenha. O proprietário das terras era um médico e político chamado Custódio Siqueira que as transformou em lotes para venda e, em sua homenagem, o bairro passou a ser chamado Custodópolis. Na travessia do rural-urbano o bairro experimentou melhorias, através da oferta pública de iluminação,

  8. La respiración en la voz cantada

    OpenAIRE

    Liuzzi, María José; Brusso, Andrea Yanina

    2014-01-01

    El conocimiento de la fisiología respiratoria es un requisito básico para lograr un buen desempeño técnico en la voz cantada, y no es poco frecuente encontrar cantantes que tienen errores conceptuales acerca de la fisiología respiratoria y de la técnica del appoggio. Esto acarrea, también, las dificultades técnicas que estos encuentran a lo largo de su formación. Nuestro objetivo es investigar cómo incide el conocimiento de la fisiología respiratoria en el correcto desempeño técnico de los...

  9. In Search Of the Ideal City. The Favela-Bairro Program Experience in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor

    provided with top quality services next to poor communities with extremely limited infrastructure. During the last two decades Brazilian municipalities have launched several policies and urban interventions in an attempt to minimize urban inequalities. In this context, the Favela-Bairro Programme, lauched...

  10. Human rights treatment in La Voz de Galicia/Tratamiento de derechos humanos en La Voz de Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mercedes Román Portas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article summarizes the results of an investigation pertaining to “Human Rights and the Written Press.” The project resulted from a collaborative effort between teachers from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and the Universidad de Vigo in response to an accord established by the Fundacion Ciudadania y Valores. The general goal of this project is to employ quantitative content analysis methods to analyze the types of human rights-related press information received by readers of the regional newspaper, La Voz de Galicia. The specific objective of the research project was to study the level of interest that exists among readers regarding human rights reporting in La Voz de Galicia. The investigators demonstrate the quantitative frequency of contents reported in this newspaper related to human rights by presenting the analytical results of topics grouped by four select articles pertaining to the Universal Human Rights Declaration.Resumen: Este trabajo es fruto de un proyecto más amplio de investigación ya finalizado. La Fundación Ciudadanía y Valores estableció un acuerdo con un equipo de investigación integrado por profesores de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y la Universidad de Vigo para realizar un primer informe sobre “Derechos Humanos y prensa escrita”. El objetivo global de este artículo consiste en analizar, mediante análisis de contenidos cuantitativos, el discurso mediático que los lectores del diario regional La Voz de Galicia, recibe de este periódico en relación con determinados aspectos de los derechos humanos. Los objetivos específicos de la investigación se centraron en estudiar el grado de interés que existe por los derechos humanos en este diario regional. Es decir, el grado de presencia de contenidos vinculados a este concepto. Al final del texto se presentan los resultados del análisis de los tópicos agrupados por los cuatro artículos de la Declaración Universal de Derechos

  11. La voz de Claudio Rodríguez: propuesta para una escucha crítica. Caracteres

    OpenAIRE

    Mistrorigo, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    [ES] Tomando como punto de partida las grabaciones audio de Claudio Rodríguez, el artículo sugiere una manera de escuchar la voz en poesía evidenciando algunos aspectos y problemas que surgen a la hora de establecer un nuevo encuentro no sólo entre la voz del poeta y quien la escucha, sino también entre la voz del poeta y el crítico. La voz física de un poeta que lee su textos vuelve a proyectar y a reestructurar elementos constitutivos del lenguaje poético (como encabalgamiento y cesura) hac...

  12. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  13. Voz e fala no menacme e na pós-menopausa Voice and speech during menacme and postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliséa Maria Meurer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as características fonoarticulatórias de mulheres no menacme e na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: foram verificados parâmetros acústicos em tons de voz, sua estabilidade, modulações de entonações, ritmo e velocidade de fala. Quarenta e cinco mulheres na pós-menopausa há três anos ou mais e sem terapia de reposição hormonal e, quarenta e cinco mulheres no menacme, com ciclos menstruais regulares e sem medicação hormonal responderam um questionário e gravaram produções verbais. As análises acústicas foram realizadas com o programa Motor Speech Profile da Key Elemetrics. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para resultados com distribuição gaussiana e o teste Mann-Whitney quando houve distribuição assimétrica. RESULTADOS: no grupo pós-menopausa houve maior consistência na lentificação do ritmo e redução de velocidade fonoarticulatória. CONCLUSÕES: o melhor conhecimento nesta área permitirá a elaboração de estratégias para oferecer melhor qualidade de vida para mulheres na pós-menopausa, em especial para aquelas que utilizam a voz profissionalmente.OBJECTIVES: to compare phono-articulatory characteristics between women in reproductive age and postmenopause women. METHODS: acoustic variations in vocal intonation, speed of the speech and the pause pattern were measured. Fourty five reproductive age women with regular menstrual cycles and taking no hormonal contraceptives and 45 postmenopause women receiving no hormonal replacement therapy for at least three years were interviewed and their verbal productions were recorded. Acoustic analyses were performed using the Kay Elemetrics Motor Speech Profile. Student's t test was employed to compare data between the two groups when they presented normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney test when they were asymmetrical. RESULTS: the reduction on the rhythm and phonoarticulatory speed was more constant in the postmenopause group. CONCLUSIONS: a better understanding

  14. Una voz temblorosa: Música y auto-afección en Jacques Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Durán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca mostrar que el estatuto de la música en la obra de Jacques Derrida propone una problematización rigurosa de la figura de la auto-afección. Si esta última encuentra en la voz su modelo ejemplar, en tanto espacio en el cual un sí-mismo garantiza la estabilidad de su presencia, la formulación derrideana de la música como experiencia de una apropiación imposible sugiere una reformulación de la voz auto-afectiva. La auto-afección, como posibilidad de una subjetividad, ya no sería un espacio homogéneo y cerrado sobre sí, sino un espaciamiento que instituye e impide a la vez el monólogo de la voz.

  15. La voz y la letra en "Un huésped", de Yoko Tawada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lucía Correa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los textos de Yoko Tawada, escritorajaponesa residente en Alemania,hacen presente el desgarramientode quien vive fuera de la lenguamaterna. Es una obra que se balanceasobre el límite entre loscódigos, donde nada hay evidente,donde la palabra parece tener vidapropia. Entre los textos que tomanesta extrañeza del lenguaje comosustrato, se encuentra el relato"Un huésped", cuya particular referenciaa la voz y a la letra comodos registros que se entrelazan yse repelen alternativamente, loconvierte en una valiosa fuente dereflexiones sobre lo oral, la voz, laletra, la lectura y la escritura.Palabras clave: Yoko Tawada, literaturajaponesa contemporánea, voz,letra, escritura.

  16. Espectrografía de los registros vocales en la voz cantada

    OpenAIRE

    Jerez, Rodrigo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El análisis acústico y espectrográfico de la señal audible es útil para conocer la actividad fonatoria. Más aún, en el caso de la voz cantada, este instrumento permite diferenciar los diversos mecanismos de producción al servicio del canto - Objetivo: Exponer los elementos acústicos que hacen posible la distinción entre un registro y otro estableciendo relaciones con la fisiología laríngea - Material y método: se tomaron muestras de voz cantada en 10 sujetos masculinos y 10 suje...

  17. Una voz temblorosa: Música y auto-afección en Jacques Derrida

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Durán

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo busca mostrar que el estatuto de la música en la obra de Jacques Derrida propone una problematización rigurosa de la figura de la auto-afección. Si esta última encuentra en la voz su modelo ejemplar, en tanto espacio en el cual un sí-mismo garantiza la estabilidad de su presencia, la formulación derrideana de la música como experiencia de una apropiación imposible sugiere una reformulación de la voz auto-afectiva. La auto-afección, como posibilidad de una subjetividad, ya...

  18. SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT - HAMMARBY SJÖSTAD NEIGHBORHOOD, STOCKHOLM = DESENVOLVIMENTO URBANO SUSTENTÁVEL - BAIRRO HAMMARBY SJÖSTAD, ESTOCOLMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica R Polzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hammarby Sjöstad is a district located in the south of Stockholm. It is considered one of the most sustainable neighbourhoods in the world, serving as a model not only for the Swedish cities and the SymbioCity concept but also for all other urban centres. The neighbourhood was built in a port and industrial area and its construction was responsible for transforming and revitalizing not only the site of implantation but all its surroundings. The goal was to build a new neighbourhood whose environmental impact was 50% lower compared to the previous construction site. To this effect, efficient construction methods were used, considering less production of waste and the use and reuse of local materials. The neighbourhood also offers water and sewage treatment on site, pneumatic solid waste collection, and public transportation connected to the existing system, large green areas with urban equipment, sidewalks and bike paths integrating all spaces. The population's quality of life and the respect for the environment were the key factors that allowed make the place a centre of excellence in the category of sustainability. = Hammarby Sjöstad é um bairro localizado ao sul da cidade de Estocolmo. Considerado um dos bairros mais sustentáveis do mundo, servindo de modelo não só para as cidades suecas e para o conceito Symbiocity, mas para todos os demais centros urbanos. Construído numa área portuária e industrial o bairro transformou e revitalizou não só o local de implantação, mas todo o seu entorno. A meta foi construir um novo bairro cujo impacto ambiental fosse 50% inferior comparado às construções anteriores do local. Para isso foram utilizados métodos construtivos eficientes e com menor desperdício, utilizando materiais locais e de reuso. O bairro oferece ainda tratamento de água e esgoto no local, coleta de resíduos sólidos pneumática, sistema de transporte coletivo conectado ao existente, amplas áreas verdes com mobili

  19. Conversor texto a voz multilingüe de Telefónica I+D

    OpenAIRE

    Armenta, Ana; Escalada Sardina, José Gregorio; Garrido Almiñana, Juan María; Rodríguez Crespo, Miguel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Telefónica I+D presenta la última versión de su conversor texto a voz multiligüe, multilocutor y basado en selección de unidades. Telefónica I+D presents the last versión its corpus based, multispeaker and multilingual text to speech system.

  20. Esquema de transmisión segura de voz basado en mapas caóticos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Millarez, Cristhian

    2005-01-01

    Hemos desarrollado una propuesta de solución al problema de privacidad en aplicaciones de transmisión de voz en tiempo real para el Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Prediction-Linear Prediction (RPE-LTP) a 13 kbps desarrollado por el European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

  1. Desarrollo de un portal de voz de atención al ciudadano mediante VoiceXML

    OpenAIRE

    García Jiménez, María

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este Proyecto Final de Carrera es el desarrollo de un portal de voz de información municipal utilizando el lenguaje de programación VoiceXML. A través del portal desarrollado, los usuarios pueden interactuar telefónicamente mediante voz o teclado para acceder a información y a un conjunto de servicios del municipio de Alcorcón. El portal de voz ofrece al ciudadano distintas funcionalidades: consulta de información sobre el Ayuntamiento (equipo de gobierno, concejalías...

  2. Medios y Salud Pública: La voz de los adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Neira Parra

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una parte del Informe Regional Venezolano de la investigación "Medios y Salud Pública: La Voz de los Adolescentes", Proyecto COMSALUD, auspiciado por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS, la Federación Latinoamericana de Facultades de Comunicación Social (FELAFACS y la Organización de las Naciones Unidas. Fue realizado entre septiembre del 2001 y abril del 2002 en base al protocolo acordado por las 12 instituciones universitarias participantes de acuerdo a la planificación pautada en la ciudad de Ibarra, Ecuador en junio del 2001. La Universidad del Zulia, de Maracaibo, Venezuela, viene participando en el proyecto COMSALUD desde 19977con el "Estudio comparativo de mensajes relacionados con la salud en los medios masivos Latinoamericanos". En base al proyecto presentado por la OPS, esta etapa de la investigación se realizó por medio de la técnica de los grupos focales (investigación cualitativa a poblaciones de adolescentes de las áreas urbanas y y rurales del estado Zulia. Se realizaron 16 grupos focales en los cuales se convocaron adolescentes distribuidos por sexo, en dos grupos de edades y procedentes de los estratos socioeconómicos medio y bajo. Partiendo de la concepción de que los medios de comunicación social son una poderosa herrramienta de intervención social y como tal vehículos estratégicos para la difusión de mensajes sobre salud tendientes a incidir en el nivel de información y las actitudes de las audiencias a quienes van dirigidos. El propósito de la investigación es utilizar los resultados como insumos para el desarrollo de políticas públicas que propicien el diseño de programas de comunicación y salud dirigidos a adolescentes.

  3. Estudo do eco-bairro de Vauban, em Freiburg, Alemanha.Contributos para a definição de um modelo participativo com vista à disseminação de eco-bairros em Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ricardo Lima Saraiva da Maia

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Mestrado em Arquitectura Este trabalho tem como objectivo o estudo, recolha e articulação de informação e experiências que possam resultar na definição de um modelo participativo, capaz de incluir os contributos da administração local, dos futuros residentes e dos diversos agentes que interferem no processo do planeamento urbano. Tendo como objecto de análise o Eco- bairro de Vauban, em Freiburg, Alemanha, procurou-se investigar o papel da autarquia, a articulação desta com os ...

  4. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais do Bairro Novo Horizonte, Ituiutaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S.N Liporacci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da maioria dos estudos etnobotânicos serem focados em populações tradicionais, as populações de áreas urbanas também vêm sendo investigadas. O presente trabalho realizou um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais de um bairro urbano, próximo à zona rural, no município de Ituiutaba, MG, visando resgatar e identificar o conhecimento local a respeito das plantas medicinais. Para isso, 40 residências foram visitadas e os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas com os moradores. Foram encontradas 72 espécies de plantas medicinais, distribuídas em 33 famílias botânicas, destacando-se Asteraceae e Lamiaceae pelo número de espécies. As cinco espécies mais citadas pelos moradores foram: Mentha sp., Cymbopogon citratus, Sedum dendroideum, Plectranthus barbatus, e Rosmarinus officinalis. O hábito herbáceo foi predominante, e a parte da planta mais usada foi a folha, enquanto a decocção foi o modo de preparo mais frequente. Por mais que existam particularidades entre os diversos costumes e culturas das comunidades locais no Brasil, foi observada similaridade entre os resultados encontrados neste trabalho com outros levantamentos realizados, reforçando a importância da preservação e divulgação do conhecimento popular.

  5. Valorização de bairros antigos e ressignificação da alteridade: o exemplo de Wazemmes em Lille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafid Hammouche

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a dinâmica urbana em bairros submetidos à gentrificação, mais precisamente aquela de Wazemmes, bairro perto do centro da cidade de Lille, no Norte da Franca. Em Wazemmes ocorreram mudanças sensíveis nas ultimas décadas. O bairro tornou-se um espaço cosmopolita, onde convive uma população de grande diversidade. Conta com uma ação publica em domínios variados, sobretudo nos registros social e cultural. De um espaço difamado em razão da delinquência, e do medo por causa da forte presença de imigrantes, e agora valorizado, tornando-se um lugar emblemático quanto a sua urbanidade e sua etnicidade.

  6. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad; Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos; Maria Clara da Silva Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiênc...

  7. O bairro, um projeto de crítica expandida The Neighborhood, a project of expanded critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vasconcelos Studart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como proposição investigar a literatura do escritor angolano-português Gonçalo M. Tavares, mais especificamente a série intitulada O bairro, que é uma composição para 39 livros (10 publicados até agora. O projeto elabora uma leitura crítica disseminada, ou expandida, de alguns escritores fundamentais da modernidade como nomes plenos de história que são colocados num mesmo espaço contíguo de uma esfera - O bairro. Um exercício de repetição e do uso recorrente do fragmento como recurso crítico de elaboração do pensamento numa prosa que pode ser lida entre a fabulação e o ensaio, o poema e a filosofia.Este texto se propone a investigar la ficción de Gonçalo M. Tavares, más específicamente la serie intitulada O bairro (El barrio, que se constituye de 39 libros, 10 de los cuales ya están publicados. El proyecto elabora una lectura crítica diseminada, o expandida, de algunos de los escritores fundamentales para la modernidad como nombres inscritos en la historia que se reúnen en una misma esfera, en un espacio contiguo: el barrio. Un ejercicio de repetición y del uso recurrente del fragmento como recurso crítico de elaboración del pensamiento en una prosa que puede ser leída entre la fabulación y el ensayo, entre la poesía y la filosofía.This text seeks to investigate Gonçalo M. Tavares' fiction, more specifically the series called 'O bairro' (The Neighborhood, composed of 39 books, ten of which have been published so far. The project proposes a disseminated, or expanded, critical reading of some fundamental modern writers. They are fully regarded as names inscribed in history, placed in the same contiguous space of a sphere - The Neighborhood. Tavares' writing stands out as an exercise of repetition and use of the fragment as a critical device for developing thought by means of a prose situated between fabulation and essay, poem and philosophy.

  8. SEM microcharacterization of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, D B

    1989-01-01

    Applications of SEM techniques of microcharacterization have proliferated to cover every type of material and virtually every branch of science and technology. This book emphasizes the fundamental physical principles. The first section deals with the foundation of microcharacterization in electron beam instruments and the second deals with the interpretation of the information obtained in the main operating modes of a scanning electron microscope.

  9. [Re]Ordenação Espacial e Turismo: A Revitalização do Bairro do Recife Antigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sergio Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo busca entender o fenômeno da revitalização do Bairro do Recife Antigo, no Recife, PE. Utiliza-se a fenomenologia hermenêutica, como metodologia. A revitalização buscou reinserir o bairro no cotidiano dos moradores do Grande Recife. O primeiro passo foi reinventar o lugar como local de eventos, para atrair visitantes. É a partir da leitura do fenômeno, que este trabalho busca descrever as várias mudanças ocorridas na ordenação do espaço estudado, apontando o que entendemos por acertos e falhas na execução do plano de revitalização. [Re]Ordination and Space Tourism: The Neighborhood Revitalization of Recife Antigo - This article seeks to understand the of the neighborhood revitalization of Recife Antigo, Recife, PE. The methodology used is hermeneutic phenomenology. The revitalization of Recife Antigo tried reinserting the area in daily lives of residents in the Grande Recife. The first part of the project was to reinvent the place as a venue to attract visitors. This paper is based on the reading of the phenomenon to describe the various changes in ordering this space, pointing out what we mean as successes and failures in the implementation of the revitalization plan.

  10. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  11. ENTRENAMIENTO DISCRIMINATIVO POR DISTANCIA DE MAHALANOBIS PARA DETECCIÓN DE PATOLOGÍAS DE VOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SARRIA-PAJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una técnica de entrenamiento discriminativo para Modelos Ocultos de Markov, orientado a identificación de patologías de voz. Esta técnica busca maximizar el área que encierra la Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic ajustando los parámetros del modelo, empleando como función objetivo la distancia de Mahalanobis. Los resultados muestran que la técnica propuesta mejora significativamente la precisión en un sistema de clasificación comparado con otros criterios de entrenamiento. Los resultados son obtenidos empleando la base de datos de patologías de voz MEEIVL.

  12. VEZ E VOZ NA LINGUAGEM: O SUJEITO SOB O EFEITO DE SUA FALA SINTOMÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Lier-DeVitto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “Vez e voz na linguagem” é expressão que refere a condição na qual o sujeito falante supõe poder controlar a própria fala. Este texto procura problematizar a inversão imaginária produzida pela presença de sintoma na fala, numa reflexão que coloca em cena o efeito “social” – de marginalização/isolamento – que se produz na escuta do outro e o efeito de “destituição subjetiva” – de perda de vez e voz – que se produz na escuta do próprio falante. Afasias e demências – quadros clínicos que incidem na velhice – são discutidas de um ponto de vista lingüístico e são traçadas diferenças relativas às manifestações sintomáticas e seus efeitos subjetivos. Nessa perspectiva é que se apresentam, de um lado, a “clínica de linguagem” como espaço de tomar a vez e a voz e, de outro lado, o de “centros de convivência” como espaços privilegiados de inclusão social. Palavras-chave: afasia; demência; linguagem.

  13. A integraçao socioespacial dos bairros de habitação social: um estudo da situação na Área Metropolitana de Lisboa

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiras, Marina Gaboleiro, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    O projeto de investigação desenvolvido procurou debater as desigualdades socioespaciais, considerando a situação dos bairros de habitação social, frequentemente indiciados como exemplos de segregação e de exclusão social. Assim, tomando como referência o contexto português e os bairros de habitação social localizados na Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, foi objetivo do estudo refletir sobre a condição urbana destes bairros no que se refere à integração socioespacial e relações desta com o crescim...

  14. Estudo da difteria na cidade do Recife. I. Nota sôbre levantamento de portadores de Corynebacterium diphtheriae no bairro dos Coelhos Survey on diphtheriae carriers in "Bairro dos Coelhos" Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available De uma amostra probabilística do bairro dos Coelhos da cidade do Recife, 410 indivíduos foram examinados para verificação de portadores de difteria. Sòmente duas amostras de C. diphtheriae foram isoladas de duas crianças de 8 a 9 anos, as quais não apresentaram sintomatologia compatível com o quadro diftérico.From a limited population living around the University Hospital in Recife, Brazil a randomic sample was examined in order to identify diphtheria carriers. Swabs were made from 410 persons in a house-to-house survey. Two strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were isolated from healthy 8 and 9-year old children.

  15. DESCRIÇÃO DA TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE RELATIVA DO AR EM DIFERENTES LOCALIDADES NO BAIRRO DO PARQUE DEZ - MANAUS/AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ramos Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Manaus tem sofrido com o rápido crescimento da atividade imobiliária sem preocupação com a preservação de grande parte de suas áreas verdes, ocasionando modificações nas variáveis como a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar. O presente estudo acompanhou as variações temporais e espaciais de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar e fez comparações entre suas características nos diferentes usos e ocupações do solo do Bairro do Parque Dez, área centro sul do município de Manaus em diferentes dias e horários. Na rotatória do Parque do Mindu a média de temperatura chegou a 37,08°C entre às 14hs e 15hs e a menor registrada foi de 26,50°C, entre o horário de 8hs e 9hs. No mês de outubro de 2012 a temperatura na Av. Perimetral entre 14h e 15h apresentou valores de 31,96°C e a menor média registrada aconteceram entre 21h e 22h, registrando 29,3°C. Em relação à umidade relativa do ar em setembro/2012 foi observada média de 72% com variação de 65% a 80%, em outubro/2012 a média foi de 64% com variação entre 63% a 75%, em março/2013 a média foi de 88% com variação entre 80% a 95%. Interações ocorreram principalmente no horário e mês sobre a temperatura ambiente e umidade relativa do ar. Conclui-se que o efeito da urbanização tornasse mais evidente quando se constata que as tendências positivas estão altamente correlacionadas com a tendência de crescimento da área urbana. Palavras-chave: Microclima, Conforto térmico, Metereologia, Amazônia, Clima urbano. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p20-27

  16. Usos e sentidos da voz no discurso político eleitoral brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Piovezani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de considerações sobre a possibilidade, a especificidade e a produtividade de uma abordagem discursiva das relações entre sons e sentidos, o trabalho refl ete, inicialmente, sobre algumas funções da voz na constituição de efeitos de sentido no discurso político eleitoral brasileiro. Mais especificamente, são analisadas sequências discursivas extraídas do Horário Gratuito de Propaganda Eleitoral (HGPE das eleições presidenciais de 2002, por meio da descrição e interpretação de certos usos e efeitos dos segmentos, suprassegmentos e elementos prosódicos empregados em determinadas passagens de programas dos então candidatos, Lula e José Serra. Após essas análises, o estudo encerra-se com uma reflexão sobre um traço antropológico inscrito na voz humana, que congrega a razão e a sedução em suas modulações e com uma hipótese sobre uma espécie de nostalgia da voz ante a emergência de determinadas tecnologias de linguagem que supostamente a ameaçam. As refl exões e análises aqui desenvolvidas fundamentam-se na Análise do discurso, derivada dos trabalhos de Michel Pêcheux e seu grupo.

  17. Uma outra forma de fazer escola:a Voz do Operário da Ajuda

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Educação (Sociologia da Educação), Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Educação, 2013 Os anexos em formato digital encontram-se disponíveis no DVD para consulta na Sala de Leitura da Biblioteca do Núcleo de Documentação da Reitoria da Universidade de Lisboa A principal questão do presente trabalho é tentar compreender em que medida a singular forma escolar de relações sociais da Voz do Operário da Ajuda é sustentável. No âmbito da teoria da forma escolar de ...

  18. Sujeto y comunidad; voz, isla y muerte en la narrativa cubana del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Timmer, Nanne

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo explora cómo dos novelas cubanas de 2010 y 2012 tratan el tema del sujeto y de la comunidad. En Desde los blancos manicomios, de Margarita Mateo y en Días de entrenamiento, de Ahmel Echevarría se repiensa la comunidad y se imagina un futuro atravesando los temas de la muerte, el yo, y la isla. La tensión entre sujeto y símbolo nacional es crucial en estas narrativas, y a través de ella se articula la búsqueda de voz, vida y cuerpo en visiones contemporáneas sobre la singularidad...

  19. SAÓ, sistema de ayuda ortoépica para la lectura en voz alta del valenciano

    OpenAIRE

    Forcada, Mikel L.; Beltran i Calvo, Vicent; Segura i Llopes, Carles; Colomina i Castanyer, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Este proyecto se propone elaborar un programa informático que ayudará a los locutores de radio y televisión y, en general, a cualquier persona, a leer el valenciano correctamente en voz alta. El sistema resultante, denominado SAÓ (sistema de ayuda ortoépica), anotará automáticamente el texto con marcas sencillas que indicarán la pronunciación correcta en algunos casos difíciles, usando un ordenador de sobremesa común. En particular, podrá ser usado para enseñar l...

  20. LEVANTAMENTO E ESTUDO DA INFRAESTRUTURA, MOBILIÁRIO E MOBILIDADE URBANA DE UM QUARTEIRÃO NO BAIRRO CENTRO DA CIDADE DE PANAMBI – RS

    OpenAIRE

    Samara Simon Christmann; Diógenes Rubert Librelotto

    2014-01-01

    Existem diversos fatores que influenciam para se obter um espaço urbano de qualidade, entre eles os sistemas de infraestrutura, mobiliário e mobilidade urbana. Dessa forma, o presente artigo visa analisar as condições existentes desses sistemas, identificar os problemas de um quarteirão de uso misto (residencial e comercial) do bairro Centro da cidade de Panambi, tendo como objetivo propor possíveis soluções para os problemas existentes....

  1. LA VOZ ARTICULADA O PALABRA EN LA TRANSMISIÓN Y ADQUISICIÓN DE CONOCIMIENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahirys Mora Mora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de la clase depende de que los estudiantes entiendan y obedezcan las órdenes y explicaciones del profesor, pues mediante su voz articulada o palabra él organiza y dirige la transmisión y adquisición de conocimientos, el desarrollo de habilidades y destrezas, así como sentimientos, convicciones y particularidades de la voluntad y el carácter. Para este propósito el mismo debe poseer una amplia cultura sobre la voz humana, sus características, funcionamiento y las potencialidades con que cuenta su aparato de fonación para hacer un uso adecuado y óptimo durante la dirección del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje. El presente trabajo está destinado a los docentes en formación de las carreras pedagógicas, en especial a los de Español-Literatura, que deben distinguirse por ser un modelo lingüístico.

  2. O cantor Hermeto Pascoal: os instrumentos da voz The singer Hermeto Pascoal: the voice's instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Costa-Lima Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artigo sobre a utilização da voz na música do compositor Hermeto Pascoal, seja cantando, falando, gritando, sussurrando, rezando, tossindo, gargalhando, assobiando, produzindo sons guturais, sozinha ou simultaneamente com instrumentos de sopro, de teclas, com objetos sonoros não convencionais ou, ainda, de outras formas. Ao contemplar a produção vocal na obra e na vida de Hermeto Pascoal, de maneira abrangente, pretendo mostrar uma faceta pouco conhecida do versátil compositor alagoano, além de revelar que a sua música e a sua personalidade partilham uma mesma ética, da qual a voz é instrumento.Article about Brazilian composer Hermeto Pascoal's utilization of his voice in his music, whether singing, talking, shouting, whispering, praying, coughing, laughing, whistling, producing guttural sounds, alone or simultaneously with wind instruments, keyboards, non-conventional sound objects or even other forms. In considering the use of the voice in the work and life of Hermeto Pascoal, in a comprehensive way, I am seeking to show a lesser known facet of the versatile composer from Northeastern Brazil, as well as revealing that his music and his personality share the same ethics, in which the voice is the instrument.

  3. SEM in applied marketing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey...

  4. Correlações entre ruído ambiental em sala de aula e voz do professor Correlations between classroom environmental noise and teachers' voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fernanda Guidini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar se existe correlação entre ruído ambiental no interior da sala de aula, intensidade da voz e presença de alteração vocal em professores. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada medição do ruído ambiental em dez salas de escolas municipais de ensino fundamental. A intensidade das vozes das professoras foi medida durante atividade de ensino. Amostras de vogal prolongada [é] e contagem de 1 a 20 emitidas pelas professoras foram analisadas utilizando escala GRBASI. Os resultados obtidos foram correlacionados. RESULTADOS: A média de ruído ambiental sem a presença das crianças em sala de aula variou de 40 a 51 dB(A e com a presença das crianças de 45 a 65 dB(A. Entre as professoras, houve 70% de ocorrência de vozes alteradas no grau geral (G e 90% com tensão na voz (S, variando entre graus discreto e moderado. Constatou-se variação entre 52 dB(A e 68 dB(A na intensidade da voz das professoras, atingindo 7,48 dB(A acima do nível do ruído ambiental. Houve correlação entre a intensidade vocal das professoras e ruído ambiental na presença das crianças durante a aula. CONCLUSÃO: Os níveis de ruído ambiental em sala de aula são altos e se correlacionam com o aumento da intensidade das vozes das professoras. Embora com alta ocorrência de vozes alteradas, não é possível correlacioná-las com o nível de ruído ambiental.PURPOSE: To explore the existence of correlations between environmental noise in classrooms, voice intensity and teacher's vocal problems. METHODS: Environmental noise was measured in 10 classrooms of municipal elementary schools; the intensity of teachers' voice was measured during teaching practice; teachers' speech samples containing emissions of sustained vowel [é] and counting from 1 to 20 were analyzed using the GRBASI protocol; and the results were tested for correlation. RESULTS: The average of environmental noise varied from 40 to 51 dB(A without the presence of children in the classroom, and

  5. La voz del narrador en las novelas de Javier Marías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Gil, Sandra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A strict revision of Javier Marías's narrative must start from the analysis of the narrator's voice, the main narrative component in a novel. El hombre sentimental's publication in 1986 is going to indicate the beginning of a fruitful creative stage of this writer based on the first person narrative voice use. The protagonist narrator tells us a piece of his past that needs to be related in order to be understood. The result is a never linear narration that prospers thanks to the narrator's continuous digressive asides. Javier Marías went on with the same use of the narrator's voice in his following fictions Todas las almas (1989, Corazón tan blanco (1992 and Mañana en la batalla piensa en mí (1994. In his last work Negra espalda del tiempo (1998 a narrator called Javier Marias is the main character of a sort of novel placed between fiction and reality. Again a mysterious voice is the only protagonist of a spiral narration of which main purpose is its own narrative act.Una revisión rigurosa de la narrativa de Javier Marías debe partir del análisis de la figura del narrador, el componente más importante de la estructura narrativa. La publicación de El hombre sentimental en 1986 va a marcar el inicio de una fructífera etapa creativa de Javier Marías basada en el empleo de una voz narradora en primera persona. Un narrador protagonista relata un retazo de su pasado que necesita ser contado para ser entendido. El resultado es una narración que nunca es lineal y que se enriquece con los continuos incisos digresivos del narrador. Javier Marías empleará el mismo tipo de voz narradora en sus siguientes ficciones, Todas las almas (1989, Corazón tan blanco (1992 y Mañana en la batalla piensa en mí (1994. En su último trabajo Negra espalda del tiempo (1998 un narrador llamado Javier Marías es el protagonista de una especie de novela situada a medio camino entre la realidad y la ficción. De nuevo una voz misteriosa es la única

  6. Análise acústica da voz captada na faringe próximo à fonte glótica através de microfone acoplado ao fibrolaringoscópio Acoustic analysis of voice captured in the pharynx above the glottic source through a microphone on a laryngo-fiberscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Fukuyama

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a voz próximo à sua fonte produtora, as pregas vocais, através de um microfone miniaturizado de aparelho auditivo que foi adaptado para ser acoplado à extremidade de um fibrolaringoscópio, permitindo a captação da voz durante a laringoscopia direta. Forma de estudo: Experimental. Material e Método: A voz foi estudada em um grupo de 50 indivíduos, 25 homens e 25 mulheres sem doenças, através de um programa de análise acústica MDVP (Multi-Dimensional Voice Program do laboratório de voz Computerized Speech Lab, Model 4300B, da Kay Elemetrics. Amostras de vogais sustentadas /a/, /i/ e /u/ foram captadas de três formas diferentes, primeiramente com um microfone comum externo a 15 cm da boca, em segundo lugar com o microfone especial na faringe a 1,5 cm acima das pregas vocais e por último com o microfone especial externamente a 2 cm da boca. Doze parâmetros acústicos relacionados a freqüência fundamental, amplitude e ruído de cada uma das vogais foram comparadas estatisticamente conforme à sua forma de captação. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre a voz captada pelo microfone comum externo e o microfone especial, em relação à freqüência fundamental, aos parâmetros de variação de periodicidade de freqüência, amplitude e ruído. Conclusão: A diferença do som da fonte glótica do som da voz externa pode mostrar as modificações sofridas pela voz no decorrer da passagem pelo trato vocal.Aim: The aim of the present study is to examine the voice to its acoustic source - the vocal folds - with a miniature hearing-aid microphone coupled to the extremity of a laryngo-fiberscope allowing the voice to be captured during direct laryngoscopy. Study design: Experimental. Material and Method: The voice of 50 individuals - 25 males and 25 females bearing no pathologies - was collected by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP by

  7. ACCESO A SERVICIOS DE VOZ Y DATOS PUNTO MULTIPUNTO BANDA ANCHA EN LA INDUSTRIA PETROLERA NACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrina Faria

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue realizar una propuesta de acceso a servicios de voz y datos punto multipunto de banda ancha inalámbrica, que satisfaga las necesidades actuales de comunicación en la IPN, basándose en el estudio de 3 sistemas inalámbricos terrestres de banda ancha punto multipunto para usuarios fijos: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS, Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS y Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX. El presente estudio es una investigación de campo de la modalidad proyecto factible, no experimental. La población estudiada estuvo conformada por 67 empleados de la Gerencia de Telecomunicaciones de PDVSA Occidente, realizándose un censo poblacional y prescindiéndose de esta manera del uso del muestreo y de muestra alguna. Se utilizó como instrumento de recolección de datos un cuestionario de 18 ítems de preguntas cerradas, a través del cual se lograron conocer los problemas técnicos, económicos y de seguridad que actualmente afectan a la red de telecomunicaciones de PDVSA Occidente y cuáles son sus requerimientos y necesidades más importantes. La metodología utilizada para el presente estudio se basó en el método de Ciclo de Vida para el desarrollo de sistemas de información. Se realizó un análisis sobre las ventajas y desventajas de los 3 sistemas inalámbricos punto multipunto banda ancha estudiados, concluyendo que la mejor alternativa para la IPN es la tecnología WIMAX. Finalmente, se diseñó una propuesta de acceso a servicios de voz y datos punto multipunto banda ancha para la IPN, basándose en la tecnología escogida.

  8. Pinceladas sobre as práticas comerciais em um bairro popular de Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Norma González de Castells

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa desenvolvida entre 2006 e 2007 em um bairro popular de Florianópolis/SC. O objeto de investigação está centrado nas vivências e representações dos comerciantes de bairro acerca da sua própria atividade laboral. Para tanto, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa predominantemente qualitativa, embora tenha feito uso de dados quantitativos. O objetivo era elaborar uma etnografia sobre a atividade comercial pensando-a para além das questões econômicas, a primeira vista marcantes neste tipo de realidade social. Este trabalho entende a ação econômica como uma ação social, isto é, os atores não perseguem apenas objetivos econômicos, mas também sociais, como a sociabilidade, o reconhecimento, o prestígio, o poder, etc. Além disso, as ações econômicas têm motivações variadas, desde a racionalidade até a afetividade ou os costumes. Partindo dessas premissas, a etnografia pode ajudar a compreender a realidade dos comerciantes e o lugar do comércio na sociedade complexa.Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación desarrollada entre 2006 y 2007 en un barrio popular de Florianópolis/SC. El objeto de estudio se centra en las experiencias y las representaciones de los comerciantes del barrio sobre la su propia actividad laboral. La investigación realizada fue predominantemente de carácter cualitativa utilizando también datos cuantitativos. El objetivo fue elaborar una etnografía de la actividad comercial, pensada más allá de las cuestiones económicas presentes en este tipo de realidad social. El trabajo entiende la acción económica como acción social, es decir, los agentes no sólo persiguen objetivo económicos, pero también sociales, como la sociabilidad, el reconocimiento, prestigio, el poder, por ejemplo. Por otro lado, las acciones económicas tienen variadas motivaciones, desde la racionalidad hasta la afectividad o las costumbres. La etnografía puede

  9. A influência de uma coparentalidade conflituosa/cooperante nos estilos parentais : um estudo comparativo entre população normativa e bairros sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Pinhal, Márcia Filipa Mateus

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde, Núcleo de Psicologia Clínica Sistémica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2013 O presente estudo pretende expandir a investigação sobre a relação de coparentalidade e estilos parentais, numa comparação entre população normativa e bairros sociais. Este estudo investigou a associação entre cooperação e conflito coparental e os estilos autoritário e autoritativo numa amostra de 117 figuras parentais, sendo ...

  10. Perturbações da voz profissional: da prevalência ao impacto económico

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiana Maria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Associação de Politécnicos do Norte para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Gestão das Organizações, Ramo de Gestão de Empresas Orientação: Prof. Doutor Jorge Ferreira Dias de Figueiredo Co-Orientação: Mestre Luís Francisco de Oliveira Marques Metello A voz é um instrumento fundamental no desempenho profissional dos profissionais da voz (PV). Este estudo teve como objectivo avaliar a prevalência de perturbações vocais (PtV) em vários grupos de PV e verificar a su...

  11. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  12. Sistema de navegación automática controlada por voz para una silla de ruedas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arévalo Luzuriaga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:El objetivo principal del presente proyecto fue desarrollar un sistema autónomo capaz de movilizar a personas discapacitadas parapléjicas sobre una silla de ruedas, utilizando un simple comando o instrucción de voz.El sistema de control del navegador está basado en un microcontrolador tipo PIC 16f877A como elemento maestro del comando y de 2 microcontroladores esclavos para la ejecución del reconocimiento de voz y manejo de los actuadores. El microcontrolador RCS 300 realiza el almacenamiento y reconocimiento de los comandos de voz utilizados para el control del equipo.Este equipo posee también la alternativa de un comando manual mediante un joystick ubicado en la parte frontal de la silla, siendo esta función una de las 15 posibilidades de trabajo que posee el equipo, así mismo el sistema está dotado con un conjunto de 6 sensores ultrasónicos programables que entran a funcionar en el modo autónomo y sirven de seguridad al hablante ante posibles colisiones con obstáculos en todo su perímetro y también abismos que encuentre durante su trayectoria.

  13. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  14. As representações de escolares de bairros periféricos sobre o espaço onde vivem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esther Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla, desenvolvida no âmbito do Programa de Políticas Públicas da Fapesp, cujo objetivo fundamental foi compreender aspectos da vida e luta das camadas populares que habitam a periferia da cidade, através de sua fala. Nele, tentamos analisar as representações de escolares residentes em bairros periféricos de Ribeirão Preto-SP, sobre o espaço em que vivem. O material empírico foi levantado a partir de redações aplicadas aos alunos que cursavam as 4as e 5as séries do 1º grau, no 1º semestre de 2000, da rede estadual e da rede municipal que atendem à clientela dos bairros compreendidos no universo da pesquisa: Jardim Progresso, Conjunto Habitacional Avelino Alves Palma e conjunto dos Jardins Anhanguera, Grajaúna, Novo Mundo e Zara, aí incluída a favela do Zara. Os textos revelam uma das faces mais cruéis da exclusão social-crianças privadas do acesso aos bens básicos da vida.

  15. Educação popular em assentamento do movimento dos Sem-terra: Inclusão, vez e voz dos segmentos populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Antônio da Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the Popular Education, highlighting its importance in the social, political and economic reality of our society, and also, seek to establish relations regarding its importance for providing tools for excluded people to express themselves. The theme of this reflection is very relevant in face of the Latin American countries situation, where conquests, most often, happened and happen through struggles of the popular classes organized in social movements. Reflections will also be made starting from a survey made on “1º of May Settlement”, in Curitibanos city (SC, Brazil. In this place live people from several towns, from the rural environment of Curitibanos and region. To achieve this aim, it was outlined the following specific objectives: to characterize conceptually popular education; historicize the process of formation of “1º of May Settlement” of Curitibanos; describe the project of Popular Education, establishing relationships with the process of effective community participation of the reported Settlement. This work also proposes to demystify the reality of the settlements, bringing the educational experience developed in the Settlement to reflections. As for the objectives, the research is classified as exploratory. Regarding the procedures for data collection, it is characterizes as a field literature review, and case study. As tools and techniques for collecting data it was used interviews and field diary. It is expected, with this study, to map the theoretical and methodological referentials of popular education developed by the Landless Workers Movement of Brazil.

  16. Autoavaliação vocal e qualidade de vida em voz de indivíduos hipertensos Self-perception vocal and quality of life in the hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veis Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter dados de autoavaliação vocal e qualidade de vida em voz de indivíduos hipertensos MÉTODO: trata-se de estudo transversal, exploratório e descritivo. Participaram 84 indivíduos, 33 homens e 51 mulheres, de 54 a 87 anos (média de 68 anos que foram divididos em: Grupo Pesquisa (GP - 42 indivíduos portadores de hipertensão arterial e que recebiam tratamento medicamentoso específico para a doença há pelo menos um ano; Grupo Controle (GC: 42 indivíduos não hipertensos e com bom estado de saúde geral autorreferido. Todos os participantes responderam a um questionário composto por perguntas objetivas sobre autoavaliação vocal e ao protocolo Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV. RESULTADOS: não foram observadas diferenças quanto à autoavaliação vocal de indivíduos do GP e GC (p=0,075. Os escores médios totais obtidos no QVV também foram semelhantes entre os grupos (p=0,080. Houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à autopercepção do sintoma de "voz fraca", que teve maior ocorrência no GP (p=0,015. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização de medicamentos específicos para a hipertensão não promoveu diferenças na autoavaliação vocal e na qualidade de vida do grupo estudado, com exceção da percepção de "voz fraca". Indivíduos hipertensos e não hipertensos apresentaram escores abaixo do que se espera para sujeitos com vozes saudáveis e sem queixas vocais.PURPOSE: to get data of vocal self-assessment and voice quality of life in hypertensive individuals. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. There were 84 individuals ,33 men and 51 women, 54 to 87 years (68 years-old average who were divided into: Study Group (SG - 42 individuals with hypertension and receiving specific drug treatment for this disease for at least one year; Control Group (CG: 42 non-hypertensive individuals with good self-reported general health. All participants answered a questionnaire with questions about vocal self

  17. Autoavaliação vocal e Qualidade de Vida em Voz de indivíduos hipertensos Self-perception vocal and quality of life in the hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veis Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter dados de autoavaliação vocal e qualidade de vida em voz de indivíduos hipertensos MÉTODO: trata-se de estudo transversal, exploratório e descritivo. Participaram 84 indivíduos, 33 homens e 51 mulheres, de 54 a 87 anos (média de 68 anos que foram divididos em: Grupo Pesquisa (GP - 42 indivíduos portadores de hipertensão arterial e que recebiam tratamento medicamentoso específico para a doença há pelo menos um ano; Grupo Controle (GC: 42 indivíduos não hipertensos e com bom estado de saúde geral autorreferido. Todos os participantes responderam a um questionário composto por perguntas objetivas sobre autoavaliação vocal e ao protocolo Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV. RESULTADOS: não foram observadas diferenças quanto à autoavaliação vocal de indivíduos do GP e GC (p=0,075. Os escores médios totais obtidos no QVV também foram semelhantes entre os grupos (p=0,080. Houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à autopercepção do sintoma de "voz fraca", que teve maior ocorrência no GP (p=0,015. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização de medicamentos específicos para a hipertensão não promoveu diferenças na autoavaliação vocal e na qualidade de vida do grupo estudado, com exceção da percepção de "voz fraca". Indivíduos hipertensos e não hipertensos apresentaram escores abaixo do que se espera para sujeitos com vozes saudáveis e sem queixas vocais.PURPOSE: to get data of vocal self-assessment and voice quality of life in hypertensive individuals. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. There were 84 individuals ,33 men and 51 women, 54 to 87 years (68 years-old average who were divided into: Study Group (SG - 42 individuals with hypertension and receiving specific drug treatment for this disease for at least one year; Control Group (CG: 42 non-hypertensive individuals with good self-reported general health. All participants answered a questionnaire with questions about vocal self

  18. Leishmaniose visceral canina em três bairros de Uruguaiana - RS | Canine visceral leishmaniasis in three districts of Uruguaiana - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ilarraz Massia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a situação da Leishmaniose visceral canina (LCV em Uruguaiana quanto aos casos confirmados a partir de 2009 e à existência de associação entre o perfil socioeconômico e nível de conhecimento da população sobre a enfermidade em três bairros do município. Apesar da maioria dos entrevistados informar possuir conhecimento sobre a LVC, observou-se dificuldade em adotar uma das medidas preconizadas para a prevenção da doença (poder comprar a coleira. Houve associação entre renda e conhecimento sobre LVC (p = 0,04, poder comprar a coleira (p = 0,00 e limpar o pátio (p = 0,01. Entretanto, não se observou associação entre esta variável e achar que existe tratamento (p = 0,14 ou possuir pátio cercado (p = 0,13. Verificou-se também associação entre grau de escolaridade e conhecimento sobre LVC, poder comprar a coleira e achar que existe tratamento (p = 0,00. As informações resultantes da pesquisa podem auxiliar na condução de políticas públicas para a prevenção e controle da LVC. ================================================= This study aimed to describe the situation of LVC in Uruguaiana about the confirmed cases from 2009 and the existence of association between socioeconomic status and people’s level of knowledge about the disease in three districts of the municipality. Although the majority of respondents report having knowledge of the LVC, it found it difficult to adopt one of the measures recommend for the prevention of disease (to buy the collar. There was an association between income and knowledge of LVC (p = 0.04, to buy the collar (p = 0.00 and clean the patio (p = 0.01. However, there was no association between this variable and find that no treatment (p = 0.14 or own fenced yard (p = 0.13. It was also found association between level of education and knowledge of LVC, to buy the collar and you think there is treatment (p = 0.00. The resulting research information

  19. A saúde no cotidiano de jovens residentes em um bairro popular de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

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    Natália de Cássia Horta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objeto a saúde no cotidiano dos jovens considerando que esses não têm suas vivências cotidianas contempladas nas ações de saúde. O objetivo é analisar os modos de vida juvenis apreendendo os significados e sentidos da saúde em seu cotidiano. Trata-se de uma investigação qualitativa, fundamentada na dialética, com base na sociologia da vida cotidiana. Desenvolvida num bairro popular do município de Belo Horizonte, foi estruturada em fase exploratória e interpretativa, tendo como sujeitos dezenove jovens. Por meio da análise hermenêutica e dialética, a tese foi confirmada. As ações de cuidado presentes no cotidiano dos jovens levam em conta os recursos e os aspectos constitutivos da condição juvenil, ainda pouco contemplada nas proposições da área da saúde. No cotidiano dos jovens, tem-se a expressividade dos modos de vida e da condição juvenil na qual a saúde se revela pelo bem-estar e pelas condições básicas para o trilhar da vida. A concepção de saúde prevalente centra-se nos comportamentos e na corporeidade. Para a promoção da saúde juvenil é necessário partir dos modos de vida juvenis e interagir com eles no cotidiano. As ações de cuidado com a saúde têm um espaço de (invisibilidade na vida dos jovens e interagem com suas prioridades na vivência da condição juvenil. Revelou-se a importância da proposição de ações cuidadoras nos microespaços e no território em que se expressa essa condição.

  20. Identification and characterization of a VOZ transcription factor in Syntrichia caninervis using profile HMM method%基于HMM的齿肋赤藓VOZ转录因子的预测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高贝; 李小双; 张道远

    2014-01-01

    VOZ( Vascular plant One Zinc finger protein)作为与植物的进化与发育密切相关的基因,在极端耐旱荒漠苔藓植物齿肋赤藓( Syntrichia caninervis)中对VOZ基因进行挖掘和分析有利于更好的揭示VOZ基因的进化关系,且可作为抗逆基因进行更为深入的分子生物学研究。在VOZ转录因子蛋白中VOZ-domain是一个保守的DNA结合结构功能域,利用VOZ-domain多序列联配构建隐马尔可夫模型序列谱能够很好的进行家族成员的识别和预测。利用拟南芥、小立碗藓和水稻等植物已知的转录因子序列信息构建HMM序列谱模型,对荒漠苔藓齿肋赤藓转录组进行比对搜索。最终得到一条新的齿肋赤藓VOZ转录因子ScVOZ1( NCBI/EBI检索号:HG764415),序列长度为1495 bp,具有完整的VOZ-domain结构域。生物信息学分析表明其具有转录调控功能和核定位潜能。多序列比对、进化和保守基序分析表明,ScVOZ1蛋白序列与小立碗藓VOZ家族和拟南芥AtVOZ1相似度较高。本研究为进一步研究ScVOZ1基因的功能以及其进化起源奠定了基础。%As VOZ gene is highly related with evolution and development in plants, the prediction and characterization of a VOZ gene in the stress-tolerant desert moss Syntrichia caninervis will help reveal its evolutionary history. Furthermore, it may also serve as a stress resistant gene for further molecular analysis. The VOZ-domain is a conserved functional DNA-binding domain in VOZ transcription factors. The HMM profile constructed based on multiple sequence alignment of VOZ-domain could be used for novel VOZ gene prediction and identification. Based on the transcriptome of Syntrichia caninervis and the HMM profile constructed from the VOZ genes in A. thaliana, P. patens and O. sativa, a novel VOZ transcription factor was identified in Syntrichia caninervis and named as ScVOZ1 with NCBI/EBI accession number HG764415, the mRNA sequence

  1. Noémia de Sousa: la voz histórica de Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carreño López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción literaria de Noémia se sitúa entre los años 40 y 50 y exclusivamente en Mozambique; durante los periodos en que vivió en Portugal (donde terminaría muriendo en 2001 o en Francia, detuvo su labor poética.Esta peculiaridad de su actividad literaria delata una de sus características principales: la concepción de la literatura como espacio de resistencia y organización en una encrucijada histórica donde la elaboración de un proyecto nacional dominaba sobre cual- quier impulso lírico o intimista. La denuncia de la esclavitud, la necesidad de repensar el ser africano, pasaba por la necesidad de erigir una voz común, en su sentido más literal, esto es: fundar, dar validez, a una expresión nueva y compartida capaz de cohesionar culturalmente un territorio de inequívoca heterogeneidad.

  2. O uso da voz e do tablet em narrativas de histórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucirene Andréa Catini Lanzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Esse estudo parte de atividades desenvolvidas numa biblioteca escolar na cidade de Marília - SP.Objetivo: Abordar o uso da voz e do tablet nas narrativas de histórias.Metodologia: O livro escolhido pela contadora de histórias para essa experiencia foi A menina do Narizinho Arrebitado de Monteiro Lobato, o primeiro livro brasileiro a ganar uma versão interativa para o dispositivo tablet.Resultados: Observou-se nessa atividade como um dispositivo digital entusiasma as crianças, sendo ele uma nova forma de interação com histórias contadas. Com recursos sedutores e fáceis de usar, os tablets proporcionam à leitura níveis de dinamismo e interatividade até aqui impensáveis.Conclusões: Com os resultados dessa pesquisa, conclui-se que os recursos audiovisuais possibilitam interação e dinamismo, proporcionando entusiasmo nos ouvintes; sendo uma ação prazerosa e diversificada que possibilita ao profissional o uso de novas ferramentas para estimular o gosto em ouvir histórias, compartilhá-las e frequentar uma biblioteca escolar.

  3. Disfonia infantil: hábitos prejudiciais à voz dos pais interferem na saúde vocal de seus filhos? Children dysphonia: do harmful vocal habits by parents interfere in their children vocal health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lucélia Bessani Paixão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar hábitos prejudiciais à voz referidos por crianças disfônicas e por seus respectivos pais e mães e compará-los com dados obtidos de um grupo controle, constituído por crianças sem alterações vocais e seus respectivos pais e mães. MÉTODO: investigou-se 28 crianças disfônicas, com idade entre 6 e 12 anos e seus pais (Grupo de Estudo - GE e 22 crianças sem alterações vocais, com a mesma faixa etária, e seus respectivos pais (Grupo Controle - GC. As vozes foram classificadas em "alteradas" e "não alteradas" por meio de análise perceptivo-auditiva com amostra da fala espontânea.Todos responderam a um questionário sobre fatores prejudiciais à voz. Para análise dos resultados foram aplicados os testes de comparação de duas proporções (pPURPOSE: to investigate harmful vocal habits referred by dysphonic children and their parents and compare them with data gathered from a control group made up by children with no vocal alterations and their parents. METHOD: twenty-eight dysphonic children, with ages between 6 and 12 year old and their parents, (Study Group - SG along with 22 children with no vocal alterations, from the same age group, and their parents (Control Group - CG were investigated. The voices were classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy", depending on the result obtained from the percentage analysis of a spontaneous speech sample. Subjects answered a questionnaire about harmful vocal habits. Tests for comparing two proportions (p <0.05 were used in order to analyze the results. RESULTS: SG children showed a significantly higher number of habits such as speaking with effort, speaking without resting and imitating voices. SG fathers showed a significantly higher number of habits such as clearing the throat, shouting, speaking at the same time as others, in addition to living in smokers' environment. SG mothers significantly showed more habits such as speaking with effort, speaking in noisy environments

  4. DEPOSIÇÃO IRREGULAR DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS: UMA ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA ENTRE DOIS BAIRROS DE PODER AQUISITIVO DIFERENTES NA CIDADE DE CAMPINA GRANDE, PARAÍBA - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Carlos Lourenço

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo fazer uma análise comparativa da deposição irregular de resíduos sólidos entre dois bairros de poder aquisitivo diferentes na cidade de Campina Grande do estado da Paraíba, visando identificar se existia mudança de comportamentos com relação à deposição dos resíduos descartados de forma irregular em áreas do bairro. Para tanto, foi adotado a pesquisa exploratória de caráter descritiva e a bibliográfica. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma entrevista e no IBGE. Como na maioria dos municípios brasileiros, um dos grandes desafios que o município de Campina Grande enfrenta há alguns anos é a deposição irregular de resíduos sólidos em áreas urbanas. Nos dois bairros analisados, foi possível constatar a deposição irregular de resíduos sólidos em diversas áreas dos bairros, apesar da existência da coleta feita pelo município, mesmo que insuficiente no bairro da Ramadinha II, e da coleta feita pelas cooperativas de catadores de materiais recicláveis. Verificou-se também que o comportamento não varia muito entre as classes sociais.

  5. Revisión de los modelos de producción de voz después de una laringectomía total: opciones de calidad de voz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernández-Baillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El paciente laringectomizado es aquel que debido a un proceso cancerígeno ha sido sometido a una intervención quirúrgica cuyo resultado es la extirpación total de la laringe. Como consecuencia de esta operación el paciente sufre una serie de modificaciones anatómicas que conllevan la alteración y/o pérdida de determinadas funciones. Siendo la pérdida de la voz, y por tanto de la comunicación oral, la limitación principal a la que se enfrentan estos pacientes. Es por ello, que el proceso de tratamiento y rehabilitación post-quirúrgico tiene como uno de sus objetivos principales el restablecimiento de la comunicación oral. Para ello se deberá dotar al paciente de una nueva fuente de sonido (neo-glotis, la cual tendrá que suplir o emular la función vibratoria anteriormente realizada por glotis laríngea. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar desde una perspectiva biomecánica y acústicas los distintos tipos de voces que pueden representar una opción para el paciente laringectomizado. Se pretende mostrar las ventajas y limitaciones de cada modelo de producción, de una forma clara y objetiva, comprensible tanto para el clínico como para el paciente, con el fin de orientar en la toma de decisiones. Finalmente se realiza un análisis acústico de la voz de cuatro pacientes femeninos laringectomizadas. Cada muestra de voz se corresponde con un modelo de producción diferente: laringe artificial, prótesis fonatoria y erigmofonía.

  6. International Conference on SEMS 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang; Scientific explanation and methodology of science; SEMS 2012

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the contributed papers of invitees to SEMS 2012 who have also given talks at the conference. The invitees are experts in philosophy of science and technology from Asia (besides China), Australia, Europe, Latin America, North America, as well as from within China. The papers in this volume represent the latest work of each researcher in his or her expertise; and as a result, they give a good representation of the cutting-edge researches in diverse areas in different parts of the world.

  7. Reabilitação fonatória do laringectomizado total: utilização de toxina botulínica na voz tráqueo-esofágica com prótese fonatória Botulinum toxin in speech rehabilitation with voice prosthesis after total laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Takahiro Chone

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Na punção tráqueo-esofágica(PTE é realizada miotomia do músculo constritor da faringe, mas sua necessidade é entre 9% a 79% dos pacientes. Sua realização pode aumentar as taxas de fístula salivar no pós-operatório. A aplicação da TB é ambulatorial. OBJETIVO: Análise da eficácia da aplicação de toxina botulínica (TB, na reabilitação do laringectomizado total com voz tráqueo-esofágica(VTE com espasmo(E do segmento faringo-esofágico (SFE sem miotomia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise de oito pacientes submetidos à laringectomia total (LT, reabilitados com VTE com prótese fonatória (PF, esforço para emissão de voz devido à E do SFE. Todos submetidos a tratamento dessa alteração motora com injeção de 100 unidades de TB no SFE. A avaliação constituiu-se de análise perceptiva de voz, videofluoroscopia (VF do SFE, análise acústica de voz e manometria computadorizada (MC do SFE, todos antes e após aplicação de TB. DESENHO DE ESTUDO: Estudo prospectivo. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição na pressão à MC do SFE, após a injeção de TB. Análise acústica demonstrou melhora na qualidade de harmônicos após o tratamento. Houve emissão de voz sem esforço e melhora do E após o uso da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Todos os pacientes com E do SFE apresentaram melhora vocal após aplicação da TB neste SFE.In tracheo esophageal puncture (TEP, we carry out a myotomy of the pharynx constrictor muscle; however, about 9 to 79% of patients need such procedure. The consequence of such procedure is an increase in salivary fistula rates in the postoperative. Botulin toxin is used in an outpatient basis. AIM: analyzing the efficacy of botulin toxin (BT use in the rehabilitation of totally laryngectomized patients with tracheo-esophageal voice (TEV with spasms (S of the pharyngo-esophageal segment (PES without myotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed eight patients submitted to total laryngectomy (TL, rehabilitated with TEV, with speech

  8. La educación de la voz y la salud vocal en la formación de los maestros

    OpenAIRE

    Gassull, Cecilia; Godall, Pere; Martorell, Montserrat

    2000-01-01

    El maestro, el profesor, el especialista de música, son profesionales para los cuales la voz es un instrumento absolutamente esencial i imprescindible. Paradójicamente, este profesional de la voz acostumbra a ejercer su profesión sin la más mínima preparación. Y en muchos casos el ejercicio de la profesión le hace enfrentarse con graves problemas vocales (fatiga vocal, disfonías...), causadas fundamentalmente por el abuso fonatorio y la defectuosa utilización del instrumento vocal.En los años...

  9. La noticia médica en la prensa vasca guipuzcoana. La Voz de Guipúzcoa (1885-1928)

    OpenAIRE

    Alaba Trueba, Javier Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    328 p. Recogiendo la información de un periódico local, (La Voz de Guipúzcoa 1885- 1929) se puede analizar por medio de las noticias sanitarias aparecidas, la forma de vida y repercusión en la vida cotidiana de los acontecimientos sanitarios, en un momento socioeconómico determinado, en el cual no se dispone de medidas terapéuticas eficaces para combatir las enfermedades que muchas veces aparecen en forma de epidemias. El desarrollo incipiente de la salud pública con las grandes migracione...

  10. SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO APLICADO AO ESTUDO DA EROSÃO MARGINAL DO RIO PARAGUAI: BAIRRO SÃO MIGUEL EM CÁCERES/MT-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Silva, Sandra Mara Alves da Silva Neves, Ronaldo José Neves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou investigar a dinâmica da margem esquerda do rio Paraguai, através da avaliaçãoda erosão do segmento localizado entre as ruas Cândido Mariano e Senador Azevedo, no Bairro SãoMiguel em Cáceres/MT, nos anos de 1977 e 2005. Para realização do estudo foram utilizadas: a plantabaixa do bairro, feita em 1977, que foi digitalizada visando sua manipulação em ambiente SIG; e imagemdo satélite Quick Bird do ano de 2005, georreferenciada via pontos de controle de campo, coletadoscom GPS Diferencial. Uma vez combinadas layer da planta e da imagem, no Sig ArcGis, foram realizadasas quantificações de perda de solo dos terrenos da área de estudo. A partir desta análise foi possívelperceber que a área de estudo vem passando por processo de solapamento e conseqüentementeocasionando a queda de blocos, provocando assim, a redução da área dos lotes, e destruição dos imóveis.No período analisado, o canal apresenta uma mobilidade relativamente alta, com média anual superior a0,70 metros por ano. Além disso, o fato da área estar localizada na margem côncava do canal, ondedesenvolve uma maior velocidade contribui para o processo de aceleração da erosão marginal.

  11. "Voz" y "fenómeno" en la ontología fundamental de Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taminiaux

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El A. examina la lectura heideggeriana de Husserl y el rol atribuido a las Investigaciones 5gicas en El ser y el tiempo y en algunas de las lecciones de la época de Marburgo, a la luz de la lectura derridiana, en La voix et le hénomine de la teoría husserliana del signo del significado en la primera de las investgiaciones Lógicas. Según Derrida, ésta resultaría portadora de ciertos ejes claves de la metafísica como la doctrina de la idealidad la que, en tanto "repetibilidad indefinida", privilegia el instante indivisible (Augenblick, ·guiño de ojo", el que a su vez se halla sostenido por la forma última de la vida trascendental: la presencia a sí del Presente Viviente. Siendo las referencias de SZ al texto de Husserl no sólo escasas sino discretas, el A., para aclararlas, se apoya en ciertas lecciones claves de Heidegger de Marburgo (GA 20, 24 y 26. esto le permite sostener que Heidegger, aún cuando las desplaza y metamorfosea, aprueba y suscribe tanto la teoría del significado y del signo, como ciertas doctrinas fundamentales de la fenomenología de Husserl encadenándolas según un motivo intuicionista. El A. argumentará no solamente que el privilegio de la voz que "da a ver" y "a escuchar" se hallará en el corazón de la Bedeutung heideggeriana cuya forma suprema es el Ser, sino que el privilegio del "instante" prevalecerá sobre el movimiento diferenciado de la temporalización extática constituyendo así no sólo el suelo de la ontología fundamental sino la llave de toda la historia de-construida de la metafísica

  12. Physical approach of seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2010-05-01

    Numerous seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) have been reported independently and even been applied to short-term prediction of earthquakes, still SEMS are on great debates. The main concerns include the physical generation mechanism of SEMS. Thus, the study on physics of SEMS is important for understanding SEMS phenomena and strengthening the applications of SEMS. As a potential physical approach, we present an integrated working scheme, which take into account the interaction among observation, methodology and physical model. The main approach includes the following key problems: how to perform a reliable and appropriate observation; how to reveal weak SEMS signals from noisy background; how to develop physical models based on theoretical analyses and/or laboratory experiments for SEMS. This study is supported by the National R&D Special Fund for Public Welfare Industry (200808069) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40974038, 40774028, 40821062).

  13. LA LECTURA EN VOZ ALTA, LA INTEGRACIÓN EDUCATIVA Y LA COMPETENCIA COMUNICATIVA: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Calderón Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han mostrado el impacto que la lectura en voz alta tiene sobre el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa. En el presente trabajo se analiza la lectura como estrategia de intervención didáctica y psicológica, así como de in-tegración educativa y social de niños con necesidades educativas especiales. Para tal efecto, se llevó a cabo un proyecto de lectura en voz alta con niños maternales de un centro de atención múltiple. Los datos de este trabajo corresponden a una niña de 37 meses de edad con síndrome de Down. Se describen las fases de las que constó el trabajo y se muestra en los resultados un avance importante en la producción de juego simbólico, gestos comunicativos y emisiones orales.

  14. De la afonía como "a" fonía. De la voz perdida como objeto perdido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Gillie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo interroga el síntoma de laafonía y su reverso inconsciente a laluz de los avances en medicina, delos restos culturales, de los conceptospsicoanalíticos y de entrevistas apacientes con dificultades vocales.Más allá de una falla del cuerpo,de una alteración del vínculo conel otro, de un desfallecimiento dela voz en tanto "herramienta decomunicación", ¿de qué "falta enser" es chantre la voz perdida? Entrela afonía del cuerpo y la a-foníaque crea un "vacío sonoro" en ellazo social, se plantea la existenciade una "a" fonía como la más "gritona"encarnación de la pulsióninvocante en un silencio original yestructural.Palabras clave: afonía, a-fonía,tmesis, objeto a, pulsióninvocante.

  15. Avaliação Cognitiva de Leitura e Escrita: As Tarefas de Leitura em Voz Alta e Ditado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Ângela Maria Vieira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarefas de leitura em voz alta e de tomada de ditado de listas de palavra reais e de não-palavras, isoladas, fazem parte de um conjunto de provas maior -- o Procedimento de Avaliação Cognitiva da Leitura e da Escrita. Com base em Seymour, Pinheiro desenvolveu um teste experimental que se mostrou adequado para avaliação de leitura e de escrita em crianças mineiras da primeira à quarta série do Ensino Fundamental. O procedimento foi retestado, com sucesso, por Capovilla, Capovilla e Macedo. A partir desses resultados, Pinheiro desenvolve, atualmente, um instrumento computadorizado de avaliação que consiste de tarefas de leitura em voz alta e de tomada de ditado, entre outras. O presente trabalho discute as bases teóricas para a construção das listas de palavras reais e de não-palavras, com ênfase no controle da variável regularidade letra-som/som-letra.

  16. La producción de la voz: estructuras anatómicas y biomecánica laríngea : Usos y abusos vocales en la tarea del docente de Educación Física

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    La voz no es sólo el sonido producido por un órgano o un sistema, la voz expresa y comunica completamente a las personas. En términos anatomofisiológicos la voz se produce gracias a la acción coordinada de varias estructuras de nuestro cuerpo. Estas estructuras coordinadas se denominan sistema fonatorio. Lo integran músculos de diferentes regiones del cuerpo, elementos del aparato respiratorio y del aparato digestivo. Esos componentes se adaptan y se coordinan para que pueda producirse el son...

  17. Entre a casa e a roça: trajetórias de socialização no candomblé de habitantes de bairros populares de Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C. M. Rabelo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute trajetórias de socialização no candomblé de indivíduos de camadas populares de Salvador. Em primeiro lugar, trata das articulações entre a socialização primária e a socialização religiosa. Em segundo, busca compreender os modos pelos quais as relações travadas com entidades sagradas servem para adensar e estender certas linhas de relacionamento na família. A análise das trajetórias ressalta a importância do bairro como espaço de sociabilidade das famílias pobres. Mostra que relações com entidades muitas vezes precedem o vínculo com o terreiro, desenvolvendo-se e particularizando-se no espaço cotidiano da família e do bairro antes de serem formalizadas na instituição religiosa.This paper analyses trajectories of socialization in the candomblé of members of Salvador's lower classes. Firstly, it discusses the ways by which primary socialization within the family articulates with religious socialization. Then it turns to the question of understanding how relations with different classes of sacred entities may thicken or extend certain lines of relationship within the extended family. Analysis of the trajectories points to the significance of the neighborhood (bairro as a main space of sociability for the urban poor. It indicates that informal relations with entities often precede the establishment of formal bonds with candomblé houses, developing itself in the everyday space of the family and the bairro before being formalized in the religious institution.

  18. Deslocamento de crianças nos bairros de Curitiba e sua relação com processos de socialização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Milena Rohrich Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence that children’s mobility has on their socialization processes in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The study was conducted with six children enrolled in public schools in Curitiba who live in three different regions: downtown, outskirts, and slums. The children’s parents were interviewed, the children were submitted to long talks, and field observations of the locations where they live were made. The collected data were analyzed based on the perspectives of urban sociology, socialization, and childhood. This research has demonstrated the existence of a range of possibilities concerning children’s mobility, even though these children are circumscribed by social and territorial issues which are common in globalized and disparate cities such as Curitiba. Facing a range of worries related to neighborhood mobility, children not only express their opinions and critically discuss them, showing they are aware of the dangers experienced, but also position themselves by using several logics of action, which demonstrate reflexive attitudes that may be incorporated into their own experience (LAHIRE, 2002. Este artigo discute a relação entre o deslocamento de crianças nos bairros e na cidade de Curitiba e seus processos de socialização. A pesquisa foi realizada com seis crianças de escolas da rede municipal de educação de Curitiba, Brasil, moradoras de regiões centrais, periferias e favelas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com os pais, conversas longas com as crianças e observações de campo sobre os locais de moradia das famílias. Os dados foram analisados a partir de referenciais da sociologia urbana, da socialização e da Infância. A pesquisa vem demonstrando a existência de uma diversidade de possibilidades na mobilidade das crianças sendo estas, porém, circunscritas por fatores sociais e territoriais próprios de uma cidade globalizada e desigual. E, frente a uma série de preocupações nos

  19. Correlação entre voz, autoavaliação vocal e qualidade de vida em voz de professoras Cross-sectional study on voice self-assessment, and quality of life in voice of female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Pereira Gomes de Morais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a qualidade vocal, autoavaliação e a qualidade de vida em voz em professoras do ensino fundamental do 1º ao 5º ano e correlacionar os achados. MÉTODO: estudo transversal observacional de correlação, com 73 professoras do ensino fundamental do 1º ao 5º ano de escolas públicas da Rede Estadual de Educação de Maceió/AL. Aplicou-se um questionário inicial no qual continha uma pergunta de autoavaliação, posteriormente as vozes foram gravadas para análise perceptivo-auditiva por meio da escala analógico-visual e por fim aplicado o questionário de qualidade de vida em voz (QVV. A estatística descritiva foi utilizada para descrever a amostra. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foi utilizado para verificar a correlação entre avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, autoavaliação e escores do QVV. RESULTADOS: as professoras apresentaram desvio do comportamento vocal de grau moderado e leve-moderado, respectivamente para emissão sustentada e fala encadeada. A maioria das professoras considerou suas vozes como boas (37% e razoáveis (43,8%. O escore total do QVV mostrou impacto médio da voz na qualidade de vida e, apenas a questão de autoavaliação vocal apresentou correlação com os escores do QVV. Os domínios do QVV mostraram correlações significantes entre si. CONCLUSÕES: a população estudada apresentou desvio do comportamento vocal e impacto da voz na qualidade de vida, a autoavaliação mostrou satisfação das mesmas com suas vozes, sendo esse aspecto o único a apresentar correlação com os escores do QVV.PURPOSE: to evaluate vocal quality and voice-related quality of life in 1st to 5th grade female teachers, to check vocal self-assessment, and to correlate those findings. METHOD: an observational cross-sectional study on the correlation with seventy-three 1st to 5th grade teachers in state public elementary schools in the city of Maceió/AL. An objective questionnaire was used in order to

  20. Correlação da qualidade de vida e voz com atividade profissional Correlation between voice and life quality and occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Spina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As disfonias podem comprometer a qualidade da comunicação e, por conseqüência, a relação social do indivíduo e assim afetar sua qualidade de vida. Existe hoje necessidade de protocolos objetivos para avaliação da qualidade vocal que mensurem suas implicações na qualidade de vida do paciente. OBJETIVOS: Relacionar qualidade de vida e voz com o grau de disfonia e o uso profissional da voz em um grupo de pacientes disfônicos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo aplicando-se protocolo internacional para avaliar a qualidade de vida e voz em um grupo de pacientes disfônicos. Realizou-se tratamento estatístico dos resultados considerando-se não-distinção entre profissionais da voz e não-profissionais da voz e, em seguida, considerando-se esta distinção profissional. RESULTADOS: A disfonia afetou a qualidade de vida em todos os indivíduos. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, profissionais da voz e não-profissionais da voz, quanto ao grau de disfonia. Houve correlação entre qualidade de vida e grau de disfonia, no entanto, considerando-se os grupos separadamente, esta correlação foi significativa apenas no grupo de sujeitos não-profissionais da voz. CONCLUSÃO: A disfonia afetou a qualidade de vida em todos os sujeitos independente do uso profissional da voz.Dysphonia may impair the quality of communication and social relations of people, thereby directly affecting quality of life. It is common knowledge amongst professionals involved with the treatment of voice disorders the need for objective protocols to evaluate voice quality and measure its impact on the individual's quality of life. AIM: To associate life quality with the degree of dysphonia and professional voice use in a group of dysphonic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective clinical study was undertaken with a group of dysphonic patients using an internationally validated voice-related quality-of-life protocol. A

  1. La crisis de la escuela en la formación de la juventud: La voz de los estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Juárez Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo da la voz a los alumnos, actores centrales sin duda del acto educativo, que tratan de releer su experiencia escolar vivida a lo largo de sus años de escolares ayudándose de las teorías analizadas, aprendidas, y asimiladas en el transcurso del módulo “Educación y Cultura” de la carrera de Sociología. Es también un intento de poner en práctica los conocimientos construidos a lo largo no sólo de este trimestre, sino de los diferentes módulos cursados en la carrera, de manera que puedan hacer un alto en el camino y reflexionar sobre el camino escolar recorrido. Muestra la crisis de la escolaridad vivida por ellos mismos y reflexionada a partir de los conocimientos adquiridos en su recorrido universitario.

  2. La pérdida de la voz en los maestros, una lectura desde el psicoanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Abril Martínez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los docentes asumen por encargodel Otro social la función de culminarel proceso de integración de losindividuos más jóvenes a la cultura.Este proceso se ve obstaculizadopor la transformación de pautasrelacionales, la confusión en losroles y por la ausencia del deseode aprender en los estudiantes.Frente a ello se instaura el malestardocente, forma indefinida de dolorpsíquico que afecta la funciónlaboral. Uno de sus síntomas es laafonía. Desde el psicoanálisis, setrata de pensar una posible hipótesisexplicativa de esta situación,con el reconocimiento de que solola apuesta por la palabra puedegenerar un cambio en la posiciónsubjetiva del maestro frente a laexigencia cultural.Palabras clave: malestar docente,objeto voz, sujeto, institución,inhibición.

  3. La voz en la tribuna (El verbo apasionado de Jorge Eliécer Gaitán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Reyes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de la voz humana comoun medio de comunicación einducción frente a la comunidad,se ha desarrollado desde las primerascivilizaciones. Sócrates creóen Grecia la primera escuela deoratoria. En Colombia, uno de lospolíticos y oradores públicos quemás utilizó la oratoria, con su vozvibrante y emotiva, fue el caudilloliberal Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, quienencontró las palabras, los acentos,giros y expresiones adecuadaspara comunicarse con ampliossectores populares. La fuerza desu movimiento lo hubiera llevadoa la presidencia, de no ser por suasesinato, el 9 de abril de 1948.Palabras clave: oratoria, pueblo, a lacarga, mamola, reconquista.

  4. Discussões sobre o papel dos espaços livres públicos nos bairros de elite¹ contemporâneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mariz Gonçalves

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como objeto de estudo três bairros de elite contemporâneos (o Morumbi e o Alphaville, em São Paulo, e a Barra da Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro. Debate-se que a superação dos conflitos decorrentes da inadequação dos padrões urbanísticos institucionais ao suporte físico original depende da implantação de um sistema de espaços livres urbanos públicos. Defende-se que a implantação e a sobrevivência deste sistema de espaços livres depende da superação de padrões sociais, culturais e econômicos que vêm minando a possibilidade de convivência de classes sociais distintas. Aponta-se que o abandono e o desequilíbrio que a paisagem urbana brasileira - especialmente a paulistana - vem apresentando são conseqüências da omissão do Estado na condução do acordo social necessário para a superação do atual estágio de segregação recíproca das diferentes classes sociais.

  5. Voz e disfunção temporomandibular em professores Voice and temporomandibular joint disorders in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Maria Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a presença e possível correlação entre alteração vocal e DTM, em professores, a partir de dados de avaliação autorreferida, fonoaudiológica, otorrinolaringológica e odontológica. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo, 29 professores de uma escola de rede pública do ensino fundamental e médio do município de Sorocaba - SP. Os professores responderam questionário para levantamento de alteração vocal, e de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. Foram realizadas quatro avaliações: perceptivo-auditiva; otorrinolaringológica; motricidade orofacial e odontológica. A menção a três ou mais sintomas no questionário determinou "presença" de queixa de voz e de DTM. As avaliações: perceptivo-auditiva e otorrinolaringológica concluíram a "ausência" e "presença" de alteração de voz e de laringe. Nas avaliações da motricidade orofacial e odontológica foi considerada DTM quando registrados três ou mais sinais e/ou sintomas, sendo indispensável à presença de dor. Na análise estatística dos dados, foram empregados: teste de Igualdade de Duas Proporções, teste exato de Fisher e de concordância Kappa. RESULTADOS: dentre os participantes, 82,8% fizeram autorreferência à alteração vocal e 62,1% de sintomas de DTM; 51,7% apresentaram alteração de voz na avaliação otorrinolaringológica e 65,5%, alteração de DTM na avaliação odontológica. Na comparação da avaliação de alteração de voz e DTM foi registrada correlação significante presente na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da voz e de motricidade orofacial para DTM, e com tendência a significância na aplicação do questionário. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados apontam na direção de confirmar a presença de alteração de voz e DTM no grupo de professores pesquisado e correlação entre os mesmos.PURPOSE: to check the presence and possible correlation between vocal disorders and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD in teachers, from self

  6. Segmented Foil SEM Grids at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Sacha E; Childress, Sam; Ford, R; Harris, Debbie; Indurthy, Dharmaraj; Kendziora, Cary; Moore, Craig D; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Tassotto, Gianni; Zwaska, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    We present recent beam data from a new design of a profile monitor for proton beams at Fermilab. The monitors, consisting of grids of segmented Ti foils 5micrometers thick, are secondary-electron emission monitors (SEM's). We review data on the device's precision on beam centroid position, beam width, and on beam loss associated with the SEM material placed in the beam.

  7. Arquivos e Web Semântica

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Apresentação efetuada em "Arquivos e Web semântica : ciclo de reflexões e debates”, Coimbra, 2014 Nesta palestra abordou-se a aplicação das tecnologias da Web Semântica no contexto dos arquivos

  8. Asma e ascaridíase em crianças de 2 a 10 anos de um bairro de periferia Asthma and ascariasis in children aged two to ten living in a low income suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a associação entre asma e ascaridíase em crianças do bairro Pedregal, da cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba, onde são baixos os indicadores de desenvolvimento humano. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: foi aplicado o questionário padrão do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, em 1.095 crianças, mas apenas 742 o responderam e entregaram a amostra fecal para realização do exame parasitológico. A faixa etária das 742 crianças incluídas no estudo transversal foi de 2 a 10 anos de idade. A associação entre asma e ascaridíase foi estudada pelo índice Kappa. As análises das variáveis demográficas e clínicas, comparando os dois grupos, foram realizadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado (chi² ou o teste t de Student para os dados quantitativos (contínuos. RESULTADOS: nas 742 crianças, as proporções dos sexos foram semelhantes: 51,9% (n = 385 do masculino e 48,1% (n = 357 do feminino. Nessas crianças, a prevalência de asma foi de 59,7% (n = 443 e da ascaridíase de 56,3% (n = 418, sendo semelhante (chi² = 0,27; p > 0,60 a freqüência de asma no grupo portador de ascaridíase (60,5% ou sem essa helmintíase (58,6%. CONCLUSÃO: apesar da elevada freqüência dos agravos estudados, não há aparente associação entre asma e ascaridíase na população estudada.OBJECTIVE: to assess the relation between children with asthma and ascariasis in the low income neighborhood of Pedregal, in Campina Grande (Paraíba, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC standard questionnaire was distributed to 1,095 children but only 742 of them answered it and provided stool samples for parasite examination. The cross-sectional study included those 742 children, whose age ranged from 2 to 10 years. The association between asthma and ascariasis was studied through Kappa rating. Demographic and clinic variants comparing the two groups were analyzed by chi-square test

  9. Franz Kafka: a ultrapassagem da burocratização da instância paterna e da voz áfona do supereu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra que a crítica literária (Benjamin, Blanchot, Gagnebin e Carone leu a burocratização da instância paterna presente na poética de Kafka como uma neutralização da voz narrativa e toma, com a psicanálise, essa neutralização como uma manifestação da voz áfona do supereu (Lacan e Zizek. Discute as diferenças entre uma versão do pai cuja Lei se une ao desejo e, uma outra, insensata e caprichosa, que serve ao gozo. Finaliza indagando a função da literatura para o escritor tcheco

  10. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  11. Herramientas de wikis semánticos

    OpenAIRE

    Feijóo Fraga, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende hacer un análisis sobre la web semántica, centrándose en los wikis semánticos, definiendo qué son, cómo trabajan, estableciendo las situaciones en las que son necesarios..., y concluyendo con un estado del arte de las herramientas que se nos ofrecen y analizando una de ellas. Aquest treball pretén fer una anàlisi sobre la web semàntica, centrant-se en els wikis semàntics, definint què són, com treballen, establint les situacions en què són necessaris..., i concloent a...

  12. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF SEM 3D TECHNIQUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico;

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted for eucent...... condition are studied, in order to define a strategy to optimise the measurements taking account of the critical factors in SEM 3D reconstruction. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests....

  13. Segmented foil SEM grids at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, S.; Indurthy, D.; Pavlovic, Z.; Proga, M.; Zwaska, R.; /Texas U.; Baller, B.; Childress, S.; Ford, R.; Harris, D.; Kendziora, C.; Moore, Craig D.; Tassotto, G.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We present recent beam data from a new design of a profile monitor for proton beams at Fermilab. The monitors, consisting of grids of segmented Ti foils 5{micro}m thick, are secondary-electron emission monitors (SEM's) We review data on the device's precision on beam centroid position, beam width, and on beam loss associated with the SEM material placed in the beam.

  14. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad; Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos; Maria Clara da Silva Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiênc...

  15. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite; Drehmer Tania Maria

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é...

  16. Qualidade de vida relacionada à voz de professores universitários Voice-related quality of life of university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zerbetto Fabrício

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: observar a qualidade de vida relacionada à voz dos docentes da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP, além de descrever seus conhecimentos referentes à saúde vocal, fornecendo assim, dados que possam motivar futuras ações para prevenção e tratamento da disfonia. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados o Protocolo de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV e um questionário que investigou sintomas vocais, uso da voz e atitudes diante dos sintomas. RESULTADOS: registrou-se que 82% dos docentes participantes atingiram escores iguais a 100 para o domínio sócio-emocional, 38% para o domínio físico e 38% para o escore total. Uma grande parte (31% considera sua voz "muito boa", mas deve-se considerar que 26% dos entrevistados não avaliaram sua voz. Com relação às atitudes que os docentes tomam frente a um problema vocal, 53% relatam diminuir o uso da voz. Os sintomas de maior incidência relatados pelos docentes foram garganta seca, tosse e perda de voz. CONCLUSÃO: o presente estudo mostrou relatos de satisfação vocal e alto índice de qualidade de vida, porém observou-se uma prevalência elevada de sintomas vocais, demonstrando a necessidade de ações preventivas e de orientação vocal para esses professores.PURPOSE: to observe the voice-related quality of life of teachers from the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (FMRP/USP, to describe their knowledge on vocal health, and to provide data that can motivate future actions for preventing and treating dysphonia. METHODS: data collection instrument was Quality of Life and Voice Protocol (QLV. It was also used a questionnaire that investigated vocal symptoms, vocal use and attitudes before the symptoms. RESULTS: 82% of the teachers who participated in the survey achieved scores equal to 100 for the socio-emotional domain, 38% for the physical domain and 38% for the total score. A large portion (31% believe his voice "very good

  17. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  18. A novel method for "Wet" SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshack, Iris; Kopolovic, Juri; Chowers, Yehuda; Gileadi, Opher; Vainshtein, Anya; Zik, Ory; Behar, Vered

    2004-01-01

    Progress in the processing of wet tissues, without the need of fixation and complex preparation procedures, may facilitate the microscopic examination of tissues and cells. Microscopic examination of tissues is a central tool in clinical diagnosis as well as in diverse areas of research. The authors present the application of Wet SEM, a technology for imaging fully hydrated samples at atmospheric pressure in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The technique is based on 2 principles. First, samples are imaged in sealed specimen capsules and are separated from the evacuated interior of the electron microscope by a thin, electron-transparent partition membrane that is strong enough to sustain a 1-atm pressure difference. Second, imaging is done in a SEM, based on detection of backscattered electrons, which penetrate a few microns into the specimen and thus give information on the cellular level.

  19. Representations of Voice and Speech in Cinema Representações de Voz e Fala no Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of three visual and hearing snippets of film - representing three decades, 60, 70 and 80, “City of God” directed by Fernando Meirelles in 2005 - this work investigates the role of interpretive resources of voice and speech, relating them to other scenic elements of language in order to advance the studies on the meanings produced by the supra-segmental aspects of human communication in art cinema, from the viewpoint of Speech Pathologist. A partir da análise visual e auditiva de três trechos do filme “Cidade de Deus”, dirigido por Fernando Meirelles em 2005 – que representam três décadas, 60, 70 e 80 – , este trabalho investiga o papel interpretativo dos recursos de voz e fala, e relaciona-os aos demais elementos da linguagem cênica, a fim de avançar nos estudos sobre as significações produzidas pelos aspectos supra-segmentares da comunicação humana na arte cinematográfica, sob a ótica da Fonoaudiologia.

  20. FIB-SEM tomography in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Bittermann, Anne Greet; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional information is much easier to understand than a set of two-dimensional images. Therefore a layman is thrilled by the pseudo-3D image taken in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) while, when seeing a transmission electron micrograph, his imagination is challenged. First approaches to gain insight in the third dimension were to make serial microtome sections of a region of interest (ROI) and then building a model of the object. Serial microtome sectioning is a tedious and skill-demanding work and therefore seldom done. In the last two decades with the increase of computer power, sophisticated display options, and the development of new instruments, an SEM with a built-in microtome as well as a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), serial sectioning, and 3D analysis has become far easier and faster.Due to the relief like topology of the microtome trimmed block face of resin-embedded tissue, the ROI can be searched in the secondary electron mode, and at the selected spot, the ROI is prepared with the ion beam for 3D analysis. For FIB-SEM tomography, a thin slice is removed with the ion beam and the newly exposed face is imaged with the electron beam, usually by recording the backscattered electrons. The process, also called "slice and view," is repeated until the desired volume is imaged.As FIB-SEM allows 3D imaging of biological fine structure at high resolution of only small volumes, it is crucial to perform slice and view at carefully selected spots. Finding the region of interest is therefore a prerequisite for meaningful imaging. Thin layer plastification of biofilms offers direct access to the original sample surface and allows the selection of an ROI for site-specific FIB-SEM tomography just by its pronounced topographic features.

  1. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W;

    2015-01-01

    and understanding of one’s sexual orientation.First-person effects refer to self-perceived and self-reported effects of SEM consumptionas experienced by the consumer. In addition, the study examined and provided athorough validation of the psychometric properties of the seven-item PornographyConsumption Effect......Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex...

  2. TRANSFORMAÇÕES RECENTES NO USO E OCUPAÇÃO DO SOLO NOS BAIRROS DE ÁGUA FRIA E JOSÉ AMÉRICO, JOÃO PESSOA­PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Freire de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo norteador analisar a influência do processo de urbanização em João Pessoa, e as mudanças recentes no uso e ocupação do solo dos bairros de Água Fria e José Américo, no período compreendido entre 1974 e 2010. Para a realização deste estudo foram utilizadas técnicas de análise da paisagem e duas bases espaciais: (a carta topográfica da SUDENE para o ano de 1974 e (b imagem de satélite do Quickbird para 2010. Os resultados mostraram que entre 1974 e 2010 os dois bairros tiveram uma mudança significativa na paisagem, com crescimento de 100% de área urbana e diminuições das áreas desocupadas (-7,4%, mata (-64,4% e plantações (-100%. Conclui-se que o processo de urbanização na área de estudo ainda foi intenso, seguindo o crescimento urbano da cidade de João Pessoa, transformando o quadro natural da paisagem para uma área quase totalmente urbana.

  3. Building a SEM Analytics Reporting Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jay W.; Williams, Brian G.; Kilgore, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategic enrollment management (SEM) efforts require vast amounts of internal and external data to ensure that meaningful reporting and analysis systems can assist managers in decision making. A wide range of information is integral for leading effective and efficient student recruitment and retention programs. This article is designed…

  4. Ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais por moradores de um bairro do município de Marília-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. MACEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As plantas medicinais continuam ocupando lugar de destaque no arsenal terapêutico e muitas vezes, é o único recurso de muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi pesquisar a ocorrência do uso de plantas medicinais em residências de um bairro do município de Marília-SP. Foram entrevistados moradores de 150 residências do Jardim Lavínia, no período de março a julho de 2006. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados para o levantamento dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que 19,34% das residências, possuíam plantas e destas, 41,37% de Melissa officinalis, 31,03% de Matricaria chamomilla, 13,79% de Camellia sinensis, Mentha piperita e Foeniculum vulgare, 6,89% de Valeriana officinalis, Baccharis triptera, Peumus boldus e 27,52% outros. A indicação do uso foi de 55,17% por amigos/parentes, 13,79% por TV/Rádio, 13,79% por cultura/crenças, 6,89% não responderam e apenas 10,34% por prescrição médica. Das plantas medicinais encontradas, 31,25% eram utilizados de modo contrário à sua finalidade. Dos moradores entrevistados, 41,37% apresentavam idade acima de 46 anos e 31,03% possuíam ensino superior completo. Estes dados permitem concluir que mesmo o consumo sendo amplo no Brasil, ainda existe escassez de informação e a falta desta se dá também em indivíduos de nível superior, podendo gerar uso incorreto. Os meios de comunicação já não são mais os grandes vilões do estímulo do uso das plantas medicinais, a cultura popular faz com que as indicações sejam transmitidas de pessoa para pessoa, atingindo também a população mais favorecida economicamente. Palavras-chave: etnobotânica; plantas medicinais; farmacoterapia; fitoterápicos.

  5. Vivência de voz com profissionais de um hospital: relato de experiência Group of voice with professionals of a hospital: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Zanella Penteado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar o relato de experiência de um grupo de Vivência de Voz realizado por fonoaudiólogos com profissionais e trabalhadores de um hospital. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva do processo de um Grupo de Vivência de Voz realizado com 20 profissionais de um hospital do interior de São Paulo, com foco analítico nos objetivos e atividades realizadas. RESULTADOS: foram contemplados os seguintes temas e objetivos: percepções dos sujeitos acerca da própria voz; uso profissional da voz e contextos e condições de trabalho; aquecimento vocal; impactos da voz/fala/comunicação/linguagem e da expressividade nas relações profissionais; possibilidades de mudanças. As ações educativas, contextualizadas nas condições, ambiente e organização do trabalho, possibilitaram gerar espaços de descobertas e de construção coletiva do conhecimento acerca do processo de trabalho no hospital e o grupo se mostrou como espaço social importante e efetivo para a sensibilização dos profissionais e trabalhadores do hospital em relação à voz/saúde vocal e aos seus impactos nas interações e nos processos comunicativos implicados no trabalho em saúde. CONCLUSÃO: afirma-se a importância da Fonoaudiologia na promoção de ambientes saudáveis e de processos comunicativos favoráveis à humanização das relações e melhoria do acesso e qualidade no acolhimento e atendimento em saúde.PURPOSE: to submit a report on the experience of a group of Voice carried through by speech-language-pathologists with professionals and workers of a hospital. METHODS: a retrospective analysis of the process of a Group of Voice carried through with 20 professionals of a hospital of a São Paulo city, with an analytical focus in the accomplished objectives and activities. RESULTS: the following themes and objectives were contemplated: perceptions of subjects concerning their own voice; the professional use of voice and work contexts and conditions; vocal

  6. Qualidade de vida relacionada à voz e à deglutição, a curto prazo, em pacientes submetidos à radioiodoterapia por carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:analisar a qualidade de vida relacionada à voz e à deglutição antes e após radioiodoterapia a curto prazo.MÉTODOS:indivíduos tireoidectomizados indicados à radioiodoterapia foram submetidos a dois questionários de qualidade de vida, relacionados à voz e à deglutição no pré e três meses após radioiodoterapia.RESULTADOS:foram estudados 32 pacientes, 84% do gênero feminino e 16%, do masculino, com média de idade de 46 anos. O tipo histológico mais encontrado foi o carcinoma papilífero clássico (56%. Os resultados indicaram tendência para melhor qualidade de vida associada à voz após três meses de radioiodoterapia. O protocolo de qualidade de vida relacionado à deglutição também indicou melhor qualidade de vida no segundo momento de avaliação. Observou-se maior predomínio com limitação mínima quanto ao questionário de qualidade de vida em deglutição.CONCLUSÃO:a qualidade de vida e dos sintomas vocais e de deglutição a curto prazo após radioiodoterapia é melhor em relação ao pré-tratamento. É necessário investigar outros aspectos como metabólicos, cirúrgicos e individuais para definir o real impacto da iodoterapia na qualidade de vida.

  7. La educación de la voz y la salud vocal en la formación de los maestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassull, Cecilia

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available El maestro, el profesor, el especialista de música, son profesionales para los cuales la voz es un instrumento absolutamente esencial i imprescindible. Paradójicamente, este profesional de la voz acostumbra a ejercer su profesión sin la más mínima preparación. Y en muchos casos el ejercicio de la profesión le hace enfrentarse con graves problemas vocales (fatiga vocal, disfonías..., causadas fundamentalmente por el abuso fonatorio y la defectuosa utilización del instrumento vocal.En los años 70, con el nacimiento de una nueva escuela de formación del profesorado, la "Escola de Mestres Sant Cugat", en una nueva universidad, la "Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona", se inició una experiencia que llenara el vacío que existía en los planes de formación de los maestros sobre educación y salud vocal.La investigación que hemos iniciado va dirigida a averiguar que aporta la propuesta desarrollada en la UAB sobre el tema de la "educación de la voz y su salud" en la formación de los maestros, a descubrir los diversos aspectos de la propuesta.Aunque podemos adelantar ya algunas observaciones realizadas, los resultados de la investigación empezarán a apreciarse de una manera más consistente a partir de mas datos que recogeremos durante el próximo curso.

  8. FONÉTICA APLICADA: DIAGNOSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DE DEFICIENCIAS EN LA LECTURA EN VOZ ALTA APPLIED PHONETICS: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DEFICIENCIES IN READING ALOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO VALDIVIESO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que la lectura en voz alta es una actividad culturalmente muy relevante y frente a ella la comunidad parece adoptar la actitud más crítica, este trabajo presenta los principales resultados de un diagnóstico y un tratamiento fonético de deficiencias en la lectura en voz alta. Para realizar el diagnóstico se utilizan 30 estudiantes de primer año de Pedagogía en Español y para el tratamiento fonético, 12 de ellos, 6 para la muestra experimental y 6 para el grupo control. Las principales tendencias que se perfilan de este estudio muestran que los estudiantes presentan serias deficiencias en la calidad de la lectura oral, pero también que mediante un tratamiento fonético adecuado, que incluye evaluación o diagnóstico de la expresión oral, actividades de lectura en voz alta y ejercicios fonéticos pertinentes, es posible corregir y desarrollar este aspecto de la lengua maternaConsidering that reading aloud is a very relevant activity from a cultural point of view, this article presents the main results from a phonetic diagnosis and a phonetic treatment on reading aloud disabilities. The diagnosis was applied to 30 first-year university students of Spanish as a mother tongue. The treatment was performed with a selection of 12 of these students: 6 for the experimental sample, and the other 6 for the control group. The main trends outlined from the study reveal the students have serious difficulties in managing the quality of their oral reading. However, the results also show that it is possible to correct and improve this aspect of the mother tongue competence through proper phonetic treatment -in this case including oral expression testing, reading aloud activities and related phonetic drills

  9. Síntesis de la voz aplicada a la rehabilitación de pacientes con labio y paladar hendido corregido.

    OpenAIRE

    Romo Melo, Liliana Minelly

    2005-01-01

    Con este trabajo se presenta la tesis realizada dentro del programa de magister en automatización industrial como uno de los requisitos para optar a este título de posgrado. Se describen los desarrollos de un sistema de síntesis de voz artificial basado en técnicas híbridas de concatenación de unidades y técnicas de predicción lineal. El sintetizador utiliza un diccionario de dominio restringido y frases de estructura limitada, las cuales están enfocadas en las terapias de rehabilitación fono...

  10. Poesia e infância: o corpo em viva voz Poetry and childhood: the body in live voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Fronckowiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo busco problematizar a possibilidade desafiadora, colocada à escola da infância, de perceber o vínculo da leitura de poemas com sua potência enquanto experiência poética que pode ser conquistada em viva voz por um corpo que sente. No momento em que, no cenário educacional brasileiro, discute-se o currículo das escolas de Educação Infantil, o texto defende, a partir dos aportes teóricos da imaginação criadora em Gaston Bachelard; da pedagogia poética em Georges Jean; da performance vocal em Paul Zumthor; e da experiência em Walter Benjamin, a abordagem da literatura não como área do conhecimento ou campo disciplinar, mas como linguagem que emerge da corporeidade.This article seeks to discuss the challenging possibility, placed to the childhood school, of perceiving the bond of the poems reading with its strength as a poetic experience that can be conquered in live voice by a body that feels. At the moment in which, at the Brazilian educational scenario, the organization of the elementary schools curriculum has been discussed, the text defends, based onthe theoretical framework of Gaston Bachelard's creative imagination; on the poetic pedagogy in Georges Jean; on Paul Zumthor's vocal performance and on Walter Benjamin's experience, the approach to literature not as a knowledge area or a subject matter, but as language that emerges from corporeality.

  11. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  13. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  14. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  15. Curvelet based offline analysis of SEM images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad Shirazi

    Full Text Available Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM. The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm.

  16. Multi-signal FIB/SEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, Lucille A.

    2012-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the same platform enables 3D microstructural analysis of structures using FIB for serial sectioning and SEM for imaging. Since FIB milling is a destructive technique, the acquisition of multiple signals from each slice is desirable. The feasibility of collecting both an inlens backscattered electron (BSE) signal and an inlens secondary electron (SE) simultaneously from a single scan of the electron beam from each FIB slice is demonstrated. The simultaneous acquisition of two different SE signals from two different detectors (inlens vs. Everhart-Thornley (ET) detector) is also possible. Obtaining multiple signals from each FIB slice with one scan increases the acquisition throughput. In addition, optimization of microstructural and morphological information from the target is achieved using multi-signals. Examples of multi-signal FIB/SEM tomography from a dental implant will be provided where both material contrast from the bone/ceramic coating/Ti substrate phases and porosity in the ceramic coating will be characterized.

  17. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  18. Tradução/ Translated version: Voz, sentido e diálogo em Bakhtin / Voice, sense and dialogue on Bakhtin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bubnova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo destaca a relação que os principais conceitos bakhtinianos vinculados ao diálogo, tais como: voz, audição, escuta, tom, tonalidade, entonação, acento, etc., mantêm com o oral. Diferentemente de outros teóricos, Bakhtin não faz uma separaçãodrástica entre a cultura oral e a escrita. Ao contrário, vincula toda comunicação à ideia do ato ético e da responsabilidade. Assim, a literatura é resultado de um ato responsável que tem qualidade sonora. A voz tem conotações subjetivas e responsáveis. ABSTRACT: The article emphasizes the oral quality of the main Bakhtinian concepts related to dialogue, such as voice, hearing, listener, tone, tonality, intonation, accent and others. Bakhtin, unlike other theoreticians, doesn’t divide drastically the oral from the written culture. Instead, he refers the idea of all communication phenomenon to the idea of the ethical act, and, in consequence, literature results in an act with acoustic quality as the base of dialogue, and is metaphorically extended from oral to written texts. Voice has personalist and answerable connotations.

  19. “Sou feito de palavras”: A(s voz(es narrativa(s em O Inominável de Samuel Beckett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianno Gatti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a questão da voz narrativa no romance O inominável de Samuel Beckett. Com base em estudos genéticos da composição do romance, discute-se a função literária de temas como a crítica à linguagem e à consciência, assim como suas consequências para se pensar o gênero do romance. O artigo retoma então uma discussão sobre realismo em textos de Adorno e Lukács com o intuito de debater a centralidade da fábula, sua estrutura temporal e a relação da forma com a experiência histórica. Por fim, tentaremos retomar essas questões a partir da análise de um momento específico do romance de Beckett. Com isso, as questões teóricas anteriormente expostas deverão ganhar concretude no esforço de elucidar problemas da composição do romance, como o feitio episódico do conjunto, a identidade da voz narrativa, a especificidade do monólogo interior e a confluência entre narrativa e reflexão.

  20. O ciberativismo sem bússola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questiona-se no texto se uma abordagem que, no essencial, relata a trajetória do chamado ciberativismo de acordo com seus próprios termos se justifica academicamente ou, em vez disso, se mantém prisioneira de uma mitologia que o fenômeno, em si mesmo, já construiu e, por isso, autoriza seus sujeitos a dispensarem sem prejuízo eventual contribuição de origem universitária.

  1. Tools to measure CD-SEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Jalhadi, Kiran; Deo, Sachin; Lee, Soo-Young; Joy, David

    2006-03-01

    It is important to be able to quantify the imaging performance of CD-SEMs for such purposes as verifying the specification, rechecking after a routine maintenance, or for tool matching. To perform tests such as these it is necessary to have both appropriate software for image analysis and suitable test samples. A package of 2-D Fourier transform and analysis software, designed as a plug-in for the shareware IMAGE-Java program, has been developed and is freely available on line. The requirement for a reproducible and well characterized sample has been met by using direct-write electron beam lithography to fabricate suitable Fresnel zone plate structures.

  2. Os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa The meanings attributed to the voice by menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Miranda de Paula Machado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sentidos atribuídos à voz por mulheres após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados dados de 148 mulheres nos prontuários médicos, entre fevereiro de 2000 e outubro de 2001, no Programa da Saúde da Mulher no Climatério, do ambulatório de ginecologia de um hospital na cidade de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. Dentre a população total foram selecionadas intencionalmente 30 mulheres entre 48 e 59 anos, que não se consideravam profissionais da voz, no mínimo há 12 meses em amenorréia, e que foram entrevistadas com um roteiro temático, constituído de questões semi-estruturadas. Cada entrevista foi gravada e transcrita. A descrição, análise e interpretação foram fundamentadas pelas representações sociais, por meio do discurso do sujeito coletivo, com aproximações à hermenêutica-dialética. RESULTADOS: Os 27 discursos coletivos estruturados denotaram o relacionamento da voz às características biológicas, psicológicas e aspectos sociais do cotidiano, com a identificação de mudanças vocais no decorrer da vida. CONCLUSÕES: Foi possível observar representações sociais de natureza comunicacional e funcional, que salientaram a voz como elemento de constituição da identidade pessoal, concebida na pertinência social. A pesquisa sugere novas investigações fundamentadas nas ciências sociais, simultâneas aos estudos epidemiológicos, e a necessidade de se refletir sobre o processo de terapêutica vocal aplicado sobre uma laringe mais vulnerável, além de priorizar uma proposta de assistência integral à mulher no climatério, com enfoque sobre a saúde da voz.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed to the voice by menopausal women. METHODS: Data were collected from 148 medical records of women seen in the Climacteric Women Health Program of the Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia Gynecology Outpatient Clinic in Curitiba, Brazil, between February 2000 and October 2001. Of them, 30 women aged

  3. A pesquisa em técnica vocal, voz e canto em Práticas Interpretativas no Brasil: Análise dos resumos das dissertações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discorre-se acerca de uma das partes do trabalho “A pesquisa em técnica vocal, voz e canto: estado da arte” realizada em 2012-2014 pelo GEPPEVOZIA (Grupo de Estudo, Prática e Pesquisa em Voz do Instituto de Artes da UNESP em que objetivamos conhecer o estado da arte na temática técnica vocal, voz e canto em diferentes áreas do conhecimento. Apresentaremos os resultados da análise da pesquisa nas áreas de Música e Artes a partir dos resumos de dissertações de Mestrado que tratam dessa questão. A busca no portal da CAPES deu-se por palavras-chave. Focalizamos, neste texto, a análise dos resumos cujos estudos estão relacionados direta ou indiretamente a práticas interpretativas. Os resumos apresentam algumas inconsistências em sua elaboração, contudo é possível, ao examiná-los, perceber quais são as tendências dos pesquisadores na área de voz.

  4. SEMS vs cSEMS in duodenal and small bowel obstruction: High risk of migration in the covered stent group

    OpenAIRE

    Waidmann, Oliver; Trojan, Jörg; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bechstein, Wolf Otto; Ulrich, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Albert, Jörg Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare clinical success and complications of uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) vs covered SEMS (cSEMS) in obstruction of the small bowel. Methods: Technical success, complications and outcome of endoscopic SEMS or cSEMS placement in tumor related obstruction of the duodenum or jejunum were retrospectively assessed. The primary end points were rates of stent migration and overgrowth. Secondary end points were the effect of concomitant biliary drainage on migration rate a...

  5. LA VOZ DE LOS NIÑOS EN LA JUSTICIA DE FAMILIA DE CHILE Children's voices in Chilean family courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vargas Pavez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho de los niños a ser oídos y a que su opinión sea debidamente tomada en cuenta constituye un mandato legal que obliga a los jueces de familia a recoger sus deseos y sentimientos en una amplia gama de materias. Sin embargo, ni la Convención de Derechos del Niño ni la legislación nacional establecen cómo poner en práctica este derecho: ¿Quién debe escucharlos? ¿Desde qué edad en adelante? ¿En qué tipo de asuntos? ¿Con o sin presencia de sus padres o adultos significativos? Estas son algunas de las preguntas que surgen frente a esta temática. Dar a conocer los resultados de un estudio empírico que indaga sobre las formas en que la judicatura de familia recupera la voz de los niños, así como las dificultades y desafíos que entraña la aplicación práctica del derecho a ser oído es el objetivo del presente trabajo.The right of the children to be heard and to have their opinion considered properly constitutes a legal mandate that forces family judges to gather their desires and feelings in a wide range of matters. Nevertheless, neither the Convention of Children's Rights nor Chilean national legislation establishes how to put in practice this right: Who should listen to them? From what age forward? In what type of matters? With or without the presence of their parents or other significant adults? These are some of the questions that arise from this subject. This work aims to present the results of an empirical study that investigated the forms in which the family judicature recovers the voice of the children, as well as the difficulties and challenges of the practical application of this right.

  6. Voz y voto: participación política y calidad de la democracia en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. HOLZNER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La igualdad intrínseca de cada ciudadano es una suposición fundamental de cualquier sistema democrático. Por esto, cualquier evaluación de la calidad de la democracia tiene que considerar la «igualdad de voz», o sea, el grado en que los ciudadanos tienen oportunidades más o menos iguales de participar en la toma de decisiones colectivas. Este ensayo hace una evaluación de la calidad de la democracia en México con especial atención a las desigualdades que existen en la participación política de ciudadanos con niveles de ingresos altos y bajos. Los pobres en México votan menos y participan menos que los ciudadanos de mayores recursos económicos en actividades políticas dirigidas directamente a los gobernantes. Cuando participan tienden a hacerlo en actividades con poca capacidad de comunicar información sobre sus preferencias o de presionar a las autoridades, produciendo las condiciones para que los gobiernos no respondan por igual a las demandas de todos los grupos sociales.ABSTRACT: Because intrinsic equality of each citizen is a fundamental assumption of democracies, any assessments of the quality of democracy must consider the equality of political voice, that is whether a political system provides citizens with more or less equal opportunities to participate in collective decisions. This essay examines patterns of political participation in Mexico to assess whether there are systematic inequalities in the abilities of Mexicans from different income groups to exercise their voice in the political process. The evidence shows that the poor in Mexico vote less often and participate less frequently in government-directed political acts than the wealthy. When they do participate, the poor do so in activities which have little capacity to inform about their needs and preferences, and with little capacity to put pressure on government officials. This creates conditions for governments to not be responsive to or representative

  7. Arborização de vias púbicas em Nova Iguaçu, RJ: o caso dos bairros Rancho Novo e Centro Tree planting on public roads in Nova Iguaçu, RJ: the case of Novo Rancho and Downtown districts

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    Rodrigo Tavares da Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar e qualificar a arborização de ruas dos Bairros Rancho Novo e Centro, na cidade de Nova Iguaçu, RJ. Através de inventário total, foram encontrados 560 indivíduos pertencentes a 46 espécies no Bairro Rancho Novo e, no Bairro Centro, 1.374 e 59, respectivamente. Em ambos os bairros, cerca de 91% das plantas pertenciam às 20 espécies mais freqüentes, sendo Ficus benjamina e Cássia siamea as predominantes em Rancho Novo (21,6% e Centro (19,1%, respectivamente. O Bairro Rancho Novo apresentou 18% de suas vias públicas arborizadas e o Bairro Centro, 13,5%. Cerca de 95% das espécies foram enquadradas como de pequeno e médio portes. As maiores médias de altura foram observadas em plantas de Cássia siamea, em Rancho Novo e amendoeira no Centro. As espécies plantadas sob rede aérea representaram 40% da população arbórea, sendo 45% desta com conflitos evidentes. No Bairro Centro, 62% das árvores necessitavam de poda, enquanto em Rancho Novo a poda é recomendada em 50% das plantas. Elevada discrepância foi constatada nas distâncias médias entre árvores, com valores médios de 56 m no Bairro Rancho Novo e 74 m no Bairro Centro. Recomenda-se a substituição gradativa de Cássia siamea, amendoeira, "flamboyant" e sombreiro por outras espécies mais adequadas à arborização urbana.The objectives of this work were to quantify and qualify the urban trees of Rancho Novo District and Downtown Area of Nova Iguaçu City, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Through the total inventory, 560 individuals distributed in 46 species were found in Rancho Novo District, in contrast to 1,374 individuals and 59 species in Downtown Area. In both areas, about 91% of the plants are among the 20 most frequent species, with Ficus benjamina and Cassia siamea predominating in Rancho Novo (21,6% and Downtown (19,1 %, respectively. Rancho Novo District presented 18% of arboured public areas against 13,5% of Downtown

  8. Tesis Doctoral- Síntesis. Estudio sobre la escucha de la voz del locutor con y sin su imagen: análisis del proceso perceptivo y cognitivo del mensaje.

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    Olatz Larrea Estefanía

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este informe presenta una síntesis de la tesis doctoral “Estudio sobre la escucha de la voz del locutor con y sin su imagen” (Larrea, 2015. La  tesis se centra en el estudio comparativo de los procesos perceptivo y cognitivo que experimenta el oyente de radio ante la escucha de una comunicación radiofónica en dos modalidades perceptivas diferenciadas: la voz aislada y la voz acompañada de la imagen de su emisor. Basado en un diseño experimental que hibrida la metodología cuantitativa y la cualitativa, el estudio comprueba empíricamente las diferencias perceptivas y cognitivas del oyente de radio en relación a las sensaciones causadas por la voz, la atribución de efectividad, el proceso de generación de imágenes mentales durante la escucha, la atención prestada al mensaje y su recuerdo, en ambas modalidades de escucha. La investigación ofrece además un amplio recorrido por los procesos psicológicos involucrados en el procesamiento de la información mediada, atendiendo específicamente al tono y el timbre de la voz como principales cualidades de la materia constitutiva de la radio. A continuación se presenta una síntesis de las principales fases del estudio, y una selección de sus resultados y conclusiones.

  9. Health disorders and teachers' voices: a workers' health issue Alteraciones de la salud y de la voz del profesor, un asunto de salud del trabajador Alterações da saúde e a voz do professor, uma questão de saúde do trabalhador

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    Liliana Amorim Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and/or work risk factors, lack of basic knowledge related to voice, its incorrect use, and a defective vocal model can lead teachers to develop occupational dysphonia. This study aimed to analyze studies focusing on occupational vocal disorders through a literature review. Articles published over a period of 11 years in periodicals indexed in the ScieLO library were searched according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty articles related to teachers' vocal occupational disorders were found. We argue that intense vocal use should not harm professionals; the voice has to be pleasant to the speaker and correctly produced. The conclusion is that there is a scarcity of articles available at the studied library relating to teachers' voice disorders. Further studies need to be developed and disseminated so as to increase knowledge in the subject.Factores de riesgos ambientales y/o referentes a la organización laboral, ausencia de nociones básicas sobre la voz, su uso incorrecto y presencia de modelo vocal deficiente pueden llevar al profesor a presentar disfonía relacionada al trabajo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar publicaciones sobre alteraciones vocales provenientes del trabajo, a través de revisión de literatura sobre el tema propuesto. Como método, se buscó artículos de periódicos indexados en la biblioteca virtual Scielo, por un período de once años, obedeciendo a criterios de inclusión y exclusión predeterminados. Fueron encontrados 20 artículos que contemplaron alteraciones vocales de los profesores provenientes del trabajo. Se discute, aquí, que el uso vocal intenso no debe propiciar perjuicios a la profesión; la voz debe ser agradable al sujeto y producida correctamente; concluyéndose que hay pocos artículos vehiculados en la biblioteca investigada relacionados a las alteraciones vocales del profesor, provenientes del uso de la voz en el trabajo. Nuevas investigaciones deben ser

  10. XML i Web Semàntica

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca Corrales, Felix

    2005-01-01

    En aquest treball es realitza una descripció dels llenguatges que constitueixen la base de la construcció de la Web Semàntica: l'XML, l'RDF i l'OWL. En concret, es realitza un estudi de la base de dades lèxica WordNet. Finalment, es presenta el disseny i la implementació d'una ontologia per representar les relacions lèxiques dels mots del català. A partir d'aquesta ontologia es crea una petita base de dades basada en la temàtica dels animals de companyia. Aquest cas pràctic permet extreure co...

  11. Solar variability observed with GMS/SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tsugunobu

    1987-06-01

    Daily averaged data on energetic protons, alpha particles, and electrons obtained between 1978-1986 with different channels of SEM aboard the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 'Himawari' are presented and discussed. Most solar particle events (SPEs), observed in the P2-P6 and A1-A5 channels, show a gradual rise and a further gradual decay of the particle fluxes, although some SREs displayed a sharp rise and a gradual decay. SPEs, which occurred frequently in the 1978-1979 and 1981-1982 periods, were less frequent after 1983; however, there occurred several large and energetic SREs between 1983 and 1986. Therefore, the long-term trend in the high-energy particle ejection from the sun is quite different from that in the sunspot number. The fluxes from the EL and P1 channel response, largely due to energetic particles trapped in the earth's magnetic field, show substorm-induced variations, the characteristics of which depend highly on local time.

  12. Sem analysis zirconia-ceramic adhesion interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDELLI, P.; VERTUCCI, V.; MONTANI, M.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Modern dentistry increasingly tends to use materials aesthetically acceptable and biomimetic. Among these are zirconia and ceramics for several years, a combination that now has becoming synonym of aesthetic; however, what could be the real link between these two materials and especially its nature, remains a controversial topic debated in the literature. The aim of our study was to “underline” the type of bonding that could exist between these materials. Materials and methods To investigate the nature of this bond we used a SEM microscopy (Zeiss SUPRA 25). Different bilaminar specimens: “white” zirconia Zircodent® and ceramic “Noritake®”, after being tested with loading test in bending (three-point-bending) and FEM analysis, were analyzed by SEM. Fragments’ analysis in closeness of the fracture’s point has allowed us to be able to “see” if at large magnifications between these two materials, and without the use of linear, could exist a lasting bond and the possible type of failure that could incur. Results From our analysis of the specimens’ fragments analyzed after test Equipment, it is difficult to highlight a clear margin and no-adhesion zones between the two materials, although the analysis involving fragments adjacent to the fracture that has taken place at the time of Mechanical test Equipment. Conclusions According to our analysis and with all the clarification of the case, we can assume that you can obtain a long and lasting bond between the zirconia and ceramics. Agree to the data present in the literature, we can say that the type of bond varies according to the type of specimens and of course also the type of failure. In samples where the superstructure envelops the ceramic framework Zirconium we are in the presence of a cohesive failure, otherwise in a presence of adhesive failure. PMID:27555905

  13. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  14. Circuncisão masculina e infecção pelo HIV: uma polêmica mundial sem voz brasileira Male circumcision and HIV infection: an international debate with no Brazilian participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Ayres de Castilho

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trazem para reflexão a questão da circuncisão masculina como fator de proteção para infecção pelo HIV. Em breve histórico da abordagem do problema, na literatura mundial, identificam a ausência de pesquisas brasileiras sobre o tema. Por fim, problematizam a situação, lembrando que circuncisão masculina autodeclarada é passível de erros de classificação de relevante magnitude, implicando, por isso, vícios nas estimativas de riscos.The authors discuss male circumcision as a protective factor against HIV transmission. The absence is noted of Brazilian data published in the international literature regarding this issue. Finally, it is emphasized that self-declared circumcision status is subject to substantial misclassification with the generation of biased risk estimates.

  15. Ocultamiento del Mensaje de Señales de Voz usando la Transformada de Ondita Haar Discreta Message Concealment of Voice Signals using the Discrete Haar Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un método de ocultamiento del mensaje para transmisión de señales de voz utilizando codificación por medio de bancos de filtros multi-resolución de análisis y de síntesis para la Transformada de Ondita Haar Discreta. Por medio de un banco de filtros Haar multi-resolución se realiza la separación de la señal en sus componentes y después se realiza una distorsión reversible de la síntesis multi-resolución de sus señales componentes, obteniendo una señal de salida que, aunque mantiene la misma información de la señal de entrada, el mensaje de la señal de voz que esta porta queda oculto en ella misma. Este método puede aplicarse para la transmisión codificada de señales de voz ya sea en su forma digital o analógica, y por su simplicidad resulta adecuado para implementarse en sistemas electrónicos digitales, ya sea como un arreglo de compuertas programables por campo, o como circuito integrado de aplicación específica.This work introduces a message concealment method for voice signals transmission using codification through multi-resolution filter banks implementation for analysis and synthesis for the Discrete Haar Wavelet Transform. Through these multi-resolution filter banks of Haar wavelet the voice signal can be split in its components, and later a reversible distortion of the synthesis of its multi-resolution component signals is made, obtaining an output signal that, although maintains the same information of the original input signal, hides the message of the carried voice signal in itself. This method can be applied in codified transmission of voice, analog or digital signals, and due to the simplicity of the method it’s suitable to be implemented on digital electronic systems like FPGA, or ASIC.

  16. Voz do professor: análise das leis brasileiras na perspectiva da promoção da saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilse Aparecida Merlin Servilha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar as leis brasileiras sobre saúde vocal do professor, na perspectiva da promoção da saúde. MÉTODOS: foram captados, no período de 1998 a 2010, 61 documentos publicados, sendo organizados nas categorias: terminologia, objetivo, estratégias previstas e garantias ao professor. Os dados receberam tratamento quali-quantitativo. RESULTADOS: as terminologias utilizadas nos documentos foram: programa (88,52%, campanha (6,55% e política de saúde vocal (4,91%; quanto aos objetivos, a prevenção de disfonias em professores (83,60% foi o mais citado; a estratégia privilegiada para abordar a voz do professor se resumiu a curso teórico-prático anual (80,32% e a garantia prevista ao professor foi o acesso ao tratamento fonoaudiológico e médico em caso de disfonia (65,57%. A maioria dos documentos não indicou qualquer garantia de direitos aos professores, limitando-se ao tratamento da disfonia, demonstrando que a voz do professor e seu cuidado, ainda não constituem objeto de preocupação do Estado. CONCLUSÃO: os documentos analisados, apesar de sua importância, apresentam conteúdo muito incipiente e superficial, especialmente quanto à linha de cuidado e à promoção da saúde vocal dos professores. Salvo raras exceções, restringem-se à indicação de ações pontuais voltadas à reabilitação de seus distúrbios da voz, desvinculadas de uma política de saúde vocal de base consistente. Há necessidade do fonoaudiólogo e seus órgãos de classe participar efetivamente na assessoria às figuras públicas visando à elaboração de documentos para que, de forma objetiva e abrangente, promovam a saúde do professor.

  17. Nondestructive SEM for surface and subsurface wafer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, Roy H.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Cole, Edward I., Jr.; Davies, Brian G.; Dibianca, Frank A.; Johnson, Darryl G.; Oxford, William V.; Smith, Craig A.

    1987-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is considered as a tool for both failure analysis as well as device characterization. A survey is made of various operational SEM modes and their applicability to image processing methods on semiconductor devices.

  18. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  19. In-situ tensile testing of propellant samples within SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetto, G.L. di; Ramshorst, M.C.J. van; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2015-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a FEI NovaNanoSEM 650 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized in this work to conduct in-situ tensile testing of propellant material samples. This tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mec

  20. Wiki semánticas basadas en Folksonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Sumario: La web y el conocimiento. Web semántica. Wikis semánticas. Construcción colaborativa de conocimiento. Información personal en una wiki semántica. P-SWOOKI. Evaluación. Trabajo a futuro y conclusiones.

  1. EPA Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] and SEMS_CERCLIS Sites NPL [R2] GIS Layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] GIS layer contains unique Superfund Enterprise Management System (SEMS) site records. These records have the following...

  2. Semântica e lexicografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Casares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A Semântica e a Lexicografia se interpenetram mutuamente porque a Lexicografia não se limita a recolher as palavras do léxico, mas procura descrever a significação dos vocábulos e seus usos. O lexicógrafo também se ocupa de evolução dos sentidos das palavras para estabelecer a escala das acepções de um signo lexical. Casares conceitua acepção e discute o problema da discriminação das acepções e da sua ordenação no caso de palavras polissêmicas. Outra Questão delicada para o lexicógrafo é o reconhecimento e a identificação correta dos valores metafóricos. O autor usa como exemplo ilustrativo o verbete lat. ordo > esp. orden (port. ordem, signo polissêmico. Traça gráficos da ma-, lha de significações na semântica evolutiva dessa palavra, do étimo original latino ao espanhol moderno. Casares também trata do problema da lematização, ou seja, a decisão técnica de escolher como entrada de um dicionário, uma ou outra forma vocabular, o que envolve controvérsias permanentes em meio aos lexicólogos sobre as lexias (palavras complexas e como e quando se dá a categorização lexical de um polinómio vocabular. Esse problema é ampliado por causa da tradição caótica de muitas grafias, particularmente no caso de "locuções vocabulares". Advoga as vantagens e as virtudes de um dicionário que tivesse um índice de freqüência do uso de cada palavra, ou de cada acepção de um vocábulo.

  3. Estrategias textuales para la lectura en voz alta en "Amadís" (1508): la prosodia amorosa y bélica

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA ÁLVAREZ, JUAN PABLO MAURICIO

    2012-01-01

    El artículo estudia cómo la performance afecta a la composición textual y editorial de Amadís de Gaula (1508), y trata de demostrar cómo esta perspectiva de análisis se puede aplicar al discurso textual de otros libros de caballerías castellanos, en los que la conjunción entre autor e imprenta es fundamental para comprender su difusión. Las marcas textuales y gráficas de un impreso condicionan la composición de la obra, cuyo objetivo consistía en elaborar un texto para leerse en voz alta....

  4. Exaustão emocional e reconhecimento de emoções na face e voz em médicos de medicina geral e familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Teresa Miguel Fitas

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia das Emoções O presente estudo pretende analisar o reconhecimento de emoções em expressões emocionais na face e voz junto de médicos de Medicina Geral e Familiar em função da exaustão emocional. A amostra foi composta por 72 médicos de Medicina Geral e a recolha de dados foi realizada em dois momentos. Numa primeira fase aplicou-se o questionário de caracterização sociodemográfica e profissional, a versão portuguesa do Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.) para medir a e...

  5. A voz da boneca noturna: notas sobre um objeto-paixão em O livro de Praga de Sergio Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Virginia de Almeida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o romance de Sérgio Sant'Anna O livro de Praga, publicado em 2011, como resultado de um projeto em que a editora Companhia das Letras enviou escritores para cidades ao redor do mundo, a fim de escrever histórias de amor. Sergio Sant'Anna cria o personagem-narrador, Antônio Fernandes, que, ao longo de sua estadia em Praga, se envolve com várias figuras femininas entre elas uma boneca, uma miniatura de uma atriz de teatro-de-sombras. O artigo concentra-se no episódio da boneca, no mistério que envolve sua voz, nas relações com o gênero fantástico e nas leituras possíveis da sua presença na narrativa.

  6. Leitura em voz alta e vizinhança ortográfica: acesso lexical e processamento estratégico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ricardo dos Reis Justi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados visando investigar o efeito do número de vizinhos ortográficos (N e do número de vizinhos ortográficos de maior frequência de ocorrência (NF em tarefas de leitura em voz alta (TLVA. Os estímulos experimentais consistiram em 64 palavras correspondentes a uma manipulação fatorial 2 x 2 de N e NF. No primeiro experimento, uma TLVA do tipo Go/NoGo, observou-se um efeito inibidor de NF quando as palavras tinham muitos vizinhos ortográficos. No segundo experimento, uma TLVA na qual tanto as palavras quantos as pseudopalavras deviam ser pronunciadas em uma mesma sessão, observou-se um efeito facilitador de N. Os efeitos de N e NF foram atribuídos a diferenças de ênfase entre as tarefas no processo de acesso lexical.

  7. “Una flor al tiempo dedicada”: la voz de Celia en la poética de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sancho Dobles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la actitud dialógica que la comedia Los empeños de una casa de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz establece con los propios poemas de la escritora. Como referencia particular se hace énfasis en la voz de la criada Celia en la comedia y en los sonetos dedicados al motivo de la rosa para, finalmente, establecer algunas ideas con respecto a la poética de la poeta novohispana. This work analyzes the way in which the comedy House of Desires by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz establishes a dialogic attitude with other poems of the writer. As a particular reference, I will emphasize the voice of the maid, Celia, in the comedy, as well as in the sonnets dedicated to the ‘rose’ motif, to establish, finally, some ideas on the poetics of the novohispanic poet.

  8. Parâmetros espectrais da voz em crianças respiradoras orais Spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli Viegas; Flávia Viegas; Ciríaco Cristovão Tavares Atherino; Heidi Elisabeth Baeck

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: investigar parâmetros espectrais (f0 e formantes) descritivos da voz de crianças respiradoras orais, visando contribuir na caracterização desta população e, consequentemente, na efetividade do diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 crianças respiradoras orais e 101 crianças com respiração nasal de ambos os gêneros entre cinco e dez anos. Os sinais de fala foram obtidos a partir das gravações de sentenças-veículo e os segmentos das vogais orais [a], [i] e [u] do português falado...

  9. Analysis list: sem-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sem-4 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem...-4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/sem-4.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  10. LA TRADUCCIÓN DE LA VOZ PASIVA FRANCESA AL ESPAÑOL : ¿CUESTIÓN DE LENGUA O CUESTIÓN DE TRADUCCIÓN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Weber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se suele decir que el empleo de la voz pasiva perifrástica, formada por el verbo auxiliar «ser»/être y el participio pasado, es más frecuente en francés que en español donde compite con la « pasiva refleja ». Tratándose de traducción, los gramáticos españoles preconizan pues la sustitución de la voz pasiva por la voz activa e indican en qué casos particulares se puede emplear la pasiva perifrástica española. La traducción de la voz pasiva francesa al español se reduciría pues a un mero problema gramatical consistente en la aplicación de reglas. Además del hecho de que dichas reglas no resultan nada claras, la observación de seis traducciones de una misma obra, Madame Bovary de G. Flaubert, mostró lo contrario ; excepto en algunos casos, los traductores se enfrentan a un verdadero problema de traducción que les deja siempre la posibilidad de escoger. Se distinguen dos grupos de traductores. Los « surcistas », que tienden a mantener una construcción pasiva en general (una pasiva perifrástica en particular, aunque la oración no presenta la configuración propicia a su empleo en español; su preocupación es la fidelidad al efecto producido por el texto original. Los traductores de orientación ciblista, tienden a sustituir la voz pasiva por la voz activa; parecen más preocupados por la « ortonimia», por « lo que se suele decir », seguramente influidos por cierto discurso lingüístico-gramatical que promueve el empleo de la voz activa, sin tener en cuenta la realidad de la lengua y sus realizaciones. Palabras clave: Traducción - lingüística - voz pasiva - pasiva refleja - surcistas – ciblistas Traduction de la voix passive française à l'espagnol: Une question linguistique ou traductive? Résumé: On dit généralement que l'emploi de la voix passive périphrastique, composée de l'auxiliaire ser/"être" et du participe-passé, est plus fréquente en français qu'en espagnol où lui fait concurrence

  11. Amizade, pertencimento e relações de poder no Futebol de Bairro Friendship, bonding, and power relations in neighborhood football Amistad, pertenecimiento y relaciones de poder en el fútbol de barrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como referência empírica o caso da Sociedade Recreativa Arealense, um clube esportivo - recreativo de bairro tradicional da cidade de Pelotas, fundado em 1920. O objetivo é analisar as práticas futebolísticas infames, ou seja, não famosas. Prioriza-se, no texto, uma reflexão sobre como este futebol se constitui e é constituído por uma sociabilidade específica, por sentimentos de pertencimento e por relações de poder. Para desenvolver o estudo, foi utilizada uma metodologia que alia fontes orais, escritas e imagéticas. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: futebol – bairro – amizade - pertencimento This articles has, as its empirical reference, the case study of Sociedade Recreativa Arealense, a sports & health club in a traditional neighborhood in the city of Pelotas, founded in 1920. The main aim is to analise non-famous football practices. The text prioritizes a reflection on how these football practices constitute, and are constituted by a specific type of socialization, by feelings of bonding and power relations. The chosen methodology used to develop this research study integrates spoken, written, and pictorial sources. KEYWORDS: football – neighborhood – friendship - bonding El presente artículo tiene como referencia empírica el caso de la Sociedad Recreativa Arealense, un club de barrio deportivo recreativo tradicional de la ciudad de Pelotas, creado en mil novecientos y veinte (1920. El objetivo está en analizar las prácticas futbolísticas infames, es decir, no famosas. Se prioriza, en el texto, una refl exión sobre cómo este fútbol se constituye y es constituido por una sociedad específi ca, por sentimientos de pertenencia y por relaciones de poder. Para desarrollar el estudio, se utilizó una metodología que coliga fuentes orales, fuentes escritas y fuentes de imágenes. PALABRAS – CLAVE: fútbol – barrio – amistad - pertencimento

  12. Voz cantada e a constituição da relação mãe-bebê Singing voice and the constitution of mother/baby relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Enio Lopes Mello; Suzana Magalhães Maia; Marta Assumpção de Andrada e Silva

    2009-01-01

    TEMA: refletir sobre uma faceta da constituição da relação mãe-bebê, que se fez presente no uso criativo da voz cantada da mãe, na comunicação com o seu bebê. PROCEDIMENTOS: o único sujeito desse estudo é uma mãe, que se submeteu a oito sessões de terapias corporais associadas à emissão da voz cantada, sempre dirigidas ao bebê; as sessões transcorreram com a possibilidade de expressão livre pela fala e gesto da mãe e a escuta do terapeuta. RESULTADOS: o quadro que a mãe apresentava em relação...

  13. Transitividade dos verbos alternantes: uma proposta semântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa CIRÍACO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma proposta semântica para se classificar os verbos alternantes quanto a sua transitividade. Parte-se de uma análise das propriedades semântico-lexicais acarretadas pelos verbos causativos do Português Brasileiro, assumindo-se ser a transitivi­dade um fenômeno de interface entre a sintaxe e a semântica lexical. A proposta mostra não só a propriedade semântica relevante para a transitividade, mas também os processos gerais responsáveis pelas alternâncias verbais.

  14. Coralistas amadores: auto-imagem, dificuldades e sintomas na voz cantada Amateur choir singers: self-image, difficulties and symptoms of the singing voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Castro Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a auto-imagem, dificuldades e presença de sintomas negativos após o canto em coralistas amadores com diferentes classificações vocais, idades e experiência. MÉTODO: cento e vinte e cinco cantores responderam a um questionário que abordou dados de identificação, informações sobre a auto-imagem da voz cantada, dificuldades apresentadas no canto e ocorrência ou não de sintomas vocais após o canto. RESULTADOS: a comparação por naipes evidenciou maior dificuldade na emissão de sons agudos para os contraltos e baixos, maior dificuldade na emissão graves para os sopranos, maior dificuldade na transição de registro grave para agudo para os baixos, e maior cansaço vocal para os contraltos. Na divisão por idade, tanto adultos jovens e adultos referiram maior soprosidade do que os idosos. Os adultos referiram melhor intensidade vocal do que adultos jovens. Os adultos jovens consideraram seu timbre de voz adequado mais frequentemente do que adultos. Em relação à experiência, os cantores menos experientes referiram percepção de voz rouca em maior número do que os cantores mais experientes, que referiram apresentar intensidade adequada durante o canto em maior número do que os demais. Cantores menos experientes referiram maior ocorrência de rouquidão após o canto do que cantores mais experientes. CONCLUSÃO: as dificuldades encontradas no canto estão atreladas ao naipe, e não dependem da idade e nem da experiência. Sintomas estão relacionados ao naipe e ao grau de experiência com o canto. A auto-imagem vocal negativa também está relacionada ao naipe e ao nível de experiência, sendo que a auto-imagem positiva é mais comum em cantores experientes.PURPOSE: to evaluate vocal self-perception, difficulties and presence of negative symptoms after singing of amateur choir singers of different vocal classifications, age and experience. METHOD: one hundred and twenty five singers answered a questionnaire

  15. Professor especializado na área da deficiência visual: os sentidos da voz Teacher specialized in visual impairment: the meaning of the voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cintra Villas Boas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste relato de caso foi investigar o sentido atribuído à voz de professores especializados na área de deficiência visual e sua prática em sala de aula. Participaram oito professoras, divididas em três grupos: quatro videntes, duas com visão subnormal e duas professoras cegas. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais, com todas as participantes, que responderam a seis perguntas semidirecionadas, previamente elaboradas, que abordaram o tema da comunicação entre professor especializado e o aluno com deficiência visual, no ambiente de sala de aula. Depois de transcritas e analisadas, foram estabelecidas três categorias de respostas: o trabalho da professora, vivência diária, e apoios necessários. A atuação pedagógica subsidia-se nos princípios de fornecer todos os possíveis detalhes e informações a respeito do conteúdo, adaptar materiais, orientar quanto à mobilidade, entre outros, por meio dos recursos vocais e corporais. A importância da voz para o desenvolvimento de uma pessoa com deficiência visual foi explicitada nos relatos que a consideram essencial para a convivência no contexto social e escolar. Observou-se a importância da interação, em sala de aula, favorecida pelos recursos vocais e corporais, tanto das professoras quanto dos alunos, para haver uma comunicação mais clara e objetiva. O sentido atribuído à voz, de acordo com as participantes, contribuiu para reconhecê-la como principal meio de comunicação com seus alunos.The aim of this case report was to investigate the meaning attributed to the voice and its practice in the classroom by teachers specialized in the field of visual impairment. Participants were eight teachers, divided into three groups: four sighted teachers, two teachers with low vision, and two blind teachers. Each subject was interviewed individually, answering six semi-directed questions which were previously prepared, about the communication between the specialized

  16. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  17. The influence of environment temperature on SEM image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the structure dimension goes down to the nano-scale, it often requires a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide image magnification up to 100 000  ×. However, SEM images at such a high magnification usually suffer from high resolution value and low signal-to-noise ratio, which results in low quality of the SEM image. In this paper, the quality of the SEM image is improved by optimizing the environment temperature. The experimental results indicate that at 100 000  ×, the quality of the SEM image is influenced by the environment temperature, whereas at 50 000  × it is not. At 100 000  × the best SEM image quality can be achieved from the environment temperature ranging 292 from 294 K, and the SEM image quality evaluated by the double stimulus continuous quality scale method can increase from grade 1 to grade 5. It is expected that this image quality improving method can be used in routine measurements with ordinary SEMs to get high quality images by optimizing the environment temperature. (paper)

  18. Web semántica y servicios web semanticos

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez Solis, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Des d'aquest TFC volem estudiar l'evolució de la Web actual cap a la Web Semàntica. Desde este TFC queremos estudiar la evolución de la Web actual hacia la Web Semántica. From this Final Degree Project we want to study the evolution of the current Web to the Semantic Web.

  19. Avaliação dos fatores de risco para distúrbios de voz em professores e análise acústica vocal como instrumento de avaliação epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Pizolato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar fatores de risco para disfonia em professores e associá-los compresença de alteração vocal. MÉTODO: 102 professores(81 mulheres e 21 homens selecionados aleatoriamente de 11 escolas do município de Piracicaba/SP, com média de idade de 42,48 anos. Um questionário sobre aspectos do ambiente e organização do trabalho, comportamento vocal, estilo de vida e sinais e sintomas de alterações vocais foi aplicado.Uma análise acústica da voz foi realizada e as variáveis avaliadas dependentes foram Frequência Fundamental e a Intensidade média vocal. Foram realizadas associações entre as variáveis do questionário com a frequência fundamental e a intensidade média e utilizaram-se os testes estatísticos: Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e cálculo do OddsRatio e este é um estudo clínico prospectivo. RESULTADOS: os indivíduos do sexo masculino tiveram menos chance de apresentarem frequência fundamental da voz alterada do que o gênero feminino (p<0,0001. As professoras que lecionavam para o ensino fundamental II e médio tiveram menos chance de apresentar alteração da frequência fundamental da voz do que aquelas que lecionavam para o ensino fundamental (p=0,04. O ruído ambiente teve associação significante com a alteração da intensidade média da voz (p=0,02. CONCLUSÃO: fatores como o sexo feminino lecionar para o ensino primário e estar exposto ao ruído do ambiente de trabalho foram considerados indicadores de risco para distúrbios da voz em professores.

  20. Apoio respiratório na voz cantada: perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos Support and singing voice: perspective of singing teachers and speech language pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gava Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a definição de apoio respiratório, assim como as estratégias de trabalho e benefícios de sua aplicação, segundo a perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: seis profissionais com experiência em voz cantada foram entrevistados sobre questões relacionadas ao apoio respiratório no canto. As respostas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo e definidas quatro categorias: definição de apoio respiratório, tipo de apoio, estratégias e benefícios. RESULTADOS: os aspectos mais mencionados pelos entrevistados foram: a definição de apoio está relacionada com a participação do músculo diafragma e dos intercostais; o tipo de apoio mais adequado é o intercostal e diafragmático; dentre as estratégias de trabalho, utilizadas para a adequação do apoio respiratório, as mais citadas foram propriocepção corporal, conscientização da musculatura envolvida, equilíbrio do fluxo aéreo, alívio de tensões e correção da postura. Há discrepâncias com relação à utilização da contração abdominal, do uso de objetos de apoio, de imagens mentais e realização de vocalizes. Para os entrevistados, o maior benefício do apoio respiratório está no alívio das tensões laríngeas e melhoria na coordenação pneumofonoarticulatória. Houve pouca concordância sobre a ação benéfica do apoio, principalmente quanto à sua melhoria na emissão cantada. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados apontam para uma convergência da maioria dos entrevistados quanto à definição, estratégias de trabalho e benefícios do apoio respiratório, porém ainda sem consenso.PURPOSE: to analyze the definition of breath support, as well as the strategies used to achieve it and their benefits according to both singing teachers and Speech Language Pathologists (SLP. METHODS: six professionals experienced in singing voice answered an interview on issues pertaining to singing breath support. The answers were submitted to

  1. O jornal A Voz da Escola: escritas dos alunos do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940) - The journal A Voz da Escola: written by children of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Camara Bastos; Tatiane de Freitas Ermel, Brasil

    2013-01-01

    O artigo aborda as escritas de alunos do ensino primário do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS), publicadas no jornal A Voz da Escola (1934-1940), como prática de formação pessoal, cívica e religiosa, de aprendizagem da moral ou da civilidade. Busca-se analisar os discursos veiculados, os processos de subjetivação e suas influências nos modos como as crianças, na faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos, pensavam, agiam e se expressavam nos espaços de construção de suas identidades. Insere-se ...

  2. La inclusión educativa desde la voz de madres de estudiantes con Trastornos del Espectro Autista en una muestra chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Villegas Otárola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es mostrar la perspectiva de madres chilenas sobre la inclusión educativa de sus hijos escolarizados en centros de educación primaria, quienes presentan un Trastorno del Espectro Autista. Se recogen evidencias, desde la voz de las familias, que pueden servir como punto de partida para reflexionar sobre cómo avanzar hacia una educación más inclusiva y cómo contribuir a mejorar los apoyos que se brindan a estudiantes con discapacidad. El estudio se enmarca en un paradigma cualitativo de investigación, utilizando entrevistas no estructuradas para acceder a la información. Se ha contado con la participación de ocho madres chilenas de la Región de Valparaíso. Los resultados muestran que la valoración de la escolarización está estrechamente relacionada con el bienestar emocional, ámbito al que se le otorga mayor relevancia que al de los resultados académicos. Se destaca la importancia de los apoyos adaptados a las necesidades del sistema familiar.

  3. SEM-EBSP能知道些什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张唯敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 SEM-EBSP是什么 所谓SEM-EBSP是指采用在扫描电子显微镜(SEM)镜体中的反射电子菊池线衍射的结晶方位分析.被称为菊池图形的衍射图形可因结晶的稍许倾斜而大大地改变其位置,因此,通过解析菊池图形就能正确地知道结晶方位.

  4. Improvement of geometrical measurements from 3D-SEM reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Horsewell, Andy;

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of 3D geometry at the nanometric scale is a major metrological challenge. In this work geometrical measurements on cylindrical items obtained with a 3D-SEM were investigated. Two items were measured: a wire gauge having a 0.25 mm nominal diameter and a hypodermic needle having...... that the diameter estimation performed using the 3D-SEM leads to an overestimation of approx. 7% compared to the reference values obtained using a 1-D length measuring machine. Standard deviation of SEM measurements performed on the wire gauge is approx. 1.5 times lower than the one performed on the hypodermic...

  5. RELACIONAMENTO ENTRE A MUDANÇA DA REDE DE DRENAGEM DEVIDO À CONSTRUÇÃO DE ESTRUTURAS URBANAS E O SURGIMENTO DE VOÇOROCAS NO BAIRRO DO JARDIM BOTÂNICO NO DISTRITO FEDERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Figueiredo de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A alteração da superfície do terreno em decorrência da urbanização, por meio da instalação de estruturas como arruamentos e edificações, altera significativamente a dinâmica do escoamento superficial. Uma das consequências dessa alteração é a concentração do escoamento, o que pode desencadear o aparecimento de processos erosivos, como ravinas e voçorocas. Nesses processos além dos impactos a jusante, o avanço das erosões ameaça a própria estrutura urbana. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo aplicar um método desenvolvido para identificar zonas suscetíveis à ocorrência de processos erosivos no bairro do Jardim Botânico no Distrito Federal. O método é baseado na definição de dois cenários: (a pré-urbanização e (b pós-urbanização. Para estes cenários foram gerados modelos digitais de terreno e mapas de fluxo acumulado. A partir da subtração dos mapas de fluxo acumulado foram apontadas as zonas que receberam aumento ou redução do fluxo em decorrência da urbanização. O resultado dessa análise ficou altamente correlacionado com as erosões identificadas, bem como se constatou que a declividade é fundamental na definição das zonas suscetíveis. Esse método pode ser utilizado para auxiliar no planejamento de novas áreas de expansão urbana, ou, para replanejar áreas já existentes, em regiões com características semelhantes as do Distrito Federal.

  6. Quantitative approach on SEM images of microstructure of clay soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施斌; 李生林; M.Tolkachev

    1995-01-01

    The working principles of Videolab Image Processing System (VIPS), the examining methods of orientation of microstructural units of clay soils and analysing results on SEM images of some typical microstructures of clay soils using the VIPS are introduced.

  7. Role of scanning electron microscope )SEM) in metal failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a scientific instrument that uses a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine the surface and phase distribution of specimens on a micro scale through the live imaging of secondary electrons (SE) and back-scattered electrons (BSE) images. One of the main activities of SEM Laboratory at MINT is for failure analysis on metal part and components. The capability of SEM is excellent for determining the root cause of metal failures such as ductility or brittleness, stress corrosion, fatigue and other types of failures. Most of our customers that request for failure analysis are from local petrochemical plants, manufacturers of automotive components, pipeline maintenance personnel and engineers who involved in the development of metal parts and component. This paper intends to discuss some of the technical concepts in failure analysis associated with SEM. (Author)

  8. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  9. DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN A COMPOSITE PLATE BY SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method of integration of Green's functi ons of strip element method (SEM) is proposed. The response of ultrasonic sourc e generated by a transducer on the surface of a multi-ply composite plate conta ining a delamination is analyzed by the use of SEM. The numerical results show that the scanning features of the ultrasonic waves may be used to identify the d elamination inside the composite plate .

  10. Análise perceptivo-auditiva, acústica computadorizada e laringológica da voz de adultos jovens fumantes e não-fumantes Auditory perceptual, acoustic, computerized and laryngological analysis of young smokers' and nonsmokers' voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. de Figueiredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a avaliação laringológica, análise perceptivo-auditiva e acústica computadorizada das vozes de adultos jovens fumantes e não-fumantes, sem queixa vocal, compará-las e verificar a incidência de alterações laríngeas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas as vozes de 80 indivíduos com idades compreendidas entre 20 e 40 anos. Estes foram divididos em quatro grupos: 20 homens fumantes, 20 homens não-fumantes, 20 mulheres fumantes e 20 mulheres não-fumantes. Este estudo envolveu laringoscopia, realizada e interpretada por uma médica otorrinolaringologista, e gravação em fita cassete das vogais sustentadas /a/, /m/, /i/ e /u/, contagem dos números de 1 a 20, emissão dos dias da semana, dos meses do ano e da canção "Parabéns a você". A gravação em fita cassete foi editada para posterior análise espectrográfica e avaliação perceptiva auditiva por quatro avaliadores com experiência na área de voz. RESULTADOS: Após a análise, foi constatada uma discreta diminuição da freqüência fundamental da voz dos indivíduos fumantes de ambos os sexos, bem como maior incidência de rouquidão e de alterações laríngeas entre os tabagistas.AIM: The goal of this study was to make the laryngological, auditory perceptual and acoustic computer analyses of young adults' (smokers and non-smokers voices, without vocal complaint, compare them and verify the incidence of vocal alterations. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical comparative. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The voices of 80 individuals with age range from 20 to 40 years were analyzed. These individuals were divided in four groups: 20 male smokers, 20 male non-smokers, 20 female smokers and 20 female non-smokers. This analysis involved laryngoscopy, which was performed and interpreted by an otolaryngologist, and cassette tape recordings of the sustained vowels /a/, /m/, /i/ e /u/, number counting from 1 to 20, speech of the days of the week, months of

  11. Musculação, uso de esteróides anabolizantes e percepção de risco entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Body-building, steroid use, and risk perception among young body-builders from a low-income neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart; Tarcísio Matos de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Estudos recentes em diferentes países têm apontado o aumento do consumo de esteróides anabolizantes entre jovens fisiculturistas e atletas, e os danos à saúde causados pelo seu uso indiscriminado. No Brasil, estudos sobre o uso de anabolizantes são escassos. No presente trabalho, examina-se a percepção de risco à saúde, associada ao consumo de anabolizantes, entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro pobre da cidade de Salvador. A metodologia privilegiou métodos de coleta de dados qualitativos...

  12. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre Knowledge, perceptions, behaviors and representations of oral health of teenagers of public schools of two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite Flores; Tania Maria Drehmer

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é...

  13. FIB-SEM cathodoluminescence tomography: practical and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, D A M; Lebbink, M N; Wiggers De Vries, D F; Post, J A; Drury, M R

    2011-09-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography is a powerful application in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information. The FIB creates a cross section and subsequently removes thin slices. The SEM takes images using secondary or backscattered electrons, or maps every slice using X-rays and/or electron backscatter diffraction patterns. The objective of this study is to assess the possibilities of combining FIB-SEM tomography with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The intensity of CL emission is related to variations in defect or impurity concentrations. A potential problem with FIB-SEM CL tomography is that ion milling may change the defect state of the material and the CL emission. In addition the conventional tilted sample geometry used in FIB-SEM tomography is not compatible with conventional CL detectors. Here we examine the influence of the FIB on CL emission in natural diamond and the feasibility of FIB-SEM CL tomography. A systematic investigation establishes that the ion beam influences CL emission of diamond, with a dependency on both the ion beam and electron beam acceleration voltage. CL emission in natural diamond is enhanced particularly at low ion beam and electron beam voltages. This enhancement of the CL emission can be partly explained by an increase in surface defects induced by ion milling. CL emission enhancement could be used to improve the CL image quality. To conduct FIB-SEM CL tomography, a recently developed novel specimen geometry is adopted to enable sequential ion milling and CL imaging on an untilted sample. We show that CL imaging can be manually combined with FIB-SEM tomography with a modified protocol for 3D microstructure reconstruction. In principle, automated FIB-SEM CL tomography should be feasible, provided that dedicated CL detectors are developed that allow subsequent milling and CL imaging without manual intervention, as the current CL detector needs to be manually retracted before a slice can be milled

  14. O jornal A Voz da Escola: escritas dos alunos do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940 - The journal A Voz da Escola: written by children of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Camara Bastos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as escritas de alunos do ensino primário do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS, publicadas no jornal A Voz da Escola (1934-1940, como prática de formação pessoal, cívica e religiosa, de aprendizagem da moral ou da civilidade. Busca-se analisar os discursos veiculados, os processos de subjetivação e suas influências nos modos como as crianças, na faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos, pensavam, agiam e se expressavam nos espaços de construção de suas identidades. Insere-se nas práticas de escritas escolares e infantis, especialmente na interface da História da Educação e da história da cultura escrita, que analisa a produção, difusão, conservação e o uso dos objetos escritos, em suas várias modalidades. Os exemplares do periódico são tomados como lócus privilegiado para adentrarmos no cotidiano de uma escola primária, da década de 1930, isto é, o universo escolar e toda uma rede paralela de significações.Palavras-chaves: escrita infantil, jornal escolar, periódico estudantil, cultura escolar. THE JOURNAL A VOZ DA ESCOLA: WRITTEN BY CHILDREN OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SOUZA LOBO (PORTO ALEGRE/RS - 1934/1940 Abstract The article discusses the writings of primary school pupils of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS, published in the newspaper A Voz da Escola (1934-1940, as a practice of civic, religious and personal formation, learning of moral or civic education. It aims to analyze conveyed discourses, subjective processes and their influence in way children, aged 10-12, thought, acted and expressed themselves in spaces of construction of their identities. It is inset in the practice of school and children’s writings, especially in the interface of the history of education and the history of written culture, which analyze the production, distribution, conservation and the usage of written objects in their several forms. Copies of the journal are taken as a privileged place in order

  15. A bulimia nervosa como fator de risco para distúrbios da voz: artigo de revisão Bulimia nervosa as a risk factor for voice disorders: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Balata; Viviane Colares; Katia Petribu; Mariana de Carvalho Leal

    2008-01-01

    A bulimia nervosa é um tipo de transtorno alimentar que tem início na adolescência e que apresenta uma variedade de sintomas, dentre estes, os episódios recorrentes de vômitos que acometem a cavidade oral, podendo alcançar a laringe de forma semelhante ao refluxo gastroesofágico, ocasionando alterações laríngeas e distúrbios na voz. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar através da revista da literatura os estudos que relacionassem a BN como fator de risco para os distúrbios da...

  16. Intervención en trastornos infantiles del lenguaje, habla y voz a través de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Ledesma, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Los programas multimedia son esenciales para la intervención logopédica en los trastornos infantiles del habla y forman parte ya de la práctica cotidiana. Objetivos: 1. Conseguir el máximo de desarrollo de las capacidades y habilidades de las personas en los trastornos infantiles del habla. 2. Facilitar materiales que posibiliten el acceso a la comunicación mediante la ejercitación constante en los trastornos del habla y de la voz y consecución de los procesos de habilitación a...

  17. A bulimia nervosa como fator de risco para distúrbios da voz: artigo de revisão Bulimia nervosa as a risk factor for voice disorders: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Balata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A bulimia nervosa é um tipo de transtorno alimentar que tem início na adolescência e que apresenta uma variedade de sintomas, dentre estes, os episódios recorrentes de vômitos que acometem a cavidade oral, podendo alcançar a laringe de forma semelhante ao refluxo gastroesofágico, ocasionando alterações laríngeas e distúrbios na voz. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar através da revista da literatura os estudos que relacionassem a BN como fator de risco para os distúrbios da voz. RESULTADOS: Dos noventa e três artigos levantados, vinte e três foram usados como base para esta revisão, dentre os quais, apenas três referem-se à BN com fator etiológico de alterações na voz em mulheres adultas, não sendo encontrado nenhum trabalho referindo esta relação em adolescentes bulímicos. CONCLUSÃO: Faz-se necessária a observância de sinais e sintomas laríngeos e vocais que possam estar relacionados à BN, em especial nos adolescentes cuja voz passa por significativas mudanças quando do período da muda vocal.Bulimia nervosa (BN is a type of feeding disorder that starts in adolescence and presents a variety of symptoms, recurrent vomiting in the oral cavity that may reach down to the larynx - similarly to gastro-esophageal reflux, causing laryngeal and voice disorder alterations. AIM: These studies aimed at surveying the literature and investigate the studies that considered BN a risk factor for voice disorders. RESULTS: of the ninety three papers we found, twenty-three were used as a basis for this review, among them, only three discuss BN as an etiology factor associated with voice changes in adult women, and we did not find any paper associating this with bulimic teenagers. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to observe laryngeal and vocal signs and symptoms associated with BN, especially in teenagers whose voices are going through a period of change.

  18. Perfil dos profissionais da voz com queixas vocais atendidos em um centro terciário de saúde Profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary health center

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Sartor Guimarães Fortes; Rui Imamura; Domingos Hiroshi Tsuji; Luiz Ubirajara Sennes

    2007-01-01

    As laringopatias relacionadas ao trabalho acarretam conseqüências para os profissionais da voz. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil destes profissionais atendidos em um hospital terciário. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte histórica longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de prontuários. Os diagnósticos foram fornecidos através de videoestrobolaringoscopia. RESULTADOS: Foram atendidos 163 pacientes (119 do sexo feminino, 44 do sexo masculino), idade média de 36,5 anos. Em relação aos ...

  19. La voz y el silencio del alumnado. La escuela desde la mirada de nuestros niños y niñas de Educación Infantil.

    OpenAIRE

    González Souto, Esther Ana

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo se articula a través de distintos apartados. El primero hace referencia a la fundamentación teórica, en la que se hace un recorrido por los tópicos claves que sustentan este trabajo: Educación Inclusiva, Diseño Universal de Aprendizaje, la voz del alumnado y Aprendizaje y Servicio. El segundo concreta en sí la propuesta didáctica, un proyecto de acción orientado a la escuela infantil, que se inicia a través de la contextualización de la misma, lo que permite comprender lo idiosin...

  20. Influencia de los factores intrínsecos en la producción de la voz de docentes de educación básica primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Rincón Cediel

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO:el objetivo de este estudio es determinar los factores intrínsecos que influyen en la producción de la voz de los docentes de básica primaria.MÉTODOS:se llevó a cabouna investigación de enfoque cuantitativo, tipo correlacional con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. Se aplicó un instrumento constituido por un cuestionario de autoregistro y otro diligenciado por el evaluador a 90 docentes pertenecientes a la red de escuelas públicas. El análisis estadístico se realizó medi...

  1. O impacto da voz na qualidade da vida da mulher idosa Vocal impact on quality of life of elderly female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Olival Costa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora várias investigações venham enfocando a fisiologia e anatomia da voz e laringe do idoso, pouco tem sido produzido com a preocupação de saber o impacto das condições vocais na qualidade de vida desta porção da população. OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto da voz na qualidade da vida da mulher idosa, usando os questionários Short-form Health Survey - SF36 e Voice Index Handicap (VHI. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com corte transversal. MÉTODO E MATERIAL: Cinqüenta mulheres idosas participaram desta pesquisa, com idades entre 60 e 87 anos e idade média de 70.8 anos, recrutadas aleatoriamente. As participantes do estudo foram submetidas aos dois questionários: O SF36 e O VHI. Foram comparadas as respostas de ambos os questionários pelo teste de Kruskall-Wallis, verificando se havia diferença significante entre as variáveis. O teste de Spearman foi usado para avaliar se havia correlação entre os resultados das variáveis de VHI com os resultados obtidos no parâmetro de SF36 de qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Nós obtivemos valores considerados estatisticamente significantes nas correlações entre domínio físico de VHI e funcionamento físico, dor física e papel físico na vida do SF-36. CONCLUSÃO: Houve uma correlação estatisticamente significante e positiva entre os resultados obtidos nos parâmetros funcionamento físico, vitalidade, saúde geral, saúde mental, dor corporal e papel físico na vida do SF36. Houve uma correlação estatisticamente significante e negativa entre os resultados totais obtidos no SF36 e o VHI.Although there are several investigations focusing the physiology and anatomy of voice and the senior's larynx, little has been produced to support the knowledge of the impact of vocal conditions on quality of life of this portion of the population. AIM: To verify the impact of voice on quality of the life of elderly women, using the questionnaires Short-Form Health Survey - SF36 and

  2. Efeito do ruído na voz de educadoras de instituições de educação infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Simões-Zenari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de ruído presentes em centros de educação infantil e alterações vocais em educadoras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 28 educadoras de três instituições de educação infantil de São Paulo, SP, em 2009. Os níveis de pressão sonora foram mensurados segundo a Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, com uso de medidor de nível de pressão sonora. As médias foram classificadas de acordo com os níveis de conforto, desconforto e dano auditivo propostos pela Organização Panamericana de Saúde. As educadoras tiveram a voz avaliada com: autoavaliação com escala analógica visual, avaliação perceptivo-auditiva com escala GRBAS e análise acústica com o programa Praat. Estatística descritiva e teste do qui-quadrado, com 10% de significância devido ao tamanho da amostra, foram usados para análise da associação entre ruído e avaliação vocal. RESULTADOS: As educadoras possuíam idades entre 21 e 56 anos. A média de ruído foi 72,7 dB, considerado dano 2. A autoavaliação vocal das profissionais apresentou média de 5,1 na escala, considerada alteração moderada. Na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, 74% apresentaram alteração vocal, principalmente rouquidão; destas, 52% foram consideradas alterações leves. A maior parte apresentou frequência fundamental abaixo do esperado na avaliação acústica. Médias de jitter, shimmer e proporção harmônico-ruído estavam alteradas. Presença de ruído entre os harmônicos associou-se a alteração vocal. CONCLUSÕES: Há associação entre presença de ruído entre harmônicos e alteração vocal, com elevados níveis de ruído. Apesar de a maioria das educadoras ter apresentado voz alterada em grau leve, a autoavaliação mostrou alteração moderada, provavelmente pela dificuldade de projeção.

  3. La educación física en la voz de los estudiantes de secundaria. Un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Fernando Gaviria Cortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tener en cuenta la voz del estudiante es relevante y útil en el proceso educativo, ya que integra la teo- ría y la práctica, da al estudiantado la oportunidad de participar en su propio aprendizaje y crea condiciones y posibilidades para que los estudiantes desarrollen o afiancen su propio sentido de ser. De allí que el objetivo principal del presente estudio fue identificar y analizar las creencias y percepciones de los estudiantes de secun- daria sobre la asignatura de educación física. La inves- tigación es cualitativa y su diseño es un estudio de caso en una institución educativa de Medellín-Colombia; se valoró su gusto por la asignatura, lo que aprenden en la clase y la importancia que le asignan. También fue incluido el proceso didáctico, la interacción y comporta- miento del profesorado. Las estrategias de recolección de información que se utilizaron fueron el cuestionario, la observación y el grupo focal. Los resultados muestran que el estudiantado construye una visión clásica sobre la clase de educación física: diversión, práctica, cambio de rutina respecto a otras asignaturas; e incluye aspectos relacionados con la salud y el aprendizaje de los depor- tes. Como conclusión, se encontró que uno de los mayo- res problemas a los que se enfrenta la educación física es la percepción del estudiantado, quienes reducen su participación en las clases a los componentes motrices, desconociendo la posibilidad de una educación física más humana, más integral.

  4. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  5. 3DSEM++: Adaptive and intelligent 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Holz, Jessica D; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Owen, Heather A; He, Max M; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis of microscopic objects is a longstanding topic in several scientific disciplines, such as biological, mechanical, and materials sciences. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as a promising imaging equipment has been around for decades to determine the surface properties (e.g., compositions or geometries) of specimens by achieving increased magnification, contrast, and resolution greater than one nanometer. Whereas SEM micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D), many research and educational questions truly require knowledge and facts about their three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D surface reconstruction from SEM images leads to remarkable understanding of microscopic surfaces, allowing informative and qualitative visualization of the samples being investigated. In this contribution, we integrate several computational technologies including machine learning, contrario methodology, and epipolar geometry to design and develop a novel and efficient method called 3DSEM++ for multi-view 3D SEM surface reconstruction in an adaptive and intelligent fashion. The experiments which have been performed on real and synthetic data assert the approach is able to reach a significant precision to both SEM extrinsic calibration and its 3D surface modeling.

  6. Recent advances in 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Alavi, Zahrasadat; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-11-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as one of the most commonly used instruments in biology and material sciences, employs electrons instead of light to determine the surface properties of specimens. However, the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface attributes, we need to restore the 3D shape model from the SEM images. 3D surface reconstruction is a longstanding topic in microscopy vision as it offers quantitative and visual information for a variety of applications consisting medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and mechanics. In this paper, we attempt to explain the expanding body of the work in this area, including a discussion of recent techniques and algorithms. With the present work, we also enhance the reliability, accuracy, and speed of 3D SEM surface reconstruction by designing and developing an optimized multi-view framework. We then consider several real-world experiments as well as synthetic data to examine the qualitative and quantitative attributes of our proposed framework. Furthermore, we present a taxonomy of 3D SEM surface reconstruction approaches and address several challenging issues as part of our future work.

  7. 3DSEM++: Adaptive and intelligent 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Holz, Jessica D; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Owen, Heather A; He, Max M; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis of microscopic objects is a longstanding topic in several scientific disciplines, such as biological, mechanical, and materials sciences. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as a promising imaging equipment has been around for decades to determine the surface properties (e.g., compositions or geometries) of specimens by achieving increased magnification, contrast, and resolution greater than one nanometer. Whereas SEM micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D), many research and educational questions truly require knowledge and facts about their three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D surface reconstruction from SEM images leads to remarkable understanding of microscopic surfaces, allowing informative and qualitative visualization of the samples being investigated. In this contribution, we integrate several computational technologies including machine learning, contrario methodology, and epipolar geometry to design and develop a novel and efficient method called 3DSEM++ for multi-view 3D SEM surface reconstruction in an adaptive and intelligent fashion. The experiments which have been performed on real and synthetic data assert the approach is able to reach a significant precision to both SEM extrinsic calibration and its 3D surface modeling. PMID:27200484

  8. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.;

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...... in transcription; and the TREX-2 complex, involved in nuclear export of mRNA and transcription elongation. As a subunit of the proteasome, DSS1 functions both in complex assembly and possibly as a ubiquitin receptor. Here, we summarise structural and functional aspects of DSS1/Sem1 with particular emphasis on its...... multifunctional and disordered properties. We suggest that DSS1/Sem1 can act as a polyanionic adhesive to prevent nonproductive interactions during construction of protein assemblies, uniquely employing different structures when associating with the diverse multisubunit complexes....

  9. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, F.; Bariano, P.; Savio, E.;

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measure......This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables...... factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations....

  10. Viver com ou sem abrigo: etnografia de lugares vagos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Susana Pereira da,1962-

    2011-01-01

    A presente investigação tem como objectivo analisar os processos de socialização e de aprendizagem de pessoas adultas a viver em situação de sem-abrigo, em Lisboa. O conceito adoptado tem por base a Tipologia Europeia sobre Sem-abrigo e Exclusão Habitacional – ETHOS – que estabelece que sem-abrigo é uma categoria conceptual que engloba duas situações: pessoas que vivem na rua ou em espaços exteriores; e pessoas que pernoitam num centro de alojamento temporário. Recorre-se à noção de lugar vag...

  11. Enriquecimento do EPG usando semântica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, David Miguel Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Web Semântica e um conceito que permite chegar ao conhecimento ao invés da informação através da rede. Através da Web Semântica _e possível de uma forma mais intuitiva agrupar conteúdos. No cenário televisivo, e possível agrupar todos os conteúdos, criando métodos (ou formas) de recomendação para o telespectador. Embora algumas ferramentas semânticas ainda não se encontrem suficientemente maduras, dificultando a confiança nestes serviços, este trabalho tentou utilizar os ...

  12. A identificação da situação da violência urbana de um bairro de Criciúma a partir do Programa de Educação para o Trabalho (PET Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mágada Tessmann Schwalm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A saúde não é meramente a ausência de doenças. Múltiplos fatores interferem no bem estar das pessoas. O Programa de Educação para o trabalho (PET Saúde realizou o diagnóstico de vida e saúde da comunidade Vila Belmiro em Criciúma/SC, tendo como foco a violência urbana. O PET tem como objetivo o ensino associado à práxis, ou seja, a construção do conhecimento de forma interligada entre as profissões, que permitam o diálogo entre os diversos saberes, associado à prática. Este estudo é qualiquantitativo, exploratório desenvolvido na Delegacia da Mulher e de policia que atende os bairros Vila Belmiro, Jardim União e Bairro progresso de Criciúma-SC. A coleta de dados ocorreu a partir do registro das ocorrências registradas no ano de 2009. Os dados foram discutidos a partir de análise simples.

  13. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic

  14. Desarrollo de una web semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Heras Pastor, Fabio de

    2008-01-01

    Amb aquest projecte es vol solucionar aquesta manca d'accés a la informació i sobretot disposar d'un sistema que relacioni "tot amb tot", és a dir, muntar un sistema únic per documentar xarxa (física) independentment de l'element que es vulgui documentar. La idea és basar el projecte de documentació en una web semàntica basada en wiki semàntica amb un motor de cerca MediaWiki. Con este proyecto se quiere solventar esa carencia de acceso a la información y sobretodo disponer de un siste...

  15. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  16. Evaluación de la monotonía en la percepción del mensaje en la lectura en voz alta en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Soler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La lectura en voz alta comunicativa implica el empleo de opciones prosódicas que permiten al lector organizar el texto oral para facilitar su interpretación. En la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argenti­na, la lectura en voz alta forma parte central de la asignatura "Fonética y Fonología II" de las carreras de grado en inglés. Puesto que, a pesar de ese entrenamiento, un número importante de estudiantes realizan lecturas ineficientes, se decidió estudiar si, fuera del contexto de la asignatura, los estudiantes empleaban adecuadamente los rasgos pro­ sódicos básicos de prominencia, tono, altura tonal y pausa. En este artículo de investigación describimos la organización fonológica de una lectura evaluada como ineficiente y monótona por jueces externos. Además, indagamos sobre el nivel de comprensibilidad de esa lectura. Los resultados indican que los rasgos prosódicos básicos no fueron utilizados eficientemente y que el nivel de comprensibilidad estuvo por debajo de lo esperado.

  17. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  18. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and t

  19. A New Methodology to Analyze Instabilities in SEM Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansilla, Catalina; Ocelik, Vaclav; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical method to analyze instabilities that can be introduced during imaging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method is based on the correlation of digital images and it can be used at different length scales. It consists of the evaluation of three different appr

  20. DynSem: A DSL for Dynamic Semantics Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergu, V.; Neron, P.; Visser, E.

    2015-01-01

    The formal definition the semantics of a programming language and its implementation are typically separately defined, with the risk of divergence such that properties of the formal semantics are not properties of the implementation. In this paper, we present DynSem, a domain-specific language for t

  1. A successful pregnancy following SEM fine tuning of hormonal priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susan M; Murphy, Christopher R

    2001-01-01

    Background Manipulation of the uterine epithelium utilising standard dose exogenous oestrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) has been shown to achieve a mature secretory morphological response. However, in an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) setting, frozen embryo transfer (ET) has had a low success rate. We propose that in patients with previously failed ET attempts, the uterine epithelium can be directly visualised by biopsy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and that with an individualised fine tuning of the hormone supplementation regime, based on the SEM examination of sequential uterine biopsies, it is possible to provide a uterine environment conducive to successful ET. Methods A 47 year old women was chosen for endometrial biopsy, histopathological dating and endometrial observation utilising SEM to determine the integrity of her secretory uterine epithelium because of her age and several previously failed attempts at frozen ET. Exogenous E2 and P4 supplementation was administered in modified doses according to the SEM result, in consecutive cycles until the epithelial response appeared satisfactory for potential implantation. Results This case study demonstrates the dramatic change in epithelial characteristics that can be achieved as a response to these altered doses of E2 and P4. The uterine morphology changed from a hypotrophic to a mature, receptive epithelium such that ET resulted in the birth of healthy twin boys. Conclusion The comparison between the consecutive biopsies in direct response to the SEM analysis and tailored modification of E2 and P4 dose clearly demonstrates, in this case, the effectiveness of individual morphological monitoring to maximise the successful outcome of ET. PMID:11667953

  2. Expanding the Conversation about SEM: Advancing SEM Efforts to Improve Student Learning and Persistence--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    It's now nearly ten years since the author started participating in and presenting at national conferences related to strategic enrollment management (SEM). Having entered this profession with nearly 20 years of experience in transitional initiatives related to the first-year experience and academic advisement services, she has perceived an…

  3. Expanding the Conversation about SEM: Advancing SEM Efforts to Improve Student Learning and Persistence--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The first article in this two-part series focused on the need for enrollment management conceptual and organizational models to focus more intentionally and purposefully on efforts related to improving student learning, success, and persistence. Time and again, SEM is viewed from a conventional lens comprising marketing, recruitment and …

  4. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2011-01-01

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing. PMID:22709611

  5. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2012-01-10

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing.

  6. De la voz a la letra: Problemas lingüísticos en la transcripción de los relatos orales. I: La puntuación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapero, Maximiano

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The editor of oral narratives must face certains problems when turning what was originally oral discourse into a wrítten text. The original narrative changes its nature and function as a result of this transformation: the individual word, the performing act, language with a specific social function —playful expressiveness, as well as living and creative preservation of myths, archetypes and tradition— becomes writing, that is, language with no voice, intended for individual reading, and endowed with a different, although no less important, function as a learned and enduring witness to those myths, archetypes and tradition. If writing is a system which attempts to represent language, does the punctuation in the transcription of the oral really represent the narrator's prose, or, on the contrary, is this punctuation exclusively the editor's contribution, narrative thus creating a new written version? In this article, the author examines the punctuation guidelines adopted by different editors of traditional Hispanic ballads —romances in Spanish— in their search for the most faithful rendering of the oral narrative.El editor de relatos orales encuentra ciertos problemas al tener que convertir en texto escrito lo que en origen era discurso oral. El texto sometido a tal mutación cambia de naturaleza y de función; porque lo que era palabra individual, acto en presencia, lenguaje con una función social determinada (expresividad lúdica, memoria de mitos y arquetipos, testigo vivo y creativo de la tradición, todo ello se convierte en escritura: lenguaje sin voz, destinado a la lectura individual y dotado de una función, no menos importante, de testigo erudito y perdurable en el tiempo de la tradición. Si la escritura es un sistema que intenta representar la lengua, ¿la puntuación del texto transcrito representa realmente la prosodia del relator?, ¿es aportación exclusiva del editor, que debe ofrecer una nueva versión escrita

  7. Parâmetros espectrais da voz em crianças respiradoras orais Spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Viegas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar parâmetros espectrais (f0 e formantes descritivos da voz de crianças respiradoras orais, visando contribuir na caracterização desta população e, consequentemente, na efetividade do diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 crianças respiradoras orais e 101 crianças com respiração nasal de ambos os gêneros entre cinco e dez anos. Os sinais de fala foram obtidos a partir das gravações de sentenças-veículo e os segmentos das vogais orais [a], [i] e [u] do português falado no Brasil em posição tônica foram selecionados para a estimação da frequência fundamental (f0 e da frequência dos três primeiros formantes (F1, F2 e F3. O software Praat foi utilizado para gravar, recortar e processar os sinais. RESULTADOS: a frequência fundamental das vogais [i] e [u] apresentou-se menor nos respiradores orais, enquanto que a frequência de F1 da vogal [u] foi mais elevada no mesmo grupo. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos resultados expostos, concluiu-se que a frequência fundamental consiste em um parâmetro vocal que auxilia na diferenciação de crianças respiradores orais e respiradoras nasais, contribuindo, desta forma para uma caracterização mais efetiva do respirador oral.PURPOSE: to investigate spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children so as to contribute to the characterization of this population, thus to an efficient diagnosis. METHODS: fifty mouth-breathing children and one hundred and one nasal breathing children were selected among five and ten year old children of both genders. Recordings were obtained from carrier phrases and segments of the oral vowels [a], [i] and [u] of Brazilian Portuguese in the stressed syllable were selected to estimate the fundamental frequency (f0 and the frequency of the first three formants (F1, F2 e F3. The signals were recorded, cut out and processed using Praat software. RESULTS: the fundamental frequency for the vowels [i] and [u] showed lower frequency in

  8. Three dimensional rock microstructures: insights from FIB-SEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Martyn; Pennock, Gill; de Winter, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    Most studies of rock microstructures investigate two-dimensional sections or thin slices of three dimensional grain structures. With advances of X-ray and electron tomography methods the 3-D microstructure can be(relatively) routinely investigated on scales from a few microns to cm. 3D studies are needed to investigate the connectivity of microstructures and to test the assumptions we use to calculate 3D properties from 2D sections. We have used FIB-SEM tomography to study the topology of melts in synthetic olivine rocks, 3D crystal growth microstructures, pore networks and subgrain structures. The technique uses a focused ion beam to make serial sections with a spacing of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Each section is then imaged or mapped using the electron beam. The 3D geometry of grains and subgrains can be investigated using orientation contrast or EBSD mapping. FIB-SEM tomography of rocks and minerals can be limited by charging of the uncoated surfaces exposed by the ion beam. The newest generation of FIB-SEMs have much improved low voltage imaging capability allowing high resolution charge free imaging. Low kV FIB-SEM tomography is now widely used to study the connectivity of pore networks. In-situ fluids can also be studied using cryo-FIB-SEM on frozen samples, although special freezing techniques are needed to avoid artifacts produced by ice crystallization. FIB-SEM tomography is complementary, in terms of spatial resolution and sampled volume, to TEM tomography and X-ray tomography, and the combination of these methods can cover a wide range of scales. Our studies on melt topology in synthetic olivine rocks with a high melt content show that many grain boundaries are wetted by nanometre scale melt layers that are too thin to resolve by X-ray tomography. A variety of melt layer geometries occur consistent with several mechanisms of melt layer formation. The nature of melt geometries along triple line junctions and quadruple points can be resolved

  9. Rapid Evaluation of Particle Properties using Inverse SEM Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report is the final deliverable of a 3 year project whose purpose was to investigate the possibility of using simulations of X-ray spectra generated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a means to perform quantitative analysis of the sample imaged in the SEM via an inverse analysis methodology. Using the nine point Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) typically used by the US Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this concept is now at a TRL of 3. In other words, this work has proven the feasibility of this concept and is ready to be further investigated to address some of the issues highlighted by this initial proof of concept.

  10. Payload isolation and stabilization by a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Wayne L.; Desanctis, Carmine E.; Nicaise, Placide D.; Schultz, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Many Space Shuttle and Space Station payloads can benefit from isolation from crew or attitude control system disturbances. Preliminary studies have been performed for a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM) system that will provide isolation from accelerations and stabilize the viewing direction of a payload. The concept consists of a flexible suspension system and payload-mounted control moment gyros. The suspension system, which is rigidly locked for ascent and descent, isolates the payload from high frequency disturbances. The control moment gyros stabilize the payload orientation. The SEM will be useful for payloads that require a lower-g environment than a manned vehicle can provide, such as materials processing, and for payloads that require stabilization of pointing direction, but not large angle slewing, such as nadir-viewing earth observation or solar viewing payloads.

  11. Potassium determinations using SEM, FAAS and XRF: some experimental notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, I.; et al.

    The calibration of Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X- Rays Spec-trometry (SEM-EDS) for elemental quantitative analysis is an important task for characterization, provenance and absolute dating purposes. In particular the potassium determination is an im-portant contributor to dose rate assessments in luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating. Here a SEM-EDX is calibrated on different archaeological and geoarchaeological materials against standard laboratory samples as well as measured by micro X-Rays Fluorescence (μXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. A common linear relationship is obtained for most elements and certain rock types used and two clear linear regressions for two types of rocks; one for granite, diorite, microgranite and sediments and another ceramic sherds, soils, marble schists, breccia. Such linear regressions become readily available for a future fast, efficient and accu-rate way of potassium determination.

  12. Nanomechanical characterization of human hair using nanoindentation and SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu; Torgerson, Peter M. [Procter and Gamble Company, Sharon Woods Technical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45241 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures. Nanomechanical characterization of human hair can help to evaluate the effect of cosmetic products on hair surface, can provide a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of a wide variety of composite biological systems, and can provide the dermatologists with some useful markers for the diagnosis of hair disorders. The paper presents systematic studies of nanomechanical properties of human hair including hardness, elastic modulus and creep, using the nanoindentation technique. The samples include Caucasian, Asian and African hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged and treated conditions. Hair morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Indentation experiments were performed on both the surface and cross-section of the hair, and the indents were studied using SEM. The nanomechanical properties of hair as a function of hair composition, microstructure, ethnicity, damage and treatment are discussed.

  13. Acoustic voice assessment in Parkinson's disease patients submitted to posteroventral pallidotomy Parametros acústicos da voz em pacientes com doença de Parkinson submetidos a palidotomia posteroventral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Figueiredo Mourão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term complications in levodopa treated Parkinson's disease (PD patients caused a resurgence of interest in pallidotomy as an option of treatment. However, postoperative complications such as speech disorders can occur. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the acoustic voice in PD patients, before and after posteroventral pallidotomy. METHOD: Twelve patients with PD were submitted to neurological and voice assessments during the off and on phases, in the pre-operative, 1st and 3rd post-operative months. The patients were evaluated with the UPDRS and the vocal acoustic parameters - f0, NHR, jitter, PPQ, Shimmer, APQ (using the software MultiSpeech - Kay Elemetrics - 3700. RESULTS: The off phase UPDRS scores revealed a tendency to improvement at the 1st month and the off phase worsened. The shimmer and APQ improved. CONCLUSION: This study shows that pallidotomy has little improvement on functional use of communication of PD patients.O uso prolongado da levodopa na doença de Parkinson (DP pode ocasionar alterações em seu rendimento e possibilitou o interesse no ressurgimento da palidotomia. Contudo, complicações pós-operatórias podem ocorrer. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar alguns parâmetros acústicos da voz de pacientes com DP pré e pós a realização da palidotomia posteroventral METODO: foram avaliados 12 pacientes com PD submetidos a avaliação neurológica e da voz durante as fases off e on do uso da levodopa, nos momentos pré-operatório, no primeiro e no terceiro mês pós-operatório. Os pacientes foram avaliados com base na escala UPDRS - item motor - e por meio dos parâmetros acústicos da voz - f0, NHR, jitter, PPQ, Shimmer, APQ (usando o software MDVP - Kay Elemetrics - 3700. RESULTADOS: Na fase off o escore UPDRS revelou tendência de melhora no 1º pós-operatório e na fase on piora. Os parâmetros acústicos shimmer e APQ apresentaram melhora. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou que a

  14. Perfil dos profissionais da voz com queixas vocais atendidos em um centro terciário de saúde Profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary health center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sartor Guimarães Fortes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As laringopatias relacionadas ao trabalho acarretam conseqüências para os profissionais da voz. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil destes profissionais atendidos em um hospital terciário. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte histórica longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de prontuários. Os diagnósticos foram fornecidos através de videoestrobolaringoscopia. RESULTADOS: Foram atendidos 163 pacientes (119 do sexo feminino, 44 do sexo masculino, idade média de 36,5 anos. Em relação aos grupos profissionais, encontramos profissionais da voz falada (vendedores, professores, telemarketing, recepcionistas, atores e profissionais de saúde e da voz cantada. Os diagnósticos foram: alteração estrutural mínima (33%, nódulos (22%, edema de Reinke (10% e pólipos (6%. Foi observada correlação com tabagismo (p=0,002, sexo (p=0,004 e idade (pWork-related laryngopathy may have negative consequences for voice professionals. AIM: To analyze the profile of voice professionals seen in a tertiary level hospital. STUDY DESIGN: a longitudinal historical cohort. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patient files. Diagnosis was reached using videostroboscopy. RESULTS: 163 patients (119 females and 44 males were seen. The mean age was 36.5 years. Professionals included spoken voice users (salesman, teachers, telemarketers, receptionists, health professionals and singers. The most frequent diagnoses were: minor structural changes (33%, nodules (22%, Reinke’s edema (10%, and polyps (6%. A correlation was observed between smoking, age and gender; there was an association between smoking and Reinke’s edema, leucoplasia and tabagism, females and Reinke’s edema, nodules and minor structural changes, and also between patients aged over 40 years and Reinke’s edema, and patients under 40 with nodules, laryngitis, and minor structural changes. Symptoms lasted more than 6 months in 74% of patients. CONCLUSION: The profile of voice professionals

  15. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Enteroparasitas e comensais em crianças de quatro bairros da periferia de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7 were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%, southern (47.5%, eastern (57.5% and western (55%. The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%, 5-10 years (21.2% and 10-15 years (10%. Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001. The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%, Entamoeba coli (20.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%, Hymenolepis nana (7.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (5%, hookworms (3.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, Endolimax nana (2.5%, Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3% and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%. The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de quatro bairros periféricos, localizados nos setores norte, sul, leste e oeste em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, utilizando os métodos de Baermann modificado por Moraes, e de Lutz. Dos 160 indivíduos estudados, 93 (58,1%, IC: 50,4-65,7 estavam infectados, assim distribuídos: setor norte (72,5%, sul (47,5%, leste (57,5% e oeste (55%. A positividade por faixa etária foi: 0 - 5 anos (26,9%, 5 - 10 (21,2% e 10 - 15 anos (10%. As crianças do sexo masculino mostraram 2,7 maior risco de infecção (OR: 2,7, IC: 1052-7001. Os agentes identificados foram: Giardia lamblia (27,5%, Entamoeba coli (20,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14,4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8,8%, Hymenolepis nana

  16. XML y web semántica : Bases de datos en el contexto de la web semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Cinca, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo define qué es una base de datos semántica, qué ventajas ofrece, cómo se utiliza y en qué tipo de proyectos o sistemas tiene sentido usarla. Además, en él se estudia en detalle una de ellas, OWLIM 1, de la empresa Ontotext, para evaluar la dificultad de usarla, su rendimiento y sus capacidades específicas. Aquest treball defineix què és una base de dades semàntica, quins avantatges ofereix, com s'utilitza i en quin tipus de projectes o sistemes té sentit usar-la. A més, en ell ...

  17. SEM-EDS技术与口红的检测%SEM-EDS Technique and Examination of Lipsticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟娟

    2001-01-01

    采用SEM-EDS技术对不同品牌的口红进行检验,需选择出较为合适的实验条件.通过对30种不同种类、厂家、牌号口红的实验研究表明,采用该法可以达到较好的鉴别效果,较好地满足实际办案的需要.

  18. Efeito do ruído na voz de educadoras de instituições de educação infantil Efecto del ruido en la voz de las educadoras de instituciones de educación infantil The effect of noise on the voice of preschool institution educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Simões-Zenari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de ruído presentes em centros de educação infantil e alterações vocais em educadoras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 28 educadoras de três instituições de educação infantil de São Paulo, SP, em 2009. Os níveis de pressão sonora foram mensurados segundo a Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, com uso de medidor de nível de pressão sonora. As médias foram classificadas de acordo com os níveis de conforto, desconforto e dano auditivo propostos pela Organização Panamericana de Saúde. As educadoras tiveram a voz avaliada com: autoavaliação com escala analógica visual, avaliação perceptivo-auditiva com escala GRBAS e análise acústica com o programa Praat. Estatística descritiva e teste do qui-quadrado, com 10% de significância devido ao tamanho da amostra, foram usados para análise da associação entre ruído e avaliação vocal. RESULTADOS: As educadoras possuíam idades entre 21 e 56 anos. A média de ruído foi 72,7 dB, considerado dano 2. A autoavaliação vocal das profissionais apresentou média de 5,1 na escala, considerada alteração moderada. Na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, 74% apresentaram alteração vocal, principalmente rouquidão; destas, 52% foram consideradas alterações leves. A maior parte apresentou frequência fundamental abaixo do esperado na avaliação acústica. Médias de jitter, shimmer e proporção harmônico-ruído estavam alteradas. Presença de ruído entre os harmônicos associou-se a alteração vocal. CONCLUSÕES: Há associação entre presença de ruído entre harmônicos e alteração vocal, com elevados níveis de ruído. Apesar de a maioria das educadoras ter apresentado voz alterada em grau leve, a autoavaliação mostrou alteração moderada, provavelmente pela dificuldade de projeção.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre niveles de ruido presentes en centros de educación infantil y alteraciones vocales en

  19. Tratamento dos distúrbios da voz na doença de Parkinson: o método Lee Silverman Treatment of vocal symptoms in Parkinson's disease: the Lee Silverman method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Estevo Dias

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Alterações discretas na qualidade da voz e da articulação podem ser observadas em fases relativamente iniciais da doença de Parkinson (DP. As alterações da voz e da fala na DP constituem, em conjunto, o que se denomina disartria hipocinética ou disartrofonia e caracterizam-se por monotonia e redução da intensidade da voz, articulação imprecisa e distúrbios do ritmo. Recentemente, foram relatados resultados favoráveis através de método de tratamento intensivo e dirigido especificamente para o tratamento da voz na DP, denominado Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®. O objetivo essencial desse método é aumentar a intensidade vocal através do incremento do esforço fonatório. O presente estudo teve por objetivo a caracterização das anormalidades vocais (qualidade vocal, padrão articulatório e inteligibilidade em um grupo de pacientes com DP e a avaliação da resposta terapêutica obtida pela administração do método Lee Silverman. A comparação dos dados de análise acústica, bem como da análise perceptivo-auditiva nos períodos pré e pós-tratamento mostraram modificações estatisticamente significantes após o tratamento. Embora o padrão articulatório tenha se mantido impreciso, os benefícios obtidos pelo tratamento na melhora da qualidade vocal e, sobretudo, na intensidade vocal favoreceram a qualidade da comunicação oral, reduziram os sintomas negativos e adequaram a qualidade vocal às necessidades pessoais e sociais dos indivíduos.Mild changes in voice quality and articulation of speech may be seen in early phases of Parkinson´s disease (PD. Voice and speech disturbances in PD constitute a hypocinetic dysarthria or dysarthrophonia and are characterized by monotony and reduced intensity of voice, imprecise articulation and disturbances of rhythm. Favorable results with an intensive method (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment for the treatment of voice disturbances in PD were recently reported. The main goal of

  20. Análise de voz e comunicação oral de professores de curso pré-vestibular Voice and oral communication analysis of preparatory school teachers

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    Andressa Consentino Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma auto-avaliação com professores de curso pré-vestibular enfocando aspectos de voz, bem como analisar as características de voz, fala e recursos corporais utilizados em sala de aula. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 40 professores do sexo masculino de uma empresa de cursos pré-vestibulares. Os docentes foram avaliados no local de trabalho por meio de dois questionários. O primeiro referente à auto-avaliação vocal e do ambiente de trabalho e o segundo referente à avaliação perceptivo-auditiva e visual de parâmetros corporais. A avaliação perceptivo-auditiva e visual foi realizada pela pesquisadora durante aulas-padrão de 60 minutos. Os parâmetros analisados foram divididos em aspectos de voz e fala. Os parâmetros referentes à análise dos recursos corporais foram pontuados em uma escala analógica graduada de 0 a 10, sendo que nesta escala o extremo esquerdo (0 refere-se à inadequação e o extremo direito (10 à completa adequação. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos professores relatou usar microfone (77,5% e apresentaram queixas de sinais e sintomas vocais, sendo os mais citados: falhas na voz, rouquidão, esforço para falar, secura na garganta e pigarro. Na análise perceptivo-auditiva observou-se que os professores apresentaram qualidade vocal discretamente alterada, sendo 35% do tipo rouca. Os aspectos de fala e recursos corporais foram utilizados na maior parte do tempo de forma adequada. CONCLUSÃO: Os professores de curso pré-vestibular apresentaram elevada incidência de sintomas vocais, mesmo com a utilização de microfone. Utilizaram diversos recursos corporais na tentativa de potencializar o aprendizado, sendo que o uso de gestos, contato visual direcionado e interação verbal com os alunos foram as estratégias mais utilizadas em sala de aula.PURPOSE: To carry out a self-evaluation with preparatory school teachers regarding vocal aspects, as well as to analyze characteristics of voice, speech

  1. Voz cantada e a constituição da relação mãe-bebê Singing voice and the constitution of mother/baby relationship

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    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: refletir sobre uma faceta da constituição da relação mãe-bebê, que se fez presente no uso criativo da voz cantada da mãe, na comunicação com o seu bebê. PROCEDIMENTOS: o único sujeito desse estudo é uma mãe, que se submeteu a oito sessões de terapias corporais associadas à emissão da voz cantada, sempre dirigidas ao bebê; as sessões transcorreram com a possibilidade de expressão livre pela fala e gesto da mãe e a escuta do terapeuta. RESULTADOS: o quadro que a mãe apresentava em relação ao seu bebê, no início do tratamento, se encaixa na descrição de depressão pós-parto. Após as sessões, a mãe conseguiu estabelecer contato com seu bebê, de modo prazeroso; por meio da emissão da voz cantada, ela estabeleceu a primeira forma de comunicação e não mais apresentou o quadro de dor e perda da voz. CONCLUSÃO: a possibilidade de reconhecimento, do bebê por sua mãe, teve a corporeidade como aliada, na conjunção dos corpos da mãe e do bebê, o que favoreceu o estabelecimento de uma comunicação com sintonia de ritmos, por meio da entoação de música cantada, que levou à constituição do bebê enquanto pessoa integrada.BACKGROUND: to address one aspect of mother/baby relationship, that arises from the use of singing voice in their communicative process. PROCEDURE: the subject of this case study is a mother who undergoes eight sessions of body therapy (massage and exercises associated to the utterance of singing voice, always directed to the baby; the sessions offered the possibility of free expression through the mother's use of gestures and speech along with the therapist' listening. RESULTS: in the beginning of treatment, the reaction of the mother towards her baby fits precisely in postpartum depression description. After the sessions, she was able to keep a most pleasant contact with her baby; by means of the singing voice, she has got the first way of communication with her child and either pain or

  2. Radio Vaticana, “La Voz del Papa en el mundo”, cumple 80 años (1931-2011 Análisis del programa español

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    Palma Peña Jiménez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  A pesar de ser la emisora del Estado más pequeño del mundo, Radio Vaticana difunde su programación internacional hasta en 45 lenguas diferentes. Este artículo estudia sus distintas emisiones, deteniendo su análisis en los contenidos del “Programa español”. Todo medio de comunicación que porta el sello del Vaticano forma parte de su imagen corporativa y representa su identidad. En el ochenta aniversario de su nacimiento (1931-2011, se constata la vigencia del lema originario de Radio Vaticana, “la Voz del Papa en el mundo”, y su condición inequívoca de medio no oficial, pero sí oficioso de la Santa Sede.

  3. Observation and Analysis of Gypsum Particleboard using SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qian; DENG Yuhe; KIM Hyunjoong; LEI Wen; SUN Zhiwu; JIA Yonggang; XUAN Lin; KIM Sumin

    2007-01-01

    The microstructures of gypsum board and gypsum particleboard were observed by SEM. The effects of retarder and waterproof agent on the shape and the average dimension of the gypsum crystal were discussed. The mechanism was investigated as well. Four typical instances, i e, the gypsum crystal shape, the gypsum combined with particles on the particles surface, the gypsum combined with particles on the wood cross section and the gypsum combined with particles inside the wood cell cavity were selected and observed.Furthermore, the agglomeration and cementation mechanism between gypsum and particle were studied.

  4. Redes Semánticas de la Pobreza. La Argentina del 2001.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avalle, Gerardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is framed within the qualitative stream of network analysis, trying to rebuild the global structure of the semantics of networks events. The data is based in the news appeared in the newspaper “La Voz del Interior” during the year 2001 about poverty, being this newspaper published in the city of Cordoba, Republic of Argentina. The objective on this text is to identify “the semantic” networks of the poverty in a significant period selecting from the 1600 articles corresponding to period of 1990-2001 those correspondent to the last year. This year is a break in the “cycle of social protests” (Tarrow, 1997 in Argentina, a landmark in the process of the popular struggles in Argentina.

  5. La competencia prosódica en la lectura en voz alta: análisis de los aspectos rítmicos (Prosody competence when reading aloud: analysis of rythm aspects

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    Iñaki Gaminde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales tendencias metodológicas aportan especial relevancia a la enseñanza de la oralidad. De este modo, en diversas investigaciones ha quedado verificado que realizar lecturas en voz alta a los niños contribuye de forma positiva en el desarrollo cognitivo de los futuros jóvenes. Aunque, para llegar a conseguir el objetivo que se propone con este tipo de lectura, no se debe olvidar el aspecto prosódico, ya que a pesar de los pocos trabajos publicados hasta hoy en día, se considera imprescindible realizar la descripción de las características prosódicas que poseen los jóvenes cuando leen en voz alta, para crear unas reglas generales que se podrán enseñar en nuestras escuelas y universidades. Este trabajo se limita al análisis de los tipos de ritmo; para ello se han seleccionado cinco informantes y se les ha pedido que leyeran un texto escrito en euskera estándar. (The current methodological tendencies give particular importance to the teaching of orality. Thus, several investigations have verified that reading aloud to children contributes positively to their cognitive development. However, in order to achieve the objective proposed with this type of reading, the prosodic aspect should not be forgotten. In spite of the few articles published up to now, the prosodic aspect is considered to be essential to provide a description of young people’s prosodic features when reading aloud, especially in order to create general rules that can be taught in our schools and universities. This paper is limited to the analysis of the types of rhythm, and for this, five informants have been selected and asked to read a text written in standard Basque.

  6. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Correa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado.

  7. Voz das Máquinas

    OpenAIRE

    Sá Silva, Vanda; Cangueiro, Luís; Martins, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    Catálogo da Exposição de fonógrafos e gramofones pertencentes à colecção Luís Cangueiro e patente no Museu da Música Portuguesa - Casa Verdades Faria (Câmara Municipal de Cascais) entre Maio e Outubro de 2011.

  8. Julia Uceda: una voz olvidada

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    María Teresa Navarrete Navarrete

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las posibles causas que han propiciado la desatención del estudio de la obra de Julia Uceda dentro de la historiografía literaria española. Para ello, se reconstruye la producción literaria de Julia Uceda analizando antologías dedicadas a los poetas de la generación del 50, revistas literarias y entrevistas. Esta revisión se realizará teniendo en cuenta que la obra literaria de Julia Uceda es producto de las corrientes artísticas y de la sociedad del momento.The article explores the causes of the oblivion of Julia Uceda’s work in the Spanish Literary Studies. Following the analysis of Spanish poets of the 1950’s anthology, literary reviews and interviews, the article reconstructs the Julia Uceda’s works, concluding that there is a close relationship between life, work, literature surrounding and society.

  9. Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy using an SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We outline a new approach to X-ray projection microscopy using an X-ray Ultra Microscope (XuM). The XuM is hosted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and enables exploitation of phase contrast to boost the quality and information content of images. These developments have been made possible by the combination of a high-brightness field-emission-gun (FEG) based SEM, direct detection CCD technology, specialized X-ray sources and new phase retrieval algorithms. Using the X-Ray Ultra Microscope in our laboratory we have been able to obtain spatial resolution of better than 0.2 μm and have demonstrated novel features such as: i) phase-contrast enhanced visibility of significant image features (e.g. edges and boundaries), ii) energy-resolved imaging to simultaneously produce multiple quasi-monochromatic images using broad-band polychromatic illumination, iii) implementation of micro-tomography, iv) rapid and robust phase/amplitude-retrieval algorithms to enable new quantitative modes of microscopic imaging. Widespread applications are envisaged in fields such as materials science, biological and biomedical research and microelectronics device inspection. Some illustrative examples will be presented

  10. Uso de manometria computadorizada para estudo do espasmo do segmento faringoesofágico em pacientes com voz traqueoesofágica inadequada antes e após aplicação de toxina botulínica Computerized manometry use to evaluate spasm in pharyngoesophageal segment in patients with poor tracheoesophageal speech before and after treatment with botulinum toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Chone

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Voz traqueoesofágica (VTE com prótese fonatória (PF é método eficaz e reproduzível na reabilitação vocal após laringectomia total (LT, impedida pelo espasmo do segmento faringoesofágico (SFE. A manometria computadorizada (MC é novo método objetivo e direto de avaliação do SFE. OBJETIVO: Análise objetiva do espasmo do SFE, com MC, antes e após aplicação de toxina botulínica (TB. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Prospectivo clínico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise de oito pacientes consecutivos submetidos à LT com VTE e PF, sem emissão vocal, com espasmo do SFE à videofluoroscopia, considerado padrão ouro para detecção de espasmo. Todos trataram o espasmo com injeção de 100 unidades de TB no SFE. Avaliação constituiu-se de videofluoroscopia e MC do SFE, antes e após aplicação de TB. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição na pressão do SFE à MC, após injeção de TB em todos. A média de pressão do SFE à MC, nos oito pacientes, antes da aplicação de TB foi de 25.36 mmHg e após foi de 14.31 mmHg (p=0,004. Houve emissão vocal sem esforço e melhora do espasmo do SFE à videofluoroscopia após o uso da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada diminuição na pressão do SFE após injeção da TB à MC em todos os pacientes, com melhora do espasmo à videofluoroscopia.Tracheoesophageal voice (TEV with voice prosthesis (VP is an efficient and reproducible method used in vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy (TL, prevented by spasms in the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES. Computerized Manometry (CM is a new, direct and objective method used to assess the PES. AIM: to carry out an objective analysis of the PES, with CM, before and after the injection of botulinum toxin (BT. STUDY DESIGN: clinical-prospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: analysis of eight patients consecutively submitted to TL with TEV and VP, without vocal emission, with PES spasms seen through videofluoroscopy, considered the gold standard for spasm detection. All had their

  11. Diferenciador semántico: bipolaridad del espacio semántico, un problema de medida del significado

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    En relación con el supuesto de bipolaridad y su aspecto recíprocamente antagónico, Osgood y otros (1957) han ligado su modelo de espacio semántico a la teoría del aprendizaje. Plantean la hipótesis de que cierto estimulo externo, o signo, desencadena un proceso mediacional interno (nn) el cual se constituye en emisor de estímulos (rm 15m). Este es el rm mediacional que contendría el significado del signo. La teoría de mediación la relacionan con el supuesto de bipolaridad en los siguientes té...

  12. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B

    2014-03-01

    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis.

  13. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B

    2014-03-01

    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis. PMID:24600333

  14. X-ray and SEM studies on zirconia powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pająk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The microstructure characterization of commercially available zirconia powders was the purpose of this paper. Different methods of structure analysis were applied owing to the complex, multiphase structure of studied materials.Design/methodology/approach: The X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM investigations were performed on three commercial zirconia ceramic materials: Amdry 204 NS (ZrO2  8 wt.% of Y2O3, Metco C8  YZ (ZrO2  8 wt.% of Y2O3 and Metco 202 (ZrO2  20 wt.% of Y2O3. The Rietveld method appeared to be very useful in the verification of the qualitative phase composition and in the determination of phase abundance. Hill and Howard procedure was applied for quantitative phase analysis. The parameters of the individual diffraction line profiles were determined by PRO-FIT Toraya procedure. The powder morphology was analyzed by SEM method.Findings: In the Amdry sample comparable contents of two phases: monoclinic (44.1 wt.% and cubic (55.9 wt.% was stated by XRD analysis. The presence of Y2O3 phase besides of monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 ones were stated for both Metco samples. The tetragonal phase (55.2 wt.% was found to be the main component of the Metco C8-YZ sample whereas the content of Y2O3 is the lowest (2.7 wt.%. On the other hand cubic phase (68.2 wt.% was the main component of the Metco 202 sample and the content of Y2O3 is again the lowest (4.5 wt.%. The SEM images of all the samples reveal the spherical shape of powder particles. The morphology of both Metco samples is quite similar. For Metco 202 sample the hierarchical type structure of powder particle is observed; the greater particles contain smaller ones. The shell of particles is composed of distinct patches. On the other hand the structure of spherical particles of Amdry sample is of branched, rather dense skeleton type. From X-ray diffraction data it can be concluded that the crystallite size of all involved phases

  15. SEM analysis of ion implanted SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malherbe, Johan B., E-mail: johan.malherbe@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Berg, N.G. van der; Botha, A.J.; Friedland, E.; Hlatshwayo, T.T.; Kuhudzai, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Wendler, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, 07743 Jena (Germany); Chakraborty, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Silveira, E.F. da [Physics Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    SiC is a material used in two future energy production technologies, firstly as a photovoltaic layer to harness the UV spectrum in high efficient power solar cells, and secondly as a diffusion barrier material for radioactive fission products in the fuel elements of the next generation of nuclear power plants. For both applications, there is an interest in the implantation of reactive and non-reactive ions into SiC and their effects on the properties of the SiC. In this study 360 keV Ag{sup +}, I{sup +} and Xe{sup +} ions were separately implanted into 6H–SiC and in polycrystalline SiC at various substrate temperatures. The implanted samples were also annealed in vacuum at temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1600 °C for various times. In recent years, there had been significant advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the introduction of an in-lens detector combined with field emission electron guns. This allows defects in solids, such as radiation damage created by the implanted ions, to be detected with SEM. Cross-sectional SEM images of 6H–SiC wafers implanted with 360 keV Ag{sup +} ions at room temperature and at 600 °C and then vacuum annealed at different temperatures revealed the implanted layers and their thicknesses. A similar result is shown of 360 keV I{sup +} ions implanted at 600 °C into 6H–SiC and annealed at 1600 °C. The 6H–SiC is not amorphized but remained crystalline when implanting at 600 °C. There are differences in the microstructure of 6H–SiC implanted with silver at the two temperatures as well as with reactive iodine ions. Voids (bubbles) are created in the implanted layers into which the precipitation of silver and iodine can occur after annealing of the samples. The crystallinity of the substrate via implantation temperature caused differences in the distribution and size of the voids. Implantation of xenon ions in polycrystalline SiC at 350 °C does not amorphize the substrate as is the case with room

  16. Aplicació de la Web Semàntica : Anotació semàntica de pàgines Web

    OpenAIRE

    Purcalla Bonilla, Josep Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Aquest treball, basant-se en una aplicació concreta d'aquest concepte de web semàntic anomenada anotació semàntica de pàgines web, presenta els conceptes i els elements propis, com ara les ontologies i els llenguatges semàntics, i també un cas pràctic de disseny i desenvolupament d'una ontologia i una anotació semàntica de les pàgines d'un web a partir de l'ontologia creada. Este trabajo, basándose en una aplicación del concepto de web semántico denominada anotación semántica de páginas we...

  17. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) combined with SEM (FIB/SEM) and TEM: Advanced tools for nano-analysis in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R.; Morales, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) techniques have been successfully applied to the preparation of site-specific electron transparent membranes for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations in Geosciences since several years. For example, systematic TEM studies of nano-inclusions in diamond foils prepared with FIB have improved our knowledge on diamond formation. However, FIB is not exclusively used for sample preparation for TEM application because it has been proved that one and the same TEM foil can also be used for Synchrotron IR, Synchrotron X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning transmission X-Ray microscopy (STXM) and NanoSIMS analysis. In addition, FIB milling turned out to be very useful for sample preparation of Brillouin scattering experiments and has a strong potential for preparation of highly-polished, micrometer-scale samples. However, a real break through in FIB application was achieved combining a Ga-ion source of the FIB with an electron source of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in one single instrument. The combination of FIB/SEM renders access to the third dimension of the sample possible. A cavity normal to the sample surface is sputtered with Ga-ions and this newly created inner surface is imaged with the electron beam. Alternating slicing and viewing along these cavities allow the acquisition of a sequence of images that allows the observation in 3 dimensions. Recently, this technique has been successfully applied to image the structure of grain or phase boundaries in metamorphic rocks as well as micro- and nanoporosity in shales, but its applicability goes far beyond these few examples. Combining slicing and viewing with X-Ray and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis can provide 3D elemental mapping and 3D crystallographic orientation mapping of crystalline materials. Combined FIB/SEM devices also facilitate the preparation of substantially thinner and cleaner TEM foils (approximately 30 nm) because electron beam imaging

  18. Mechanical and SEM analysis of artificial comet nucleus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, K.; Kochan, H.; Roessler, K.; Gruen, E.; Schwehm, G.; Hellmann, H.; Hsiung, P.; Koelzer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1987 experiments dealing with comet nucleus phenomena have been carried out in the DFVLR space simulation chambers. The main objective of these experiments is a better understanding of thermal behavior, surface phenomena and especially the gas dust interaction. As a function of different sample compositions and exposure to solar irradiation (xenon-bulbs) crusts of different hardness and thickness were measured. The measuring device consists of a motor driven pressure foot (5 mm diameter), which is pressed into the sample. The applied compressive force is electronically monitored. The microstructure of the crust and dust residuals is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Stress-depth profiles of an unirradiated and an irradiated model comet are given.

  19. Espacialização semântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse texto é discutir a questão da espacialização nalinguagem, destacando, de modo especial, sua dimensão semântica.Com base nesse objetivo, o texto discute algumas dimensõeshistóricas sobre a análise do significado, mostrando como elaspodem ser integradas na perspectiva da corporificação. De modoespecífico, o texto apresenta uma análise preliminar da estruturaçãoda espacialização nos verbos SAIR e ENTRAR, bem como dasconsequências geradas sobre esses verbos na ressignificação de outrositens lexicais.

  20. AFM, SEM and TEM Studies on Porous Anodic Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu YuanYuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous anodic alumina (PAA has been intensively studied in past decade due to its applications for fabricating nanostructured materials. Since PAA’s pore diameter, thickness and shape vary too much, a systematical study on the methods of morphology characterization is meaningful and essential for its proper development and utilization. In this paper, we present detailed AFM, SEM and TEM studies on PAA and its evolvements with abundant microstructures, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The sample preparation, testing skills and morphology analysis are discussed, especially on the differentiation during characterizing complex cross-sections and ultrasmall nanopores. The versatility of PAAs is also demonstrated by the diversity of PAAs’ microstructure.

  1. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  2. Monitoring method for automated CD-SEM recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuya; Iwama, Satoru; Nishihara, Makoto; Berger, Daniel; Berger, Andrew; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Kenichi, Takenouchi; Iizumi, Takashi

    2005-05-01

    A prototype of a digital video storage system (CD-watcher) has been developed and attached to a Hitachi S-9380 CD-SEM. The storage system has several modes that are selectable depending on the phenomenon of interest. The system can store video images of duration from a few seconds to a few weeks depending on resolution, sampling rate, and hard disc drive capacity. The system was used to analyze apparent focusing problems that occurred during the execution of automated recipes. Intermittent focusing problems had been an issue on a particular tool for a period of approximately three months. By reviewing saved images, the original diagnosis of the problem appeared to be auto focus. Two days after installation, the CD-watcher system was able to record the errors making it possible to determine the root cause by checking the stored video files. After analysis of the stored video files, it was apparent that the problem consisted of three types of errors. The ability to record and store video files reduced the time to isolate the problem and prevented incorrect diagnosis. The system was also used to explain a complex phenomenon that occurred during the observation a particular layer. Because it is sometimes difficult to accurately describe, and to have others easily understand, certain phenomena in a written report, the video storage system can be used in place of manual annotation. In this report, we describe the CD-watcher system, test results after installing the system on a Hitachi S9380 CD-SEM, and potential applications of the system.

  3. Photomask Dimensional Metrology in the SEM: Has Anything Really Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Vladar, Andras E.; Bennett, Marylyn H.

    2002-12-01

    Photomask dimensional metrology in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has not evolved as rapidly as the metrology of resists and integrated circuit features on wafers. This has been due partly to the 4x (or 5x) reduction in the optical steppers and scanners used in the lithography process, and partly for the lesser need to account for the real three-dimensionality of the mask structures. So, where photomasks are concerned, many of the issues challenging wafer dimensional metrology at 1x are reduced by a factor of 4 or 5 and thus could be temporarily swept aside. This is rapidly changing with the introduction of advanced masks with optical proximity correction and phase shifting features used in 100 nm and smaller circuit generations. Fortunately, photomask metrology generally benefits from the advances made for wafer metrology, but there are still unique issues to be solved in this form of dimensional metrology. It is likely that no single metrology method or tool will ever provide all necessary answers. As with other types of metrology, resolution, sensitivity and linearity in the three-dimensional measurements of the shape of the lines and phase shifting features in general (width, height and wall angles) and the departures from the desired shape (surface and edge roughness, etc.) are the key parameters. Different methods and tools differ in their ability to collect averaged and localized signals with an acceptable speed, but in any case, application of this thorough knowledge of the physics of the given metrology is essential to extract the needed information. This paper will discuss the topics of precision, accuracy and traceability in the SEM metrology of photomasks. Current and possible new techniques utilized in the measurements of photomasks including charge suppression and highly accurate modeling for electron beam metrology will also be explored to answer the question "Has anything really changed?"

  4. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  5. A utilização do patrimônio como cenário para o consumo e a fruição turística: estratégias de produção de imagem do bairro Praia Grande-MA
    Use of architectural heritage as a scenry for tourist consumption: strategies for image production of Praia Grande-MA neighborhood
    Utilización del patrimonio como escenario para el consumo y el usufructo turístico: estrategias de producción de imagen en el barrio Praia Grande-MA

    OpenAIRE

    Edileuza Lopes Sette Silva; Georgia Patrícia da Silva

    2010-01-01

    ResumoEste trabalho teve como objetivo analisar as implicações na dinâmica urbana do bairro Praia Grande, localizado no Centro Histórico da Cidade de São Luís-MA, Brasil, relacionadas à implementação do Programa de Preservação e Revitalização Urbana, implementado no fim da década de 1970. Utilizou-se de pesquisa documental e observação participante para apreender as transformações ocasionadas nesse espaço urbano. Pode-se observar que com a refuncionalização turística o bairro central sofreu d...

  6. Políticas públicas e voz do professor: caracterização das leis brasileiras Public policy and teachers' voice: characterization of Brazilian laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as leis sobre saúde vocal publicadas em todo território nacional até o ano de 2006. MÉTODOS: Foram feitas buscas da documentação em sites oficiais, assim como um questionário elaborado pelas autoras foi divulgado no meio fonoaudiológico, por correio eletrônico, para captar o maior número de leis possível. Obtiveram-se 22 documentos que foram analisados quanto ao raio de abrangência, ações propostas, natureza dessas ações, público-alvo, secretarias envolvidas, iniciativa e promulgação das leis. Tais dados foram analisados de maneira absoluta (numérica e relativa (percentualmente. RESULTADOS: Os documentos são, em sua maioria, leis de abrangência estadual, mais numerosas na região sudeste, propostas pelo poder legislativo, cuja viabilização compete a uma parceria entre secretarias de saúde e educação estaduais. As ações propostas, de modo geral, preconizam a implementação de assistência preventiva por meio de cursos teórico-práticos (90,91%, com periodicidade anual, ministrados por fonoaudiólogos, com a ressalva de que será oferecido, ao professor com distúrbio vocal, acesso ao tratamento fonoaudiológico e/ou médico (77,27%. Em apenas três documentos (13,64% avança-se para além de cursos, com propostas de ações de promoção à reabilitação, inclusive com menção ao ambiente de trabalho. Dois deles (9,09% consideram os direitos do professor trabalhador. CONCLUSÃO: Levando-se em conta o grande número de casas legislativas no Brasil, poucas são as leis propostas a favor da saúde do professor, especialmente em relação à voz. Além disso, para que sejam aplicadas e transformadas em programas de saúde vocal, tais iniciativas devem partir de competência constitucional própria, a fim de garantir os recursos financeiros necessários para a sua viabilização.PURPOSE: To characterize legislation related to vocal health published in National Territory until the year of 2006

  7. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  8. stainless steel by SEM-XRD and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Constanzo-R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme al interior del electrodo. En el electrodo de acero, la penetra ción del depósito en el espesor fue alrededor de 50%, mientras que para el grafito a lrededor de 90%. En forma general, se observó un aumento de la cantidad de depósito hacia el extremo frente al ánodo y con sitios de difer ente crecimiento en depósito de cobre. Esto demuestra una distr ibución de corriente y potencial, función de parámetros físicos de electrodo y de la s características fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicos del electroli to.

  9. FIB/SEM cell sectioning for intracellular metal granules characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Marziale; Brundu, Claudia; Santisi, Grazia; Savoia, Claudio; Tatti, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Focused Ion Beams (FIBs) provide a cross-sectioning tool for submicron dissection of cells and subcellular structures. In combination with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), FIB provides complementary morphological information, that can be further completed by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). This study focus onto intracellular microstructures, particularly onto metal granules (typically Zn, Cu and Fe) and on the possibility of sectioning digestive gland cells of the terrestrial isopod P. scaber making the granules available for a compositional analysis with EDX. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of metal granules size, amount and distribution are performed. Information is made available of the cellular storing pattern and, indirectly, metal metabolism. The extension to human level is of utmost interest since some pathologies of relevance are metal related. Apart from the common metal-overload-diseases (hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson's and Menkes disease) it has been demonstrated that metal in excess can influence carcinogenesis in liver, kidney and breast. Therefore protocols will be established for the observation of mammal cells to improve our knowledge about the intracellular metal amount and distribution both in healthy cells and in those affected by primary or secondary metal overload or depletion.

  10. Simulation of FIB-SEM images for analysis of porous microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam nanotomography-scanning electron microscopy tomography yields high-quality three-dimensional images of materials microstructures at the nanometer scale combining serial sectioning using a focused ion beam with SEM. However, FIB-SEM tomography of highly porous media leads to shine-through artifacts preventing automatic segmentation of the solid component. We simulate the SEM process in order to generate synthetic FIB-SEM image data for developing and validating segmentation methods. Monte-Carlo techniques yield accurate results, but are too slow for the simulation of FIB-SEM tomography requiring hundreds of SEM images for one dataset alone. Nevertheless, a quasi-analytic description of the specimen and various acceleration techniques, including a track compression algorithm and an acceleration for the simulation of secondary electrons, cut down the computing time by orders of magnitude, allowing for the first time to simulate FIB-SEM tomography.

  11. Improved spectrum simulation for validating SEM-EDS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, P.; Penman, C.; Duncumb, P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray microanalysis by SEM-EDS requires corrections for the many physical processes that affect emitted intensity for elements present in the material. These corrections will only be accurate provided a number of conditions are satisfied and it is essential that the correct elements are identified. As analysis is pushed to achieve results on smaller features and more challenging samples it becomes increasingly difficult to determine if all conditions are upheld and whether the analysis results are valid. If a theoretical simulated spectrum based on the measured analysis result is compared with the measured spectrum, any marked differences will indicate problems with the analysis and can prevent serious mistakes in interpretation. To achieve the necessary accuracy a previous theoretical model has been enhanced to incorporate new line intensity measurements, differential absorption and excitation of emission lines, including the effect of Coster-Kronig transitions and an improved treatment of bremsstrahlung for compounds. The efficiency characteristic has been measured for a large area SDD detector and data acquired from an extensive set of standard materials at both 5 kV and 20 kV. The parameterized model has been adjusted to fit measured characteristic intensities and both background shape and intensity at the same beam current. Examples are given to demonstrate how an overlay of an accurate theoretical simulation can expose some non-obvious mistakes and provide some expert guidance towards a valid analysis result. A new formula for calculating the effective mean atomic number for compounds has also been derived that is appropriate and should help improve accuracy in techniques that calculate the bremsstrahlung or use a bremsstrahlung measurement for calibration.

  12. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  14. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  15. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  16. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  17. Using digital colour to increase the realistic appearance of SEM micrographs of bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortolà, Policarp

    2010-10-01

    Although in the scientific-research literature the micrographs from scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are usually displayed in greyscale, the potential of colour resources provided by the SEM-coupled image-acquiring systems and, subsidiarily, by image-manipulation free softwares deserves be explored as a tool for colouring SEM micrographs of bloodstains. After acquiring greyscale SEM micrographs of a (dark red to the naked eye) human blood smear on grey chert, they were manually obtained in red tone using both the SEM-coupled image-acquiring system and an image-manipulation free software, as well as they were automatically generated in thermal tone using the SEM-coupled system. Red images obtained by the SEM-coupled system demonstrated lower visual-discrimination capability than the other coloured images, whereas those in red generated by the free software rendered better magnitude of scopic information than the red images generated by the SEM-coupled system. Thermal-tone images, although were further from the real sample colour than the red ones, not only increased their realistic appearance over the greyscale images, but also yielded the best visual-discrimination capability among all the coloured SEM micrographs, and fairly enhanced the relief effect of the SEM micrographs over both the greyscale and the red images. The application of digital colour by means of the facilities provided by an SEM-coupled image-acquiring system or, when required, by an image-manipulation free software provides a user-friendly, quick and inexpensive way of obtaining coloured SEM micrographs of bloodstains, avoiding to do sophisticated, time-consuming colouring procedures. Although this work was focused on bloodstains, well probably other monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic samples are also susceptible of increasing their realistic appearance by colouring them using the simple methods utilized in this study.

  18. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2011-01-01

    using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), SEM, and EDX. Findings - The intermetallic particles in the substrate material consisted of Fe or both Fe and Si with two different structures: irregular and round shaped. FIB-SEM cross-sectioned images revealed that the irregular....../Si ratio of the intermetallic particles decreased after anodizing. Originality/value - This paper shows that dual beam FIB-SEM seems to be an easy, less time consuming and useful method to characterize the cross-sectioned intermetallic particles incorporated in anodic film on aluminium....

  19. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms.

  20. Comparativa entre dues BD semàntiques : OWLIM-Lite i Virtuoso

    OpenAIRE

    Olascoaga Figuerola, Pello

    2013-01-01

    L'objectiu fonamental d'aquest treball és estudiar els conceptes bàsics de la web semàntica mitjançant l'estudi de dos sistemes de gestió de bases de dades (SGBD) utilitzats en el context de la web semàntica, OWLIM-Lite i Virtuoso, que ens permetran dissenyar i implementar una ontologia. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es estudiar los conceptos básicos de la web semántica mediante el estudio de dos sistemas de gestión de bases de datos (SGBD) utilizados en el contexto de la web sem...

  1. Termos descritivos da própria voz: comparação entre respostas apresentadas por fonoaudiólogos e não-fonoaudiólogos Descriptive terms of one's own voice: comparison between speech-language pathologists and non speech-language pathologists' responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Duarte Bicalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as respostas de fonoaudiólogas e não-fonoaudiólogas a respeito da própria voz e caracterizar a diferença das mesmas. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 200 sujeitos do sexo feminino, sendo 100 fonoaudiólogas e 100 não-fonoaudiólogas, com média de idade de 35 anos. A faixa de tempo de atuação profissional das fonoaudiólogas foi predominantemente 0 a 3 anos (32%. A maior parte delas atuava na área de voz (55% ou motricidade oral (45%. As não-fonoaudiólogas tinham variadas profissões, tais como professoras, médicas, advogadas, entre outras. Não foi feito nenhum controle quanto ao uso profissional da voz. As participantes do estudo realizaram uma auto-avaliação vocal utilizando uma escala de 5 pontos: excelente, muito boa, boa, razoável e ruim. Também indicaram atributos vocais positivos e negativos por meio de um protocolo desenvolvido por Behlau & Pontes (1995 baseado nos Termos Descritivos Para a Voz (Boone, 1991. RESULTADOS: fonoaudiólogas e não-fonoaudiólogas apresentaram respostas diferentes quando auto-avaliaram suas vozes havendo uma maior ocorrência de voz "muito boa" para fonoaudiólogas (28%, p=0,041. Fonoaudiólogas selecionaram mais verbetes positivos que não-fonoaudiólogas (53,6%, 46,4% respectivamente. A característica positiva de voz "adequada" foi a mais selecionada por fonoaudiólogas (31%, p=0,001 e o verbete negativo de voz "alta" foi o mais selecionado por não-fonoaudiólogas (34%, p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: fonoaudiólogas auto-avaliaram suas vozes de modo diferente que não-fonoaudiólogas, principalmente na categorização de voz "muito boa". Enquanto a característica de voz "adequada" foi o único qualificador positivo de maior ocorrência para fonoaudiólogas, voz "alta" foi o único qualificador negativo para não-fonoaudiólogas.PURPOSE: to compare speech-language pathologists and non speech-language pathologists' responses concerning the evaluation of their own voices and to

  2. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  3. Some Esoteric Aspects of SEM that Its Practitioners Should Want to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, William W.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this article is the interpretation of structural equation modeling (SEM) solutions. Its purpose is to augment structural modeling's metatheoretic resources while enhancing awareness of how problematic is the causal significance of SEM-parameter solutions. Part I focuses on the nonuniqueness and consequent dubious interpretability of…

  4. Separation of image-distortion sources and magnetic-field measurement in scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jacek; Katcki, Jerzy; Oskwarek, Lukasz; Rak, Remigiusz

    2009-01-01

    The electron-microscope image distortion generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an important problem for accurate imaging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Available commercial solutions to this problem utilize sophisticated hardware for EMI detection and compensation. Their efficiency depends on the complexity of distortions influence on SEM system. Selection of a proper method for reduction of the distortions is crucial. The current investigations allowed for a separation of the distortions impact on several components of SEM system. A sum of signals from distortion sources causes wavy deformations of specimen shapes in SEM images. The separation of various reasons of the distortion is based on measurements of the periodic deformations of the images for different electron beam energies and working distances between the microscope final aperture and the specimen. Using the SEM images, a direct influence of alternating magnetic field on the electron beam was distinguished. Distortions of electric signals in the scanning block of SEM were also separated. The presented method separates the direct magnetic field influence on the electron beam below the SEM final aperture (in the chamber) from its influence above this aperture (in the electron column). It also allows for the measurement of magnetic field present inside the SEM chamber. The current investigations gave practical guidelines for selecting the most efficient solution for reduction of the distortions.

  5. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.

    2000-07-01

    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  6. Surgery on spinal epidural metastases (SEM) in renal cell carcinoma : a plea for a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Coppes, Maarten H.; Vergeer, Rob A.; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Groen, Rob J. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Prediction models for outcome of decompressive surgical resection of spinal epidural metastases (SEM) have in common that they have been developed for all types of SEM, irrespective of the type of primary tumor. It is our experience in clinical practice, however, that these model

  7. Shocked quartz in the SEM: Distinction between amorphous and healed PDFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, M.F.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined SEM techniques show that different CL signatures of PDFs are related to fresh and healed microstructures of PDFs and host quartz. This is confirmed by TEM results. A combination of SEM techniques can give the same type of information as TEM

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-21

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  9. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-08

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  10. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  11. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications.

  12. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  13. Estudio del soporte de semántica en gestores de contenidos

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión García, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos más importantes de cara a progresar hacia la Web Semántica es convertir el contenido web nuevo y el existente, expres´andolo en lenguaje natural, en su equivalente semántico. El marcado semántico de documentos Web es el primer paso hacia la adaptación del contenido a la Web Semántica y por tanto, los formatos de marcado son una de las herramientas consideradas como fundamentales en el diseño de la Web Semántica, ya que no sólo permiten acceder a la información sino que ...

  14. Empreendimentos imobiliários privados no bairro de São José: impulsos para uma nova funcionalidade do bairro e perfil sócio-econômico da população residente. /Private real estate projects in San José, Recife: impulses for a new feature in the neighborhood and socio-economic profile of the resident population./Emprendimientos inmobiliarios privados en el barrio de San José, Recife: impulsos para una nueva funcionalidad, y perfil sócio-económico de la población residente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carvalho, Andreza Tacyana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Recife cidade secular, detentora de importante valor histórico e cultural, abriga em seu território, diversos equipamentos e focos de manifestações culturais além de abrigar também edificações contemporâneas, que dão novos valores e significados à sua área. Em panorama a esta relação é que se inicia esta discussão e análise sobre as implicações da relação entre o antigo e o novo; a renovação urbana vista como desconfiguração e a revitalização como instrumento de novas funcionalidades ao edificado já existente, as intervenções urbanas x melhorias das relações entre o espaço construído e cidadão, fato comumente ocorrido no espaço urbano, e que nesta ocasião se apresenta no recorte espacial do bairro de São José – Recife – PE. / The secular city of Recife has an important cultural and historical value, houses several facilities and areas of cultural events that have their story. Parallel to these monuments, the city also hosts contemporary buildings that give it new values and meaning. In view of this scenario is being debated and discussed the implications of the relationship between old and new; de - configuration as urban renewal, and revitalization as a tool providing new features for existing buildings. It seeks to encourage debate and reflection on urban interventions to improve relations between the citizen and built. Presents the space in the district of São José - Recife - PE. / La ciudad secular de Recife tiene un importante valor cultural e histórico; alberga instalaciones y áreas de eventos culturales que cuentan su historia. Paralelamente a estos monumentos, la ciudad también alberga edificios contemporáneos que le aportan nuevos valores y sentido. En vista de este panorama es que se debate y analiza las implicaciones de la relación entre lo antiguo y lo nuevo; la renovación urbana como deconfiguración, y la revitalización como un instrumento aportando nuevas funcionalidades para

  15. Caracterização da voz do indivíduo portador de obesidade mórbida Morbid obesity and it´s relationship to voice alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bernardo da Cunha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A obesidade é doença crônica e grave com crescimento alarmante em todo o mundo e de interesse na saúde pública. Existe alteração no comportamento vocal destes pacientes e ele é pouco estudado. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar prospectivamente a voz de indivíduos portadores de obesidade mórbida comparando-a com a de não obesos. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 45 indivíduos adultos voluntários, 14 homens e 31 mulheres com idade média de 43 anos variando de 20 a 63 anos. Todos apresentavam IMC acima de 35 Kg/m2 constituindo o grupo em estudo (GO Para cada indivíduo do GO foi selecionado também um indivíduo adulto voluntário, proveniente da população geral do ambulatório de otorrinolaringologia com IMC abaixo de 30 Kg/m2, constituindo o grupo controle (GN. Os critérios de exclusão foram diagnóstico de lesões neoplásicas malignas em cabeça e pescoço ou operações prévias da região orofaríngea. Fooram submetidos a exame laringológico e à gravação da voz. Também submeteram-se à avaliação subjetiva perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, através da escala GIRBAS e a aspereza, o estrangulamento no final das. A análise acústica foi realizada objetivamente utilizando os softwares Vox Metria versão 4.0.47 e PRAAT, fornecendo a frequência fundamenta, jitter, shimmer, ruído e tempo máximo fonatório. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que os grupos foram homogêneos em relação ao sexo, idade, tabagismo e altura, mas significativamente diferentes em relação ao peso e IMC (PBACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease with public health interest. Voice disturbance is common in this group. AIM: To compare the voice between the morbid obese patients with the non obese. METHODS: Prospective trial with 45 adult volunteers with 43 years old median age with BMI>35 Kg/m² as study group and a control group in the same number but with BMI<30 Kg/m². Exclusion criteria were tumor in head and neck or previous operations in oropharynx

  16. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O posicionamento da prega vocal paralisada e o grau de disfonia são fatores importantes para decidir as opções de tratamento na paralisia de prega vocal unilateral (PPVU. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características perceptivo-auditivas da voz e a posição da prega vocal paralisada, em homens, com PPVU. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, coorte histórica, com corte transversal, com dados de 24 homens com PPVU, com média de 60,7 anos, submetidos à avaliação vocal perceptivo-auditiva da voz, por três juízas fonoaudiólogas e perceptivo-visual das imagens laríngeas, com a classificação da posição da prega vocal paralisada, por três juízes otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: A prega vocal paralisada em posição paramediana ocorreu em 45,83% dos casos; a intermediária, em 25%; a lateral, em 20,83%, e a mediana, em 4,16%; a disfonia resultante da PPVU foi caracterizada pela rouquidão, aspereza e tensão, de grau moderado; soprosidade (maior frequência do grau grave; astenia e instabilidade (maior frequência do grau leve; a posição da prega vocal paralisada influenciou significativamente o grau geral de desvio vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O grau geral de disfonia está relacionado com a posição da prega vocal paralisada; a disfonia é caracterizada pela presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, aspereza e tensão de grau moderado a grave.The paralyzed vocal fold positioning and the degree of dysphonia are important inputs when one is deciding upon treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP. OBJECTIVE: To check voice characteristics and paralyzed vocal fold position in men with UVFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective historical cross-sectional cohort study, with data from 24 men with UVFP with mean age of 60.7 years, submitted to voice assessment by three speech therapists and three ENT physicians used laryngeal images to classify the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. RESULTS: The paralyzed vocal fold

  17. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408

  18. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration.

  19. Obtenção da voz do consumidor: estudo de caso em um hotel ecológico Obtaining the voice of customer: a case study in an ecological hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto de Toledo Cruz Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecionar as métricas adequadas para compreender e monitorar a satisfação dos clientes é decisivo para que a empresa oriente suas ações e decisões de melhoria na busca do atendimento destas necessidades, em especial no setor de serviços, em que a retenção dos clientes é uma fonte de vantagem competitiva. Neste artigo apresenta-se uma proposta de aferição da satisfação do cliente para o setor de serviços. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida através da abordagem metodológica de estudo de caso, realizado num Hotel Ecológico, no qual é introduzida uma classificação para as características de qualidade críticas, bem como o uso do AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process como ferramenta de priorização das métricas no modelo proposto. Neste trabalho, propõe-se um instrumento de obtenção da voz do consumidor e uma aplicação piloto.The selection of appropriate metrics to better understand the customer needs is critical. These customer needs should be the driver of company decisions in order to achieve a competitive advantage especially on service sector. This paper presents a customer satisfaction metric system to be used in the service sector. This research was developed through the case study methodology performed in an Ecological Hotel. A ranking of critical characteristics was obtained through the AHP method (Analytical Hierarchic Process. This work is directed toward a proposal of a voice of customer tool and pilot application.

  20. Fluoridation of the public water supply and prevalence of dental fluorosis in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru, SP Fluoretação da água de abastecimento público e prevalência de fluorose dentária em bairro da periferia de Bauru, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. These samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720. In this method, 1.0 mL of TISAB II (Orion was added to 1.0 mL of the sample. For the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. Only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. The TF index was used. RESULTS: The fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/L, with a mean of 0.9 mg/L. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from TF1 to TF4 (Kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for Bauru. The fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a concentração de flúor na água de abastecimento público e a prevalência de fluorose dentária de escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, residentes em um bairro da periferia de Bauru. MATÉRIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 52 amostras de água durante três dias de uma semana e analisadas utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado a um potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720, com 1,0 mL da amostra à qual foi adicionado 1,0 mL de TISAB II (Orion. Para o levantamento epidemiológico de fluorose foram examinados 52 escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade

  1. O bairro da Luz em São Paulo: questões antropológicas sobre o fenômeno da gentrification El barrio de la Luz en São Paulo: cuestiones antropológicas sobre el fenómeno de la gentrification The Luz district in São Paulo: anthropological questions on the phenomenon of gentrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Frúgoli Jr

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo explora, numa perspectiva etnográfica, o alcance do conceito de gentrification com relação às mudanças (e também permanências sociais e urbanas em curso no bairro da Luz, localizado na área central da cidade de São Paulo, situado numa confluência entre processos de preservação patrimonial de instituições culturais, intervenções urbanísticas e um uso histórico por parte de vários grupos provenientes das classes populares. Tais questões serão tratadas com atenção aos seguintes tópicos: políticas locais de intervenção em áreas marcadas pela estigmatização, quando ocupadas predominantemente pelas classes populares; a revisão da oposição "práticas de intervenção" vs. "resistência dos grupos atingidos" (marcadas por certas divisões do ponto de vista analítico; por fim, a busca de definições mais precisas dos termos de comparação com outros casos emblemáticos (evitando perspectivas apriorísticas.Este artículo explora, en una perspectiva etnográfica, el alcance del concepto de gentrification con relación a los cambios (y también permanencias sociales y urbanos en curso en el barrio de la Luz , localizado en la área central de la ciudad de São Paulo, situado en una confluencia entre procesos de preservación patrimonial de instituciones culturales, intervenciones urbanísticas y un uso histórico por parte de varios grupos provenientes de las clases populares. Tales cuestiones serán tratadas con atención a los siguientes tópicos: políticas locales de intervención en áreas marcadas por la estigmatización, cuando ocupadas predominantemente por las clases populares; revisión de la oposición "prácticas de intervención" vs. "resistencia de los grupos afectados" (marcadas por ciertas divisiones del punto de vista analítico; y, por fin, la búsqueda de definiciones más precisas de los términos de comparación con otros casos emblemáticos (evitando perspectivas aprior

  2. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2010-10-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  3. A brief discussion about image quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric composites with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy composites fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM imaging parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with image quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with imaging setup, accompanied by charge neutralization.

  4. Sobre la estructura semántica de las palabras autosemánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ascencio Bernardo

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de los conceptos de semema o estructura semémica y de los conceptos tradicionales de afijos y los accidentes gramaticales se plantea una supuesta estructura semántica profunda de la palabra, análoga a la de la oración en el modelo de la gramática de casos. Con base en este supuesto se reinterpretan algunas funciones semánticas de los afijos (particularmente de los sufijos, entre otras, como formas de la expresión de la modalidad léxica; se plantea una correlación entre rasgos semánticos específicos y las relaciones semánticas de caso. Por último se deducen algunas consideraciones pertinentes y se demuestra un isomorfismo entre la estructura profunda de la oración y la supuesta estructura semántica profunda de las palabras auto  semánticas.

  5. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines.

  6. The gigapixel image concept for graphic SEM documentation. Applications in archeological use-wear studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergès, Josep M; Morales, Juan I

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a specific procedure to create gigapixel-like images from SEM (scanning electron microscope) micrographs. This methodology allows intensive SEM observations to be made for those disciplines that require of large surfaces to be analyzed at different scales once the SEM sessions have been completed (e.g., stone tools use-wear studies). This is also a very useful resource for academic purposes or as a support for collaborative studies, thus reducing the number of live observation sessions and the associated expense.

  7. Dimensional verification of high aspect micro structures using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Micro-structured surfaces are increasingly used for advanced functionality. In particular, micro-structured polymer parts are interesting due to the manufacturing via injection moulding. A micro-structured nickel surface was characterized by focussed ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM....... A cross sectioned sample was prepared for conventional SEM in order to inspect the geometry of the holes, but the cutting angle used when making the cross section had a significant influence on the obtained results. Via FIB-SEM, the process was recorded by images when slicing the sample layer by layer...

  8. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  9. Assessing the utility of FIB-SEM images for shale digital rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shaina; El-Sobky, Hesham; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2016-09-01

    Shales and other unconventional or low permeability (tight) reservoirs house vast quantities of hydrocarbons, often demonstrate considerable water uptake, and are potential repositories for fluid sequestration. The pore-scale topology and fluid transport mechanisms within these nanoporous sedimentary rocks remain to be fully understood. Image-informed pore-scale models are useful tools for studying porous media: a debated question in shale pore-scale petrophysics is whether there is a representative elementary volume (REV) for shale models? Furthermore, if an REV exists, how does it differ among petrophysical properties? We obtain three dimensional (3D) models of the topology of microscale shale volumes from image analysis of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) image stacks and investigate the utility of these models as a potential REV for shale. The scope of data used in this work includes multiple local groups of neighboring FIB-SEM images of different microscale sizes, corresponding core-scale (milli- and centimeters) laboratory data, and, for comparison, series of two-dimensional (2D) cross sections from broad ion beam SEM images (BIB-SEM), which capture a larger microscale field of view than the FIB-SEM images; this array of data is larger than the majority of investigations with FIB-SEM-derived microscale models of shale. Properties such as porosity, organic matter content, and pore connectivity are extracted from each model. Assessments of permeability with single phase, pressure-driven flow simulations are performed in the connected pore space of the models using the lattice-Boltzmann method. Calculated petrophysical properties are compared to those of neighboring FIB-SEM images and to core-scale measurements of the sample associated with the FIB-SEM sites. Results indicate that FIB-SEM images below ∼5000 μm3 volume (the largest volume analyzed) are not a suitable REV for shale permeability and pore-scale networks; i.e. field of view

  10. A saúde mental dos sem abrigo: comunidades de inserção

    OpenAIRE

    Carrinho, Paula Cristina Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Pretendemos com este estudo caracterizar os sem abrigo, as suas redes e relações sociais, bem como os modelos de intervenção, de forma a que se possa ter um maior conhecimento acerca desta problemática. Para a consecução destes propósitos, foram delineados os seguintes objectivos: caracterizar a população sem abrigo em termos de variáveis sócio-demográficas; identificar a sua rede social de apoio; caracterizar as dimensões sociais associadas à vinculação adulta nos sem abrigo; caracterizar...

  11. Web semántica: RDF y SGBD que lo soportan

    OpenAIRE

    Castelló Avilleira, Ana Beatriz

    2005-01-01

    En aquest treball es fa una breu introducció a la web semàntica i el seu estat actual. S'analitzen els llenguatges que hi ha a la base del munt de recomanacions del World Wide Web Consortium (XML, XML Schema, RDF i RDF Schema) i s'examinen diferents sistemes de gestió de bases de dades que donen suport a les metadades, que són la base de la web semàntica. En este trabajo se realiza una breve introducción a la web semántica y su estado actual. Se analizan los lenguajes que se encuentran en ...

  12. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiências de discriminação nos serviços; percepção sobre acessibilidade na atenção básica; e barreiras de acessibilidade. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Identificaram-se os seguintes aspectos: a identidade étnico-racial e saúde: percepção dos usuários de que as barreiras organizacionais e de acesso se devem a um amplo contexto social que produz cidadãos "de primeira e de segunda categorias", mais do que a um racismo institucional; b acessibilidade no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: acesso problemático, permeado pela demora no atendimento, falta de compromisso dos profissionais de saúde, omissão dos gestores no controle e correção dessas situações; c acessibilidade na atenção básica: visão sobre o contexto mais geral do SUS e apoio na descrição dos entrevistados sobre o acesso aos serviços de atenção básica. CONCLUSÕES: Há barreiras de acessibilidade econômicas, organizacionais e culturais que se interpõem entre a oferta de serviços e o atendimento efetivo e oportuno das necessidades da população estudada.OBJETIVO: Analizar el acceso de familias negras de comunidad popular a los servicios de atención básica de salud MÉTODOS: Estudio etnográfico, basado en antropología de base interpretativa, realizado con 18 familias seleccionadas de una comunidad popular de Salvador, BA, Brasil, en período de dos años. Los criterios de inclusión fueron residencia en la comunidad y auto-clasificación como negros. El an

  13. SEM TEKOA NÃO HÁ TEKO – SEM TERRA NÃO HÁ CULTURA”: ESTUDO E DESENVOLVIMENTO AUTO-SUSTENTÁVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDO LITAIFF

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of the “Sem tekoa não há teko, sem terra não há cultura: estudo e desenvolvimento auto-sustentável de comunidades indígenas guarani” project. It was carried out by UNISUL (University of the South of Santa Catarina and byUFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina from March, 2002 through December, 2007, and aimed at promoting economic modes appropriate for the ethnodevelopment and auto sustainability of the guarani land at the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, a measure compatible with teko, that is, the way of beeing, the guarani culture.RESUMO: A finalidade deste artigo é relatar os resultados do projeto “Sem tekoa não há teko, sem terra não há cultura: estudo e desenvolvimento auto-sustentável de comunidades indígenas guarani”. Executado conjuntamente pela UFSC (Universidade Federal de SantaCatarina e Unisul (Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, entre março de 2002 e dezembro de 2007, o projeto visava como objetivo geral, incentivar formas econômicas apropriadas aoetnodesenvolvimento e à auto-sustentabilidade de terras indígenas guarani localizadas no litoral do Estado de Santa Catarina, medida compatível com “teko”, ou seja, modo de ser ou cultura guarani.

  14. SEM-668-G2(日东科技)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    SEM-668-G2比SEM-668在视觉技术上更加精湛,采用美国AGILENT(安提伦)LASER 5519A及HP的双重频率技术,加强运动;隹确性。在智能化印刷头上,SEM-668-G2印刷质量更加均匀、稳定,操作界面更加简易、更加人性化。在综合性能上更加卓越,保证实现现代化的生产效率。产品体具性能如下:SEM-668-G2视觉全自动印刷机

  15. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo;

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...... as it was estimated using the dual beam SEM....

  16. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  17. Wet SEM: a novel method for rapid diagnosis of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshack, Iris; Polak-Charcon, Sylvia; Behar, Vered; Vainshtein, Anya; Zik, Ory; Ofek, Efrat; Hadani, Moshe; Kopolovic, Juri; Nass, Dvora

    2004-01-01

    The authors present the application of wet SEM for histopathological assessment, a technology for imaging fully hydrated samples at atmospheric pressure in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques usually require long and complex sample preparation of the tissues. In marked contrast, a rapid preparation of tissues is described for evaluation by SEM imaging. The wet SEM technology successfully demonstrated both histological and ultrastructural features of several CNS tumors: Rosette formation and intracytoplasmic lumens were observed in ependymoma; numerous fibrillary processes in fibrillary astrocytoma; and focal rosette formation with no intracytoplasmic lumens in medulloblastoma. Application of this method simultaneously with frozen section may improve rapid intraoperative diagnosis of these intracranial tumors.

  18. Studies of Self-assembled Monolayers Formed by Imidazoline on Iron Surface by SEM and SECM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Yu LIU; Shen Hao CHEN; Shuai MIAO; Su Xiang WU; Li Xia SHEN; Yuan Xing CAI; Hong Yan ZHAI

    2006-01-01

    The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of imidazoline (IM) on the iron surface were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy(SECM). The results showed that SAMs were an effective inhibition film for iron.

  19. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  20. SemLAV: Querying Deep Web and Linked Open Data with SPARQL

    OpenAIRE

    Folz, Pauline; Montoya, Gabriela; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal; Vidal, Maria-Esther

    2014-01-01

    International audience SemLAV allows to execute SPARQL queries against the Deep Web and Linked Open Data data sources. It implements the mediator-wrapper architecture based on view definitions over remote data sources. SPARQL queries are expressed using a mediator schema vocabulary, and SemLAV selects relevant data sources and rank them. The ranking strat-egy is designed to deliver results quickly based only on view definitions, i.e., no statistics, nor probing on sources are required. In ...

  1. Provenance analysis by single-quartz-grain SEM-CL/optical microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    BERNET, Matthias; Basset, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Matthias Bernet est affilié au LGCA depuis 2006. The integration of panchromatic scanning electron microscopycathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) with optical microscopy analysis on single quartz grains is a new technique to interpret provenance of quartz-rich sediments. The combination of information gained from SEM-CL on textural features and CL response with information from optical microscopy allows distinction of different quartz types much more easily then with conventional microscopy or col...

  2. Bases de datos en el contexto de la web semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Santa Cruz Jiménez, Raúl Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Comparativa sobre sistemas de gestión de bases de datos orientados a la web semántica, tanto nativos como habilitados para esta función. Comparativa sobre sistemes de gestió de bases de dades orientats a la web semàntica, tant nadius com habilitats per a aquesta funció. Bachelor thesis for the Computer science program on Semantic Web.

  3. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes.

  4. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF.

  5. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences.

  6. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. PMID:24323770

  7. Qualidade de vida em voz: o impacto de uma disfonia de acordo com gênero, idade e uso vocal profissional Voice-related quality of life: the impact of a dysphonia according to gender, age and occupational use of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Souza Putnoki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto auto-relatado de uma alteração vocal na qualidade de vida de indivíduos com queixa de voz, de acordo com gênero, idade e uso vocal profissional. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 1304 questionários - Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV - respondidos por brasileiros com queixa vocal variada, sendo 996 mulheres e 308 homens. No tratamento estatístico foram feitas comparações entre gênero, idade e nível de uso vocal profissional. RESULTADOS: Os resultados totais foram similares nos três domínios para homens (total 75,5; físico 71,3; sócio-emocional 82,3 e mulheres (total 74,9; físico 70,7; sócio-emocional 82,1. Observaram-se maiores escores do QVV nos indivíduos entre 20 e 29 anos (total 82,2; físico 77,8; sócio-emocional 89,2. De acordo com o nível de uso da voz, profissionais do nível I apresentaram os maiores índices (total 80,93 e físico 80,97. CONCLUSÃO: O impacto auto-relatado na qualidade de vida relacionado a uma alteração vocal foi percebido de maneira semelhante por homens e mulheres. Os indivíduos de 20 a 29 anos perceberam o impacto da disfonia na sua qualidade de vida diferente dos indivíduos das outras faixas etárias. Os profissionais com grande demanda de voz falada artística relataram sofrer o menor impacto de um problema de voz na qualidade de vida.PURPOSE: To verify the self-reported impact of a vocal disorder on the quality of life of individuals with vocal complaints, according to gender, age and occupational use of voice. METHODS: We analyzed 1034 Voice-Related Quality of Life (VRQOL protocols answered by Brazilian individuals with varied vocal complaints. The subjects were 996 women and 308 men. Statistical analyses compared the variables gender, age and level of occupational use of voice. RESULTS: Total results were similar for men (total 75.5; physical 71.3; socio-emotional 82.3 and women (total 74.9; physical 70.7; socio-emotional 82.1 in the three domains. Higher VRQOL scores

  8. Analog and numerical modeling on the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Study on propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) plays an important role in understanding earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena. Some laboratory analog experiments based on a geographical scaling model and a waveguide model were developed to simulate the propagation of SEMS. These experimental results showed that the geographical effect such as the distribution of ocean and land may lead to some aspect of the selectivity phenomenon. Some analytical and numerical works based on a conductive channel model were also presented as an explanation of the selectivity phenomenon. However, whether or not such conclusion holds for a more realistic 3D model deserves further investigation. In this paper, we simulate the propagation characteristics of SEMS in some typical 3-D models using COMSOL Multiphysics, a software of finite element method (FEM). After some validation tests of the above FEM software, we investigated the possible effects on the propagation characteristics of SEMS from the model parameters. Then, we considered a model with a conductive fault buried in a three-layered media, and an electric dipole source located close to the center of the fault. The simulation results indicated that the amplification effect of a conductive channel, which has been adopted as a possible explanation of some SEMS observations, can be expected only at a much lower frequency. We also simulated the possible ocean effect on the propagation of SEMS. As a case study, we modeled the Greek archipelago, in which numerious SEMS have been reported. The numerical results showed a decayed pattern of SEMS at a frequency lower than the cut-off frequency, and a rippled propagation pattern at a frequency higher than the cut-off frequency. These results are consistent with the previous analog experimental results. Further examples of analog and numerical simulations are investigated. The numerical simulations combined with the analog experiments may provide possible explanation

  9. The study of high-sensitivity metrology method by using CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K.; Koshihara, S.; Mizuno, T.; Miura, A.

    2011-03-01

    The earliest semiconductor device manufacturing employed optical microscopes for measurement and control of the manufacturing process. The introduction of the Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM) in 1984 provided a tremendous increase in capability for process monitoring and has been the standard for in-line metrology for over 25 years. The advantages of the CD-SEM are highly accurate and stable measurement reproducibility at very specific locations throughout the device. The evolution of the CD-SEM in Metrology has included improved resolution, development of advanced measurement and pattern recognition algorithms, all required by performance improvement demands from the market. Current conventional metrology using the in-line CD-SEM involves measuring about ten points per wafer (one point per one chip). at a magnification of over x150k(Field of View is about 1μm2). In contrast, the area of measurement pattern on chip is much larger than the area of CD-SEM measurement (mm2 : (on chip) versus μm2 : (CD-SEM measurement)). This would mean that the result of the CD-SEM measurement is influenced by local pattern variation. The very stringent requirements placed on in-line Metrology for the last couple of technology nodes has produced an additional metrology methodology, beyond the CD-SEM, that involves large area measurements with very high precision for the most critical levels. We will refer to this methodology as "Macro Area Measurements". We investigated the applicability of using a CD-SEM Macro Area Measurement methodology in this paper. The areas investigated focused on the following points: 1) Determining the optimum CD-SEM sampling plan for a macro area measurement. 2) Optimization of the measurement parameters. 3) Optimization of the measurement condition. 4) Verification of Macro Area Measurement with an FEM (Focus Exposure Matrix) wafer. In the results, we are able to validate a new methodology that we called "Macro Area Measurement

  10. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  11. SEM Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…

  12. Recent improvement of a FIB-SEM serial-sectioning method for precise 3D image reconstruction - application of the orthogonally-arranged FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionWe installed the first "orthogonally-arranged" FIB-SEM in 2011. The most characteristic point of this instrument is that the FIB and SEM columns are perpendicularly mounted; this is specially designed to obtain a serial-sectioning dataset more accurately and precisely with higher contrast and higher spatial resolution compare to other current FIB-SEMs [1]. Since the installation in 2011, we have developed the hardware and methodology of the serial-sectioning based on this orthogonal FIB-SEM. In order to develop this technique, we have widely opened this instrument to every researcher of all fields. In the presentation, I would like to introduce some of application results that are obtained by users of this instrument. The characteristic points of the orthogonal systemFigure 1 shows a difference between the standard and the orthogonal FIB-SEM systems: In the standard system, shown in Fig.1(a), optical axes of a FIB and a SEM crosses around 60deg., while in the orthogonal system (Fig.1(b)), they are perpendicular to each other. The standard arrangement (a) is certainly suitable for TEM lamellae preparation etc. because the FIB and the SEM can see the same position simultaneously. However, for a serial-sectioning, it is not to say the best arrangement. One of the reasons is that the sliced plane by the FIB is not perpendicular to the electron beam so that the background contrast is not uniform and observed plane is distorted. On the other hand, in case of the orthogonally-arranged system,(b), these problems are resolved. In addition, spatial resolution can keep high enough even in a low accelerating voltage (e.g. 500V) because a working distance is set very small, 2mm. From these special design, we can obtain the serial-sectioning dataset from rather wide area (∼100um) with high spatial resolution (Max. 2×2×2nm). As this system has many kinds of detectors: SE, ET, Backscatter Electron(Energy-selective), EDS, EBSD, STEM(BF&ADF), with Ar+ ion-gun and a

  13. Riscos ocupacionais à saúde e voz de professores: especificidades das unidades de rede municipal de ensino Occupational risks to the health and voice of teachers: specificities of municipal education units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilse Aparecida Merlin Servilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar as condições de trabalho, saúde e voz em professores de diferentes escolas municipais. MÉTODOS: participaram 165 professores, média de 37 anos, casados, predomínio de mulheres e escolaridade superior da rede municipal de ensino de uma cidade do estado de São Paulo, que responderam ao questionário proposto por Ferreira et al (2003, abrangendo questões sócio-demográficas, situação funcional, aspectos vocais e de saúde. As respostas dos docentes foram separadas por unidade escolar e submetidas à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: constatou-se diferença significante entre as escolas quanto à presença de local para descanso, fiscalização constante e facilidade para se ausentar da sala de aula, número de alunos por classe (PURPOSE: to compare the work, health and voice conditions of teachers from different city schools. METHODS: 165 teachers took part, mean age 37, married, predominance of women and university degree, from the city school system of a city from the state of São Paulo, who answered to the questionnaire proposed by Ferreira et al (2003, covering socio-demographic topics, functional situation, vocal and health aspects. The teachers' answers were separated by scholar unit and submitted to a statistical analysis. RESULTS: there was a significant difference among schools as for the presence of restrooms, constant surveillance and the ease of leaving the classroom, number of students per classroom (<0.001, noise (0.002, lightning (<0.001, cleaning (0.001, toilets' hygiene (0.002, dust (0.001, classroom size (0.020, space sufficiency in classrooms (0.033 and temperature (<0.001. The mentioning of vocal alteration varied from 76.47% to 40%, with no significance for teachers from different schools. The health problems were diversified with significant difference only to sound nuisance (0.036. CONCLUSION: there are specific occupational risks related to organizational and work environment in distinct

  14. Estudo da freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadoras de diferentes graus de perda auditiva Study of the fundamental frequency in elderly women with hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana dos Santos Baraldi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva, dentre outros, é um dos distúrbios mais referidos pela população idosa. Sabe-se que o sistema de feedback auditivo é primordial para o monitoramento dos parâmetros vocais, como a freqüência fundamenta. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a audição e os valores de F0 (freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadores de diferentes graus de sensibilidade auditiva. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Transversal descritivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Amostra de 30 idosas, idades média de 76,23, portadoras de audição normal ou perda auditiva neurossensorial descendente simétrica. Foram submetidas a anamnese, avaliação auditiva (audiometria tonal limiar, IPRF e imitanciometria e avaliação vocal. Os resultados de ambas as avaliações foram correlacionados. RESULTADOS: A F0 da produção vocal de idosas com perda leve (144,44 foi significantemente menor que para perda moderada (160,3, moderadamente severa (188,23 e severa (201,27, tanto utilizando a classificação de grau da perda auditiva para freqüências baixas como altas. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto mais elevado o grau da perda auditiva, maior o valor de freqüência fundamental encontrado.Increased life expectancy raises demands for special attention for the elderly population; speech, language and hearing science deals with their communication disorders. Hearing loss is a common disorder affecting this age group. It is known that the auditory feedback system is essential to human vocalizing, as it organizes voice production. AIM: To assess and correlate the hearing system and the Fundamental Frequency (F0 of women who have variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive study. 30 women with a mean age of 75.95 (SD = 7,41 were included. Inclusion criteria were: symmetric sensorineural hearing loss, a high-frequency sloping configuration, and a type A tympanogram. Subjects underwent Pure Tone Audiometry, a Word Recognition Test, Tympanometry

  15. La voz de los artesanos en el Renacimiento científico: cosmógrafos y cartógrafos en el preludio de la “nueva filosofía natural”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to recover the voice of cosmographers, cartographers and navigators as artisans of science in the mid-sixteenth century. These artisans impulsed a new trend style in thinking nature, which later would be so relevant for natural philosophy. It has been argued that when speaking of modern science all natural sciences must be analyzed and not just the physical and mathematical disciplines. We should also consider the mechanistic conception of nature related to experimental philosophy, to which cartographers and cosmographers as Abraham Ortelius contributed. Starting off from Zilsel’s writings, and through the recovery of the superior artisans of the XV and XVI centuries by authors such as Rossi, Crombie, Hooykaas, and most recently Pamela H. Smith, the discussion is now focused on formulating and solving the problems of nature and the position of the emerging disciplines devoted to the visual representation of space through new cartographical methods. It is to recognize these disciplines in a common “intellectual style” that also contributed to the origins of early modern experimental science.

    En este artículo se pretende recuperar la voz de los cosmógrafos, de los navegantes y de los cartógrafos como artesanos de la ciencia que ya hacia mediados del siglo XVI iniciaron un nuevo estilo de pensar la naturaleza que más tarde interesaría a la nueva filosofía natural. Intento mantener que cuando se habla de la ciencia moderna deben analizarse todas las ciencias de la naturaleza y no sólo las disciplinas físico-matemáticas. Asimismo, deben considerarse las concepciones mecanicistas de la naturaleza emparentadas con la filosofía experimental, a la que tanto contribuyeron cartógrafos y cosmógrafos como Abraham Ortelius. Bajo la estela de los escritos de Zilsel y el rescate de los artesanos de los siglos XV y XVI por parte de autores como Rossi, Crombie, Hooykaas y, más recientemente Pamela H. Smith

  16. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na disfonia espasmódica adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  17. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  18. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  19. Musculoskeletal (MSK) and Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) in General Practice (GP): A Novel GP-based MSK and SEM Clinic for Managing Musculoskeletal symptoms in a GP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints are common within primary care (1) (2) (3) but some General Practitioners (GPs)/family physicians do not feel comfortable managing these symptoms (3), preferring to refer onto hospital specialists or Integrated Clinical Assessment and Treatment Services (ICATs). Long waiting times for hospital outpatient reviews are a major cause of patient inconvenience and complaints (4). We therefore aimed to establish a GP-ran MSK and sport and exercise medicine (SEM) clinic based within a Belfast GP surgery that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in managing these common conditions within primary care as well as reducing waiting times for patients with these conditions to see a specialist. This shift from hospital-based to community-based management is in-keeping with recent policy changes within the UK health-system, including Transforming Your Care within Northern Ireland (NI) (5). The GP-ran MSK and SEM clinic was held monthly within a Belfast GP practice, staffed by one GP with a specialist interest in MSK and SEM conditions and its performance was reviewed over a three month period. Parameters audited included cases seen, orthopaedic and x-ray referral rates and secondary care referrals comparing the GP practice's performance to the same time period in the previous year as well as patient satisfaction questionnaires.

  20. Automatic search for fMRI connectivity mapping: an alternative to Granger causality testing using formal equivalences among SEM path modeling, VAR, and unified SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G; Ram, Nilam; Rovine, Michael J

    2010-04-15

    Modeling the relationships among brain regions of interest (ROIs) carries unique potential to explicate how the brain orchestrates information processing. However, hurdles arise when using functional MRI data. Variation in ROI activity contains sequential dependencies and shared influences on synchronized activation. Consequently, both lagged and contemporaneous relationships must be considered for unbiased statistical parameter estimation. Identifying these relationships using a data-driven approach could guide theory-building regarding integrated processing. The present paper demonstrates how the unified SEM attends to both lagged and contemporaneous influences on ROI activity. Additionally, this paper offers an approach akin to Granger causality testing, Lagrange multiplier testing, for statistically identifying directional influence among ROIs and employs this approach using an automatic search procedure to arrive at the optimal model. Rationale for this equivalence is offered by explicating the formal relationships among path modeling, vector autoregression, and unified SEM. When applied to simulated data, biases in estimates which do not consider both lagged and contemporaneous paths become apparent. Finally, the use of unified SEM with the automatic search procedure is applied to an empirical data example.

  1. Experimental investigation on 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge using stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G.; Cantatore, Angela;

    2011-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation is addressed concerning 3D-SEM reconstructions obtained from the so-called stereo-pair technique. Three-dimensional topography of an object can be derived from two SEM images acquired from two different angles, through item rotation by means of the SEM s...... resorting to factorial experimentation and statistical analysis of results....

  2. BIB-SEM of representative area clay structures paving towards an alternative model of porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Houben, M.; Hemes, S.; Klaver, J.

    2012-04-01

    A major contribution to understanding the sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation in clay-rich geomaterials is based on detailed investigation of the rock microstructures. However, the direct characterization of pores in representative elementary area (REA) and below µm-scale resolution remains challenging. To investigate directly the mm- to nm-scale porosity, SEM is certainly the most direct approach, but it is limited by the poor quality of the investigated surfaces. The recent development of ion milling tools (BIB and FIB; Desbois et al, 2009, 2011; Heath et al., 2011; Keller et al., 2011) and cryo-SEM allows respectively producing exceptional high quality polished cross-sections suitable for high resolution porosity SEM-imaging at nm-scale and investigating samples under wet conditions by cryogenic stabilization. This contribution focuses mainly on the SEM description of pore microstructures in 2D BIB-polished cross-sections of Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays down to the SEM resolution. Pores detected in images are statistically analyzed to perform porosity quantification in REA. On the one hand, BIB-SEM results allow retrieving MIP measurements obtained from larger sample volumes. On the other hand, the BIB-SEM approach allows characterizing porosity-homogeneous and -predictable islands, which form the elementary components of an alternative concept of porosity/permeability model based on pore microstructures. Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4, 15-22. Desbois G., Urai J.L., Kukla P.A., Konstanty J. and Baerle C. (2011). High-resolution 3D fabric and porosity model in a tight gas sandstone reservoir: a new approach to investigate microstructures from mm- to nm-scale combining argon beam cross-sectioning and SEM imaging . Journal of Petroleum Science

  3. A Study of Electron Damage Effects During Low Voltage SEM Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pradeep K.; Jones, Susan K.; Reisman, Arnold

    1989-07-01

    Critical dimension metrology, the measurement of the dimensions of features on an integrated circuit, is a vital part of device fabrication technology. As the feature size requirements of ULSI devices continue to decrease below the practical limits of optical metrology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspection and measurement will be utilized on a more routine basis during device fabrication. In semiconductor fabrication applications, metrology techniques are typically used for groundrule verification, in-line inspection of critical layers after photoresist development and after etch, pattern definition and sidewall profile of critical patterns, and determination of etch undercut. With the introduction of submicron design rules, the more established techniques of optical metrology I are inadequate and are rapidly being supplanted by metrology performed on the SEM2. The recent availability of SEM tools which can be operated in a low accelerating voltage mode for inspection of uncleaved device wafers without conductive coatings enables implementation of SEM metrology in a manufacturing environment. Much work is being undertaken to understand the parameters involved in measurement accuracy and precision. However, since radiation exposure to devices occurs during SEM metrology, there is also cause for concern that there could be resultant degradation of the electrical properties of the devices. Degradation has been generally related to generation of fixed positive charge, neutral electron traps, and fixed negative charge in the Si02 due to exposure to ionizing radiation.

  4. Refinement of Monte Carlo simulations of electron-specimen interaction in low-voltage SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Erik; Bosch, Eric [Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-11-07

    A Monte Carlo tool is presented for the simulation of secondary electron (SE) emission in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool is based on the Geant4 platform of CERN. The modularity of this platform makes it comparatively easy to add and test individual physical models. Our aim has been to develop a flexible and generally applicable tool, while at the same time including a good description of low-energy (<50 eV) interactions of electrons with matter. To this end we have combined Mott cross-sections with phonon-scattering based cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons, and we have adopted a dielectric function theory approach for inelastic scattering and generation of SEs. A detailed model of the electromagnetic fields from an actual SEM column has been included in the tool for ray tracing of secondary and backscattered electrons. Our models have been validated against experimental results through comparison of the simulation results with experimental yields, SE spectra and SEM images. It is demonstrated that the resulting simulation package is capable of quantitatively predicting experimental SEM images and is an important tool in building a deeper understanding of SEM imaging.

  5. Soft tissue digestion of Paradiplozoon vaalense for SEM of sclerites and simultaneous molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Q M; Avenant-Oldewage, A

    2015-02-01

    Classification of most monogeneans is primarily based on size, shape, and arrangement of haptoral sclerites. These structures are often obscured or misinterpreted when studied using light microscopy, leading to confusion regarding defining characters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has predominantly been used to study haptoral sclerites in smaller monogeneans, focusing on hooks and anchors. In the Diplozoidae, SEM has not been used to study haptoral sclerites. Using new and modified techniques, the sclerites of diplozoids collected in South Africa were successfully studied using SEM. The digestion buffer from a DNA extraction kit was used to digest the surrounding tissue, and Poly-L-lysine-coated and concavity slides were employed to limit the movement and loss of sclerites, with the latter being more user-friendly. In addition to the success of visualizing the sclerites using SEM, the digested tissue from as little as half of the haptor provided viable genetic material for molecular characterization. From the results presented here, the study of the sclerites of larger monogeneans using SEM, including those bearing clamps, is a viable possibility for future research. Also, this method may be beneficial for the study of other, non-haptoral sclerites, such as cirri in other families of monogeneans. During this study, Labeo capensis was noted as a valid host of Paradiplozoon vaalense in a region of the Vaal River where the type host, Labeo umbratus, appears to be absent.

  6. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E; Købler, C; Jensen, P S; Mølhave, K

    2013-06-01

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes.

  7. Musculação, uso de esteróides anabolizantes e percepção de risco entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Body-building, steroid use, and risk perception among young body-builders from a low-income neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes em diferentes países têm apontado o aumento do consumo de esteróides anabolizantes entre jovens fisiculturistas e atletas, e os danos à saúde causados pelo seu uso indiscriminado. No Brasil, estudos sobre o uso de anabolizantes são escassos. No presente trabalho, examina-se a percepção de risco à saúde, associada ao consumo de anabolizantes, entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro pobre da cidade de Salvador. A metodologia privilegiou métodos de coleta de dados qualitativos tais como etnografia, entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupo focal com usuários de anabolizantes. Os dados produzidos descrevem as principais substâncias utilizadas e os padrões de uso, e apontam a falta de informação dos jovens entrevistados sobre a extensão dos danos à saúde decorrentes do consumo de anabolizantes, mostrando que para muitos, o desejo de desenvolver massa muscular e alcançar o corpo ideal se sobrepõe ao risco de efeitos colaterais. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de se desenvolver ações culturalmente apropriadas, voltadas para a prevenção do abuso de anabolizantes junto à essa população.Recent studies in different countries have shown an increase in anabolic steroid consumption among young people and the harm caused by indiscriminate use. In Brazil, research on steroid abuse is scarce. The present study examines the risk perception of health problems associated with anabolic steroid consumption among young working-class adults engaged in body-building practices in a poor neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia. The methodology involved an anthropological approach based on qualitative research techniques consisting of ethnography, in-depth interviews, and a focus group with steroid users. The data describe the most common substances consumed and highlight the lack of information among interviewees concerning potential related health hazards, showing that for many steroid consumers the quest for muscle

  8. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre Knowledge, perceptions, behaviors and representations of oral health of teenagers of public schools of two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite Flores

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é representada pela dor de dente, e eles não consideram a cárie como doença, porque é comum, assim como a gengivite, que é percebida como um desequilíbrio. A negligência pessoal é considerada a principal causa da cárie e da gengivite, e a motivação para realizar a higiene bucal está vinculada à sociabilização. O dentista foi indicado como responsável pelo ensinamento do uso do fio dental e pelo reforço e aperfeiçoamento da técnica de escovação. Os adolescentes demonstram disposição em transferir os conhecimentos sobre saúde que receberam para seus colegas mais jovens.The objective of this research was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, behavior and representations related to oral health of teenager students of public schools in two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre to verify the possibility of the participation of these youths as multipliers in the health assistance program. Two research instruments were used: a questionnaire and focal groups. The teenagers who participated in this research were volunteers and constituted a selected and intentional sample. The results showed that to the teenagers the tooth pain represents the illness but decay is not seen as such because it is very common as well as gingivitis, which is unevenly recognized. The personal negligence is the main cause of decay and gingivitis and the motivation to perform hygiene habits is connected to socialization. They are aware of the importance of

  9. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  10. Llenguatges de consulta en l'àmbit de la Web Semàntica : Cas d'estudi SPARQL

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Tort, Adrià

    2007-01-01

    Aquest projecte s'emmarca dintre la idea de la Web Semàntica. A la primera part introdueix progressivament al tema de la Web Semàntica fins arribar a establir la necessitat de tenir SGBDs. La segon part explota algun dels SGBDs estudiats per realitzar una aplicació web que permeti mostrar alguna aplicació de la Web Semàntica. Este proyecto se enmarca dentro de la idea de la Web Semántica. En la primera parte introduce progresivamente al tema de la Web Semántica hasta llegar a establecer la...

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of CD-SEM images for linewidth and critical dimension metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Zhang, P; Ding, Z J

    2013-01-01

    In semiconductor industry, strict critical dimension control by using a critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) is an extremely urgent task in near-term years. A Monte Carlo simulation model for study of CD-SEM image has been established, which is based on using Mott's cross section for electron elastic scattering and the full Penn dielectric function formalism for electron inelastic scattering and the associated secondary electron (SE) production. In this work, a systematic calculation of CD-SEM line-scan profiles and 2D images of trapezoidal Si lines has been performed by taking into account different experimental factors including electron beam condition (primary energy, probe size), line geometry (width, height, foot/corner rounding, sidewall angle, and roughness), material properties, and SE signal detection. The influences of these factors to the critical dimension metrology are investigated, leading to build a future comprehensive model-based library. PMID:22887037

  12. Application of the SEM to the measurement of solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, V. G.; Andrews, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A pair of techniques are described which make use of the SEM to measure, respectively, the minority carrier diffusion length and the metallurgical junction depth in silicon solar cells. The former technique permits the measurement of the true bulk diffusion length through the application of highly doped field layers to the back surfaces of the cells being investigated. The technique yields an absolute value of the diffusion length from a knowledge of the collected fraction of the injected carriers and the cell thickness. It is shown that the secondary emission contrast observed in the SEM on a reverse-biased diode can depict the location of the metallurgical junction if the diode has been prepared with the proper beveled geometry. The SEM provides the required contrast and the option of high magnification, permitting the measurement of extremely shallow junction depths.

  13. Application of Replica Technique and SEM in Accuracy Measurement of Ceramic Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifkovic, B.; Budak, I.; Todorovic, A.; Hodolic, J.; Puskar, T.; Jevremovic, D.; Vukelic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the measuring values of the marginal gap related to the ceramic crowns made by dental CAD/CAM system using the replica technique and SEM. The study was conducted using three experimental groups, which consisted of ceramic crowns manufactured by the Cerec CAD/CAM system. The scanning procedure was carried out using three specialized dental 3D digitization systems from the Cerec family - two types of extraoral optical scanning systems and an intraoral optical scanner. Measurements of the marginal gap were carried out using the replica technique and SEM. The comparison of aggregate values of the marginal gap using the replica technique showed a statistically significant difference between the systems. The measured values of marginal gaps of ceramic crowns using the replica technique were significantly lower compared to those measured by SEM. The results indicate that the choice of technique for measuring the accuracy of ceramic crowns influences the final results of investigation.

  14. Recuperación de información en la Web Semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Vallet Weadon, David Jordi; Fernández Sánchez, Miriam; Castells, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Artículo FINALISTA del I Premio Novática La búsqueda semántica ha sido una de las motivaciones principales de la Web Semántica desde sus inicios. En este artículo proponemos un modelo para la explotación de bases de conocimiento orientadas a ontologías para mejorar la búsqueda en grandes repositorios documentales. El modelo de recuperación se basa en una adaptación del modelo vectorial clásico, con un método para la asignación de pesos a la anotación semántica de documentos, y un algori...

  15. Co-evolución entre la Web Social y la Web Semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego

    2014-01-01

    La Web Social y la Web Semántica han impactado en la forma en que la creación de conocimiento se ha llevado a cabo en la Web. La Web Social promociona la participación de los usuarios para crear y editar contenido y conocimiento en la Web. La proliferación de contenido y la necesidad de tener una administración automatizada de esta información disparó la aparición de la Web Semántica. Actualmente, la Web Social y la Web Semántica conviven y comparten un mismo tema: un mejor manejo del conocim...

  16. XML y web semántica : Comparativa entre OWLIM y Virtuoso

    OpenAIRE

    Jaén Ruiz-Rozas, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha tratado de explicar de manera sencilla qué es la web semántica y cuáles son sus objetivos. Después se ha realizado una aproximación a los antecedentes de la web semántica y por último se ha hecho una descripción de sus componentes, de su arquitectura y del estado actual de la misma. In this work it has explained, in a simple way, what semantic web main goals are. En aquest treball s'ha tractat d'explicar de manera senzilla què és la web semàntica i quins són els se...

  17. Magatzems de dades en el context de la web semàntica

    OpenAIRE

    Mañá Aragay, Mònica

    2012-01-01

    L'objecte del projecte és estudiar en profunditat els sistemes gestors de bases de dates en l'àmbit de la web semàntica. Aquests sistemes són gestors de bases de dades especialitzats en l'emmagatzematge i tractament de dades semàntiques, tot tenint en compte les peculiaritats d'aquestes. Per tal d'aprofundir en la matèria, el projecte es divideix en dues parts principals. En la primera es recerca l'estat de l'art, fent un estudi comparatiu entre els magatzems semàntics més coneguts en l'actua...

  18. Combined AC-STEM and FIB-SEM Characterization of Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Kotula, P.; Yoon, H.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    We examine shale samples with state-of-the-art aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM) and focused ion beam-scanning electron (FIB-SEM) microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pore space incorporates electron tomography using the AC-TEM and serial sectioning by FIB-SEM. Chemical analysis by X-ray energy dispersive microscopy reveals composition of pore-lining phases at ~ 1 nm resolution. Our methods reveal the left tail of the pore size distribution that FIB-SEM techniques typically do not capture (pore sizes response. The impact of these small pores on fluid and coupled tracer transport is examined by computation fluid dynamics using 3D pore reconstructions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation. - Highlights: • Four procedures of the preservation of starch gels for SEM studies were applied. • The ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. • Dose dependent changes in the gel structure were discovered. • It was related to decrease in the swelling power and decreased viscosity of the gels. • A hot-stage microscope was applied in order to follow the gelatinization process

  20. Analiza GSR čestica upotrebom elektronskog mikroskopa (SEM/EDX)

    OpenAIRE

    Mršić, Gordan; Žugaj, Saša

    2008-01-01

    Razvojem znanosti i globalnim tehnološkim napretkom upotreba suvremenih uređaja u forenzici postala je neizbježna i svakodnevna. Primjena pretražnog (skenirajućeg) elektronskog mikroskopa (SEM-a) najvažnije je unapređenje na polju forenzičkog ispitivanja vatrenog oružja od pronalaska velikog forenzičkog komparativnog mikroskopa. Analiza tragova pucanja (GSR čestica) s skenirajućim elektronskim mikroskopom i energodisperzivnim detektorom X-zraka (SEM/EDX), jedna je od najpouzdanijih metoda. An...

  1. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  2. Marginal adaptation of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite: A SEM-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Bindslev, Preben Hørsted; Poulsen, Sven;

    2012-01-01

    shrinkage, has been marketed. Objective. To investigate whether reduced polymerization shrinkage improves the marginal adaptation of composite restorations. Material and methods. A total of 156 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures (78 baseline, 78 follow-up) of the occlusal part of Class II......-casts of the restorations were used for SEM pictures at x 16 magnification. Pictures from baseline and follow-up (398 days, SD 29 days) were randomized and the examiner was blinded to the material and the age of the restoration. Stereologic measurements were used to calculate the length and the width of the marginal...

  3. Weighted statistics for unevenly spaced SEM-grids on Linac4 line.

    CERN Document Server

    Granemann Souza, E; Lombardi, A; Comblin, J-F

    2013-01-01

    A beam profile may be measured in several ways [1]. Independent of the method chosen, the agreement between the simulation and measurements need to be accurate enough to minimize errors. In order to improve this comparison, we introduce new beam size estimators based in weighted statistics. We show that, for the situations in which the SEM-grid wires are unevenly spaced, the weighted standard deviation reveal us as an efficient alternative for determine the beam rms size. These theoretical predictions, implemented in the java application Linac4 SEM-grids 1.0, are than compared with measurements of the Linac4 line showing the pros and cons together with Gaussian fittings.

  4. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondow, N.; Harrington, J.; Brydson, R.; Brown, A.

    2012-07-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  5. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  6. BIB-SEM of Representative Area Clay Structures: Insights and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIB polishing in combination with SEM imaging is used to study the pore microstructures and -fabrics in clay-rich host-rocks on 2D mm2 flat and undamaged CS with resolutions down to a few nanometers in REA. BIB-SEM approach allows both qualitative and quantitative investigations of porosity and targeting for nano-FIB tomography. These results in the characterization of porosity-homogeneous and -predictable islands, which form the elementary components of an alternative concept of porosity/permeability model based on pore microstructures. (authors)

  7. Studies of beam heating of proton beam profile monitor SEM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovich, Zarko; Osiecki, Thomas H.; Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

    2005-05-01

    The authors present calculations of the expected temperature rise of proton beam profile monitors due to beam heating. The profile monitors are secondary emission monitors (SEM's) to be made of Titanium foils. The heating is studied to understand whether there is any loss of tension or alignment of such devices. Additionally, calculations of thermally-induced dynamic stress are presented. Ti foil is compared to other materials and also to wire SEM's. The calculations were initially performed for the NuMI beam, where the per-pulse intensity is quite high; for completeness the calculations are also performed for other beam energies and intensities.

  8. Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Petersson, P. [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-VR, Royal Institute of Technology KTH (Sweden); Likonen, J. [Association EURATOM-TEKES, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Association EURATOM-VR, Uppsala Universitet, Box 256, Uppsala 75105 (Sweden); Widdowson, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques.

  9. Comparison of critical dimension measurements of a mask inspection system with a CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Jan P.; Ullrich, Albrecht; Utzny, Clemens S.; Meusemann, Stefan; Kromer, Frank; Whittey, John M.; Garcia, Edgardo; Wagner, Mark; Schmidt, Norbert J.

    2012-11-01

    Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is an important parameter for photomask and wafer manufacturing. In order to reduce long-range CD variation, compensation techniques for mask writers and scanners have been developed. Both techniques require mask CD measurements with high spatial sampling. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), which provide CD measurements at very high precision, cannot in practice provide the required spatial sampling due to their low speed. In contrast mask inspection systems, some of which have the ability to perform optical CD measurements with very high sampling frequencies, are an interesting alternative. In this paper we evaluate the CDU measurement results with those of a CD-SEM.

  10. The SemSearchXplorer - exploring semantic search results with semantic visualizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ullmann, Thomas Daniel; Uren, Victoria; Nikolov, Andriy

    2009-01-01

    SemSearchXplorer is a toolkit for the exploration of semantic data. The goal is to lower user barriers to access information in semantic data repositories. Therefore SemSearchXplorer supports the user in three respects: (1) it supports querying of the semantic data with a keyword based approach, so the users do not need to learn a semantic query language, (2) it helps users find relevant results both by using semantic enriched information about the results and semantic filter options to narro...

  11. La Web Semántica Como Herramienta para el Apoyo a la Docencia

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Higinio; Azorin-Lopez, Jorge; Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Sanchez-Romero, Jose-Luis; Pujol, Francisco A.; García Rodríguez, José; Serra Pérez, José Antonio; Morell Giménez, Vicente; Rives Pérez, Manuel Francisco; Saval Calvo, Marcelo; Garcia-Garcia, Alberto; Orts Escolano, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    La web semántica consiste en un nuevo paradigma web para acceder, buscar, compartir y gestionar información a través de la combinación de tecnologías y de estructuras de gestión del conocimiento. El concepto de web semántica proporciona herramientas para el almacenamiento, intercambio y consulta de esta información mediante el desarrollo y la inclusión de metadatos y ontologías del cuerpo de conocimiento. La estructura de los datos que proporciona permite que sea consultada automáticamente po...

  12. Impacto de la información semántica en la usabilidad web

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Pablo Martín; Giulianelli, Daniel Alberto; Rodríguez, Rocío Andrea

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra una iniciativa para promover y aprovechar el uso de la información semántica en los sitios web desde el punto de vista de la usabilidad del usuario. Permitiéndoles realizar acciones de forma más natural de acuerdo al contenido de la página que esté visitando. Además se aborda el tema de la complejidad que existe actualmente para incorporar la información semántica en los sitios y se presentan alternativas a los complejos formatos como OWL y RDF.

  13. Drupal 7: Web Semántica al alcance de todos.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Se ofrece una visión de Drupal 7 como una framework de desarrollo de aplicaciones para la Web Semántica. Para ello se describen los aspectos más relevantes de las tecnologías asociadas a la Web Semántica y la dinámica para definir en Drupal Tipos de Contenidos que se mapean con elementos de vocabularios RDF, así como la inclusión de código RDFa.

  14. Anotación semántica de Web Feature Services

    OpenAIRE

    Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Saquicela, V.; Corcho, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Los servicios WFS permiten recuperar información geográfica de features. La anotación semántica de estos servicios proporciona beneficios en tareas relacionadas con el descubrimiento, composición y mediación de servicios. La principal contribución de este trabajo consiste en proponer un proceso para la automatización de la anotación semántica de servicios WFS. Para estas anotaciones se utilizan diversos recursos, tales como: ontologías y conjuntos de datos presentes en la nube de Linked Data...

  15. Sealing Capability and SEM Observation of the Implant-Abutment Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Lorenzoni

    2011-01-01

    water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (<.05 and Tukey's test. Marginal fit was determined using SEM. Leakage was observed for both groups at all times and was significantly higher at 144 hrs. SEM analysis depicted gaps in the implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.

  16. Semantic Technologies in Learning and Teaching (SemTech) - JISC Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tiropanis, Thanassis; Davis, Hugh; Millard, David; Weal, Mark; White, Su; Wills, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and discusses the findings of the SemTech (Semantic Technologies for Learning and Teaching) project that was funded by JISC and commenced its activities in September 2008. SemTech addressed the following questions: • What are semantic technologies? • Which tools that make use of semantic technologies are, or could be, relevant to education? • What is the actual use of semantic tools and services in UK HE and FE? • What is the value of such tools in the context of learning...

  17. 石英SEM-CL微结构及其在岩石学中的应用%SEM-CL Analysis of Quartz and Its Application in Petrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳青; 佘振兵; 马昌前

    2011-01-01

    Recent applications of Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodo Luminescene (SEM-CL) technique in petrology are summarized. Observations of quartz using CL detectors attached to SEM with high magnification and resolution have shown various microstructures, such as dark streaks, patches, healed fractures, zoning, shears, planar features, etc., which are invisible under traditional petrographic microcopes. These microstructures are diagnostic for detrital quartz of different origins. Quartz in hydrothermal and magmatic rocks reveals penetration, recrystalization and dissolution textures, indicating multi-generation growths and modifications and physicochemical conditions under which they are formed. Therefore, the new technique applies to studies of sedimentary provenance, petrogenesis, and magnatic and mineralization processes.%综述了国外扫描电镜一阴极发光(SEM-CL)成像技术在岩石学研究中的应用实例.采用阴极发光探测器和扫描电镜结合的方法对石英等矿物进行观察,可以在高放大倍数和高分辨率下获得其他方法所无法揭示的丰富的微结构信息,如暗条痕和斑块、愈合裂纹、环带、复杂剪切纹、面状结构等,这些不同的微结构成为不同类型岩石中所特有的特征,因此,对沉积岩物源示踪具有较重要的参考价值.宕浆岩及热液石英中所显示的穿播结构、溶解结构、重结晶结构反映矿物多期生长和改造过程,指示岩石形成的物理和化学条件,为岩石成因探讨、岩浆演化以及成矿过程等方面的研究提供重要依据.同时,SEM-CL图像可以清晰地揭示沉积岩中石英胶结物的生长过程,从而为沉积岩的成岩历史提供了重要信息.

  18. Giardiasis in children and dogs from the same household and from the suburbs of Lages, southern Brazil Giardíase em crianças e cães do mesmo domicílio e de bairros periféricos de Lages, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Miquelluti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the giardiasis prevalence and the association between infection in children and dogs sharing the same household in six neighborhoods located in the suburbs of Lages, southern Brazil. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 105 children and 105 dogs living in the same household. The children, aged between zero and 12 years, were attended in health centers accredited with the Family Health Team Program in six neighborhoods from July to November 2005. Stool samples were processed using the zinc sulfate flotation centrifugation method. The data were analyzed by Pearson’s chi-square test (2 with a 5% significance level. Results: The giardiasis prevalence was 20% (21 for the children and 18% (19 for the dogs. The concordance of positive test results between children and dogs amounted to 18% (19 (χ2 = 10.86 and p=0.00098. Regarding the children’s ages (χ2 =2.64 and p=0.7552 and according to the logistic regression (p=0.684, the percentage of positive/negative children remained unchanged. The odds ratio shows that a child living in a household with Giardia-positive dogs is 5.5 times more likely to be infected than a child who lives under the same roof with Giardia-negative dogs. Conclusion: A high prevalence of Giardia was found among the investigated children and dogs. Dogs must be submitted to parasitological tests on a routine basis and treated so that they do not infect other dogs, or family members.Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de giardíase e a relação entre a infecção em crianças e cães do mesmo domicílio, de seis bairros da periferia de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: O estudo foi transversal, com amostragem de 105 crianças e 105 cães do mesmo domicílio. As crianças que participaram da pesquisa, com idade entre zero e doze anos, foram atendidas em postos de saúde do Programa de Equipes de Saúde da Família (ESF de seis bairros

  19. A viagem das histórias: da voz ao livro, do livro à voz, da voz ao palco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Fox

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a project conducted in southwest England, now in its third year, based on oral retellings of different ancient myths and contemporary literature in schools, aimed at the recreation of the stories by children on stage. The author explores four main aspects of the children's involvement with narrated stories. The first is their deep belief in stories told orally, which is understood as rich ground for future work, whether it is writing, visual artwork, or as in this case, the creation of a new piece of drama. The second aspect is memorability, specially valuable in the context of a play-making project that needs to involve every child in mixed ability classes, going beyond conventional academic ability. The third aspect is the story power to promote the inventiveness of children, particularly if they can count on a teacher who listens to, prompts and encourages them to recreate the stories. The last aspect is a sense of community, which involves a shared ownership of the story: from responsive teaching, comes children’s confidence and desire to help each other develop theatre through language, movement, costume, music and visual art. The article concludes emphasizing that children's abilities to believe, remember, invent and create communities - abilities that listening to and playing with stories in school settings help promote - are crucial to their literary and aesthetic experience in a broader sense.

  20. Latent vs. Observed Variables : Analysis of Irrigation Water Efficiency Using SEM and SUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare conceptualising single factor technical and allocative efficiency as indicators of a single latent variable, or as separate observed variables. In the former case, the impacts on both efficiency types are analysed by means of structural equationmodeling (SEM), in the latter

  1. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  2. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Købler, Carsten; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye;

    2013-01-01

    substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition...

  3. Why Isn't Talent Development on the IEP? SEM and the Twice Exceptional Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Susan; Novak, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Why isn't talent development included on the Individual Educational Plan of 2E students? Twice exceptional students have unique issues that respond especially well to a talent development approach especially within the context of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model. Through case studies and a review of successful projects using SEM with at risk…

  4. Hacia una visión generativista de la semántica lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales A. Bernardo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Uno de los objetivos de la teoría semántica de una lengua natural es dar información satisfactoria sobre el significado de las formas lingüísticas. Consideramos que de éstas, las de mayor  importancia significativa son la palabra, la oración y el texto. La palabra, porque en virtud de su compleja estructura semántica y psicológica funciona como el principal medio para la abstracción y conformación de los conceptos destinados para la comunicación; la oración, porque es la unidad de la lengua viva que expresa relaciones de conceptos; el texto, porque es la explicitación del pensamiento en la interacción humana. Las semánticas lexical, oracional y textual son los tres grandes capítulos de la semántica lingüística.


  5. Human cardiac telocytes: 3D imaging by FIB-SEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretoiu, D; Hummel, E; Zimmermann, H; Gherghiceanu, M; Popescu, L M

    2014-11-01

    Telocyte (TC) is a newly identified type of cell in the cardiac interstitium (www.telocytes.com). TCs are described by classical transmission electron microscopy as cells with very thin and long telopodes (Tps; cellular prolongations) having podoms (dilations) and podomers (very thin segments). TCs' three-dimensional (3D) morphology is still unknown. Cardiac TCs seem to be particularly involved in long and short distance intercellular signalling and, therefore, their 3D architecture is important for understanding their spatial connections. Using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we show, for the first time, the whole ultrastructural anatomy of cardiac TCs. 3D reconstruction of cardiac TCs by FIB-SEM tomography confirms that they have long, narrow but flattened (ribbon-like) telopodes, with humps generated by the podoms. FIB-SEM tomography also confirms the network made by TCs in the cardiac interstitium through adherens junctions. This study provides the first FIB-SEM tomography of a human cell type.

  6. Are the evidences of forensic entomology preserved in ethanol suitable for SEM studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esclapez, Raquel; García, María-Dolores; Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Presa, Juan José; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    In forensic practice, the use of arthropod evidences to estimate the postmortem interval is a very good approach when the elapsed time from death is long, but it requires the correct identification of the specimens. This is a crucial step, not always easy to achieve, in particular when dealing with immature specimens. In this case, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) can be useful, but the techniques used to preserve specimens in forensic practice are usually different from those used to prepare specimens for SEM studies. To determine whether forensic evidences preserving techniques are also compatible with SEM analysis, we have compared specimens of all the immature stages of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) preserved in 70% ethanol, with others prepared with aldehydic fixative techniques that are more appropriate for SEM studies. At the same time, two drying techniques have also been compared with both fixative techniques, the critical point drying and air-drying following with hexamethyldisilizane treatment (HMDS). Our results indicate that there are not basis against recommending the use of ethanol to preserve forensic entomological evidences and that both drying methods appear to offer good results for second and third instar larvae, although HMDS behaves better with eggs and pupae.

  7. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  8. Morphological modelling of three-phase microstructures of anode layers using SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Bassam; Willot, François; Jeulin, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    A general method is proposed to model 3D microstructures representative of three-phases anode layers used in fuel cells. The models are based on SEM images of cells with varying morphologies. The materials are first characterized using three morphological measurements: (cross-)covariances, granulometry and linear erosion. They are measured on segmented SEM images, for each of the three phases. Second, a generic model for three-phases materials is proposed. The model is based on two independent underlying random sets which are otherwise arbitrary. The validity of this model is verified using the cross-covariance functions of the various phases. In a third step, several types of Boolean random sets and plurigaussian models are considered for the unknown underlying random sets. Overall, good agreement is found between the SEM images and three-phases models based on plurigaussian random sets, for all morphological measurements considered in the present work: covariances, granulometry and linear erosion. The spatial distribution and shapes of the phases produced by the plurigaussian model are visually very close to the real material. Furthermore, the proposed models require no numerical optimization and are straightforward to generate using the covariance functions measured on the SEM images.

  9. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Purushotham, Kavuri P

    2014-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become indispensable for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The improvements have significantly enriched and augmented the overall SEM performance and have made the instrument far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation also might lead, through operator complacency, to poor results. In addition, the user friendliness has seemingly reduced the need for thorough operator training for using these complex instruments. One might then conclude that the SEM is just a very expensive digital camera or another peripheral device for a computer. Hence, a person using the instrument may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, this may not be the case. An earlier paper (Part 1), discussed some of the potential issues related to signal generation in the SEM, instrument calibration, electron beam interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms. All these were summed together in a discussion of how these issues effect measurements made with the instrument. This second paper discusses another major issue confronting the microscopist: electron-beam-induced specimen contamination. Over the years, NIST has done a great deal of research into the issue of sample contamination and its removal and elimination and some of this work is reviewed and discussed here.

  10. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching.

  11. Does your SEM really tell the truth?--How would you know? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2013-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become a critical tool for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The high resolution of the SEM is especially suited for both qualitative and quantitative applications especially for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. Quantitatively, measurement, or metrology is one of the main uses. It is likely that one of the first questions asked before even the first scanning electron micrograph was ever recorded was: "… how big is that?" The quality of that answer has improved a great deal over the past few years especially since today these instruments are being used as a primary measurement tool on semiconductor processing lines to monitor the manufacturing processes. The well-articulated needs of semiconductor production prompted a rapid evolution of the instrument and its capabilities. Over the past 20 years or so, instrument manufacturers, through substantial semiconductor industry investment of research and development (R&D) money, have vastly improved the performance of these instruments. All users have benefited from this investment, especially where quantitative measurements with an SEM are concerned. But, how good are these data? This article discusses some of the most important aspects and larger issues associated with imaging and measurements with the SEM that every user should know, and understand before any critical quantitative work is attempted.

  12. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  13. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  14. Abstracting and reasoning over ship trajectories and web data with the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. van Hage; V. Malaisé; G.K.D. de Vries; A.Th. Schreiber; M.W. van Someren

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between low-level features and semantics is a problem commonly acknowledged in the Multimedia community. Event modeling can fill this gap by representing knowledge about the data at different level of abstraction. In this paper we present the Simple Event Model (SEM) and its applica

  15. Combining ship trajectories and semantics with the simple event model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. van Hage; V. Malaisé; G. de Vries; G. Schreiber; M. van Someren

    2009-01-01

    Bridging the gap between low-level features and semantics is a problem commonly acknowledged in the Multimedia community. Event modeling can fill the gap. In this paper we present the Simple Event Model (SEM) and its application in a Maritime Safety and Security use case about Situational Awareness.

  16. Evolucionismo, integración sociocognitiva y cambio semántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Soares da Silva

    2014-03-01

    propagación son esencialmente sociales. Conocer qué factores cognitivos interactúan con los sociales en el proceso de cambio semántico y lingüístico en general es todavía un reto importante en el enfoque evolutivo del cambio lingüístico.

  17. Internetový marketing se zaměřením na SEO a SEM

    OpenAIRE

    HANUŠOVÁ, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The thesis defines and describes tools of Internet marketing. Within the frame of these tools it describes search engine marketing and website search engine optimization in detail. This information is presented in context of real e-shop and it focuses on SEO and SEM tools in real use.

  18. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification - a case study on dental surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glon, F.; Flys, O.; Lööf, P.-J.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-03-01

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales.

  19. 78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005; OMB Control Number 1014-0017: 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed Collection; Comment Request Correction In notice document...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  1. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  2. Marginal integrity and microleakage of direct and indirect composite inlays: SEM and stereomicroscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Celiberto, Leonardo; Dechichi, Paula; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of direct and indirect composite inlays by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty bovine incisors were ground to obtain an incisal platform, simulating the occlusal surface of a human molar. Each tooth received two 8 degrees proximal cavities with cervical finishing line prepared in dentine or enamel. One of the cavities was filled with Filtek Z250/Single Bond, using the direct technique, and the other was filled with with Solidex/Rely X ARC/Single Bond, using the indirect technique. The samples were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and placed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 6 hours in a dark container. Next, the samples were washed under running water, immersed in a developing solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 12 hours. The teeth were then severed and evaluated for dye penetration by stereomicroscopy and SEM. There were no significant differences between the direct and indirect techniques for the cervical finishing line in enamel, but for the finishing line in dentin, the indirect technique allowed less microleakage than the direct technique. SEM analysis showed leakage similar to that observed by stereomicroscopic analysis. The use of stereomicroscopic and SEM evaluations improves microleakage analysis. PMID:16491259

  3. The Application of SEM to Behavioral Research in Oncology: Past Accomplishments and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Manne, Sharon L.

    2004-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous growth in the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) to address research questions in 2 subfields of behavioral science: cancer prevention and control (e.g., determinants of cancer screening adherence) and behavioral oncology (e.g., determinants of psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients or…

  4. Lessons Learned from My Students: The Impact of SEM Teaching and Learning on Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Through reflection on his years as an enrichment teacher in Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) programs, the author describes significant ways the social and emotional development of his students was shaped by their involvement in enriched teaching and learning. Through portraits of his students engaged in Type II and Type III enrichment, the…

  5. Aexia sem agrafia: estudo clínico-tomográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Batista da Silva

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os achados clínicos e tomográficos de dois casos de alexia sem agrafia e fazem revisão da literatura. Os dois pacientes tiveram infarto extenso em território da artéria cerebral posterior esquerda, desenvolvendo severa alexia, sem agrafia, com distúrbios do campo visual à direita, sem anomia para cores, um deles manifestando transitórias dificuldades mnésicas verbais. Nos dois casos a evolução foi muito boa com regressão total da alexia, constatada 17 meses depois no primeiro caso e três meses após no segundo caso. São feitas considerações sobre as causas e os prováveis mecanismos das alexias, sobretudo da alexia sem agrafia, e a sugestão de que todos os pacientes com alterações hemianópticas à direita por oclusão da artéria cerebral posterior esquerda sejam bem estudados neurologicamente a fim de que essa síndrome possa ser detectada pois, apesar de rara, é possível que muitos casos passem desapercebidos por falta de mais acurada investigação semiótica.

  6. Implicações do efeito Lombard sobre a intensidade, freqüência fundamental e estabilidade da voz de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson Lombard's effect's implication in intensity, fundamental frequency and stability on the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araken Quedas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Parkinson afeta o sistema nervoso central resultando em alterações qualitativas da voz que pouco melhoram com o tratamento farmacológico e com a fonoterapia tradicional. Estudos mostram que o mascaramento auditivo leva ao aumento da intensidade da voz em indivíduos normais (Efeito Lombard. OBJETIVO: Avaliar implicações do efeito Lombard sobre a intensidade, freqüência fundamental e estabilidade da voz de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson (N=17. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo clínico e experimental. Material e Métodos: Através de análise acústica, avaliamos as alterações de intensidade e freqüência fundamental, antes e depois da exposição a mascaramento auditivo "white noise", em 40, 70 e 90 dBNS, bem como as variações durante cada emissão e comparamos com um grupo controle (N=16. RESUTADOS: A intensidade de emissão vocal variou de acordo com a intensidade de mascaramento, tendendo a aumento não-linear, ocorrendo também nos grupos Parkinson e controle, não sendo influenciado pelo sexo. A freqüência fundamental da emissão vocal variou, tendendo a aumento não-linear, em ambos os grupos e sexos. Ocorreu melhora da estabilidade, tanto com relação à freqüência quanto à intensidade de emissão vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O Efeito Lombard elevou a intensidade e freqüência fundamental e melhorou a estabilidade da voz desses pacientes.Parkinson's disease affects the central nervous system resulting in voice quality alterations. It is typically resistant to drug therapy and often persists despite extensive behavioural speech and language therapy. Previous findings show that masking noise will produce a consistent increase in voice intensity in most normal individuals (Lombard's effect. AIM: we evaluated Lombard's effect's implication in intensity, fundamental frequency and stability on the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease (N=17. MATERIAL AND METHODS: through acoustic analysis, we evaluated intensity

  7. Voz do cantor lírico e coordenação motora: uma intervenção baseada em Piret e Béziers Lyric singer voice and motor coordination: an intervention based on Piret and Béziers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da aplicação de um Programa de Desenvolvimento da Coordenação Motora, baseado em Piret e Béziers, na voz do cantor lírico. MÉTODOS: Cinco cantores líricos profissionais executaram uma ária de ópera, de livre escolha, que foi filmada. Em seguida responderam a uma questão sobre a propriocepção ao cantar. Durante um mês submeteram-se ao Programa de Desenvolvimento da Coordenação Motora e ao final gravaram novamente a mesma ária e responderam a mesma questão. As filmagens foram enviadas para nove juizes profissionais (três fonoaudiólogos, três fisioterapeutas e três professores de canto que avaliaram a integração corpo e voz dos cantores por meio de análise perceptivo-auditiva e visual. Os cantores, após assistirem às duas filmagens, fizeram outra auto-avaliação. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação dos juízes: as duas sopranos, a mezzo-soprano e o baixo melhoraram a projeção da voz; o tenor melhorou a ressonância e o baixo melhorou também a respiração; com exceção do baixo todos ficaram com os gestos mais livres. Segundo relato dos cantores, os exercícios garantiram maior percepção da tensão muscular durante o canto e isso possibilitou melhor controle dos gestos. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a avaliação subjetiva os ajustes posturais, oriundos da execução dos exercícios da coordenação motora, provavelmente garantiram abertura da caixa torácica e melhoraram as condições da respiração dos cantores, durante o canto; este fato pode ter favorecido a verticalização da ressonância e a projeção da voz.PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the application of a Motor Coordination Development Program, based on Piret and Béziers, on the voice of lyric singers. METHODS: Five professional lyric singers performed an opera aria of their choice, which was filmed. Next, they answered a question regarding their proprioception when singing. They were submitted to the Motor Coordination

  8. FIB-SEM imaging of carbon nanotubes in mouse lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Købler, Carsten; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla; Qvortrup, Klaus; Mølhave, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    Ultrastructural characterisation is important for understanding carbon nanotube (CNT) toxicity and how the CNTs interact with cells and tissues. The standard method for this involves using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, in particular, the sample preparation, using a microtome to cut thin sample sections for TEM, can be challenging for investigation of regions with agglomerations of large and stiff CNTs because the CNTs cut with difficulty. As a consequence, the sectioning diamond knife may be damaged and the uncut CNTs are left protruding from the embedded block surface excluding them from TEM analysis. To provide an alternative to ultramicrotomy and subsequent TEM imaging, we studied focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) of CNTs in the lungs of mice, and we evaluated the applicability of the method compared to TEM. FIB-SEM can provide serial section volume imaging not easily obtained with TEM, but it is time-consuming to locate CNTs in the tissue. We demonstrate that protruding CNTs after ultramicrotomy can be used to locate the region of interest, and we present FIB-SEM images of CNTs in lung tissue. FIB-SEM imaging was applied to lung tissue from mice which had been intratracheally instilled with two different multiwalled CNTs; one being short and thin, and the other longer and thicker. FIB-SEM was found to be most suitable for detection of the large CNTs (Ø ca. 70 nm), and to be well suited for studying CNT agglomerates in biological samples which is challenging using standard TEM techniques.

  9. High resolution SEM imaging of gold nanoparticles in cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A; Soroka, Y; Frušić-Zlotkin, M; Popov, I; Kohen, R

    2014-12-01

    The growing demand of gold nanoparticles in medical applications increases the need for simple and efficient characterization methods of the interaction between the nanoparticles and biological systems. Due to its nanometre resolution, modern scanning electron microscopy (SEM) offers straightforward visualization of metallic nanoparticles down to a few nanometre size, almost without any special preparation step. However, visualization of biological materials in SEM requires complicated preparation procedure, which is typically finished by metal coating needed to decrease charging artefacts and quick radiation damage of biomaterials in the course of SEM imaging. The finest conductive metal coating available is usually composed of a few nanometre size clusters, which are almost identical to the metal nanoparticles employed in medical applications. Therefore, SEM monitoring of metal nanoparticles within cells and tissues is incompatible with the conventional preparation methods. In this work, we show that charging artefacts related to non-conductive biological specimen can be successfully eliminated by placing the uncoated biological sample on a conductive substrate. By growing the cells on glass pre-coated with a chromium layer, we were able to observe the uptake of 10 nm gold nanoparticles inside uncoated and unstained macrophages and keratinocytes cells. Imaging in back scattered electrons allowed observation of gold nanoparticles located inside the cells, while imaging in secondary electron gave information on gold nanoparticles located on the surface of the cells. By mounting a skin cross-section on an improved conductive holder, consisting of a silicon substrate coated with copper, we were able to observe penetration of gold nanoparticles of only 5 nm size through the skin barrier in an uncoated skin tissue. The described method offers a convenient modification in preparation procedure for biological samples to be analyzed in SEM. The method provides high

  10. AxiSEM and instaseis: Fast simulation of global wavefields across the frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, T.; van Driel, M.; Krischer, L.; Stähler, S. C.; Hosseini, K.; Leng, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present our seismic modeling methods AxiSEM and instaseis. These methods exploit recent developments in high-performance computing and suitable numerical methods for seismic wave propagation, while operating efficiently across the vast observable frequency spectrum of global waves in sparse yet realistic structures. AxiSEM (www.axisem.info and geodynamics.org) relies upon axisymmetric (including spherically symmetric) models, thereby satisfying a large fraction of observable data. The benefit of this method lies in the resultant dimensional collapse to two numerical dimensions, whereby the third azimuthal dimension is tackled analytically. For high-frequency wave propagation, this leads to 3-4 orders of magnitude speedup in computational cost compared to 3D domain discretizations. AxiSEM is highly scalable and accommodates efficient implementations of viscoelasticity and anisotropy. We will present benchmarks, data comparisons, a diverse range of applications from inner-core anisotropy to noise modeling and lowermost mantle structures, and wavefields for sensitivity kernels. We also touch upon ongoing efforts for linking computational cost to structural complexity in the vein of Occam's razor, eventually allowing for an adaptive rendition of 1D, 2D and 3D structures at optimally low computational cost, as well as 1D/3D hybrid approaches. Instaseis (www.instaseis.net) is a methodology to extract full, broadband and accurate waveforms instantaneously from wavefield databases computed with AxiSEM. This "once-and-for-all solution" relies on reciprocity and requires only two AxiSEM simulations to construct the databases, while allowing for arbitrary parameter changes (e.g. source, processing, structure) instantaneously with modest computational cost and storage requirements. The instaseis python package is integrated with ObsPy, contains a graphical user interface, and can be used for source inversion, noise simulations, finite-fault modeling, waveform tomography

  11. ALGUMAS ABORDAGENS PARA O ESTUDO DA VOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Moreira Mendes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline a pathway about how the subject of the voice was treated from Classical Rhetoric, through some Linguistics theories, such as Structural Linguistics and Phonostylistics, and ending in the interdisciplinary field proposed by Parret (2002 called Phonoaesthetics. Briefly, it is a small state of the art on the theme of the voice from these disciplines.

  12. Disseny d'ontologia i anàlisi comparatiu de bases de dades semàntiques

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Sandoval, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Introducció als conceptes bàsics de la web semàntica, disseny d'una ontologia original i anàlisi comparatiu de dos magatzems de dades semàntics: VirtuosoDB i OWLIM. Introducción a los conceptos básicos de la web semántica, diseño de una ontología original y análisis comparativo de dos almacenes de datos semánticos: VirtuosoDB y OWLIM. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Semantic Web.

  13. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H2N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm−1. UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument

  14. OpenCV-Based Nanomanipulation Information Extraction and the Probe Operation in SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the established telenanomanipulation system, the method of extracting location information and the strategies of probe operation were studied in this paper. First, the machine learning algorithm of OpenCV was used to extract location information from SEM images. Thus nanowires and probe in SEM images can be automatically tracked and the region of interest (ROI can be marked quickly. Then the location of nanowire and probe can be extracted from the ROI. To study the probe operation strategy, the Van der Waals force between probe and a nanowire was computed; thus relevant operating parameters can be obtained. With these operating parameters, the nanowire in 3D virtual environment can be preoperated and an optimal path of the probe can be obtained. The actual probe runs automatically under the telenanomanipulation system's control. Finally, experiments were carried out to verify the above methods, and results show the designed methods have achieved the expected effect.

  15. SEM observation of gibbsite precipitation with seeds from sodium aluminate solutions promoted by ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 陈启元; 尹周澜; 张平民

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of gibbsite precipitated with seeds from sodium aluminate solution was studied using SEM. The results show that there are a lot of fine secondary nuclei with diameter less than 1 μm and the surfaces of seeds precipitated by low frequency ultrasound are very irregular. The new nuclei are pseudo-hexagonal slices with nanometer grade in thickness. At higher precipitation temperature, such as 75 ℃, SEM micrographs show that there exist something like colloid on joints of different small granules which have agglomerated to a large particle. It is suggested that the formation of such hexagonal crystalline units is promoted by low frequency ultrasound, while the colloids on the surface may be produced by imcompletely crystallization of the growth units.

  16. Inconmensurabilidad semántica y progreso científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, Juan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En la primera parte del trabajo se hace una presentación de las nociones de «inconmensurabilidad», tal como han sido formuladas por Feyerabend y Kuhn; y en la segunda parte, después de analizar los presupuestos semánticos con los que indudablemente han ido asociadas, se presenta un modelo alternativo de análisis semántico de la ‘inconmensurabilidad’, que permite desligarla de las nociones de «incomunicabilidad» e «incomparabilidad» interteóricas. Con ese propósito se hace uso de una doble noción de objeto formulada por C. S. Peirce, en sus Collected Papers, y por E. Husserl, en el parágrafo 131 de las Ideas.

  17. Morphology of Poly lactide/Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) Nano composite by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonites (ODAMMT) were used to prepare Poly lactide/ Polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. PLA and PCL mix in 90:10 ratios, using an internal mixer by melt blending technique. The other sample was blend with Natrium Montmorillonite (NaMMT) and Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) to produce PLA/ PCL-NaMMT and PLA/ PCL ODAMMT. To characterize the polymer nano composites, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted. Comparison of morphology were made up between PLA/ PCL, PLA/ PCL with presence of 7 % of Na-MMT and 7 % ODA-MMT respectively based on SEM micrograph by calculate the number-average diameter. (author)

  18. Hacia una visión generativista de la semántica lexical

    OpenAIRE

    Morales A. Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos de la teoría semántica de una lengua natural es dar información satisfactoria sobre el significado de las formas lingüísticas. Consideramos que de éstas, las de mayor  importancia significativa son la palabra, la oración y el texto. La palabra, porque en virtud de su compleja estructura semántica y psicológica funciona como el principal medio para la abstracción y conformación de los conceptos destinados para la comunicación; la oración, porque es la unidad de la...

  19. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    layers. The emulsion fractures are random and impossible to control when using freeze-fracture cryo-SEM. We have previously shown that some types of emulsifiers tend to break along the interface layer, while others cause the fractures to be perpendicular to the interface layer [3]. To control the field...... of view more specifically and to ensure the access to the desired part of the sample, we propose now the use of cryo-FIB SEM. This method allows us to access the interface layers as needed, see figure 1. Emulsions with high oil content, i.e. 70%, and relatively large oil droplets, i.e. μm range, have been...

  20. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  1. Multi-scale characterization by FIB-SEM/TEM/3DAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, T; Sepehri-Amin, H; Sasaki, T T; Hono, K

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve properties of functional materials, it is important to understand the relation between the structure and the properties since the structure has large effect to the properties. This can be done by using multi-scale microstructure analysis from macro-scale to nano and atomic scale. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and 3D atom probe (3DAP) are complementary analysis tools making it possible to know the structure and the chemistry from micron to atomic resolution. SEM gives us overall microstructural and chemical information by various kinds of detectors such as secondary electron, backscattered electron, EDS and EBSD detectors. Also, it is possible to analyze 3D structure and chemistry via FIB serial sectioning. In addition, using TEM we can focus on desired region to get more complementary information from HRTEM/STEM/Lorentz images, SAED/NBD patterns and EDS/EELS to see the detail micro or nano-structure and chemistry. Especially, combination of probe Cs corrector and split EDS detectors with large detector size enable us to analyze the atomic scale elemental distribution. Furthermore, if the specimen has a complicated 3D nanostructure, or we need to analyze light elements such as hydrogen, lithium or boron, 3DAP can be used as the only technique which can visualize and analyze distribution of all constituent atoms of our materials within a few hundreds nm area. Hence, site-specific sample preparation using FIB/SEM is necessary to get desired information from region of interest. Therefore, this complementary analysis combination works very well to understand the detail of materials.In this presentation, we will show the analysis results obtained from some of functional materials by Carl Zeiss CrossBeam 1540EsB FIB/SEM, FEI Tecnai G(2) F30, Titan G2 80-200 TEMs and locally build laser assisted 3DAP. As the one of the example, result of multi-scale characterization for

  2. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  3. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Dwivedi, Jagrati, E-mail: hemu.dwi@gmail.com; Shukla, Kritika [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H{sub 2}N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm{sup −1}. UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument.

  4. Photoacoustic and SEM analysis of fracture bone callus to different consolidation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomelí Mejia, P. A.; Urriolagoitia, G.; Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Cruz Orea, A.; Lecona Butron, H.; Villegas Castrejón, H.

    2005-06-01

    The Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to perform a study of fractured bone callus to different consolidation times. From these techniques we obtained optical absorption spectra and pictures of male rat fractured bones at different consolidation times. From these spectra it was possible to observe the presence of p-Nitrophenylphosphatase, characteristic phosphatase in rat fractured bones through their absorption peaks which were compared with characteristic reported peaks in the literature for this phosphatase. In this study we showed that p-Nitrophenylphosphatase could be considered as an indicator of the repair process of bone fractures. Through the complementary SEM analysis it was possible to obtain different pictures as the callus grows in the time.

  5. Taxonomic and ecological significance of seed micromorphology in Himalayan begonias: sem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed morphology plays an important role for the taxonomic purposes, but in spite of the importance and stability of seed characters in systematics, very little work has been done on seed morphology of Begonia. The seeds of Begonia are small and not differentiated easily with the naked eye. In fact, they are so small that observation of many of their taxonomically important features is possible only with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this paper, the external morphology of the seeds of 23 Nepalese Begonia species, belonging to five sections (Diploclinium, Monopteron, Platycentrum, Putzeysia and Sphenanthera) was studied with SEM techniques. It has been revealed that the differences in seed characteristics were not sufficient to use for sectional delimitation of Nepalese Begonia, but helped to separate the Begonia at species level. (author)

  6. Consideraciones sobre la adquisición del adjetivo y su semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Garrido, Mª del Rosario

    1988-01-01

    Con este trabajo se intenta profundizar en el adjetivo con un criterio semántico pero al ser difícil deslindarlo de sus estudios léxico y sintáctico, no vamos a excluir de él estos aspectos que se expondrán de forma breve y que nos ayudarán a sacar conclusiones más completas. Aunque la semántica ha ocupado la parte central de la investigación, ha tenido como apoyo el análisis léxico, reflejado en las gráficas, y un estudio sintáctico** previo.

  7. Vivências e sentimentos de profissionais de enfermagem nos cuidados ao paciente sem vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Kuhn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as vivências e sentimentos de dez profissionais da Enfermagem em relação ao paciente sem vida, em um hospital privado da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre-RS. Utilizou-se abordagem qualitativa, descritiva, exploratória, com dados coletados em julho de 2009, por meio de entrevista, com questionário semiestruturado. Os resultados foram agrupados nas categorias: sentimentos em relação à morte do paciente, reações à morte e preparo do corpo. Concluiu-se que as vivências mais marcantes foram aquelas relacionadas ao primeiro contato com a morte, à presença de vínculos emocionais com pacientes e familiares, e à idade dos pacientes no momento do óbito, sendo estes dois últimos considerados elementos dificultadores dos cuidados oferecidos ao paciente sem vida.

  8. SEM and AFM images of pyrite surfaces after bioleaching by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H-L; Chen, B-Y; Lan, Y-W; Cheng, Y-C

    2003-09-01

    The bioleaching mechanism of pyrite by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans was examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the pyrite surface. The presence of pyrite eliminated the lag phase during growth of this microorganism. This was due to the stimulatory effect on cell growth of the slight amount of Cu2+ that had leached from the pyrite. Zn2+ was found to be much more readily solubilized than Cu2+. The efficiency of bioleaching was four times higher than that of chemical leaching. SEM images provided evidence of direct cell attachment onto the pyrite surface, thereby enhancing the bioleaching rate. Furthermore, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were found on the pyrite surface after 4 days of oxidation. AFM images showed that the pyrite surface area positively correlated with the oxidation rate. A combination of direct and indirect mechanism is probably responsible for the oxidation of pyrite by T. thiooxidans.

  9. Lenguajes de modelado de reglas de negocio y la web semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Amaolo, Marcelo Paulo

    2007-01-01

    En los últimos años, el World Wide Web Con-sortium (W3C) ha desplegado esfuerzos hacia una estandarización de la Web Semántica, con el objetivo de diseñar estándares técnicos que permitan la inclusión de metadatos en la Web, para proveer la representación de los datos con semántica suficiente para permitir la automatización de procesos que manipulan información. Estos estándares principalmente se han focalizado en la representación de la información que puedar ser leída e interpretada por de ...

  10. Histórico de navegação da web semântica

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, José Nuno Pinto de

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe a integração de elementos da Web Semântica no histórico de um navegador web usando para o efeito uma extensão ao navegador. Os elementos semânticos presentes nas páginas web, na forma de atributos especificados pelo RDFa, contêm informação que é normalmente descartada durante a navegação web. O protótipo apresentado tira partido desta informação, fornecendo ao utilizador ferramentas de pesquisa de histórico mais precisas e completas do que as já existentes no navega...

  11. Visualización en la web semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

    2004-01-01

    Estamos en la puerta de una nueva generación de la Web. Si bien la Web fue diseñada originalmente para que la información en la misma sea para consumo humano, se pretende que la nueva generación de la Web, denominada Web Semántica, provea datos que sean procesables por las máquinas. Esto permitirá un gran rango de servicios inteligentes, agentes de búsqueda, filtros de información, etc; éste es un proceso al que Berners-Lee describe como “Bringing the Web to its full potential”. La Web Sem...

  12. 3D-SEM Metrology for Coordinate Measurements at the Nanometer Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo

    for geometrical reconstructions is discussed through an experimental example, together with point cloud stitching methodology and the currently used algorithms for feature extraction. Theoretical basis of stereo-pair technique, based on two SEM images obtained by tilting the SEM stage of a desired amount, leading...... cloud processing and feature extraction, instrument setting parameters and image quality. Moreover, a comparison of the results obtained trough a theoretical and an experimental uncertainty evaluation of stereo-pair technique has been performed. All these effects have been quantified through a series...... to be addressed concerning uncertainty evaluation have been discussed. Most recent developments in the field of micro and nano-metrology, in terms of measuring machines and techniques, are described pointing out advantages and limitations. The importance of multi-sensor and multi-orientation strategy...

  13. Gênero, vulnerabilidade das mulheres ao HIV/Aids e ações de prevenção em bairro da periferia de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Gender, women's vulnerability to HIV/Aids and preventive actions at a neighborhood on the periphery of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Consolação Pitanga de Sousa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a mudança ocorrida no curso da epidemia de Aids a partir dos anos 1990, marcada pelo aumento da incidência entre segmentos fora dos "grupos de risco", entre eles as mulheres, o conceito de risco individual foi substituído pela noção de vulnerabilidade social, abrangendo questões relacionadas ao comportamento coletivo, como as relações de gênero, além das ações do Estado voltadas para essas questões. Este artigo relata os achados de uma pesquisa de corte qualitativo realizada com mulheres adultas, vivendo relações conjugais estáveis, moradoras de bairro considerado de baixa renda, na periferia de Teresina. Para isso, buscou-se identificar a vulnerabilidade desse grupo à infecção pelo HIV, em função da utilização ou não de preservativo, bem como a relação desse aspecto com as relações de gênero vivenciadas pelos parceiros e o papel do Programa Saúde da Família nesse contexto. Verificou-se que a maioria das mulheres não faz uso contínuo do preservativo, por estar vivendo relação estável com parceiro fixo; entretanto, considera-se vulnerável, pois não tem absoluta confiança no comportamento sexual do parceiro. A negociação com o parceiro sobre o uso do preservativo é quase sempre difícil, e, por vezes, requer a alegação de que representa segurança para se evitar uma gravidez indesejada. Rassalta-se que o Programa Saúde da Família não incorpora a discussão sobre sexualidade e relações de gênero ao trabalho de educação em saúde da mulher por estar centrado no acompanhamento pré-natal e na redução do câncer ginecológico.With the change that started to occur in the course of the Aids epidemic from the 90s onwards, marked by an increasing incidence among segments outside the "risk group", including the women, the concept of individual risk was replaced by the notion of social vulnerability, encompassing questions related to collective behavior, such as gender relations, and also the actions

  14. Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil Medicinal plants used for oral health in the Santa Cruz neighborhood, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliza Meireles Borba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Mato Grosso, populações tradicionais recorrem ao uso de espécies vegetais como alternativa terapêutica. Na cidade de Chapada dos Guimarães, o bairro Santa Cruz se destaca por abrigar famílias nascidas em áreas urbanas ou rurais que conservam esses conhecimentos transmitidos por gerações. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade local, indicações terapêuticas, preparos e modos de uso visando a manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal. Foram entrevistados 40 residentes, através de abordagem qualitativa, usando entrevista semi-estruturada. As espécies catalogadas foram depositadas para identificação no UFMT/Herbário Central. Foram citadas 87 espécies pertencentes a 48 famílias utilizadas na saúde bucal, encontradas no bioma Cerrado ou cultivadas nas residências. Conforme as afecções bucais citadas, as espécies utilizadas são: para erupção dentária: camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.; candidíases, estomatites, gengivites e afta: açafrão (Crocus sativus L.; dor de dente: arnica-da-serra (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng. Robinson. A folha foi a parte da planta mais usada e o chá, por decocção, modo de preparo mais comum. Pessoas idosas, líderes comunitários, parteiras e benzedeiras entrevistados apresentaram um maior conhecimento sobre o assunto. Constatou-se que a comunidade utiliza espécies vegetais, nativas do cerrado ou exóticas, com finalidade terapêutica para manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal, sendo uma alternativa tradicional, econômica e atuante.In the State of Mato Grosso, traditional populations turn to the use of many plant species as a therapeutic alternative. In the city of Chapada dos Guimarães, the Santa Cruz neighborhood is well known for harboring families from urban and rural communities who preserve this knowledge passed down through many generations. The objective of this research was to survey the medicinal plants used

  15. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM part IV: charging and its mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.

    2015-08-01

    This is the fourth part of a series of tutorial papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST and other research institutions. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the apparent need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the idea that the SEM is just another expensive "digital camera" or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the problems in obtaining good quality images and data have been solved. Hence, one using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and believing that, everything one sees on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier papers, this may not be the case. Care must always be taken when reliable quantitative data are being sought. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper has discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods to eliminate it. The third paper discussed mechanical vibration and stage drift and some useful solutions to mitigate the problems caused by them, and here, in this the fourth contribution, the issues related to specimen "charging" and its mitigation are discussed relative

  16. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole;

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  17. Trace element content in urban tree leaves and SEM-EDAX characterization of deposited particles

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević Milica; Aničić Mira

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of common deciduous trees: Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade (Serbia) were studied as biomonitors of trace elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) air pollution. Using a scanning SEM-EDAX, the size, size distribution, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were examined on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves. Morphological and chemical composition indicated that the most abundant particles...

  18. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  19. The secondary transfer of gunshot residue: an experimental investigation carried out with SEM-EDX analysis

    OpenAIRE

    French, J.; Morgan, R.; Davy, J.

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) is produced when a firearm is discharged and is routinely used in the forensic reconstruction of incidents involving firearms. SEM-EDX with automated detection and analysis software was used to investigate the extent of GSR secondary transfer following the discharge of a firearm. A series of experiments, which mimicked real-world scenarios, was set up to explore these under-researched mechanisms. The findings demonstrate that relatively large amounts of GSR can be transf...

  20. Study of SEM induced current and voltage contrast modes to assess semiconductor reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the scanning electron microscopy study was to review the failure history of existing integrated circuit technologies to identify predominant failure mechanisms, and to evaluate the feasibility of their detection using SEM application techniques. The study investigated the effects of E-beam irradiation damage and contamination deposition rates; developed the necessary methods for applying the techniques to the detection of latent defects and weaknesses in integrated circuits; and made recommendations for applying the techniques.

  1. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-porosity of Eco-material by Using SEM Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; LIU Yuan-zhi; LIU Zu-de

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure of the eco-material combining vegetation recovery with slope protection is important for determining plant-growing properties.Several techniques for analyzing the eco-material microstructure are presented,including the freeze-cut-drying method of preparing samples for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM),the SEM image processing technique and quantifying analysis method of the SEM images,and etc.The aggregates and pores in SEM images are identified using the different mathematics operators,and their effects are compared.The areas of aggregates and pores are obtained using the operator of morphology,and the influences of different thresholds in image segmentation are also discussed.The results show that the method,in which the variation of non-maximum grey-level gradient is limited,improves the effect of edge detections due to a weak distinction existing at the edge between the aggregates and pores in image.The determination of the threshold should combine the image characteristic with filling operation,so as to assure the precision of the image analysis,in which the contact-segmentation is the simplest and most effective method.The results also show that the pore areas in eco-materials are generally larger than those in the correlative soils,and their increment is large as soil fabric being fine.These differences are related to admixture of expansive perliticThe operator of morphology provides a new method for the image analysis of other porous material microstructure such as soils and concretes.

  3. Evaluation of surface alterations in different retreatment nickel-titanium files: AFM and SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Sağlam, Baran; Görgül, Güliz

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface changes of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary retreatment files after three and five uses. Furthermore, the effects of 2% sodium hypochlorite and chloroform solutions and sterilization procedures on the NiTi rotary retreatment surfaces were investigated. ProTaper Retreatment files, R-endo files, and Mtwo retreatment files were used for this study. The palatinal roots of maxillary molar teeth were obturated with gutta percha and Ah26. Retreatment procedures were performed with these retreatment file systems. The surface changes of untreated NiTi rotary files that were used three and five times, immersed in NaOCl and chloroform and subjected to sterilization procedures were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The RMS values, three dimensional images and SEM images at various magnifications were obtained. RMS values showed that all three NiTi rotary retreatment file systems showed significant deteriorations after three and five uses. Cracks, damages and spiral construction deteriorations were detected in the SEM images after three and five uses. Furthermore, the Mtwo 15 file was broken off after five uses. AFM data indicated that 2% NaOCl caused significant surface deteriorations on NiTi rotary files and both AFM and SEM evaluation showed that chloroform solution and sterilization procedures did not cause significant surface deteriorations. In conclusion, ProTaper retreatment, R-endo, and Mtwo retreatment files showed surface damages depending on retreatment procedures. Clinicians have to consider that retreatment files always have a tendency to break off after the third time they have been used.

  4. Transformational Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction Relationship: A Study of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Wan Omar; Fauzi Hussin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to empirically investigate the relationships between transformational leadership style proxied by charismatic or inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration with job satisfaction. 100 respondents from an academic institution in Malaysia had voluntarily participated in the study. The data was analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using SPSS Amos software. The revised structural equation modeling (SEM) for...

  5. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) exposed to chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Mandeep; Jindal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations...

  6. SEM/EDS analysis for problem solving in the food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Wayne D.

    2015-10-01

    For forensic investigation in the food industry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a powerful, often non-destructive, instrumental analysis tool to provide information about: • Identification of inorganic (and some organic) materials found as foreign contaminants in food products returned by consumers or detected during quality control inspections in the production facilities • Identification of wear particles found in production lines • Distribution of materials within a matrix • Corrosion and failure analysis of production equipment The identification of materials by SEM/EDS is accomplished through a combination of morphology by SEM imaging and the elemental composition of the material by EDS. Typically, the EDS analysis provides a qualitative spectrum showing the elements present in the sample. Further analysis can be done to quantify the detected elements in order to further refine the material identification. Metal alloys can often be differentiated even within the same family such as 300 Series stainless steels. Glass types can be identified by the elemental composition where the detected elements are quantified as the oxides of each element. In this way, for example, common window glass is distinguishable from insulation glass used in many ovens. Wear particles or fragments from breakage can find their way into food products. SEM/EDS analysis of the materials is an important resource to utilize when trying to determine the original source. Suspected source materials can then be sampled for comparative analysis. EDS X-ray mapping is another tool that is available to provide information about the distribution of materials within a matrix. For example, the distribution of inorganic ingredients in a dried food helps to provide information about the grind and blend of the materials.

  7. Morphological analysis of polymers on hair fibers by SEM and AFM

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Fernandes Monteiro; Aline Martins Duboc Natal; Luís Edmundo Bastos Soledade; Elson Longo

    2003-01-01

    The polyquaternium 7® polymer is widely used in cosmetic formulations. Morphologic alterations in hair fibers were observed after the application of the polyquaternium 7® polymer, using SEM and AFM. Continuous applications of this product indicated that it accumulates on the fibers, improving the aspect of the hair surface. Quantitative analysis of the images obtained by AFM was undertaken. The data obtained for the hair surface roughness indicates that the fibers treated with the polymer pre...

  8. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  9. Optical Microscopy and SEM Study of Pyrolytic Carbon Deposits from Coke Ovens

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco, Richelieu; Patrick, John W.; Snape, Colin E.; Wu, Tao; Poultney, Ruth M.; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia

    2007-01-01

    The presence of pyrolytic carbon deposits can cause a number of serious problems in the operation of a coke oven. The main objective of the investigation was to study the nature and characteristics of pyrolytic carbon deposits in industrial coke ovens, with particular emphasis on the nature of the carbon deposited adjacent to the oven walls. Study of the carbon deposits by optical microscopy and SEM showed a variable concentration of carbon entities as well as differences in packing density.

  10. SEM OBSERVATION OF THE CRAZING FOR POLYPHENYLQUINOXALINE FILMS DURING IN SITU STRETCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-jun Liu; Jing-shu Shen; Feng-cai Lu; Mao Xu

    1999-01-01

    The crazing of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ-E) films during in situ stretching has been observed by SEM. The crazing phenomena and craze morphology of PPQ-E films were interpreted. The strain values at critical crazing and yielding and the craze stability of PPQ-E samples depend on the thermal-dealing condition for the samples. From the point of view of cohesional entanglements and energy absorbed by samples, the experiment results were explained.

  11. The effects of various irrigating solutions on intra-radicular dentinal surface: An SEM analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karunakaran, J. V.; S.Senthil Kumar; Mohan Kumar; Chandrasekhar, S.; Namitha, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The action of irrigant solutions on intra- radicular dentinal surface were evaluated in an in vitro setting using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and it was observed that sodium hypochlorite and MTAD produced the cleanest surface and that none of the irrigants were able to produce an ideal preparation of the dentinal surface when used individually. The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a clean, optimal environment in root canals to avoid unsuccessful treatment ou...

  12. Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005. Resumen del taller

    OpenAIRE

    Corcho, Oscar; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; Fernández López, Mariano; Ramos Gargantilla, JA.

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se resumen los resultados obtenidos en el taller “Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005”, que fue celebrado el día 14 de noviembre de 2005 en Santiago de Compostela, en el contexto de la Conferencia de la Asociación Española para la Inteligencia Artificial (CAEPIA2005).

  13. Observation of a fused dual-fiber sensor head tips by SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxu Wang; Junxiu Lin; Dehe Wang

    2006-01-01

    The shape and microstructure of the fiber-optic liquid-level sensor head, which was made of two fusionspliced multimode optical fibers, were experimentally studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM)technology in order to optimize the performance characteristic of the fiber sensor head. The parabolic profile of the sensor head was found to be better and having length-width ratio from 1.2:1 to 1.3:1. Some other useful possibilities were proposed.

  14. Characterization of technical surfaces with a coupled SEM-EDA-image analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled system of SEM-EDA and quantitative image analysis was used to determine the local distribution of the elements Al, Mg, Ni and Cr on a limiter surface exposed to the fusion plasma. The example of a graphite limiter surface covered with droplets of INCONEL 600 was used to show how the droplet volume distribution can be automatically determined with an image from the scanning electron microscope together with the IBAS II image analysis system. (Author)

  15. Um Analisador Semântico Inferencialista de Sentenças em Linguagem Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladia Pinheiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve um raciocinador semântico para entendimento de linguagem natural que implementa um algoritmo que raciocina sobre o conteúdo inferencial de conceitos e padrões de sentenças – o Analisador Semântico Inferencialista (SIA. O SIA implementa um raciocínio material e holístico sobre a rede de potenciais inferências em que os conceitos de uma língua podem participar, considerando como os conceitos estão relacionados na sentença, de acordo com padrões de estruturas sintáticas. A medida de relacionamento inferencial e o processo de raciocínio do SIA são descritos. O SIA é usado como raciocinador semântico em um sistema de extração de informações sobre crimes – WikiCrimesIE. Os resultados obtidos e uma análise comparativa são apresentados e discutidos, servindo para a identificação de vantagens e oportunidades de melhoria para o SIA.

  16. Fuzzy Control and Connected Region Marking Algorithm-Based SEM Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive nanomanipulation platform is established based on fuzzy control and connected region marking (CRM algorithm in SEM. The 3D virtual nanomanipulation model is developed to make up the insufficiency of the 2D SEM image information, which provides the operator with depth and real-time visual feedback information to guide the manipulation. The haptic device Omega3 is used as the master to control the 3D motion of the nanopositioner in master-slave mode and offer the force sensing to the operator controlled with fuzzy control algorithm. Aiming at sensing of force feedback during the nanomanipulation, the collision detection method of the virtual nanomanipulation model and the force rending model are studied to realize the force feedback of nanomanipulation. The CRM algorithm is introduced to process the SEM image which provides effective position data of the objects for updating the virtual environment (VE, and relevant issues such as calibration and update rate of VE are also discussed. Finally, the performance of the platform is validated by the ZnO nanowire manipulation experiments.

  17. FIB-SEM tomography of human skin telocytes and their extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretoiu, Dragos; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Hummel, Eric; Zimmermann, Hans; Simionescu, Olga; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2015-04-01

    We have shown in 2012 the existence of telocytes (TCs) in human dermis. TCs were described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as interstitial cells located in non-epithelial spaces (stroma) of many organs (see www.telocytes.com). TCs have very long prolongations (tens to hundreds micrometers) named Telopodes (Tps). These Tps have a special conformation with dilated portions named podoms (containing mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and caveolae) and very thin segments (below resolving power of light microscopy), called podomers. To show the real 3D architecture of TC network, we used the most advanced available electron microscope technology: focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) tomography. Generally, 3D reconstruction of dermal TCs by FIB-SEM tomography revealed the existence of Tps with various conformations: (i) long, flattened irregular veils (ribbon-like segments) with knobs, corresponding to podoms, and (ii) tubular structures (podomers) with uneven calibre because of irregular dilations (knobs) - the podoms. FIB-SEM tomography also showed numerous extracellular vesicles (diameter 438.6 ± 149.1 nm, n = 30) released by a human dermal TC. Our data might be useful for understanding the role(s) of TCs in intercellular signalling and communication, as well as for comprehension of pathologies like scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, etc.

  18. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrdova, M; Polakova, K; Skopalik, J; Vujtek, M; Mokdad, A; Homolkova, M; Tucek, J; Nebesarova, J; Zboril, R

    2014-12-01

    When developing new nanoparticles for bio-applications, it is important to fully characterize the nanoparticle's behavior in biological systems. The most common techniques employed for mapping nanoparticles inside cells include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). These techniques entail passing an electron beam through a thin specimen. STEM or TEM imaging is often used for the detection of nanoparticles inside cellular organelles. However, lengthy sample preparation is required (i.e., fixation, dehydration, drying, resin embedding, and cutting). In the present work, a new matrix (FTO glass) for biological samples was used and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to generate images comparable to those obtained by TEM. Using FE-SEM, nanoparticle images were acquired inside endo/lysosomes without disruption of the cellular shape. Furthermore, the initial steps of nanoparticle incorporation into the cells were captured. In addition, the conductive FTO glass endowed the sample with high stability under the required accelerating voltage. Owing to these features of the sample, further analyses could be performed (material contrast and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)), which confirmed the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells. The results showed that FE-SEM can enable detailed characterization of nanoparticles in endosomes without the need for contrast staining or metal coating of the sample. Images showing the intracellular distribution of nanoparticles together with cellular morphology can give important information on the biocompatibility and demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle utilization in medicine.

  19. Tin amalgam mirrors: investigation by XRF, SEM-EDS, XRD and EPMA-WDS mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizio, E.; Orsega, E. F.; Sommariva, G.; Falcone, R.

    2013-06-01

    Ancient mirrors were constituted by a tin-mercury amalgam layer superimposed to a glass sheet. This was the only one method used until the nineteenth century, when the wet silvering process was invented. The tin amalgam is a binary alloy of tin and mercury constituted by two different phases: a mercury-rich liquid phase and a tin-rich solid phase. The amalgam alteration produces mercury loss and a general growth of the solid crystalline phase. In addition, tin dioxide and monoxide are formed with a consequent decrease of the amalgam adhesion to the glass. These degradation phenomena led to reduction or disappearance of the mirror reflective power. The aim of this study was the characterization of the amalgam layers of eight mirror samples dating during the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and by a Scanning Electron Microscope with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and for the first time on this type of alloy by X-ray Fluorescence and EPMA-WDS (Electron Probe Micro Analysis with Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) elemental mapping. The contents of tin, mercury, and some trace elements in the amalgam layers have been determined. The investigation of the superficial patterns of the amalgam by SEM, EPMA-WDS mapping, and SEM-EDS allowed a first understanding of some morphologies and processes of the degradation of the amalgam layer.

  20. Comparative sem evaluation of three solvents used in endodontic retreatment: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Zaccaro Scelza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compared, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the efficacy of three solvents on the removal of filling materials from dentinal tubules during endodontic retreatment. Forty human maxillary canines with straight canals were prepared according to a crown-down technique and enlarged to a#30 apical file size, before obturation with gutta-percha and a zinc-oxide-eugenol based sealer. The samples were stored for 3 months before being randomly assigned to four groups: chloroform (n=10, orange oil (n=10, eucalyptol (n=10 and control (n=10. Solvents were applied to a reservoir created on the coronal root third using Gates Glidden drills. The total time for retreatment using the solvents was 5 minutes per tooth. Following retreatment the roots were split longitudinally for SEM evaluation. SEM images were digitized, analyzed using Image ProPlus 4.5 software, and the number of dentinal tubules free of filling material from the middle and apical thirds was recorded. No significant difference was found among the solvent groups regarding the number of dentinal tubules free of root filling remnants in the middle and apical root thirds (p>0.05. However, the control group had fewer dentinal tubules free of filling material (p<0.05. Under the tested conditions, it may be concluded that there was no significant difference among the solvents used to obtain dentinal tubules free of filling material remnants.

  1. 3D nanostructure reconstruction based on the SEM imaging principle, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses a novel 3D reconstruction method for nanostructures based on the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging principle. In this method, the shape from shading (SFS) technique is employed, to analyze the gray-scale information of a single top-view SEM image which contains all the visible surface information, and finally to reconstruct the 3D surface morphology. It offers not only unobstructed observation from various angles but also the exact physical dimensions of nanostructures. A convenient and commercially available tool (NanoViewer) is developed based on this method for nanostructure analysis and characterization of properties. The reconstruction result coincides well with the SEM nanostructure image and is verified in different ways. With the extracted structure information, subsequent research of the nanostructure can be carried out, such as roughness analysis, optimizing properties by structure improvement and performance simulation with a reconstruction model. Efficient, practical and non-destructive, the method will become a powerful tool for nanostructure surface observation and characterization. (paper)

  2. Generation of large field SEM image by panorama composition technology for nano-order measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor manufacturing has a pressing need for a method to accurately evaluate the global shape deformation of a photomask pattern. We thus propose a novel composition technique for a large field panorama image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proposed method optimises the arrangement of segmented imaging regions (SIRs), which are components of a panorama image, on the basis of the design data of the photomask pattern layout. The quantity of the line pattern segment, which is a clue to the connection in an overlapping region between adjoining SIRs and the connectability of any two SIRs, is evaluated. As a result of the optimisation, it is guaranteed that all SIR images can be connected theoretically. For 30 evaluation points, the maximum connection error of the SIR images was 1.5 nm in a simulation using pseudo-SEM images. The maximum total measurement error, which includes the connection error and CD measurement error from the panorama image, is estimated at 2.5 nm. This error was equivalent to about 1.4% of the photomask line width (target: 3%). The experiments using real SEM images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It was visually confirmed that a large field, high-resolution and seamless panorama image can be generated. (paper)

  3. Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Raj, Tilak

    2014-09-01

    Productivity has often been cited as a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) performance, and actions to increase it are said to improve profitability and the wage earning capacity of employees. Improving productivity is seen as a key issue for survival and success in the long term of a manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to make a model and analysis of the productivity variables of FMS. This study was performed by different approaches viz. interpretive structural modelling (ISM), structural equation modelling (SEM), graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and a cross-sectional survey within manufacturing firms in India. ISM has been used to develop a model of productivity variables, and then it has been analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are powerful statistical techniques. CFA is carried by SEM. EFA is applied to extract the factors in FMS by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 20) software. The twenty productivity variables are identified through literature and four factors extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. The four factors are people, quality, machine and flexibility. SEM using AMOS 20 was used to perform the first order four-factor structures. GTMA is a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methodology used to find intensity/quantification of productivity variables in an organization. The FMS productivity index has purposed to intensify the factors which affect FMS.

  4. On-line Scanned Probe Microscopy Transparently Integrated with DualBeam SEM/FIB Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Andrey; Komissar, Anatoly; Lewis, Aaron

    2013-03-01

    A multifunctional scanning probe microscope (SPM) will be described that transparently integrates with a DualBeam SEM/FIB System. This is done without perturbing any of the capabilities of the Dual Beam in terms of detectors, gas injectors, analyzers etc while allowing for a completely exposed probe tip to be imaged online even with immersion objectives at working distances as short as 4 mm. In addition, the completely free motion of the rotation axis of the stage is maintained with the probe tip at the eucentric point, this makes it possible to orient the sample in any direction on any structure The X and Y scan range of the atomic force microscopic (AFM) imaging achieves 35 microns with rough motion over 10 millimeters. This permits the SPM to tilt into position perpendicular to the SEM or FIB or under an angle for rapid and accurate placement of the probe tip at or on structures such as biopolymeric materials that are nanometric in X, Y and Z extent. Thus, not only can a structure's nanometric height be accurately profiled but this can be accomplished with the on-line excellence of SEM for X, Y metrology. Furthermore, electron and ion beam sensitive samples can be imaged and characterized by AFM at high resolution.

  5. Syngine: On-Demand Synthetic Seismograms from the IRIS DMC based on AxiSEM & Instaseis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Martin; Hutko, Alex; Krischer, Lion; Trabant, Chad; Stähler, Simon; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje

    2016-04-01

    This presentation highlights the IRIS DMC's Synthetics Engine (Syngine), a new on-demand synthetic seismogram service (ds.iris.edu/ds/products/syngine/) that complements the time series data IRIS has traditionally distributed. The synthetics are accessible using a web service for user specified source-receiver combinations and a variety of Earth models. Syngine is designed to be extremely fast, making it feasible to request large numbers of source-receiver combinations. This capability supports studying variations in source properties, Earth models or temporal changes in instrument responses. We have computed a set of global-scale databases of Green's functions using the spectral-element method AxiSEM (www.axisem.info , see also abstract EGU2016-9008) for selected well known spherically symmetric Earth models (PREM, IASP91, AK135f...) with anisotropy and attenuation. Fine-scale models have resolution from 1 to about 100 sec periods with durations of 60 minutes; lower resolution models extend to a few hours duration. Behind the scenes, the web service runs Instaseis (www.instaseis.net), a system that rapidly calculates broadband synthetic seismograms from the pre-calculated Green's functions. Receivers may be specified at arbitrary coordinates or using real network and station codes, which are resolved using metadata at the DMC. The service also provides optional, on-demand processing methods, including convolution with a specified moment tensor (specified explicitly or by GCMT ID) and one of a few source-time functions with variable duration. The interface is designed to be callable by scripts and to support automated processing workflows. The DMC also provides a user-friendly command line Fetch script to download selections of synthetics. This new resource provides a powerful tool in multiple research areas where synthetic seismograms are useful. Regarding the Instaseis/AxiSEM functionality, one only needs to perform two forward calculations with AxiSEM for a

  6. AxiSEM: Exploiting structural complexity for efficient wave propagation across the scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; van Driel, Martin; Leng, Kuangdai; Stähler, Simon; Krischer, Lion; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Our open-source seismic modeling method AxiSEM (www.axisem.info) is presented a backbone for numerous further extensions, including accurate and efficient wave propagation in 3D Earth models, a database mode (www.instaseis.net), local domains, hybrid methods, and waveform sensitivity kernels for tomography. Our general mantra is to enable wave propagation across the observable frequency spectrum in a most efficient manner by adapting the methodology directly to the level of structural complexity, in the vein of Occam's razor. The basic AxiSEM approach relies upon axisymmetric (including spherically symmetric) models, thereby satisfying a large fraction of observable data. The benefit of this method stems from the resultant dimensional collapse to two numerical dimensions, whereby the third azimuthal dimension is tackled analytically. For high-frequency wave propagation, this leads to 3-4 orders of magnitude speedup in computational cost compared to 3D domain discretizations. AxiSEM is highly scalable anywhere between laptops and supercomputers, and includes novel, optimized implementations of viscoelasticity and anisotropy. We present benchmarks, data comparisons, a range of unique applications from inner-core anisotropy to noise modeling and lowermost mantle structures. 1D structures are exploited by instaseis, a methodology to extract full, broadband and accurate waveforms instantaneously from wavefield databases computed with AxiSEM. A webservice built on instaseis ("syngine") has been launched at IRIS (see abstract EGU2016-8190) to generate on-demand synthetics up to 1Hz for prominent Earth models. 3D structures are tackled by our recent extension AxiSEM3D: We expand the wavefield in the azimuthal dimension in Fourier series, leading to a drastic computational cost speedup compared to classic 3D methods (up to a factor of 100), especially in the high-frequency regime. We will show benchmarks for typical global tomographic models and sketch our approach to

  7. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates: Study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, G.; Capobianco, G.; Serranti, S.; Eggimann, M.; Wagner, E.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to identify possible effects on the ITZ related to different recipes and production parameters. SEM is

  8. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  9. Measurement invariance via multigroup SEM: Issues and solutions with chi-square-difference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Chan, Wai

    2016-09-01

    Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) plays a key role in studying measurement invariance and in group comparison. When population covariance matrices are deemed not equal across groups, the next step to substantiate measurement invariance is to see whether the sample covariance matrices in all the groups can be adequately fitted by the same factor model, called configural invariance. After configural invariance is established, cross-group equalities of factor loadings, error variances, and factor variances-covariances are then examined in sequence. With mean structures, cross-group equalities of intercepts and factor means are also examined. The established rule is that if the statistic at the current model is not significant at the level of .05, one then moves on to testing the next more restricted model using a chi-square-difference statistic. This article argues that such an established rule is unable to control either Type I or Type II errors. Analysis, an example, and Monte Carlo results show why and how chi-square-difference tests are easily misused. The fundamental issue is that chi-square-difference tests are developed under the assumption that the base model is sufficiently close to the population, and a nonsignificant chi-square statistic tells little about how good the model is. To overcome this issue, this article further proposes that null hypothesis testing in multigroup SEM be replaced by equivalence testing, which allows researchers to effectively control the size of misspecification before moving on to testing a more restricted model. R code is also provided to facilitate the applications of equivalence testing for multigroup SEM. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  11. Anastomose cavo-pulmonar total sem uso de material protético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTO Jr. Valdester C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade na feitura de túnel cava inferior-cava superior com retalho da parede atrial direita, evitando o emprego de material protético. Casuística e Métodos: Foram operados 2 pacientes nos quais se empregou a técnica de anastomose cavo-pulmonar total, sem uso de material protético. O primeiro caso, A.L.M., masc, 4 anos, 15 kg, era portador de atresia tricúspide (EP, com comunicação interventricular (CIV restritiva. O segundo caso, M.E.N.O., fem, 15 anos, 47 kg, tinha doença de Ebstein. O controle pós-operatório dos pacientes foi feito com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco. As operações foram realizadas com o emprego de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, e cardioplegia sangüínea como método de proteção miocárdica. A canulação das cavas foi o mais distal possível. A tunelização foi realizada com retalho de tecido atrial direito, suturado ao septo interatrial, deixando-se o seio coronariano e a comunicação interatrial (CIA para a esquerda. Resultados: Ambos os pacientes evoluíram, sem complicações, na UTI. O primeiro apresentou derrame pleural discreto à direita, e o segundo mantém-se em estimulação artificial (VVI,R. Conclusões: A tunelização intra-atrial para anastomose cavo-pulmonar total pode ser realizada sem o uso de material protético, evitando-se os riscos advindos do seu emprego (calcificação, retração, embolização.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1-10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He-Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm-2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  13. To Evaluate the Efficacy of an Innovative Irrigant on Smear Layer Removal – SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy; Subbiya, Arunajatesan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of endodontic therapy is to completely eliminate the microorganisms and the smear layer from the root canal in order to provide a good seal of the root filling materials. Aim The aim of this study was to find a viable alternative irrigant, which is easily available with less erosion and clinically acceptable smear layer removal by comparing the efficacy of EDTA and commercially available super-oxidized water, named Oxum, as a final rinse on smear layer removal and erosion in relation to coronal, middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 30 human lower second premolar teeth with straight roots and type I canal anatomy were selected. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using Universal Protaper Rotary System. Irrigation was performed with 1 ml of 2.5% of NaOCl solution after each instrument change. The final irrigation (5 ml) sequence was as follows: Group I- 17% EDTA, Group II – OXUM, and Group III - 0.9% saline (control) for one minute. Then, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5ml of distilled water to remove any precipitate. The roots were then gently split into two halves using a chisel and subjected to SEM analysis. Results The SEM photomicrographs were evaluated by two independent examiners and Mann Whitney results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two examiners. Non-parametric statistical analysis of all experimental groups showed significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third for smear layer removal with p-value<0.05. For erosion, in group II (oxum) showed statistically significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third and it showed significantly less dentine erosion when compared to EDTA. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, Oxum the commercially available super-oxidized water proved to be equally effective in smear layer removal with less

  14. Analysis of Balance Scorecards Model Performance and Perspective Strategy Synergized by SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluyo Minto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance assessment analysis after the economic crisis by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC method becomes a powerful and effective tool and can provide an integrated view of the performance of an organization. This strategy led to the Indonesian economy being stretched positively after the economic crisis. Taking effective decisions is not spared from combining four BSC perspectives and strategies that focus on a system with different behavior or steps. This paper combines two methods of BSC with structural equation modeling (SEM because they have the same concept, which is a causal relationship, where the research model concept SEM variables use BSC variable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of variables that synergized between balanced scorecard with SEM as a means of strategic planning in the future. This study used primary data with a large enough sample to meet the maximum likelihood estimation by assessment scale of seven semantic points. This research model is a combination of one and two step models. The next step is to test the measurement model, structural equation modeling, and modification models. The test results indicated that the model has multi colinearities. Therefore, the model is converted into one step model. The test results after being modified into a model of the goodness of fit indices showed a good score. All BSC variables have direct significant influence, including the perspective of strategic goals and sustainable competitive advantage. The implication of the simulation model of goodness of fit-modification results are DF = 227, Chi-square =276.550, P =0.058, CMIN/DF = 1.150, GFI = 0.831, AGFI = 0.791, CFI = 0.972, TLI = 0.965 and RMSEA = 0.039.

  15. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  16. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  17. Fast Dating of Yongzheng Copper Coins in Tsing Empire by SEM-EDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun-feng; Zhu Zhi-hong; Zeng Li-bo; Tong Hua; Hu Ji-ming

    2004-01-01

    Twenty Yongzheng copper coins were fast dating by X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer with scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) according to official ingredient. The 20 coins were classified in two groups according to the results. Group 1 represents the coins minted before AD 1 728 and group 2 represents the coins minted after AD 1 728. At concentration range (0.00%-5.13%), the distribution of lead is not homogeneous in the coins, and the largest diameter of lead inclusion is less than 15 μm. The official fineness degrade is supported.

  18. Perfil psicomotor em crianças com e sem autismo: um estudo comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Ana Paula Mendes Augusto

    2011-01-01

    O presente artigo “Perfil Psicomotor em Crianças com e sem Autismo - Um estudo comparativo” pretende diferenciar os perfis psicomotores de duas crianças: uma com autismo e outra com um desenvolvimento normativo e verificar a importância do conceito de psicomotricidade na avaliação da progressão das suas aprendizagens. A metodologia utilizada para a elaboração deste trabalho é o estudo de caso comparativo (Yin, 2001). Os instrumentos utilizados para a recolha de dados foram a BPM, (Fonseca, 20...

  19. Using ICP-OES and SEM-EDX in biosorption studies

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the analytical results obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and by scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) in order to explore the mechanism of metal ions biosorption by biomass using two independent methods. The marine macroalga Enteromorpha sp. was enriched with Cu(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions via biosorption, and the biosorption capacity of alga determined from the solution a...

  20. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  1. Semântica gramatical: a significação dos pronomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildemir Ferreira de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo analisa a significação das particulas pronominais entre as quais se incluem os determinantes, os pronomes substantivos e os advérbios pronominais. Para esta análise se adota o critério dos traços constrativos (Chomsky, 2. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que as categorias semânticas dos pronomes (lato sensu se associam, de uma forma ou de outra, às nações de DEFINIDADE e PESSOA DO DISCURSO.

  2. Axiología y semántica en André Martinet

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    La autora sintetiza el desarrollo del concepto de axiologie en la evolución del pensamiento científico de André Martinet, como análisis del significado en una lengua particular frente a la concepción de la semántica como el estudio del significado en general. El artículo se complementa con la muestra práctica de la elaboración de un análisis axiológico sobre ciertos campos significativos en francés.

  3. In situ SEM thermal fatigue of Al/graphite metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, G. S.; Rabenberg, L.; Marcus, H. L.

    1990-01-01

    Several thermal fatigue-induced failure mechanisms are deduced for unidirectional graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMCs subjected to in situ thermal cycling. These thermal cycling conditions are representative of MMC service cycles in aerospace environments, where thermal fatigue is primarily associated with changes in the stress states near the interfaces due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between fiber and matrix. This in situ SEM thermal-cycling study clarified such factors affecting MMCs' thermal fatigue as local fiber content and distribution, void volume, fiber stiffness, thermal excursion magnitude, and number of thermal cycles. MMC microfailure modes in thermal fatigue have been deduced.

  4. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages.

  5. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  6. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  7. SEM, EDS, PL and absorbance study of CdTe thin films grown by CSS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Torres, M.E.; Silva-Gonzalez, R.; Gracia-Jimenez, J.M. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, San Manuel, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Casarrubias-Segura, G. [CIE- UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    Oxygen-doped CdTe films were grown on conducting glass substrates by the close spaced sublimation (CSS) method and characterized using SEM, EDS, photoluminescence (PL) and absorbance. A significant change in the polycrystalline morphology is observed when the oxygen proportion is increased in the deposition atmosphere. The EDS analysis showed that all samples are nonstoichiometric with excess Te. The PL spectra show emission bands associated with Te vacancies (V{sub Te}), whose intensities decrease as the oxygen proportion in the CSS chamber is increased. The oxygen impurities occupy Te vacancies and modify the surfaces states, improving the nonradiative process. (author)

  8. Entorno para la inteligencia de negocio basada en tecnologías semánticas

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Gil, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: La Inteligencia de Negocio (IN) requiere de la integración de diversas fuentes de datos que se suelen encontrar en las organizaciones y en sus entornos. El conocimiento generado por estas organizaciones se encuentra distribuido en sistemas heterogéneos o está en formatos en los que es prácticamente imposible su clasificación (imágenes, vídeos, etc.). En esta tesis se proponen metodologías y herramientas para generar una solución de Inteligencia de Negocio basada en tecnologías semá...

  9. Modelado semántico y ubicuo del comercio electrónico mediante Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Peláez López, Juan Carlos; Mata Díaz, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    La demanda de interoperabilidad semántica y ubicuidad tecnológica en aplicaciones de comercio electrónico tiene un crecimiento exponencial. Añadir propiedades inteligentes a la Web actual, ya es una realidad a través del desarrollo e implementación de Web Services basados en estándares de fácil gestión y cada vez más estables, cumpliendo con los requerimientos básicos de Calidad de Servicio (QoS). Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la tecnología de los Web Service...

  10. Memoria Semántica y Autorregulación en Buenos y Malos Lectores

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Roja, Zulma Julieta

    2013-01-01

    La comprensión lectora hace parte del quehacer diario de un individuo en cualquier cultura reflejándose en el desempeño académico de los niños. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estudiar la relación de la lectura con la memoria semántica y la autorregulación como funciones ejecutivas o procesos neuropsicológicos superiores, en niños de cuarto primaria, analizando patrones que aporten a la comprensión de diferencias entre las habilidades lectoras de los niños con diferentes niveles de rendimien...

  11. Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent a ubiquitous constituent of the near-surface environment, present in widely varyingconcentrations that typically have little impact on human behaviour and health. However, the mining of metals anduse of these metals in industrial processes has produced significant anthropogenic inputs of metals to both localand global environments. As such, a rigorous overview of the current accumulation of heavy metals and knowledgeof mineralogy of heavy metal-bearing phases is important for understanding their stability, solubility, mobility,bioavailability and toxicity. These data are of fundamental importance for environmental risk assessment and evaluationof future scenarios. Since conventional geochemical analyses provide limited information, other analyticalmethods have to be utilized for the characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases. Significant analytical methodfor identification and characterisation of heavy metals in environmental media is a scanning electron microscopecoupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS, an apparatus for qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis at microne level, newly introduced to Geological Survey of Slovenia. Use of SEM/EDS was already introduced to environmental studies world-wide. In Slovenia, SEM/EDS analyses of environmental media werefirstly carried out on the Meža River stream sediments and snow deposits from Ljubljana urban area.Heavy metal-bearing phases in the Meža River stream sediments were apportioned to three source areas: Mežica mining/smelting area (geogenic-technogenic origin, Ravne ironworks area (technogenic origin and the Meža River catchment area (geogenic origin, which corresponds to data obtained by conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical methods. Airborne particles, identified in urban snow deposits, were interpreted as geogenic particles, represented by fragments of heavy metal-bearing minerals, and technogenic particles that

  12. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  13. Los verbos denominales de cambio de estado experiencial: consideraciones sintáctico-semánticas

    OpenAIRE

    Lavale Ortiz, Ruth María

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es analizar un conjunto de verbos denominales con significado causativo que hemos denominado experiencia/es. Concretamente, nos proponemos estudiar sus rasgos léxico-semánticos, su clasificación en tipos, su comportamiento sintáctico y su relación con otros conceptos como la localización y la posesión. El corpus de verbos denominales lo hemos extraído del Diccionario de la lengua española (DRAE 2001). Puesto que el diccionario académico no establece en gran parte...

  14. In-situ SEM and Stereomicroscope Study Delamination Evolution of Glass Fabric Reinforced Polycarbonate Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-bo; LI Ying-ming; XUE Ji-wen; SUN Yong-qi; ZHENG Shui-rong; SUN Man-lin

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic processes of the interlaminar fracture of the glass woven fabric reinforced polycarbonate composites through in- situ observation of specimen under mode I loading by SEM and stereomicroscope. The results show that the evolution processes of interlaminar damage consist of micro-crack initiation, growth and coalescence and advance forward of the main crack tip. The mode of crack propagation in fabric composite observed here seem to be the propagation along interface, interface change and fabric separation.

  15. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Lindsey, Laurence F; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2) (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm(2) (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2) and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems. PMID:23555711

  16. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  17. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS, partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment of benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Boeckel Petra GA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks are life-threatening conditions that are often treated surgically. Recently, placement of partially and fully covered metal or plastic stents has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment option. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of covered stent placement for the treatment of esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks with special emphasis on different stent designs. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS, a partially covered SEMS (PSEMS or a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS for a benign esophageal rupture or anastomotic leak after upper gastrointestinal surgery in the period 2007-2010 were included. Data on patient demographics, type of lesion, stent placement and removal, clinical success and complications were collected Results A total of 52 patients received 83 esophageal stents (61 PSEMS, 15 FSEMS, 7 SEPS for an anastomotic leak (n = 32, iatrogenic rupture (n = 13, Boerhaave's syndrome (n = 4 or other cause (n = 3. Endoscopic stent removal was successful in all but eight patients treated with a PSEMS due to tissue ingrowth. Clinical success was achieved in 34 (76%, intention-to-treat: 65% patients (PSEMS: 73%, FSEMS: 83%, SEPS: 83% after a median of 1 (range 1-5 stent and a median stenting time of 39 (range 7-120 days. In total, 33 complications in 24 (46% patients occurred (tissue in- or overgrowth (n = 8, stent migration (n = 10, ruptured stent cover (all Ultraflex; n = 6, food obstruction (n = 3, severe pain (n = 2, esophageal rupture (n = 2, hemorrhage (n = 2. One (2% patient died of a stent-related cause. Conclusions Covered stents placed for a period of 5-6 weeks may well be an alternative to surgery for treating benign esophageal ruptures or anastomotic leaks. As efficacy between PSEMS, FSEMS and SEPS is not different, stent choice should depend on expected risks of stent migration

  18. 3D imaging of cells and tissues by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana

    2013-01-01

    Integration of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) technology into a single FIB/SEM system permits use of the FIB as a nano-scalpel to reveal site-specific subsurface microstructures which can be examined in great detail by SEM. The FIB/SEM technology is widely used in the semiconductor industry and material sciences, and recently its use in the life sciences has been initiated. Samples for FIB/SEM investigation can be either embedded in a plastic matrix, the traditional means of preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens, or simply dried as in samples prepared for SEM imaging. Currently, FIB/SEM is used in the life sciences for (a) preparation by the lift-out technique of lamella for TEM analysis, (b) tomography of samples embedded in a matrix, and (c) in situ site-specific FIB milling and SEM imaging using a wide range of magnifications. Site-specific milling and imaging has attracted wide interest as a technique in structural research of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, small animals, and different animal tissue, but it still remains to be explored more thoroughly. In the past, preparation of samples for site-specific milling and imaging by FIB/SEM has typically adopted the embedding techniques used for TEM samples, and which have been very well described in the literature. Sample preparation protocols for the use of dried samples in FIB/SEM have been less well investigated. The aim of this chapter is to encourage application of FIB/SEM on dried biological samples. A detailed description of conventional dried sample preparation and FIB/SEM investigation of dried biological samples is presented. The important steps are described and illustrated, and direct comparison between embedded and dried samples of same tissues is provided. The ability to discover links between gross morphology of the tissue or organ, surface characteristics of any selected region, and intracellular structural details on the nanometer

  19. Contribución desde la neuropsicología al estudio de la memoria semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Vivas; Ricardo García García

    2010-01-01

    La memoria semántica ha sido estudiada desdediversos campos. Los primeros modelos surgierondesde la psicología cognitiva de la mano de la divisiónpropuesta por Tulving entre memoria semánticay episódica. En los últimos treinta años se hanproducido desarrollos en paralelo en los camposde la psicolingüística, la psicología cognitiva y laneuropsicología cognitiva. El presente trabajo sepropone revisar los aportes que han surgido desdela neuropsicología al estudio de la memoria semántica,así como...

  20. Microstructure of ferrospheres in fly ashes: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-feng XUE; Sheng-gao LU

    2008-01-01

    Ferrospheres in fly ashes from a coal-fired power plant were extracted by a magnetic separation technique and their microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX)and environmental scanning electron microscopy(ESEM).Ferrospheres in fly ashes show significant iron enrichment compared to their respective fly ashes.Iron oxides in ferrospheres mainly occur as minerals magnetite(Fe3O4)and hematite(α-Fe2O3),which are derived mainly from the decomposition and oxidation of iron-bearing minerals in coal during combustion.EDX data indicate that ferrospheres also contain Si,S,Al and Ca resulting from quartz,mullite,anhydrite and amorphous materials.A large percentage of ferrospheres are commonly 5~50 μm in size.The microstructure of ferrospheres includes smooth,polygonal,dendritic,granular and molten drop characteristics.SEM coupled with EDX provided fast and accurate results of the microstructure and chemical composition of ferrospheres,and helped us to assess environmental issues related to the disposal and utilization of fly ashes.