WorldWideScience

Sample records for bainitic steel propagation

  1. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, M.

    2006-06-01

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-11011 Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel G. Vigilante M. Hespos S. Bartolucci...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...need to be addressed, the Flash Bainite processing of 4130 steel demonstrates promise for applications needing a combination of high strength with

  3. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  4. Superheat effect on bainite steel hardenability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubachek, V.V.; Sklyuev, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The bainite hardenability of 34KhN1M and 35 KhN1M2Ph steels has been investigated by the end-face hardening technique. It is established that, as the temperature of austenitization rises from 900 to 1280 deg C, the temperature of bainite transformation increases and bainite hardenability of the steels falls off. A repeated slow heating to 900 deg C of previously overheated 34KhN1M steel breaks up grain, lowers the temperature of the bainite transformation and raises the hardenability to values obtained with ordinary hardening from 900 deg C. A similar heating of previously overheated 35KhN1M2Ph steel is accompanied by restoration of initial coarse grains and maintenance of both the elevated bainite transformation temperature and to lower hardenability corresponding to hardening from the temperature of previous overheating

  5. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  6. Crack growth behavior of low-alloy bainitic 51CrV4 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Canadinç, Demircan; Lambers, H. G.; Gorny B.; Tschumak, S.; Maier, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of low-alloy bainitic 51CrV4 steel was investigated. The current results indicate that the stress state present during the isothermal bainitic transformation has a strong influence on the crack propagation behavior in the near threshold regime, when the crack growth direction is perpendicular to the loading axis of the original sample undergoing phase transformation. However, the influence of stresses superimposed during the bainitic transformation on the crack growt...

  7. The Nitrocarburising Response of Low Temperature Bainite Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fabijanic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrocarburising response of low transformation temperature ultrafine and nanoscale bainitic steel was investigated and compared with martensite and pearlite from the same steel composition. It was found that the retained austenite content of the bainitic steel dictated the core hardness after nitrocarburising. The refined bainitic structure showed improvements in the nitriding depth and hardness of the nitrocarburised layer, compared to coarser grained martensitic and pearlitic structures, possibly due to the fine structure and the distribution of nitride forming elements.

  8. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  9. Mechanical Stabilisation for Bainitic Reaction in a Fe-Mn-Si-C Bainitic Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Yang , J.; Huang , C.; Hsieh , W.; Chiou , C.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the effects of different amounts (5, 10, 20, 40%) of compressive deformation of austenite on the isothermal transformation of bainite in a Fe-Mn-Si-C alloy steel have been investigated. It is found that the prior deformation of austenite retards significantly the bainitic transformation. At the same isothermal transformation temperature, as the amount of prior deformation is higher, the quantity of bainite (which can be obtained after the isothermal transformation is completed) ...

  10. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  11. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  12. Crystallography of carbide-free bainite in a hard bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    The convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction technique has been used to accurately determine the orientation relationships between bainitic ferrite and retained austenite in a hard bainitic steel. A reproducible orientation relationship has been uniquely observed for both the upper and lower bainite. It is(111) A 0.70±0.45 o from(101) B ,[1-bar 01] A 2.5+/-1.5 o from[1-bar 11] B However, the habit plane of upper bainite is different from that of lower bainite. The former has habit plane that is either within 5 deg. of (221) A or of (259) A . The latter only corresponds with a habit plane that is within 5 deg. of (259) A . The determined orientation relationship is completely consistent with reported results determined using the same technique with an accuracy of +/-0.5 deg. in lath martensite in an Fe-20wt.% Ni-6wt.% Mn alloy and in a low carbon low alloy steel. It also agrees well with the orientation relationship between granular bainite and austenite in an Fe-19wt.% Ni-3.5wt.% Mn-0.15wt.% C steel. Hence it is believed that, at least from a crystallographic point view, the bainite transformation has the characteristics of martensitic transformation

  13. Morphology map of bainites in 2% Si steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, H.; Oka, M.

    1995-01-01

    A metallographic study of isothermal transformation products formed at the early stage of transformation was made in silicon alloyed high-carbon steels (C wt%=0.6, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4) in the temperature range between 700 and 200 C. Observations are summarized as a ''morphology map'' showing the formation temperature-carbon content fields of isothermal transformation products. In all steels investigated, the proeutectoid ferrite, upper bainite and lower bainite are formed at temperatures below the extrapolated A 3 line and above 600 C, between 550 and 400 C, and below 350 C and above the Ms temperature, respectively. The microstructural-Bs temperature and the transition temperature from upper bainite to lower bainite are independent of the bulk carbon content, and around 550 and 350 C, respectively. It is shown that above results can be explained by a diffusional model for the proeutectoid ferrite formation and a displacive model for the bainite formation. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Ni Addition on Bainite Transformation and Properties in a 2000 MPa Grade Ultrahigh Strength Bainitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junyu; Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhengyi; Hu, Haijiang; Zhou, Mingxing

    2018-05-01

    The effects of Nickle (Ni) addition on bainitic transformation and property of ultrahigh strength bainitic steels are investigated by three austempering processes. The results indicate that Ni addition hinders the isothermal bainite transformation kinetics, and decreases the volume fraction of bainite due to the decrease of chemical driving force for nucleation and growth of bainite transformation. Moreover, the product of tensile strength and total elongation (PSE) of high carbon bainitic steels decreases with Ni addition at higher austempering temperatures (220 and 250 °C), while it shows no significant difference at lower austempering temperature (200 °C). For the same steel (Ni-free or Ni-added steel), the amounts of bainite and RA firstly increase and then decrease with the increase of the austempering temperature, resulting in the highest PSE in the sample austempered at temperature of 220 °C. In addition, the effects of austempering time on bainite amount and property of high carbon bainitic steels are also analyzed. It indicates that in a given transformation time range of 30 h, more volume of bainite and better mechanical property in high carbon bainitic steels can be obtained by increasing the isothermal transformation time.

  15. Nanostructured Bainite-Austenite Steel for Armours Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burian W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite-austenite steels are applied in the armours construction due to their excellent combination of strength and ductility which enables to lower the armour weight and to improve the protection efficiency. Mechanical properties of the bainite-austenite steels can be controlled in the wide range by chemical composition and heat treatment. In the paper the results of investigation comprising measuring of quasi - static mechanical properties, dynamic yield stress and firing tests of bainite-austenite steel NANOS-BA® are presented. Reported results show that the investigated bainite-austenite steel can be used for constructing add-on armour and that the armour fulfils requirements of protection level 2 of STANAG 4569. Obtained reduction in weight of the tested NANOS-BA® plates in comparison with the present solutions is about 30%.

  16. On the role of microstructure in governing the fatigue behaviour of nanostructured bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rementeria, Rosalia, E-mail: rosalia.rementeria@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Morales-Rivas, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.morales@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kuntz2@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Materials and Processing Department, Renningen, 70465 Stuttgart (Germany); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kerscher, Eberhard, E-mail: kerscher@mv.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Materials Testing, Gottlieb-Damiler-Straße, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Sourmail, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.sourmail@ascometal.com [Ascometal-CREAS (Research Centre) Metallurgy, BP 70045, Hagondange Cedex 57301 (France); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-10

    Nanostructured bainite is not a novel laboratory-scale steel anymore and the interest on the commercial production of these microstructures by steelmakers and end-users is now conceivable. These microstructures are achieved through the isothermal transformation of high-carbon high-silicon steels at low temperature, leading to nanoscale plates of ferrite with thickness of 20–40 nm and retained austenite. Nanostructured bainitic steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels (2.2 GPa/40 MPa m{sup 1/2}) and the potential for engineering components is alluring. However, fatigue properties, responsible of the durability of a component, remain to be examined. In order to understand the role of the microstructure during the fatigue crack propagation, the crack path in three nanoscale bainitic structures has been analysed on the basis of the relationships between grain misorientations and grain boundaries by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. Active slip systems in bainitic ferrite and crack deflection at grain boundaries have been identified, while retained austenite is cast doubt on its role.

  17. Bainitic Transformation and Properties of Low Carbon Carbide-Free Bainitic Steels with Cr Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two low carbon carbide-free bainitic steels (with and without Cr addition were designed, and each steel was treated by two kinds of heat treatment procedure (austempering and continuous cooling. The effects of Cr addition on bainitic transformation, microstructure, and properties of low carbon bainitic steels were investigated by dilatometry, metallography, X-ray diffraction, and a tensile test. The results show that Cr addition hinders the isothermal bainitic transformation, and this effect is more significant at higher transformation temperatures. In addition, Cr addition increases the tensile strength and elongation simultaneously for austempering treatment at a lower temperature. However, when the austempering temperature is higher, the strength increases and the elongation obviously decreases by Cr addition, resulting in the decrease in the product of tensile strength and elongation. Meanwhile, the austempering temperature should be lower in Cr-added steel than that in Cr-free steel in order to obtain better comprehensive properties. Moreover, for the continuous cooling treatment in the present study, the product of tensile strength and elongation significantly decreases with Cr addition due to more amounts of martensite.

  18. Crystallography and Interphase Boundary of Martensite and Bainite in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhara, Tadashi; Chiba, Tadachika; Kaneshita, Takeshi; Wu, Huidong; Miyamoto, Goro

    2017-06-01

    Grain refinements in lath martensite and bainite structures are crucial for strengthening and toughening of high-strength structural steels. Clearly, crystallography of transformation plays an important role in determining the "grain" sizes in these structures. In the present study, crystallography and intrinsic boundary structure of martensite and bainite are described. Furthermore, various extrinsic factors affecting variant selection and growth kinetics, such as elastic/plastic strain and alloying effects on interphase boundary migration, are discussed.

  19. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishan, Behzad; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Yazdani, Sasan; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2013-01-01

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T 0 criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization

  20. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishan, Behzad, E-mail: b_avishan@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yazdani, Sasan, E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  1. Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steels for Heavy Plate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    these steels. The CCT diagrams 7 of steels typical of the HY grades indicate that the nose of the proeutectoid ferrite/pearlite reactions is located...austenite, carbides, and martensite. An example of the type of CCT diagram for one of the steels used in this investigation is presented in Figure 12...introduce a "bay" of unstable austenite which acts to separate the ferrite "nose" from the bainite/martensite regions on TTT or CCT diagrams , see Figure

  2. Bainite formation kinetics in high carbon alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many investigations have been carried out on the modeling of the bainite formation. In the present work, a physical approach proposed in the literature is implemented to model the formation of lower bainite in high carbon steels (1 wt.% C). In this model, the carbon diffusion is assumed to control the kinetics of the bainite formation. Both the nucleation and the growth rates are considered in an Avrami type analysis. The effect of alloying elements is taken into account considering only the thermodynamics of the system. The results and the physical meaning of the model parameters are discussed. It is shown that the diffusional approach gives a reasonable description of bainite formation kinetics in high carbon steel. Only two fitting parameters are used: the first accounts for carbon grain-boundary diffusion and the second is the initial nucleation-site density. The model satisfactorily accounts for the effect of transformation temperature, but does not take into account the carbide precipitation during bainite formation and the effect of alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of carbon

  3. Carbon distribution in bainitic steel subjected to deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu. F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Nikitina, E. N., E-mail: Nikitina-EN@mail.ru; Gromov, V. E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Analysis of the formation and evolution of carbide phase in medium carbon steel with a bainitic structure during compressive deformation was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Qualitative transformations in carbide phase medium size particles, their density and volume concentration depended on the degree of deformation.

  4. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plat...

  5. Effect of Dislocation Density on Deformation Behavior of Super Strong Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Avishan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presence of nanoscale bainitic ferrites and high carbon retained austenites that are stable at ambient temperature within the microstructures of super strong bainitic steels makes it possible to achieve exceptional strengths and ductility properties in these groups of nanostructured steels. This article aims to study the effect of the dislocation density variations during tensile testing in ambient temperature on deformation behavior of nanostructured low temperature bainitic steels. Results indicate that dislocation absorption from bainitic ferrite subunits by surrounding retained austenite reduces the work hardening and therefore increases the formability of bainitic ferrite during deformation, which in turn results in a suitable combination of strength and ductility.

  6. Effect of Isothermal Bainitic Quenching on Rail Steel Impact Strength and Wear Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Fatih Hayati; Çelik, Osman Nuri

    2017-09-01

    The effect of heat treatment regimes on hardness, impact strength, and wear resistance of rail steel for high-speed tracks (rail quality category R350HT) is studied. Analysis of steel properties with a different structure is compared: pearlitic, and upper and lower bainite. It is shown that the steel with bainitic structure has the best impact strength, but wear resistance is better for steel with a lower bainite structure.

  7. Low cycle fatigue behavior in a medium-carbon carbide-free bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Long, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, B. [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, different morphologies of bainite were obtained through isothermal quenching at 320 °C and 395 °C in a medium-carbon carbide-free bainitic steel. The cyclic deformation mechanism was explored by using low cycle fatigue testing. The volume fraction of retained austenite was measured by X-ray diffraction and the space partitioning of the solute atoms was constructed by three-dimensional atom probe. Results showed that the fatigue life at 320 °C was always higher than that at 395 °C under low and high total strain amplitude. The cyclic softening at the early fatigue stage increased the plastic strain of the sample which was responsible for the reduction of the fatigue life at 395 °C. Strain-induced retained austenite to martensite contributed to initial cyclic hardening, but almost having no effect on the subsequent cyclic stable/softening behaviors. The finer bainitic ferrite sheaves obtained at 320 °C changed the small fatigue crack propagation direction and delayed the crack propagation rate, which was beneficial for the fatigue properties. In addition, the substitutional atoms did not redistribute between the retained austenite and bainitic ferrite before and after cyclic deformation.

  8. Fatigue crack growth behaviors in hot-rolled low carbon steels: A comparison between ferrite–pearlite and ferrite–bainite microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Mingfei; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The roles of microstructure types in fatigue crack growth behaviors in ferrite–pearlite steel and ferrite–bainite steel were investigated. The ferrite–bainite dual-phase microstructure was obtained by intermediate heat treatment, conducted on ferrite–pearlite hot-rolled low carbon steel. This paper presents the results from investigation using constant stress-controlled fatigue tests with in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate tests, and fatigue fractography analysis. Microscopy images arrested by in-situ SEM showed that the fatigue crack propagation in F–P steel could become unstable more ealier compared with that in F–B steel. The fatigue cracks in ferrite–pearlite were more tortuous and could propagate more freely than that in ferrite–bainite microstructures. However, frequent crack branching were observed in ferrite–bainite steel and it indicated that the second hard bainite phase effectively retarded the crack propagation. The variation of FCG rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (ΔK) for F–P and F–B steels was discussed within the Paris region. It was shown that FCG rate of F–P steel was higher than that of F–B steel. Moreover, the fatigue fracture surface analysis proved that grain boundaries could also play a role in the resistance of crack propagation.

  9. The Morphology of Intermediate Structures Formed During Bainite Transformation in HSLA Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidurov, Mikhail N.; Kovalev, Sergey V.; Zubkov, Alexander S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the structure of bainite formed under the influence of thermal deformation cycles of welding in low-carbon bainitic class steels. Morphology features associated with the formation of mesoferrite and granular bainite determines the high cold resistance of welded joints.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of the formation of tetragonal bainite in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzayev, D. A.; Mirzoev, A. A.; Buldashev, I. V.; Okishev, K. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    In the articles of Bkhadeshia, a new class of high-strength steels based on the structure of carbidefree bainite with an enhanced carbon content has been developed. According to Bkhadeshia, the main factor responsible for the high solubility of carbon is the occurrence of a tetragonality of the bainite lattice. To check this effect, in this article, the theory of tetragonality of martensite of iron alloys developed by Zener and Khachaturyan was applied to bainite under the assumption that the precipitation of carbides is prohibited. Equations for the chemical potentials of carbon and iron in austenite and in tetragonal ferrite have been derived. The equilibrium of these phases has been considered, and the calculations of the boundary concentrations of carbon and iron at different temperatures (300-1000 K) and at different parameters of the deformation interaction λ0 have been performed. The rigorous calculations confirmed Bkhadeshia's hypothesis that the suppression of the carbide formation during the formation of bainite leads to an increase in the carbon solubility in the bcc phase.

  11. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  12. Correlative microscopy of a carbide-free bainitic steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christina; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Verdiere, An; Petrov, Roumen; Winkelhofer, Florian; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    In this work a carbide-free bainitic steel was examined by a novel correlative microscopy approach using transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The individual microstructural constituents could be identified by TKD based on their different crystal structure for bainitic ferrite and retained austenite and by image quality for the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. Subsequently, the same area was investigated in the TEM and a good match of these two techniques regarding the identification of the area position and crystal orientation could be proven. Additionally, the M-A constituent was examined in the TEM for the first time after preceded unambiguous identification using a correlative microscopy approach. The selected area diffraction pattern showed satellites around the main reflexes which might indicate a structural modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. STM study on surface relief, ultra-fine structure and transformation mechanism of bainite in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.S.; Yang, Z.G.; Wang, J.J.; Zheng, Y.K.

    1995-01-01

    The surface reliefs accompanying lower bainite transformation in steels have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With the exclusive vertical resolution of STM, we observed that the surface relief associated with bainite is a group of surface reliefs related to subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. From the bainite plate to the sub-subunit in it, the reliefs are in a tent shape, not of invariant plane strain (IPS) type. The fine structure of bainite in a steel has also been shown by STM and TEM that bainite plate is composed of subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. On the basis of the fine structure inside a bainitic ferrite plate observed under STM, sympathetic-ledgewise mechanism of bainite formation is proposed. (orig.)

  14. The Effects of Cr and Al Addition on Transformation and Properties in Low‐Carbon Bainitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Junyu Tian; Guang Xu; Mingxing Zhou; Haijiang Hu; Xiangliang Wan

    2017-01-01

    Three low‐carbon bainitic steels were designed to investigate the effects of Cr and Al addition on bainitic transformation, microstructures, and properties by metallographic method and dilatometry. The results show that compared with the base steel without Cr and Al addition, only Cr addition is effective for improving the strength of low‐carbon bainitic steel by increasing the amount of bainite. However, compared with the base steel, combined addition of Cr and Al has no significant effect o...

  15. Fatigue properties of X80 pipeline steels with ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zuo-peng [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qiao, Gui-ying [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Lab of Applied Chemistry of Hebei Province and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tang, Lei [Key Lab of Applied Chemistry of Hebei Province and School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhu, Hong-wei; Liao, Bo [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Xiao, Fu-ren, E-mail: frxiao@ysu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science & Technology and College of Materials Science & Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Fatigue properties are important parameters for the safety design and security evaluation of gas transmission pipelines. In this work, the fatigue life at different stresses of full-thickness X80 pipeline steel plates with a ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure was investigated using a MTS servo-hydraulic universal testing machine; the fatigue crack propagation rate was examined with CT specimens by using an INSTRON 8874 testing machine. Results indicate that fatigue life increases as maximum stress decreases; as the maximum stress decreases to the maximum operating stress (440 MPa), the fatigue life is approximately 4.2×10{sup 5} cycles. The fatigue crack of the full-thickness fatigue life specimens is generated at the surface of rolled steel plates and then the crack propagates and grows inward until a fracture is formed. During fatigue crack growth, a transitional turning point appears in the curve of da/dN with ΔK in the Paris region. The transitional turning point that divides the Paris region to two stages is approximately ΔK≅30 MPa m{sup 1/2}. The change in the growth rate (da/dN) is related to the variation of the crack path and in the fracture mode because of the possible microstructural sensitivity of fatigue crack propagation behavior. This study also discussed the effect of duple phase ferrite/bainite microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and propagation.

  16. Fatigue properties of X80 pipeline steels with ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zuo-peng; Qiao, Gui-ying; Tang, Lei; Zhu, Hong-wei; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue properties are important parameters for the safety design and security evaluation of gas transmission pipelines. In this work, the fatigue life at different stresses of full-thickness X80 pipeline steel plates with a ferrite/bainite dual-phase microstructure was investigated using a MTS servo-hydraulic universal testing machine; the fatigue crack propagation rate was examined with CT specimens by using an INSTRON 8874 testing machine. Results indicate that fatigue life increases as maximum stress decreases; as the maximum stress decreases to the maximum operating stress (440 MPa), the fatigue life is approximately 4.2×10"5 cycles. The fatigue crack of the full-thickness fatigue life specimens is generated at the surface of rolled steel plates and then the crack propagates and grows inward until a fracture is formed. During fatigue crack growth, a transitional turning point appears in the curve of da/dN with ΔK in the Paris region. The transitional turning point that divides the Paris region to two stages is approximately ΔK≅30 MPa m"1"/"2. The change in the growth rate (da/dN) is related to the variation of the crack path and in the fracture mode because of the possible microstructural sensitivity of fatigue crack propagation behavior. This study also discussed the effect of duple phase ferrite/bainite microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and propagation.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of Inverse Bainite in a Hypereutectoid Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-12-01

    Microstructural evolution of inverse bainite during isothermal bainite transformation of a hypereutectoid low-alloy steel at 773 K (500 °C) was investigated through a series of interrupted isothermal experiments using a quench dilatometer. Microstructural characterization revealed that the inverse bainitic transformation starts by the nucleation of cementite (Fe3C) from parent austenite as a midrib in the bainitic microstructure. The inverse bainite becomes "degenerated" to typical upper bainite at prolonged transformation times. Crystallographic orientation relationships between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure were found to obey { _{γ } || _{θ } } { _{α } || _{θ } } { _{γ } || _{α } } 111_{γ } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 110} _{α } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 111} _{γ } || { 110 } _{α } {111} _{γ } || {211} _{θ } {110} _{α } || {211} _{θ } Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation deviations between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure suggest that the secondary carbide nucleation occurs from the inverse bainitic ferrite. Thermodynamic driving force calculations provide an explanation for the observed nucleation sequence in inverse bainite. The degeneracy of inverse bainite microstructure to upper bainite at prolonged transformation times is likely due to the effects of cementite midrib dissolution at the early stage and secondary carbide coarsening at the later stage.

  18. Low temperature bainite in steel with 0.26 wt% C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.soliman@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Mostafa, Hanaa [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); El-Sabbagh, Ahmed S. [Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Palkowski, Heinz [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Low temperature bainite is produced in 0.26 wt% C steel. {yields} Alloy and process design enable decreasing the carbon content of the alloy. {yields} Generations of bainite are formed at temperatures lower than M{sub S} of the bulk alloy. {yields} Bainite plate thicknesses record values between 90 nm and 164 nm. {yields} Y.S. up to 1570 MPa and U.S. up to 2200 MPa are recorded in compression. - Abstract: Low temperature bainite has been produced in steel with 0.26 wt% C. In this steel the bainite transformation was suppressed, firstly, by adding substitutional solute of about 2 wt% Ni and, secondly, by modifying the conventional single-step bainite transformation. This modification made use of the suppression of martensite start of the undecomposed austenite due to carbon partitioning between that austenite and the formed bainitic ferrite. Consequently, it has been experimentally proved that generations of bainite were formed at temperatures lower than the martensite start of the bulk alloy. Dilatometric measurements were used to design and monitor the bainitic transformation process. The structure was characterized using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. In order to investigate the effect of the microstructure parameters on the material's mechanical properties, compression tests have been conducted at room temperature. The results were compared to those obtained by bainitic transformation in single-step process.

  19. Low temperature bainite in steel with 0.26 wt% C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Mohamed; Mostafa, Hanaa; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed S.; Palkowski, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low temperature bainite is produced in 0.26 wt% C steel. → Alloy and process design enable decreasing the carbon content of the alloy. → Generations of bainite are formed at temperatures lower than M S of the bulk alloy. → Bainite plate thicknesses record values between 90 nm and 164 nm. → Y.S. up to 1570 MPa and U.S. up to 2200 MPa are recorded in compression. - Abstract: Low temperature bainite has been produced in steel with 0.26 wt% C. In this steel the bainite transformation was suppressed, firstly, by adding substitutional solute of about 2 wt% Ni and, secondly, by modifying the conventional single-step bainite transformation. This modification made use of the suppression of martensite start of the undecomposed austenite due to carbon partitioning between that austenite and the formed bainitic ferrite. Consequently, it has been experimentally proved that generations of bainite were formed at temperatures lower than the martensite start of the bulk alloy. Dilatometric measurements were used to design and monitor the bainitic transformation process. The structure was characterized using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. In order to investigate the effect of the microstructure parameters on the material's mechanical properties, compression tests have been conducted at room temperature. The results were compared to those obtained by bainitic transformation in single-step process.

  20. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Liangyun; Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. → Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. → MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. → High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  1. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Liangyun, E-mail: lly.liangyun@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. {yields} Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. {yields} MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. {yields} High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  2. The Role of the Bainitic Packet in Control of Impact Toughness in a Simulated CGHAZ of X90 Pipeline Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available X90 pipeline steel was processed with the simulated coarse grain heat affect zone (CGHAZ thermal cycle with heat input varying from 30 kJ/cm to 60 kJ/cm, the microstructures were investigated by means of optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD, and transmission electron microscope (TEM, and the impact properties were evaluated from the welding thermal cycle treated samples. The results indicate that the microstructure is primarily composed of lath bainite. When decreasing the heat input, both bainite packet and block are significantly refined, and the toughness has an increased tendency due to the grain refinement. The fracture surfaces all present cleavage fracture for the samples with different heat inputs. Moreover, the average cleavage facet size for the CGHAZ is nearly equal to the average bainite packet size, and the bainitic packet boundary can strongly impede the crack propagation, indicating that the bainitic packet is the most effective unit in control of impact toughness in the simulated CGHAZ of X90 pipeline steel.

  3. Characterization of morphology and kinetics of bainite transformation in a low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastav, D.; Chakravarthy, J.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2005-01-01

    Bainite transformation is ubiquitous in steels for pressure vessel applications in thermal and nuclear power plants. In this class of steels bainite is the dominant phase found in the microstructure, after industrial thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatment of pressure vessel component. The study of bainite transformation has been carried out using both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions. Previous studies have reported significant differences in the morphology and the type of bainite formed under these two conditions. Continuous cooling has been shown to result in a wider variety of bainite transformation products as compared with isothermal treatments. This has important implications for the technological properties of power plant components such as strength, toughness and hardenability. In the present study the cooling transformation characteristics of a new CrMo pressure vessel steel has been examined using dilatometry supplemented with TEM examination. The dilatometric data were analyzed to determine the activation energy and Avrami exponents. It was found that bainite with different morphologies formed over the cooling rates employed and were kinetically distinct. The dilatometric study along with TEM studies has shown that non-isothermal decomposition of austenite in this steel results in a complex microstructure containing an array of bainite morphologies. The bainitic ferrite plates are seen to be associated with various inter- and intra- plate constituents as the cooling rate changes. Despite this the transformation remains essentially bainitic over the range of cooling rates studied. Three different cooling rate regimes with distinctly different calculated Avrami exponents have been observed. (author)

  4. Ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) steels after quenching and tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Kolan, C.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical and Charpy V impact strength properties of new advanced ultra low carbon bainitic (ULBC) steels after water quenching and tempering (WQT) have been investigated. Their chemical compositions are given. The nine continuous cooling transformation diagrams (CCT) of the new ULCB steel grades have been established. The CCT diagrams for ULCB N i steels containing 9% Ni - grade 10N9 and 5% Ni - grade HN5MVNb are given. The comparison between CCT diagrams of 3.5%Ni + 1.5%Cu containing steels grade HSLA 100 and HN3MCu is shown. The effect of the increase in carbon and titanium contents in the chemical composition of ULCB M n steels 04G3Ti, 06G3Ti and 09G3Ti on the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous cooling is presented by the shifting CCT diagrams. The Charpy V impact strength and brittle fracture occurence curves are shown. The effect of tempering temperature on tensile properties of WQT HN3MCu steel is shown and Charpy V impact strength curves after different tempering conditions are shown. The optimum tempering temperatures region of HN3MCu steel for high Charpy V impact toughness at law temperatures - 80 o C(193 K) and -120 o C(153 K) is estimated. The effect of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of HN5MVNb steel is given. The low temperature impact Charpy V toughness of HN5MVNb steel is shown. The optimum range of tempering temperature during 1 hour for high toughness of WQT HN5MVNb steel is given. HN3MCu and HN5MVNb steels after WQT have high yield strength YS≥690 MPa and high Charpy V impact toughness KV≥80 J at -100 o C (173K) and KCV≥50 J/cm 2 at - 120 o C (153K) so they may be used for cryogenic applications

  5. A new effect of retained austenite on ductility enhancement in high strength bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ying; Zhang Ke; Guo Zhenghong; Chen Nailu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Rong Yonghua, E-mail: yhrong@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new DARA effect in the bainitic steel is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conditions of DARA effect are proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of retained austenite on ductility enhancement is clarified. - Abstract: A designed high strength bainitic steel with considerable amount of retained austenite is presented in order to study the effect of retained austenite on the ductility enhancement in bainitic steels. Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect is verified by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement of retained austenite fraction in various deformation stages and transmission electron microscopy observation of the deformed twin-type martensite. Results from XRD line profile analysis reveal that the average dislocation density in bainite during the deformation is lower than that before deformation, and such a phenomenon can be explained by a new effect, dislocations absorption by retained austenite (DARA) effect, based on our previous investigation of martensitic steels. DARA effect availably enhances the compatibility of deformation ability of bainite with retained austenite. In view of microstructure similarity of bainitic steels with martensitic steels, the conditions of DARA effect are proposed. The effects of retained austenite on the ductility enhancement in bainitic steels are clarified.

  6. Studying on tempering transformation and internal friction for low carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weijuan, E-mail: liweijuan826@163.com; Cai, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Junwei; Zhao, Shengshi; Shao, Peiying

    2017-01-02

    The changes of microstructure during the process of tempering transformation were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and internal friction (IF) for low carbon bainite steel. The yield strength of the steel was tested after tempering transformation. The results showed that the microstructures of the experimental steel in rolled state were composed of lath bainite and granular bainite with a little Mo{sub 2}C and NbC precipitates. The lath width of bainite increased continuously with the tempering time. More cell structures with different orientations were formed in bainite laths. Furthermore, poly-gonization gradually began in some laths. The microstructure of granular bainite increased and was coarsened when it devoured the lath bainite continuously. The dislocation density of the bainitic ferrite decreased continuously as Mo{sub 2}C and NbC precipitations were further increasing. The peak value of Snoek decreased continuously in internal friction-temperature spectrum. The peak value of SKK at the surface decreased at first and then increased. The peak value of SKK at the center decreased firstly and then had little change. Besides, the yield strength of the steel increased firstly and then decreased.

  7. Studying on tempering transformation and internal friction for low carbon bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weijuan; Cai, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Junwei; Zhao, Shengshi; Shao, Peiying

    2017-01-01

    The changes of microstructure during the process of tempering transformation were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and internal friction (IF) for low carbon bainite steel. The yield strength of the steel was tested after tempering transformation. The results showed that the microstructures of the experimental steel in rolled state were composed of lath bainite and granular bainite with a little Mo 2 C and NbC precipitates. The lath width of bainite increased continuously with the tempering time. More cell structures with different orientations were formed in bainite laths. Furthermore, poly-gonization gradually began in some laths. The microstructure of granular bainite increased and was coarsened when it devoured the lath bainite continuously. The dislocation density of the bainitic ferrite decreased continuously as Mo 2 C and NbC precipitations were further increasing. The peak value of Snoek decreased continuously in internal friction-temperature spectrum. The peak value of SKK at the surface decreased at first and then increased. The peak value of SKK at the center decreased firstly and then had little change. Besides, the yield strength of the steel increased firstly and then decreased.

  8. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.; Caballero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed

  9. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornide, J., E-mail: jca@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Capdevila, C., E-mail: ccm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed.

  10. TEM Study of the Orientation Relationship Between Cementite and Ferrite in a Bainitic Low Carbon High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Illescas Fernandez, Silvia; Brown, A.P.; He, K.; Fernández, Javier; Guilemany Casadamon, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    Two different bainitic structures are observed in a steel depending on the sample heat treatment. The different types of bainitic structures exhibit different orientation relationships between cementite and the ferrite matrix. Upper bainite presents a Pitsch orientation relationship and lower bainite presents a Bagaryatski orientation relationship. Different heat treatments of low carbon HSLA steel samples have been studied using TEM in order to find the orientation relationshi...

  11. EBSD Analysis of Relationship Between Microstructural Features and Toughness of a Medium-Carbon Quenching and Partitioning Bainitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangguo; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang

    2017-12-01

    A multiphase microstructure of bainite, martensite and retained austenite in a 0.3C bainitic steel was obtained by a novel bainite isothermal transformation plus quenching and partitioning (B-QP) process. The correlations between microstructural features and toughness were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and the results showed that the multiphase microstructure containing approximately 50% bainite exhibits higher strength (1617 MPa), greater elongation (18.6%) and greater impact toughness (103 J) than the full martensite. The EBSD analysis indicated that the multiphase microstructure with a smaller average local misorientation (1.22°) has a lower inner stress concentration possibility and that the first formed bainitic ferrite plates in the multiphase microstructure can refine subsequently generated packets and blocks. The corresponding packet and block average size decrease from 11.9 and 2.3 to 8.4 and 1.6 μm, respectively. A boundary misorientation analysis indicated that the multiphase microstructure has a higher percentage of high-angle boundaries (67.1%) than the full martensite (57.9%) because of the larger numbers and smaller sizes of packets and blocks. The packet boundary obstructs crack propagation more effectively than the block boundary.

  12. Influence of heating temperature on bainite transformation proceeding in chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletin, Yu.M.; Kaletin, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the effect of heating and cooling from austenization temperature on development of bainite transformation in 37KhN3MFA and 18Kh2N4MA structural alloyed steels. The metallographical analysis of specimens has revealed that first crystals of bainite under slow heating up to 770-790 deg C appear at the temperature of about 500 deg C and at 475 deg C there has been much bainite over the whole cross section of the specimen. It is revealed that an increase of heating temperature and cooling rate replace the starting point of bainite transformation upwards. The strongest displacement of the point Bsub(S) into hogh-temperature range takes place after heating steel with the initial bainite structure in intercritical temperature range

  13. The kinetics and mechanism of bainite transformation in high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bainite formation have been studied in high strength Fe-C-Si-Mn and Fe-C-Si-Ni steels using dilatometry, optical and transmission electron microscopy. In these silicon containing steels, carbide precipitation dies not accompany the growth of bainitic ferrite so that the mechanism of transformation can be readily interpreted. The work confirms that the volume fraction of bainite when the reaction stops, is far less that expected from equilibrium or para equilibrium considerations. In addition the bainite exhibits an invariant plane strain surface relief effect with a large shear component, and adopts a sheaf morphology. The results are demonstrated to be consistent with a displacive diffusion less transformation mechanism of bainite, in which the excess carbon is, subsequent to transformation, rejected into the residual austenite. (author)

  14. Effect of B and B + Nb on the bainitic transformation in low carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Kangying, E-mail: kangying.zhu@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Oberbillig, Carla, E-mail: carla.oberbillig@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Musik, Celine, E-mail: celine.musik@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Loison, Didier, E-mail: didier.loison@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France); Iung, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.iung@arcelormittal.com [ArcelorMittal Maizieres, Research and Development, BP 30320, 57283 Maizieres-les-Metz Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} B retards slightly the bainite transformation kinetics. {yields} Combined addition of B + Nb delayed dramatically bainite transformation kinetics. {yields} B refines the microstructure and promotes lath morphology of bainite. {yields} Larger packets of laths and longer laths are observed in the B + Nb steel. {yields} More free boron/finer borocarbide precipitates on {gamma} grain boundaries in B + Nb steel. - Abstract: Development of new, advanced high and ultra-high strength bainitic steels requires the selection of the optimum balance of bainite promoting elements allowing the production of the desired bainitic microstructure over a wide range of cooling rates. The addition of boron or a combined addition of boron and niobium is well known to retard strongly the polygonal ferrite formation but very little knowledge has been acquired on the bainitic transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of boron and boron plus niobium on the bainite transformation kinetics, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in a low carbon steel (Fe-0.05C-1.49Mn-0.30Si). Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined and followed by a detailed quantitative characterisation of the bainite microstructure and morphology using complementary advanced metallographic techniques (FEG-SEM-EBSD, SIMS and TEM). The relationship between microstructure and hardness has been evaluated. Finally, results of SIMS and TEM analyses coupled with microstructural investigations enable to propose a mechanism to explain the effect of the synergy between boron and niobium on the bainitic transformation and the resultant microstructure.

  15. Effect of B and B + Nb on the bainitic transformation in low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kangying; Oberbillig, Carla; Musik, Celine; Loison, Didier; Iung, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → B retards slightly the bainite transformation kinetics. → Combined addition of B + Nb delayed dramatically bainite transformation kinetics. → B refines the microstructure and promotes lath morphology of bainite. → Larger packets of laths and longer laths are observed in the B + Nb steel. → More free boron/finer borocarbide precipitates on γ grain boundaries in B + Nb steel. - Abstract: Development of new, advanced high and ultra-high strength bainitic steels requires the selection of the optimum balance of bainite promoting elements allowing the production of the desired bainitic microstructure over a wide range of cooling rates. The addition of boron or a combined addition of boron and niobium is well known to retard strongly the polygonal ferrite formation but very little knowledge has been acquired on the bainitic transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of boron and boron plus niobium on the bainite transformation kinetics, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in a low carbon steel (Fe-0.05C-1.49Mn-0.30Si). Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined and followed by a detailed quantitative characterisation of the bainite microstructure and morphology using complementary advanced metallographic techniques (FEG-SEM-EBSD, SIMS and TEM). The relationship between microstructure and hardness has been evaluated. Finally, results of SIMS and TEM analyses coupled with microstructural investigations enable to propose a mechanism to explain the effect of the synergy between boron and niobium on the bainitic transformation and the resultant microstructure.

  16. Relationship of bainitic microstructure to impact toughness in Cr-Mo and Cr-W steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Non-classical bainite microstructures can develop during continuous cooling of low-carbon alloy steels. These differ from classical upper and lower bainite developed by isothermal transformation. Two non-classical bainite microstructures were produced in a 3Cr-1.5Mo0.25V-0.lC steel using different cooling rates after austenitizing--water quenching and air cooling. The carbide-free acicular bainite formed in the quenched steel had a lower ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than the granular bainite formed in the air-cooled steel. With increasing tempering parameter (defined bv tempering time and temperature), the DBTT of both decreased and approached a common value, although the final value occurred at a much lower tempering parameter for the quenched steel than for the air-cooled steel. The upper-shelf enery was similarly affected by microstructure. These observations along with similar observations in two Cr-W steels indicate that control of the bainite microstructure can be used to optimize strength and toughness

  17. Effect of Mo Content on Microstructure and Property of Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three low-carbon bainitic steels, with different Mo contents, were designed to investigate the effects of Mo addition on microstructure and mechanical properties. Two-step cooling, i.e., initial accelerated cooling and subsequent slow cooling, was used to obtain the desired bainite microstructure. The results show that the product of strength and elongation first increases and then shows no significant change with increasing Mo. Compared with Mo-free steel, bainite in the Mo-containing steel tends to have a lath-like morphology due to a decrease in the bainitic transformation temperature. More martensite transformation occurs with the increasing Mo, resulting in greater hardness of the steel. Both the strength and elongation of the steel can be enhanced by Mo addition; however, the elongation may decrease with a further increase in Mo. From a practical viewpoint, the content of Mo could be ~0.14 wt. % for the composition design of low-carbon bainitic steels in the present work. To be noted, an optimal scheme may need to consider other situations such as the role of sheet thickness, toughness behavior and so on, which could require changes in the chemistry. Nevertheless, these results provide a reference for the composition design and processing method of low-carbon bainitic steels.

  18. Metadynamic and static recrystallization softening behavior of a bainite steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Zheng, Liangyu; Ye, Ben; Tong, Zeqiong

    2018-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) and static recrystallization (SRX) softening behavior of a bainite steel was investigated by two-pass isothermal compression experiments at temperatures of 1173, 1273, 1373, and 1473 K and strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 s-1 with inter-pass times of 1, 5, 10, and 30 s on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. Kinetic equations were developed to evaluate the softening fractions caused by MDRX and SRX. A comparison between the experimental and predicted softening fractions showed that the proposed kinetic equations can provide a precise estimation of the MDRX and SRX behavior of the studied steel. The results based on the kinetic equations indicated that the MDRX and SRX softening fraction increases with the increase in strain rate, deformation temperature, inter-pass time, and pre-strain; the activation energy of MDRX is much smaller than that of SRX; and the no-recrystallization temperature of the investigated steel is 1179.4 K.

  19. The Effects of Cr and Al Addition on Transformation and Properties in Low‐Carbon Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three low‐carbon bainitic steels were designed to investigate the effects of Cr and Al addition on bainitic transformation, microstructures, and properties by metallographic method and dilatometry. The results show that compared with the base steel without Cr and Al addition, only Cr addition is effective for improving the strength of low‐carbon bainitic steel by increasing the amount of bainite. However, compared with the base steel, combined addition of Cr and Al has no significant effect on bainitic transformation and properties. In Cr‐bearing steel, Al addition accelerates initial bainitic transformation, but meanwhile reduces the final amount of bainitic transformation due to the formation of a high‐temperature transformation product such as ferrite. Consequently, the composite strengthening effect of Cr and Al addition is not effective compared with individual addition of Cr in low‐carbon bainitic steels. Therefore, in contrast to high‐carbon steels, bainitic transformation in Cr‐bearing low‐carbon bainitic steels can be finished in a short time, and Al should not be added because Al addition would result in lower mechanical properties.

  20. Mechanical Properties of a Bainitic Steel Producible by Hot Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbide-free bainitic microstructure is suitable for achieving a combination of ultra high strength and high ductility. In this work, a steel containing nominally 0.34C-2Mn-1.5Si-1Cr (wt.% was produced via industrial hot rolling and laboratory heat treatments. The austenitization (900°C, 30 min. and austempering (300-400°C, 3 h treatments were done in salt bath furnaces. The austempering treatments were designed to approximately simulate the coiling step, following hot rolling and run-out-table cooling, when the bainitic transformation would take place and certain amount of austenite would be stabilized due to suppression of carbide precipitation. The microstructures and various mechanical properties (tensile properties, bendability, flangeability, and room and subzero temperature impact toughness relevant for applications were characterized. It was found that the mechanical properties were highly dependent on the stability of the retained austenite, presence of martensite in the microstructure and the size of the microstructural constituents. The highest amount of retained austenite (~ 27 wt.% was obtained in the sample austempered at 375°C but due to lower austenite stability and coarser overall microstructure, the sample exhibited lower tensile ductility, bendability, flangeability and impact toughness. The sample austempered at 400°C also showed poor properties due to the presence of initial martensite and coarse microstructure. The best combination of mechanical properties was achieved for the samples austempered at 325-350°C with a lower amount of retained austenite but with the highest mechanical stability.

  1. Bainite transformation and TRIP effect in 20Mn2SiVB steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yanqiu; Long Xiuhui; Zhou Zhenhua; Li Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel is a relatively new type of automotive steel known for its combination of high-strength and high ductility which was developed in the 1990s. 20Mn2SiVB steel is a kind of TRIP steel with low-carbon and low-alloying contents and high-strength. Specimens of a tested 20Mn2SiVB steel austenitized at 920 deg. C and austempered at 420 deg. C in a salt bath at different time are investigated. The microstructure obtained is studied by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that bainitic ferrite precipitates at the boundary of the austenite first, and with the prolongation of the isothermal time, the amount of bainitic ferrite increase. Then the ferrite decollates the austenite grain and lath-shaped bainitic ferrite with little island-shaped austenite forms during the holding time. The microstructure contains carbide-free bainite, granular bainite, retained austenite and martensite in the process of bainite transformation. Tensile test of the different treated specimens indicates that a better comprehensive property can be gained after austenized at 920 deg. C following austempered at 420 deg. C for 5 min, a certain TRIP effect can be also obtained under this condition

  2. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  3. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-11-25

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  4. Bainitic transformation during the two-step quenching and partitioning process in a medium carbon steel containing silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.Y.; Lu, X.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, X.C.; Min, Y.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jin, X.J., E-mail: jin@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Research highlights: In this paper, SEM and TEM were used to characterize microstructure of Q and P steels with different partitioning time at 300 deg. C. The interesting phenomena were discovered and discussed: 1.Lower bainite (bainitic ferrite plus {epsilon}-carbide) rather than carbide-free bainite was observed during partitioning process. 2.The mechanical properties of Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted through balance volume fraction of retained austenite and lower bainite during partitioning process. 3.The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during partitioning process. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that associated with carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite, lower bainite transformation inevitably occurred. More importantly, lower bainite transformation seriously affected the mechanical properties of Q and P steels and final amount of austenite. - Abstract: A study of 40SiMnNiCr steel subjected to a two-step quenching and partitioning process (Q and P) is presented. The result suggests that strength variation of Q and P steels during the two-step Q and P process was a cumulative effect of increase of retained austenite fraction, decrease of carbon supersaturation of virgin martensite, and particularly much of lower bainite formation. A trade-off between high strength and good ductility of two-step Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted by controlling lower bainite fraction. The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during the partitioning process.

  5. Bainitic transformation during the two-step quenching and partitioning process in a medium carbon steel containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Y.; Lu, X.W.; Wu, X.C.; Min, Y.A.; Jin, X.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: In this paper, SEM and TEM were used to characterize microstructure of Q and P steels with different partitioning time at 300 deg. C. The interesting phenomena were discovered and discussed: 1.Lower bainite (bainitic ferrite plus ε-carbide) rather than carbide-free bainite was observed during partitioning process. 2.The mechanical properties of Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted through balance volume fraction of retained austenite and lower bainite during partitioning process. 3.The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during partitioning process. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that associated with carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite, lower bainite transformation inevitably occurred. More importantly, lower bainite transformation seriously affected the mechanical properties of Q and P steels and final amount of austenite. - Abstract: A study of 40SiMnNiCr steel subjected to a two-step quenching and partitioning process (Q and P) is presented. The result suggests that strength variation of Q and P steels during the two-step Q and P process was a cumulative effect of increase of retained austenite fraction, decrease of carbon supersaturation of virgin martensite, and particularly much of lower bainite formation. A trade-off between high strength and good ductility of two-step Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted by controlling lower bainite fraction. The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during the partitioning process.

  6. Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on the Morphology of Nano-Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kritika; Kumar, Avanish; Singh, Aparna

    2018-04-01

    The strength in nanostructured bainitic steels primarily arises from the fine platelets of bainitic ferrite embedded in carbon-enriched austenite. However, the toughness is dictated by the shape and volume fraction of the retained austenite. Therefore, the exact determination of processing-morphology relationships is necessary to design stronger and tougher bainite. In the current study, the morphology of bainitic ferrite in Fe-0.89C-1.59Si-1.65Mn-0.37Mo-1Co-0.56Al-0.19Cr (wt pct) bainitic steel has been investigated as a function of the prior austenite grain size (AGS). Specimens were austenitized at different temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1150 °C followed by isothermal transformation at 300 °C. Detailed microstructural characterization has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the bainitic laths transformed in coarse austenite grains are finer resulting in higher hardness, whereas smaller austenite grains lead to the formation of thicker bainitic laths with a large fraction of blocky type retained austenite resulting in lower hardness.

  7. Effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of ferrite-martensite-bainite steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, In Sup

    1988-01-01

    The effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of ferrite-martensite -bainite steels was investigated with Fe-0.11C-1.64Mn-0.78Si composition. One inch compact tension specimens (1T-CTSs) were machined from hot rolled plates. The microstructure of ferrite-martensite-bainite was introduced to the specimens by the heat treatment of intercritical annealing at 800deg C and isothermal holding at 350deg C. Holding at 350deg C increased volume fraction of bainite, while decreased that of martensite, and refined martensite particles. Single specimen unloading compliance method was used in fracture test to obtain J-resistance (J-R) curve and to determine the fracture toughness(J IC ). Introduction of bainite to the ferrite-martensite steel improved the fracture toughness due to the deformation of bainite which relaxed the stress concentration on the interface of ferrite and martensite. Observation of fracto-graphs through the scanning electron microscope(SEM) identified the fracture mechanism of ferrite-martensite-bainite steels as dimple nucleation and crack growth by decohesion of ferrite matrix and second phase particles and by microvoid coales cence. (Author)

  8. Variation of transition temperatures from upper to lower bainites in plain carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, M.; Okamoto, H.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results and explanations for the transition temperature from upper to lower bainites in carbon steels containing from 0.20 to 1.80 wt%C were presented metallographically and kinematically. The experimental results are summarized as follows: (1) Lower bainite is not formed in steels with less than 0.35 wt%C and no transition from upper to lower bainite occurs. (2) The transition temperature of steels containing from 0.54 to 1.10 %C indicates a constant temperature of 350 C and does not depend on the carbon content. It is important to note that a transition temperature of 350 C corresponds to the Ms temperature of a 0.55%C steel being the boundary of the martensite morphology between a lath and a plate. (3) Transition temperatures of steels with more than 1.10%C decrease along the a line below about 65 C from T 0 -composition line. The bainitic transformation is essentially a kind of the martensitic one and its nucleation site is considered to be a carbon depleted zone in austenite by the thermal fluctuation of carbon atom at an isothermal holding temperature. The supercooling of about 65 C below the T 0 -composition line at the carbon range more than 1.10 wt%C is attributed to the non-chemical free energy for the displacive growth of lower bainite. (orig.)

  9. The crystallography of carbide-free bainites in thermo-mechanically processed low Si transformation-induced plasticity steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • First EBSD study comparing ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic laths in two TRIP steels. • Both TRIP steels (base and with Nb–Ti additions) subjected to the same TMP schedule. • Crystallography of the ferrite in the 2 bainites studied using the K–S orientation relationship. • Variants in GB associated with self-accommodation. • BF variant selection linked to RA plastic accommodation and limited volume. - Abstract: Carbide-free bainites are important microstructural constituents in bainitic, nanobainitic and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. A comparison of the crystallography of ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite lath morphologies, both of which were simultaneously present in a base and a Nb–Ti containing TRIP steel, has been carried out using electron back-scattering diffraction. Ferrite in granular bainite was characterised by the realisation of nearly all 24 variants of the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship; which in turn was associated with the self-accommodation of the transformation strain. On the other hand, bainitic ferrite comprised a mostly parallel lath structure between thick interlayers of retained austenite and exhibited variant selection such that one or more crystallographic packets are not realised and sometimes only 1–2 variants formed in a crystallographic packet. The variant selection in bainitic ferrite laths was associated with: (i) the plastic accommodation of transformation strain by retained austenite and, (ii) the limited available volume for its formation.

  10. The crystallography of carbide-free bainites in thermo-mechanically processed low Si transformation-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereloma, Elena V.; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First EBSD study comparing ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic laths in two TRIP steels. • Both TRIP steels (base and with Nb–Ti additions) subjected to the same TMP schedule. • Crystallography of the ferrite in the 2 bainites studied using the K–S orientation relationship. • Variants in GB associated with self-accommodation. • BF variant selection linked to RA plastic accommodation and limited volume. - Abstract: Carbide-free bainites are important microstructural constituents in bainitic, nanobainitic and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. A comparison of the crystallography of ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite lath morphologies, both of which were simultaneously present in a base and a Nb–Ti containing TRIP steel, has been carried out using electron back-scattering diffraction. Ferrite in granular bainite was characterised by the realisation of nearly all 24 variants of the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship; which in turn was associated with the self-accommodation of the transformation strain. On the other hand, bainitic ferrite comprised a mostly parallel lath structure between thick interlayers of retained austenite and exhibited variant selection such that one or more crystallographic packets are not realised and sometimes only 1–2 variants formed in a crystallographic packet. The variant selection in bainitic ferrite laths was associated with: (i) the plastic accommodation of transformation strain by retained austenite and, (ii) the limited available volume for its formation

  11. Microscopic deformation and strain hardening analysis of ferrite–bainite dual-phase steels using micro-grid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Kyono; Sueyoshi, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Tatsuya; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The local strain measurement method using nanometer-scaled micro grids printed on the surface of a specimen by an electron lithography technique (the micro-grid method) has been established. Microscopic deformation behavior of the ferrite–bainite steels with different bainite volume fraction, 16% and 40% of bainite, was evaluated. Strain localization in the ferrite phase adjacent to the ferrite/bainite boundary was clearly observed and visualized. Highly strained regions expanded toward the inner region of the ferrite phase and connected each other with an increase of macroscopic strain. The existence of hard bainite phase plays an important role for inducing strain localization in the ferrite phase by plastic constraint in the boundary parallel to the tensile direction. In order to obtain further understanding of microscopic deformation behavior, finite element analysis using the representative volume element, which is expressed by the axisymmetric unit cell containing a hard phase surrounded by a soft phase matrix, was conducted. It was found that the macroscopic stress–strain behavior of ferrite–bainite steels was well simulated by the unit cell models. Strain concentration in the ferrite phase was highly enhanced for the ferrite-40% bainite steel, and this imposed higher internal stress in the bainite phase, resulting in higher strain hardening rate in the early stage of the deformation. However, smaller ferrite volume fraction of ferrite-40% bainite steel induced bainite plastic deformation in order to fulfill the macroscopic strain of the steel. Accordingly, strain hardening capacity of the ferrite-40% bainite steel was reduced to a significant degree, resulting in a smaller uniform elongation than the ferrite-16% bainite steel

  12. Exploring bainite formation kinetics distinguishing grain-boundary and autocatalytic nucleation in high and low-Si steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, Ashwath M.; Sietsma, Jilt; Santofimia, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Bainite formation in steels begins with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at austenite grain boundaries (γ/γ interfaces). This leads to creation of bainitic ferrite/austenite interfaces (α/γ interfaces). Bainite formation continues through autocatalysis with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at these newly created α/γ interfaces. The displacive theory of bainite formation suggests that the formation of bainitic ferrite is accompanied by carbon enrichment of surrounding austenite. This carbon enrichment generally leads to carbide precipitation unless such a reaction is thermodynamically or kinetically unfavourable. Each bainitic ferrite nucleation event is governed by an activation energy. Depending upon the interface at which nucleation occurs, a specific activation energy would be related to a specific nucleation mechanism. On the basis of this concept, a model has been developed to understand the kinetics of bainite formation during isothermal treatments. This model is derived under the assumptions of displacive mechanism of bainite formation. The fitting parameters used in this model are physical entities related to nucleation and microstructural dimensions. The model is designed in such a way that the carbon redistribution during bainite formation is accounted for, leading to prediction of transformation kinetics both with and without of carbide precipitation during bainite formation. Furthermore, the model is validated using two different sets of kinetic data published in the literature.

  13. On structure-property relationship in nanostructured bainitic steel subjected to the quenching and partitioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Ping [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Gao, Guhui, E-mail: gaogh@bjtu.edu.cn [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Han [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Tan, Zhunli [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Misra, R.DK. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968-0520 (United States); Bai, Bingzhe [Material Science & Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Material, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-20

    We elucidate here the mechanistic contribution of the application of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) concept to a high carbon Mn-Si-Cr steel in obtaining a multiphase microstructure comprising of martensite/austenite and nanostructured bainite (bainitic ferrite and nanometer-sized film-like retained austenite) that exhibited tensile strength of 1923 MPa and total elongation of 18.3%. The excellent mechanical properties are attributed to the enhanced refinement of blocky austenite islands obtained by the Q&P process. The austenite was stabilized by both carbon partitioning from martensite and bainite transformation. Compared with conventional heat treatment to produce nanostructured bainite, the total time is significantly reduced without degradation of mechanical properties.

  14. Differentiation of grain orientation with corrosive and colour etching on a granular bainitic steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, S; Ressel, G; Eck, S; Marsoner, S

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a detailed verification of the etching methods with Nital and Klemm on a granular bainitic steel. It is shown that both methods allow the identification of the crystal orientation, whereas Klemm etching enables also a quantification of the apparent phases, as also retained austenite can be distinguished from the other bainitic microstructures. A combination of atom probe tomography with electron-back-scattered-diffraction showed that both etching methods emphasize the bainitic {100} crystal orientation. However, a cross-section produced by focused ion beam evidenced that Klemm etching leads to the formation of a topography of the different oriented bainitic crystals that directly affects the thickness and therefore the apparent colour of the deposited layer formed during etching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rivas, Lucia; González-Orive, Alejandro; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Caballero, Francisca G; Vázquez, Luis

    2015-11-25

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young's modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PF-QNM) measurements. We have addressed critically the limits and advantages of these techniques and been able to measure some elastoplastic parameters of both phases. Specifically, we have analyzed by PF-QNM two nanostructured bainitic steels, with a finer and a coarser structure, and found that both phases have a similar Young's modulus.

  16. Morphology change of retained austenite during austempering of carbide-free bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Christina, E-mail: christina.hofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Winkelhofer, Florian [Research and Development - Business Unit Coil, voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine‐Straße 3, A-4020 Linz (Austria); Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-05-10

    A change in the mechanical properties of a carbide-free bainitic steel was observed during prolonged holding at austempering temperature after termination of the bainitic transformation. To determine the origin of the property change, the microstructure was investigated by correlative electron microscopy. Although the retained austenite content remains the same during prolonged holding, its morphology changes from thin films separating the individual bainitic sub-units to a more globular structure. Since films of austenite contain a higher C concentration, the blocky austenite becomes gradually enriched in C during this morphology change. The more homogeneous distribution of the C after prolonged austempering leads to higher deformability as a result of a more pronounced TRIP effect. - Highlights: • Higher deformability after prolonged austempering of carbide-free bainite. • Microstructure-property relationship revealed by correlative electron microscopy. • Change in austenite morphology. • Spherodization of film austenite; C enrichment & homogenization of blocky austenite.

  17. Effect of effective grain size on Charpy impact properties of high-strength bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Yong; Han, Seung Youb; Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Byoung Chul; Lee, Chang Gil

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels. Six kinds of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements and hot-rolling conditions, and their microstructures and tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. Their effective grain sizes were also characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction analysis. The tensile test results indicated that the B- or Cu-containing steels had the higher yield and tensile strengths than the B- or Cu-free steels because their volume fractions of bainitic ferrite and martensite were quite high. The B- or Cu-free steels had the higher upper shelf energy than the B- or Cu-containing steels because of their higher volume fraction of granular bainite. In the steel containing 10 ppm B without Cu, the best combination of high strengths, high upper shelf energy, and low energy transition temperature could be obtained by the decrease in the overall effective grain size due to the presence of bainitic ferrite having smaller effective grain size

  18. Nano-sized precipitation and properties of a low carbon niobium micro-alloyed bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Ma, X.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, X.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-08-12

    The present work focuses on microstructure evolution and precipitation strengthening during tempering at region of 550–680 °C to elucidate the structure–property relationship in the steel. The effect of tempering on the development of a 700 MPa grade high strength hot rolled cost-effective bainitic steel was studied for infrastructure applications. Granular bainite with dispersed martenisit–austenite (M–A) constituents in the bainitic ferrite matrix was obtained after hot rolling and air cooling to room temperature. The decomposition of M–A constituents to cementite carbides and the precipitation of nano-sized NbC carbides in bainitic matrix on tempering were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nano-sized precipitates of NbC precipitated during tempering were in average diameter of ~4.1–6.1 nm. There were ~86–173 MPa increases in yield strength after tempering at region of 550–680 °C. It is noticeable that those nano-sized NbC precipitates provide an effective way to significantly increase the strength of the low carbon bainitic steel. High yield strength of 716 MPa with high ductility (uniform elongation of 9.3% and total elongation of 22.4%), low yield to tensile ratio of 0.9 and good low temperature toughness of 47 J (half thickness) at –40 °C was obtained after tempering at 680 °C for 30 min.

  19. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S., E-mail: sourav.das@tatasteel.com [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur (India); Timokhina, I. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation/Science and Technology, Deakin University (Australia); Singh, S.B. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur (India); Pereloma, E. [BlueScope Steel Metallurgy Centre, University of Wollongong (Australia); Mohanty, O.N. [RSB Metaltech, RSB Group, Jamshedpur (India)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  20. The effect of double steps heat treatment on the microstructure of nanostructure bainitic medium carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughani, Milad; Kolahi, Alireza; Palizdar, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Nano structure bainitic steel have attracted attention mostly because of its special mechanical properties such as high tensile strength, hardness, appropriate toughness and low manufacturing cost. The main concern for the mass production of this type of steels is prolong austempering process which increases the production costs as well as time. In this research, in order to accelerate the bainitic transformation and decrease the production time, a medium carbon steel has been prepared and two steps austempering process was employed to prevent the bainite laths thickening. The Samples were austenetized at 1000°C for 15 min and were kept in the salt bath between 1 - 12 hours at 290°C in one step and between 1 - 12 hours at the temperature range of 250°C - 300°C in two steps bainite transformation. The obtained micro structures were studied by the optical and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the mechanical properties were investigated by using tensile and hardness tests. The results show that the two steps austempering process and lower carbon concentration lead to lower austempering time as well as the formation of more stable retained austenite and nanostructured bainite lath which results in higher mechanical properties.

  1. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Timokhina, I.; Singh, S.B.; Pereloma, E.; Mohanty, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. ► No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. ► Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  2. The Kinetics of Bainitic Transformation of Roll Steel 75Kh3MF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsova, O. A.; Krylova, S. E.; Priymak, E. Yu.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Kamantsev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The critical points of steel 75Kh3MF and the temperature of the start of martensitic transformation are determined by a dilatometric method. The thermokinetic and isothermal diagrams of decomposition of supercooled austenite are plotted. The microstructure and microhardness of steel specimens cooled at different rates are studied. The kinetics of the occurrence of bainitic transformation in the steel is calculated using the Austin-Ricket equation.

  3. Stress induced transformation to bainite in Fe-Cr-Mo-C pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Reed, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the bainitic transformation in a polycrystalline Fe-Cr-Mo-C alloy designed for applications in energy generation systems has been studied, with particular attention to the influence of mild tensile stresses on transformation behaviour. The steel was found to exhibit the incomplete reaction phenomenon, in which transformation to bainite stops well before the residual austenite acquires its paraequilibrium carbon concentration. It was found that even in the absence of an applied stress, the growth of bainitic ferrite caused anisotropic changes in specimen dimensions, consistent with the existence of crystallographic texture in its austenitic condition and, significantly, with the nature of the invariant-plane strain shape change that accompanies the growth of bainitic ferrite. Thus, transformation induced plasticity could be detected in fine grained polycrystalline samples, even in the absence of applied stress. The application of an external stress was found to alter radically the transformation behaviour, with clear evidence that the stress tends to favour the development of certain crystallographic variants of bainite, even though the stress may be well below the single phase yield strength. It is concluded that the transformation is influenced significantly by stresses as low as 45 MN m -2 , even though the effect may not be obvious in metallographic studies. The results are analysed and discussed in terms of the mechanism of the bainite transformation. (author)

  4. Critical isothermal temperature and optimum mechanical behaviour of high Si-containing bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.; Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Upadhyaya, A.; Mondal, K.

    2012-01-01

    The redistribution of carbon during partitioning between retained austenite and bainitic ferrite decides the stability of the retained austenite. The martensitic start temperature (M S ) based on the carbon enriched retained austenite is observed to be the deciding factor for the volume fraction of the constituent phases obtained on isothermal bainitic transformation. The volume fraction of the phases is also calculated on the basis of metastable equi-free energy (T 0 ) curve. A good agreement is found between experimentally and theoretically calculated fractions of the phases. The isothermal holding temperature and time, the fraction of phases based on initial carbon content of the steel and M S temperatures have a close relation with the optimum mechanical properties of bainitic steels.

  5. Effect of Austenitising Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite was obtained in high-carbon Si-Al-rich steel by low-temperature (220–260 °C isothermal transformation after austenitisation at different temperatures (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1150 °C. Improved strength-ductility-toughness balance was achieved in the nanostructured bainitic steel austenitised at low temperatures (900 °C and 1000 °C. Increasing the austenitising temperature not only coarsened prior austenite grains and bainite packets, but also increased the size and fraction of blocky retained austenite. High austenitising temperature (1150 °C remarkably decreased ductility and impact toughness, but had a small effect on strength and hardness.

  6. Critical isothermal temperature and optimum mechanical behaviour of high Si-containing bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A.; Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Upadhyaya, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mondal, K., E-mail: kallol@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-12-15

    The redistribution of carbon during partitioning between retained austenite and bainitic ferrite decides the stability of the retained austenite. The martensitic start temperature (M{sub S}) based on the carbon enriched retained austenite is observed to be the deciding factor for the volume fraction of the constituent phases obtained on isothermal bainitic transformation. The volume fraction of the phases is also calculated on the basis of metastable equi-free energy (T{sub 0}) curve. A good agreement is found between experimentally and theoretically calculated fractions of the phases. The isothermal holding temperature and time, the fraction of phases based on initial carbon content of the steel and M{sub S} temperatures have a close relation with the optimum mechanical properties of bainitic steels.

  7. Development of a kinetic model for bainitic isothermal transformation in transformation-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Zhu, R.; Karaman, I.; Arróyave, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we modify existing models to simulate the kinetics of bainitic transformation during the bainitic isothermal transformation (BIT) stage of a typical two-stage heat treatment – BIT is preceded by an intercritical annealing treatment – for TRIP steels. This effort is motivated by experiments performed in a conventional TRIP steel alloy (Fe–0.32C–1.42Mn–1.56Si) that suggest that thermodynamics alone are not sufficient to predict the amount of retained austenite after BIT. The model implemented in this work considers the non-homogeneous distribution of carbon – resulting from finite carbon diffusion rates – within the retained austenite during bainitic transformation. This non-homogeneous distribution is responsible for average austenite carbon enrichments beyond the so-called T 0 line, the temperature at which the chemical driving force for the bainitic transformation is exhausted. In order to attain good agreement with experiments, the existence of carbon-rich austenite films adjacent to bainitic ferrite plates is posited. The presence of this austenite film is motivated by earlier experimental work published by other groups in the past decade. The model is compared with experimental results and good qualitative agreement is found

  8. Bainite Formation in Medium-Carbon Low-Silicon Spring Steels Accounting for Chemical Segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, C.; Mecozzi, M.G.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of chemical inhomogeneity on the isothermal bainite formation is investigated in medium-carbon low-silicon spring steel by dilatometry and microscopy. The analysis of the microstructure at different times during transformation shows that chemical segregation of

  9. Variations of microstructure and properties of 690 MPa grade low carbon bainitic steel after tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Rui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China); Li, Shengli, E-mail: lishengli@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China); Li, Zhenshun; Tian, Lei [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250061 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The variations of microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of 690 MPa grade low carbon bainitic steel tempered at different temperatures were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and double-arm Bridge. The results show that the appearance of granular bainite, decomposition of retained austenite, variations of dislocation density and solid solution of microalloying elements are the main reasons for variations of mechanical properties and electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity reflects the solution content of microalloying elements and variations of dislocation density, which can be used as a fast and effective way to analyze the microstructure of materials.

  10. Detailed characterization of complex banding in air-cooled bainitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Rivas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of banding in a hot-rolled air-cooled bainitic steel has been thoroughly characterized. The banded microstructure was observed due to distinctive sensitivities to the etching agent. Microstructural and crystallographic studies by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction did not reveal any substantial differences between bands and matrix. However, solute segregation of some alloying elements was detected by Wavelength- Dispersive Spectroscopy, being found that bands are enriched in Cr, Mo and Si and depleted in Mn. Finally, a set of theoretical calculations suggested that the solidification mode is responsible for such unusual partitioning behavior, which is beneficial in terms of the bainitic transformation.

  11. Investigation on tempering of granular bainite in an offshore platform steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlei; Jia, Tao; Zhang, Xiangjun [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0521 (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Granular bainite, where M-A constituents dispersed in bainitic ferrite matrix usually presents at the half thickness region in thermo-mechanically processed heavy gauge offshore platform steel. In the present work, the decomposition of M-A constituents during tempering at 600 °C was firstly revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which primarily involves the precipitation of cementite, recovery and recrystallization of highly dislocated ferrite matrix. Then, the effect of tempering on mechanical properties was investigated by tempering at different temperature for 60 min. Results indicated that, at tempering temperature of 500–600 °C, large quantity of micro-alloying carbides precipitated and partially compensated the loss of strength mainly due to the decomposition of M-A constituents. Compared with the as-rolled state, the decomposition of M-A constituents and softening of bainitic ferrite matrix after tempering have resulted in higher density of microvoids and substantial plastic deformation before impact failure.

  12. Mechanical properties and hot-rolled microstructures of a low carbon bainitic steel with Cu-P alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, W.F.; Zhang, S.X.; Jiang, Y.; Dong, J.; Liu, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mechanical properties and microstructures of low carbon bainite steel are examined. → Cu-P alloying promotes strengthening and uniform plastic deformation. → Cu-P alloying delays recovery process during rolling interval. → Lowering rolling temperature is favorable to increasing toughness. - Abstract: A low carbon bainitic steel with Cu-P alloying was developed. The new steel aims to meet the demand of high strength, high toughness and resistance to chloride ion corrosion for the components used in the environment of sea water and oceanic atmosphere. Mechanical properties of the steel were tested and strengthening and toughening mechanisms were analyzed by comparing hot-rolled microstructures of the low carbon bainitic steels with and without Cu-P alloying. The results show that Cu-P alloying provided strong solution strengthening with weak effect on ductility. The toughness loss caused by Cu-P alloying could be balanced by increasing the amount of martensite/remained austenite (M/A island) at lower finishing temperature. The static recovery process during rolling interval was delayed by the interaction of phosphorous, copper atoms with dislocations, which was favorable to the formation of bainitic plates. Super-fine Nb(C, N) particles precipitated on dislocations had coherency with bainite ferrite at 830 deg. C finishing temperature. Raising finishing temperature to 880 deg. C, Nb(C, N) particles were prone to coarsening and losing coherency. It was also found that no accurate lattice match relationship among retained austenite, martensite and bainite in granular bainitic microstructure.

  13. Mechanical properties and hot-rolled microstructures of a low carbon bainitic steel with Cu-P alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, W.F., E-mail: wenfangcui@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, S.X. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Technology Center of Laiwu Iron and Steel (Group) Co. Ltd., Laiwu 271104 (China); Jiang, Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Dong, J. [Technology Center of Laiwu Iron and Steel (Group) Co. Ltd., Laiwu 271104 (China); Liu, C.M. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Mechanical properties and microstructures of low carbon bainite steel are examined. {yields} Cu-P alloying promotes strengthening and uniform plastic deformation. {yields} Cu-P alloying delays recovery process during rolling interval. {yields} Lowering rolling temperature is favorable to increasing toughness. - Abstract: A low carbon bainitic steel with Cu-P alloying was developed. The new steel aims to meet the demand of high strength, high toughness and resistance to chloride ion corrosion for the components used in the environment of sea water and oceanic atmosphere. Mechanical properties of the steel were tested and strengthening and toughening mechanisms were analyzed by comparing hot-rolled microstructures of the low carbon bainitic steels with and without Cu-P alloying. The results show that Cu-P alloying provided strong solution strengthening with weak effect on ductility. The toughness loss caused by Cu-P alloying could be balanced by increasing the amount of martensite/remained austenite (M/A island) at lower finishing temperature. The static recovery process during rolling interval was delayed by the interaction of phosphorous, copper atoms with dislocations, which was favorable to the formation of bainitic plates. Super-fine Nb(C, N) particles precipitated on dislocations had coherency with bainite ferrite at 830 deg. C finishing temperature. Raising finishing temperature to 880 deg. C, Nb(C, N) particles were prone to coarsening and losing coherency. It was also found that no accurate lattice match relationship among retained austenite, martensite and bainite in granular bainitic microstructure.

  14. Effect of bainitic isothermal transformation plus Q&P process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 0.2C bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuyin; Li, Qiangguo; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang, E-mail: huangwg56@163.com

    2016-12-15

    A novel bainitic isothermal transformation plus quenching and partitioning (B-QP) process was developed for a 0.2C-1.5Si-1.8Mn bainitic steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel treated by different heat treatment process were investigated. The results show that the B{sub 3}-QP (the subscript ‘3’ indicates the isothermal holding of 3 min for the bainitic transformation) samples exhibit a multiphase microstructure containing carbide-free bainite, martensite, film-like retained austenite. The microstructure is much finer than that of the Q&T samples with full martensite and the B{sub 30}-QP samples with a bainite microstructure. Although the Q&T sample has the highest tensile strength (1455 MPa), the ductility and the product of strength and elongation (PSE) are lower. In contrast, the B{sub 3}-QP and B{sub 30}-QP samples exhibit better ductility and higher PSE values of 26.3 GPa% and 28.2 GPa%, respectively. Furthermore, the B{sub 3}-QP sample exhibits maximum impact toughness value of 121 Jcm{sup −2}, which is about 20% and 55% higher than those of Q&T sample (101 J cm{sup −2}) and B{sub 30}-QP sample (78 J cm{sup −2}) respectively.

  15. High-Cycle, Push–Pull Fatigue Fracture Behavior of High-C, Si–Al-Rich Nanostructured Bainite Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ji, Honghong

    2017-01-01

    The high-cycle, push–pull fatigue fracture behavior of high-C, Si–Al-rich nanostructured bainitic steel was studied through the measurement of fatigue limits, a morphology examination and phase composition analysis of the fatigue fracture surface, as well as fractography of the fatigue crack propagation. The results demonstrated that the push–pull fatigue limits at 107 cycles were estimated as 710–889 MPa, for the samples isothermally transformed at the temperature range of 220–260 °C through data extrapolation, measured under the maximum cycle number of 105. Both the interior inclusion and the sample surface constituted the fatigue crack origins. During the fatigue crack propagation, a high amount of secondary cracks were formed in almost parallel arrangements. The apparent plastic deformation occurred in the fracture surface layer, which induced approximately all retained austenite to transform into martensite. PMID:29286325

  16. High-Cycle, Push–Pull Fatigue Fracture Behavior of High-C, Si–Al-Rich Nanostructured Bainite Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-cycle, push–pull fatigue fracture behavior of high-C, Si–Al-rich nanostructured bainitic steel was studied through the measurement of fatigue limits, a morphology examination and phase composition analysis of the fatigue fracture surface, as well as fractography of the fatigue crack propagation. The results demonstrated that the push–pull fatigue limits at 107 cycles were estimated as 710–889 MPa, for the samples isothermally transformed at the temperature range of 220–260 °C through data extrapolation, measured under the maximum cycle number of 105. Both the interior inclusion and the sample surface constituted the fatigue crack origins. During the fatigue crack propagation, a high amount of secondary cracks were formed in almost parallel arrangements. The apparent plastic deformation occurred in the fracture surface layer, which induced approximately all retained austenite to transform into martensite.

  17. Effect of tempering on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, X.W. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, B. [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wu, K.M. [International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-16

    The effect of tempering on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium carbon bainitic steel has been investigated through optical microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. A nano-level microstructure containing plate-like bainitic ferrite and film-like retained austenite is obtained by isothermal transformation at Ms+10 °C followed by tempering within 240–450 °C. Results show that the sample tempered at 340 °C occupies the optimal balance of strength and toughness by maintaining a certain level of plasticity; samples tempered at 320 °C and 360 °C with low and high yield ratio come second. The microstructure of the steel is not sensitive to tempering temperatures before 360 °C. When the temperature is increased to 450 °C, the significantly coarsened bainitic ferrite plate and the occurrence of a small quantity of carbide precipitation account for its low toughness. The amount of retained austenite increases with the tempering temperature before 400 °C, followed by decreasing with further increase in the temperature. This behavior is related to the competition between retained austenite further transforming into bainite and decomposing into carbide during tempering.

  18. The Potential of Self-Tempered Martensite and Bainite in Improving the Fatigue Strength of Thermomechanically Processed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to a two-stage hardening and tempering process, the definition of optimized cooling routes after hot working of low-alloy Cr steel allows the adjustments of high-strength microstructures with a sufficient degree of ductility at the same time without any additional heat-treatment. While compressed air cooling after hot forging of micro-alloyed steel grades leads to the formation of lower bainite with finedispersed cementite platelets, quenching by water spray down to the martensite start temperature results in the formation of martensite, that is self-tempered during the subsequent slow-cooling in air. The precipitation of nano-sized cementite precipitates result in superior mechanical properties with respect to impact and tensile testing. Cyclic deformation and crack propagation tests being carried out using resonance testing (100Hz and ultrasonic fatigue testing (20kHz systems revealed a pronounced increase in fatigue strength by about 150MPa of the self-tempered martensite condition as compared to the bainitic modification. For the latter one, a steady decrease of the fatigue strength is observed rather than the existence of a real fatigue limit.

  19. Nb(C,N) precipitation kinetics in the bainite region of a low-carbon Nb-microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.S.; Lee, Y.K.

    2007-01-01

    Nb(C,N) precipitation in the bainite region (580-660 deg. C) of a low-carbon Nb-microalloyed steel was investigated by electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy. Nb(C,N) particles started precipitating after 100-200 s at isothermal temperatures after bainite transformation and cementite formation, and precipitation finished in 1000-2000 s. The precipitation-time-temperature diagram of Nb(C,N) in the bainite region of a low-carbon microalloyed steel was a type of C-curve, with a nose temperature of about 615 deg. C

  20. Martensite and bainite in steels: transformation mechanism and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Many essential properties of iron alloys depend on what actually happens when one allotropic form gives way to another, i.e. on the mechanism of phase change. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the atomic mechanism by which bainite and martensite grow is the focus of this paper. The discussion is illustrated in the context of some common engineering design parameters, and with a brief example of the inverse problem in which the mechanism may be a function of the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  1. Study of the temperature dependence of the bainitic transformation rate in a multiphase TRIP-assisted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, E.; Ratchev, P.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Verlinden, B.; Aernoudt, E.

    1999-01-01

    A prerequisite to the development of multiphase TRIP-assisted steels is a good understanding of the bainitic transformation that takes place during the related thermo-mechanical processing. In this framework, the present paper proposes to investigate the formation of bainite when originating from intercritical austenite in a Si bearing steel. The experimental results suggest the contribution of a martensitic type mechanism to the transformation process. Yet, the overall bainitic reaction rates are found to strongly depend on the holding temperature. This original kinetics is correlated with the typical microstructure the steel exhibits after the intercritical annealing stage. To this extent, the crucial role of the adjacent development of bainitic ferrite for the observed temperature dependence is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Nucleation and growth characteristics of graphite spheroids in bainite during graphitization annealing of a medium carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.X.; Wei, B.Q.; Li, D.D.; He, K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure in bainite during graphitization annealing at 680 °C of Jominy-quenched bars of an Al-Si bearing medium carbon (0.4C wt%) steel has been studied and compared with that in martensite by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the graphitization process in bainite is different from that in martensite in many aspects such as the initial carbon state, the behavior of cementite, the nucleation-growth feature and kinetics of formation of graphite spheroids during graphitization annealing, and the shape, size and distribution of these graphite spheroids. The fact that the graphitization in bainite can produce more homogeneous graphite spheroids with more spherical shape and finer size in a shorter annealing time without the help of preexisting coring particles implies that bainite should be a better starting structure than martensite for making graphitic steel. - Highlights: • This article presents a microstructural characterization of formation of graphite spheroids in bainite. • Nucleation and growth characteristics of graphite spheroids formed in bainite and martensite are compared. • Bainite should be a better starting structure for making graphitic steel as results show.

  3. Effects of thermomechanical processing on microstructure and properties of bainitic work hardening steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jie, E-mail: caojie910@ahut.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan 243002 (China); Yan, Jun; Zhang, Jing [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan 243002 (China); Yu, Tongren [Technology Center, Maanshan Iron & Steel Company Limited, Ma’anshan 243000 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The thermomechanical processing (TMP) of a bainitic work hardening steel was carried out on a Gleeble3500 simulator. The microstructure of processed specimens was investigated by means of optical and electron microscopy, and tensile tests were performed in a ZwickRoell tensile tester. The deformation temperatures of austenite varied from 800 °C to 900 °C. The cooling methods include single rate cooling method and two-stage cooling method. The two-stage cooling method includes fast cooling rates ranging from 4 °C/s to 12 °C/s and slow cooling rates ranging from 1 °C/s to 2 °C/s. It is shown that, within the range of parameters tested, the obtained microstructures are granular bainite, the tensile strength of the steel can be adjusted from 897.8 MPa to 1083.2 MPa, and good plasticity can be obtained at different strength levels.

  4. Partial-Isothermally-Treated Low Alloy Ultrahigh Strength Steel with Martensitic/Bainitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Quanshun; Kitchen, Matthew; Patel, Vinay; Filleul, Martin; Owens, Dave

    We introduce a new strengthening heat treatment of a Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloyed spring steel by partial isothermal salt-bath and subsequent air-cooling and tempering. Detailed isothermal treatments were made at temperatures below or above the Ms point (230°C). The salt bath time was controlled between 10 and 80 minutes. Through the new treatment, the candidate steel developed ultrahigh tensile strength 2,100 MPa, yield strength 1,800 MPa, elongation 8-10 %, hardness 580-710 HV, and V-notch Charpy toughness 10-12 J. Optical and electron microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction revealed multi-phase microstructures of bainitic/martensitic ferrites, fine carbide precipitates and retained austenite. Carbon partitioning during the bainitic/martensitic transformation was investigated for its remarkable influence on the strengthening mechanism.

  5. EBSD as a tool to identify and quantify bainite and ferrite in low-alloyed Al-TRIP steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaefferer, S; Romano, P; Friedel, F

    2008-06-01

    Bainite is thought to play an important role for the chemical and mechanical stabilization of metastable austenite in low-alloyed TRIP steels. Therefore, in order to understand and improve the material properties, it is important to locate and quantify the bainitic phase. To this aim, electron backscatter diffraction-based orientation microscopy has been employed. The main difficulty herewith is to distinguish bainitic ferrite from ferrite because both have bcc crystal structure. The most important difference between them is the occurrence of transformation induced geometrically necessary dislocations in the bainitic phase. To determine the areas with larger geometrically necessary dislocation density, the following orientation microscopy maps were explored: pattern quality maps, grain reference orientation deviation maps and kernel average misorientation maps. We show that only the latter allow a reliable separation of the bainitic and ferritic phase. The kernel average misorientation threshold value that separates both constituents is determined by an algorithm that searches for the smoothness of the boundaries between them.

  6. Evolution of the structure and the phase composition of a bainitic structural steel during plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, E. N.; Glezer, A. M.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Aksenova, K. V.; Gromov, V. E.; Kazimirov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the phase composition and the imperfect substructure of the 30Kh2N2MFA bainitic structural steel subjected to compressive deformation by 36% is quantitatively analyzed. It is shown that deformation is accompanied by an increase in the scalar dislocation density, a decrease in the longitudinal fragment sizes, an increase in the number of stress concentrators, the dissolution of cementite particles, and the transformation of retained austenite.

  7. Characterization of coarse bainite transformation in low carbon steel during simulated welding thermal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Liangyun, E-mail: lanly@me.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Kong, Xiangwei [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu, Chunlin [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Coarse austenite to bainite transformation in low carbon steel under simulated welding thermal cycles was morphologically and crystallographically characterized by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction technology. The results showed that the main microstructure changes from a mixture of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite to granular bainite with the increase in cooling time. The width of bainitic laths also increases gradually with the cooling time. For a welding thermal cycle with relatively short cooling time (e.g. t{sub 8/5} is 30 s), the main mode of variant grouping at the scale of individual prior austenite grains changes from Bain grouping to close-packed plane grouping with the progress of phase transformation, which results in inhomogeneous distribution of high angle boundaries. As the cooling time is increased, the Bain grouping of variants becomes predominant mode, which enlarges the effective grain size of product phase. - Highlights: • Main microstructure changes and the width of lath structure increases with cooling time. • Variant grouping changes from Bain zone to close-packed plane grouping with the transformation. • The change of variant grouping results in uneven distribution of high angle grain boundary. • Bain grouping is main mode for large heat input, which lowers the density of high angle boundary.

  8. Characterization of coarse bainite transformation in low carbon steel during simulated welding thermal cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Qiu, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Coarse austenite to bainite transformation in low carbon steel under simulated welding thermal cycles was morphologically and crystallographically characterized by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction technology. The results showed that the main microstructure changes from a mixture of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite to granular bainite with the increase in cooling time. The width of bainitic laths also increases gradually with the cooling time. For a welding thermal cycle with relatively short cooling time (e.g. t 8/5 is 30 s), the main mode of variant grouping at the scale of individual prior austenite grains changes from Bain grouping to close-packed plane grouping with the progress of phase transformation, which results in inhomogeneous distribution of high angle boundaries. As the cooling time is increased, the Bain grouping of variants becomes predominant mode, which enlarges the effective grain size of product phase. - Highlights: • Main microstructure changes and the width of lath structure increases with cooling time. • Variant grouping changes from Bain zone to close-packed plane grouping with the transformation. • The change of variant grouping results in uneven distribution of high angle grain boundary. • Bain grouping is main mode for large heat input, which lowers the density of high angle boundary

  9. Microstructural evolution of bainitic steel severely deformed by equal channel angular pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili-Ahmadabadi, M; Haji Akbari, F; Rad, F; Karimi, Z; Iranpour, M; Poorganji, B; Furuhara, T

    2010-09-01

    High Si bainitic steel has been received much of interest because of combined ultra high strength, good ductility along with high wear resistance. In this study a high Si bainitic steel (Fe-0.22C-2.0Si-3.0Mn) was used with a proper microstructure which could endure severe plastic deformation. In order to study the effect of severe plastic deformation on the microstructure and properties of bainitic steel, Equal Channel Angular Pressing was performed in two passes at room temperature. Optical, SEM and TEM microscopies were used to examine the microstructure of specimens before and after Equal Channel Angular Pressing processing. X-ray diffraction was used to measure retained austenite after austempering and Equal Channel Angular Pressing processing. It can be seen that retained austenite picks had removed after Equal Channel Angular Pressing which could attributed to the transformation of austenite to martensite during severe plastic deformation. Enhancement of hardness values by number of Equal Channel Angular Pressing confirms this idea.

  10. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Inga; Rementeria, Rosalia; Caballero, Francisca G.; Kuntz, Matthias; Sourmail, Thomas; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels. PMID:28773953

  11. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels.

  12. The CCT diagrams of ultra low carbon bainitic steels and their impact toughness properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The CCT diagrams of ULCB N i steels, HN3MV, HN3MVCu having 5.1% Ni and 3.5% Ni and Cu bearing steels; HN3M1.5Cu, HSLA 100 have been determined. The reduced carbon concentration in steel, in order to prevent the formation of cementite, allowed for using nickel, manganese, chromium and molybdenum to enhance hardenability and refinement of the bainitic microstructures by lowering B S temperature. Copper and microadditions of vanadium and niobium are successfully used for precipitation strengthening of steel both in thermomechanically or heat treated conditions. Very good fracture toughness at low temperatures and high yield strength properties of HN3MVCu and HN3MV steels allowed for fulfillment of the requirements for steel plates for pressure vessels and cryogenic applications. (author)

  13. Precipitation behavior of the lower bainitic carbide in a medium-carbon steel containing Si, Mn and Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Luo, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    The fine microstructure, crystallographic features and ε-carbides precipitation behavior of lower bainite produced by isothermal transformation in a medium-carbon steel containing Si, Mn and Mo were investigated using transmission electronic microscopy. It was found that the microstructure produced by isothermal reaction at 320 deg. C was composed of a large amount of plate-like lower bainite with retained austenite embedded between the plates, and ε-carbides precipitated within them. Midrib and subunits were readily visible in the lower bainite plate. The bainite plate kept a G-T orientation relationship (OR) with the austenite. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of 'three phases in four variants' and analysis indicated that two variants of ε-carbides precipitated in a single bainitic ferrite plate. The two (or three) variants of ε-carbides can simultaneously keep a Jack OR with its 'bainite matrix', while keeping no fixed OR with the austenite. The crystallographic features of ε-carbides precipitated within the bainite were the same as those observed in tempered martensite. The results indicated that the bainitic transformation bore an analogy to the martensitic one in carbide precipitation

  14. Fracture behaviour of weld joints made of pearlitic and bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Válka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with microstructure evaluations and the hardness and fracture behaviour of welded joints made from cast bainitic Lo8CrNiMo steel and pearlitic rail steel of the type UIC 900A. The materials mentioned are predetermined for frogs of switches. The study is based mainly on microstructural observations and hardness measurements of the base materials, weld, and heat affected zone (HAZ. Dynamic fracture toughness was evaluated based on data from pre-cracked Charpy type specimens. The pearlitic UIC 900A steel and its HAZ had the lowest dynamic fracture toughness values and therefore the highest risk of brittle fracture. At application temperature range, this steel is on the lower shelf of the ductile-to-brittle transition, and the tempering in the HAZ did not affect the toughness substantially. The cast bainitic steel in the weld joint is characterized by higher toughness values compared to the pearlitic one, and a further increase in toughness may be expected in the HAZ. The weld zone itself is characterized by high scatter of toughness data; nevertheless, all the values are above the scatter band characterizing the pearlitic steel.

  15. Analysis of microstructural variation and mechanical behaviors in submerged arc welded joint of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Liangyun, E-mail: lly.liangyun@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen; Gao, Xiuhua; Du, Linxiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Microstructural variation in high strength low carbon bainitic steel weldment was investigated in detail by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed that the welded joint has various microstructures such as acicular ferrite, coarse granular ferrite and fine polygonal ferrite. The martensite-austenite (MA) constituent has a variable structure in each sub-zone, which includes fully martensite and fully retained austenite. Meanwhile, the fine grained heat affected zone has higher content of retained austenite than the welded metal (WM) and coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ). The orientation relationship between retained austenite and product phases in the WM and CGHAZ is close to Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. However, the polygonal ferrite in the fine grained HAZ has no specific orientation relationship with the neighboring retained austenite. The toughness of the coarse grained region is much lower than that of the WM because the coarse bainite contains many large MA constituents to assist the nucleation of microcracks and coarse cleavage facet lowers the ability to inhibit the crack propagation.

  16. The mechanism for the formation of boron ineffective zone and its effect on the properties of ultra low carbon bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Rongiuan; Wang, Shyichin; Liou, Horngyih.

    1993-01-01

    In the manufacturing of Ultra Low Carbon Bainitic(ULCB) steels, boron is a prerequisite alloying element to promote the desired bainitic transformation. In order to obtain this hardenability effect, boron must be in solution and segregate to austenite grain boundaries and thus decrease the contribution of boundary interfacial energy to ferrite nucleation. During the development of ULCB steels in CSC, a small boron ineffective zone was sometimes found at the center of steel plates. From EPMA and boron autoradiograph analysis, it was found that the formation of this boron ineffective zone was due to center line segregation of inclusions which strongly combined with boron and formed a boron free zone in its vicinity. The microstructure of the boron ineffective zone was conventional ferrite with strength much lower than that of its surrounding bainite. This resulted in the occurrence of separations (splits) in tensile and impact specimens. Also, it was found that the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has a propensity to propagate along the boron ineffective zone. in welding y-groove tests, a higher cold cracking sensitivity at this boron ineffective zone was also found

  17. The Formation of Carbide-Free Bainite in High-Carbon High-Silicon Steel under Isothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Mirzaev, D. A.; Buldashev, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that a carbide-free bainite structure can be formed in high-carbon steel of the Fe-Si-Mn-Cr-V system using a traditional furnace facility. The structural aspects of bainitic transformation developing under isothermal conditions at 300°C have been studied by the methods of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Orientation relationships between crystalline lattices of γ and α phases have been established. A superequilibrium carbon concentration in the bainite α phase has been determined.

  18. Peculiarities of the effect of high temperature deformation on the kinetics of bainite transformation in steels of various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlestov, V.M.; Gotsulyak, A.A.; Ehntin, R.I.; Konopleva, E.V.; Kogan, L.I.

    1979-01-01

    By the methods of magnetometry and metallography studied is the effect of 25% deformation by rolling at 800 deg C on kinetics and parameters of bainite transformation in steels with different hydrogen contents and types of alloying. The hot deformation decelerates the bainite transformation at temperatures >=400 deg C; while the isoterm temperature increases the decelerating effect of deformation at first decreases and then changes into the accelerating one. The slowing down of the transformation is determined mainly by the decrease in the rate of the bainite crystal growth, whereas the acceleration - by the activation of grain initiation processes in the hot-deformed austenite. A hydrogen content increase and steel alloying with carbide-forming elements increase the stabilization effect of the deformation on kinetics of bainite transformation

  19. Effect of Aluminum Alloying on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Nano-bainite Bearing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. N.; Dai, L. Q.; Chu, C. H.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, L. W.; Xiao, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in using aluminum in nano-bainite steel, especially for high-carbon bearing steel, is gradually growing. In this study, GCr15SiMo and GCr15SiMoAl steels are introduced to investigate the effect of Al alloying on the hot deformation behavior of bearing steel. Results show that the addition of Al not only notably increases the flow stress of steel due to the strong strengthening effect of Al on austenite phase, but also accelerates the strain-softening rates for its increasing effect on stacking fault energy. Al alloying also increases the activation energy of deformation. Two constitutive equations with an accuracy of higher than 0.99 are proposed. The constructed processing maps show the expanded instability regions for GCr15SiMoAl steel as compared with GCr15SiMo steel. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of cracking on the GCr15SiMoAl specimens, revealing that Al alloying reduces the high-temperature plasticity of the bearing steel. On the contrary, GCr15SiMoAl steel possesses smaller grain size than GCr15SiMo steel, manifesting the positive effect of Al on bearing steel. Attention should be focused on the hot working process of bearing steel with Al.

  20. The Influence of Vanadium on Ferrite and Bainite Formation in a Medium Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourmail, T.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, F. G.; Cazottes, S.; Epicier, T.; Danoix, F.; Milbourn, D.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of vanadium additions on transformation kinetics has been investigated in a medium carbon forging steel. Using dilatometry to track transformation during continuous cooling or isothermal transformation, the impact of vanadium on both ferrite-pearlite and bainite has been quantified. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have been used to establish whether vanadium was present in solid solution, or as clusters and precipitates. The results show that vanadium in solid solution has a pronounced retarding influence on ferrite-pearlite formation and that, unlike in the case of niobium, this effect can be exploited even during relatively slow cooling. The influence on bainite transformation was found to depend on temperature; an explanation in terms of the effect of vanadium on heterogeneous nucleation is tentatively proposed.

  1. Phase Equilibrium and Austenite Decomposition in Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grajcar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the phase equilibrium analysis and austenite decomposition of two Nb-microalloyed medium-Mn steels containing 3% and 5% Mn. The pseudobinary Fe-C diagrams of the steels were calculated using Thermo-Calc. Thermodynamic calculations of the volume fraction evolution of microstructural constituents vs. temperature were carried out. The study comprised the determination of the time-temperature-transformation (TTT diagrams and continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of the investigated steels. The diagrams were used to determine continuous and isothermal cooling paths suitable for production of bainite-based steels. It was found that the various Mn content strongly influences the hardenability of the steels and hence the austenite decomposition during cooling. The knowledge of CCT diagrams and the analysis of experimental dilatometric curves enabled to produce bainite-austenite mixtures in the thermomechanical simulator. Light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to assess the effect of heat treatment on morphological details of produced multiphase microstructures.

  2. Microstructural Changes of the Nanostructured Bainitic Steel Induced by Quasi-Static and Dynamic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcisz J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microstructure of nanostructured bainitic steel induced by quasi-static and dynamic deformation have been shown in the article. The method of deformation and strain rate have important impact on the microstructure changes especially due to strain localization. Microstructure of nanostructured steel Fe-0.6%C-1.9Mn-1.8Si-1.3Cr-0.7Mo consists of nanometer size carbide-free bainite laths and 20-30% volume fraction of retained austenite. Quasi-static and dynamic (strain rate up to 2×102 s−1 compression tests were realized using Gleeble simulator. Dynamic deformation at the strain rate up to 9×103 s−1 was realized by the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar method (SHPB. Moreover high energy firing tests of plates made of the nanostructured bainitic steel were carried out to produce dynamically deformed material for investigation. Adiabatic shear bands were found as a result of localization of deformation in dynamic compression tests and in firing tests. Microstructure of the bands was examined and hardness changes in the vicinity of the bands were determined. The TEM examination of the ASBs showed the change from the internal shear band structure to the matrix structure to be gradual. This study clearly resolved that the interior (core of the band has an extremely fine grained structure with grain diameter ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm. Martensitic twins were found within the grains. No austenite and carbide reflections were detected in the diffraction patterns taken from the core of the band. Hardness of the core of the ASBs for examined variants of isothermal heat treatment was higher about 300 HV referring to steel matrix hardness.

  3. Powder metallurgical nanostructured medium carbon bainitic steel: Kinetics, structure, and in situ thermal stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonardelli, I., E-mail: il244@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); University of Trento, Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Bortolotti, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Beek, W. van [Swiss-Norwegian Beamlines, ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Girardini, L.; Zadra, M. [K4-Sint, via Dante 300, 38057 Pergine Valsugana (Italy); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    It has been possible to produce incredibly fine plates of bainitic ferrite separated by a percolating network of retained austenite in a medium carbon steel produced by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering and isothermal heat treatment. This is because the sintering process limits the growth of the austenite grains to such an extent that the martensite-start temperature is suppressed in spite of the medium carbon concentration. Furthermore, the fine austenite grain size accelerates the bainite transformation, which can therefore be suppressed to low temperatures to obtain a nanostructure. Microscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and the thermal stability of the retained austenite during continuous heating. These latter experiments revealed a gradient of carbon concentration in the retained austenite and a reduced thermal stability in high carbon film-austenite. It was also possible to correlate the evolution of defect density and carbon depletion in both retained austenite and bainitic ferrite during tempering.

  4. The analysis of bainitic ferrite microstructure in microalloyed plate steels through quantitative characterization of intervariant boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Singon, E-mail: sikang@mines.edu [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Speer, John G.; Regier, Ryan W. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Nako, Hidenori [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Kennett, Shane C. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Findley, Kip O. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to investigate the bainitic ferrite microstructure in low-carbon, microalloyed steels with varying C and Mn contents. Fully austenitized samples were isothermally heat treated at temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 °C to form bainitic ferrite. The bainitic ferrite microstructures and boundary characteristics obtained from the EBSD measurements were analyzed based on an inferred Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship. The heat treated samples exhibit a microstructure composed of laths and the lath aspect ratio tends to increase at lower isothermal heat treatment temperatures. High fractions of boundary misorientation angles below 5° are observed, which are due to lath boundaries in the microstructure. Additionally, misorientations of approximately 7°, 53° and 60° are observed, which are related to the sub-block, packet, and block boundaries, respectively. With decreasing isothermal heat treatment temperature, there is an increase of block boundaries; these boundaries are intervariant boundaries between different blocks within a packet, most of which have the misorientation angle of 60°. The specimens with a higher carbon level contained increased length of block boundaries, whereas the addition of Mn moderated the dependence of block boundary length on the heat treatment temperature within the experimental temperature range. Meanwhile, the length of intervariant boundaries of both packet and sub-block character did not vary much with heat treatment temperature and alloy composition.

  5. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  6. Wrought Cr--W--V bainitic/ferritic steel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ronald L.; Maziasz, Philip J.; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Santella, Michael L.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Jawad, Maan H.

    2006-07-11

    A high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy includes, generally, about 2.5% to about 4% chromium, about 1.5% to about 3.5% tungsten, about 0.1% to about 0.5% vanadium, and about 0.05% to 0.25% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy is heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled to produce an austenite transformation product.

  7. Al and Si Influences on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-principle method based on the density functional theory was applied to investigate the Al and Si influences on the hydrogen embrittlement of carbide-free bainitic steel. The hydrogen preference site, binding energy, diffusion behaviour, and electronic structure were calculated. The results showed that hydrogen preferred to be at the tetrahedral site. The binding energy of the cell with Si was the highest and it was decreased to be the worst by adding hydrogen. The diffusion barrier of hydrogen in the cell containing Al was the highest, so it was difficult for hydrogen to diffuse. Thus, hydrogen embrittlement can be reduced by Al rather than Si.

  8. Transformation Stasis Phenomenon of Bainite Formation in Low-Carbon, Multicomponent Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei

    2017-11-01

    The transformation stasis phenomenon of bainite formation in low-carbon steel was detected using a high-resolution dilatometer. The phenomenon occurred at different stages for different isothermal temperatures. In combination with microstructural observation, the calculated overall activation energy of transformation and interface migration velocity shed new light on the cause of formation of the stasis phenomenon. The temporary stasis formed at the initial stage of phase transformation for high isothermal temperature was attributed to the drag effect of substitutional atoms, which leads to low-interface migration velocity and large overall activation energy.

  9. Bainite transformation of low carbon Mn-Si TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: influence of silicon content on cementite precipitation and austenite retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.; Catlin, T.; Geerlofs, N.; Kop, T.; Zwaag, S. van der; Delannay, F.

    1999-01-01

    Studies dealing with TRIP-assisted multiphase steels have emphasized the crucial role of the bainite transformation of silicon-rich intercritical austenite in the achievement of a good combination of strength and ductility. The present work deals with the bainite transformation in two steels differing in their silicon content. It is shown that both carbon enrichment of residual austenite and cementite precipitation influences the kinetics of the bainite transformation. A minimum silicon content is found to be necessary in order to prevent cementite precipitation from austenite during the formation of bainitic ferrite in such a way as to allow stabilisation of austenite by carbon enrichment. (orig.)

  10. In-situ tensile test of high strength nanocrystalline bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Mike, E-mail: mike.haddad@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Ivanisenko, Yulia; Courtois-Manara, Eglantine [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fecht, Hans-Jörg [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2015-01-03

    Because of its great importance in modern engineering and technology applications, steel continues to be highly relevant in the modern research field of nanocrystalline materials. Innovative processing methods and procedures are required for the production of such materials, which possess superior properties compared to their conventional counter parts. In this research, the original microstructure of a commercial C45 steel (Fe, 0.42–0.5 wt% C, 0.5–0.8 wt% Mn) was modified from ferritic–pearlitic to bainitic. Warm high pressure torsion for 5 rotations at 6 GPa and 350 °C was used to process the bainitic sample leading to an ultrafine/nano-scale grain size. A unique nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of equiaxed and elongated ferrite grains with a mean size smaller than 150 nm appeared in images taken by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Results of in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope showed very high tensile strength, on the order of 2100 MPa with a total elongation of 4.5% in comparison with 800 MPa and around 16% in the original state. Fracture occurred abruptly, without any sign of necking, and was typically caused by the stress concentration at a surface flaw. Also, stress concentrations near all surface defects were observed on the sample, visualized by the formation of shear bands. The fracture surface was covered with dimples, indicating ductile fracture. These properties are fully comparable with high strength, high alloyed steels.

  11. Analysis of carburizing steel with lath bainite in matrix by magnetic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwu ZOU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic treatment is used to reduce the large amount of retained austenite in the steel infiltration layer which affects the hardness. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and direct reading spectroscopy are combined to compare and analyze the organization structure status of the test carburizing steel after air-cooling and low temperature tempering (T at 453 K × 1 h, or after cryogenic treatment at 113 K × 30 min and low temperature tempering (T at 453 K × 1 h. The cryopreservation effect of the 1 203 K × 9 h carburizing air-cooled bainitic steel is carried out. The results show that both the effective hardening layer depths are about 1.35 mm. The retained austenite mass fractions of T and CT in the effective hardened layer are approximately 29.8% and 12.6%, respectively, and the highest hardnesses of the effective hardened layer of T and CT are 679 HV and 821 HV, respectively. The matrix structure is lath bainite, and the retained austenite mass fractions in the matrix are approximately 7.4% for T and 6.9% for CT, respectively, and both the hardnesses of the matrixes are approximately 430 HV. After the cryogenic treatment, the austenite content in the infiltration layer is effectively reduced, so that the maximum hardness of the hardened layer increases by 20% or more. It can be widely used because of the decreased material cost and remarkable economical benefit.

  12. Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S. [University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J., E-mail: mjp54@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Avettand-Fènoël, M-N. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET) UMR CNRS 8207, Université, Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve D' ASCQ (France); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06

    The tensile properties of a nanostructured carbide-free bainitic steel formed at 200–250 °C are compared against those after tempering sufficiently to remove the retained austenite. Although significant ductility is observed following tempering, a comparison of tempered and untempered samples shows that it is in fact reduced when a comparison is made at identical strength. The shape of the stress–strain curves shows clear evidence that the capacity for work hardening is reduced with the loss of austenite. The nanostructure of the steel transformed at 250 °C is examined by transmission electron microscopy, to compare the as-transformed to the tempered structure. In this case after tempering at 500 °C the energy absorbed during the tensile test is lower, due to the lower strength. Reduction of strength is caused by the slight coarsening of the bainite plates, and lower dislocation density after tempering. Considering the formation of carbide particles in high strength steel, impressive ductility is exhibited even in the tempered condition.

  13. Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, H.S.; Peet, M.J.; Avettand-Fènoël, M-N.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The tensile properties of a nanostructured carbide-free bainitic steel formed at 200–250 °C are compared against those after tempering sufficiently to remove the retained austenite. Although significant ductility is observed following tempering, a comparison of tempered and untempered samples shows that it is in fact reduced when a comparison is made at identical strength. The shape of the stress–strain curves shows clear evidence that the capacity for work hardening is reduced with the loss of austenite. The nanostructure of the steel transformed at 250 °C is examined by transmission electron microscopy, to compare the as-transformed to the tempered structure. In this case after tempering at 500 °C the energy absorbed during the tensile test is lower, due to the lower strength. Reduction of strength is caused by the slight coarsening of the bainite plates, and lower dislocation density after tempering. Considering the formation of carbide particles in high strength steel, impressive ductility is exhibited even in the tempered condition

  14. Effects of retained austenite and hydrogen on the rolling contact fatigue behaviours of carbide-free bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chunlei; Dan, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Fucheng, E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, Bo [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yan, Zhigang; Shan, Jun; Long, Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-01-31

    The effects of retained austenite and hydrogen on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behaviours of a new carbide-free bainitic steel (CFBS) were studied by means of the RCF testing, electrolytic hydrogen charging, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the new carbide-free bainitic steels (CFBSs) exhibited very good RCF performance under the high contact stress of 1.7 GPa, and pitting and spalling were the main mode of the RCF failure. The RCF performance of the new CFBS was improved by the retained austenite content increasing, while obviously decreased by hydrogen.

  15. Mechanical properties and kinetics of bainite transformation in the 35KhN3MFA and 25KhN3MFA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotushenko, G.V.; Grigorkin, V.I.; Kozlov, V.I.; Sandomirskij, M.M.; Krivonosova, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties and phase composition of the 25KhN3M A and 25KhN3M A bainitic steels have been investigated under austenization temperature varying from 870 to 1180 deg C and quenching cooling rate varying from 1 to 18x10 3 deg/min. Roentgen and quantitative phase analyses were employed. When bainitic steels are subjected to quenching by cooling with slow rate, their structure reveals b.c.c.-bainite with carbon content below the steel average, tetragonal martensite with a higher carbon content, carbon-rich residual austenite and carbides. Decreasing quenching cooling rates increase the concentration of tetragonal martensite and residual austenite and correspondingly reduce the concentration of b.c.c.-bainite. This tends to degrade the structural strength of bainitic steels in cores of large-size forged products

  16. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Bainitic Steel Used for Frogs in Railway Crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzych S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the effect of heat treatment on a microstructure and mechanical properties of a selected cast steel assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossovers. Materials used nowadays in the railway industry for frogs e.g. Hadfield cast steel (GX120Mn13 or wrougth pearlitic steel (eg. R260 do not fulfil all exploitation requirements indicated in the UIC (International Union of Railways Decision No. 1692/96 in terms of train speed that should be reached on railways. One of the possible solution is using a cast steel with bainitic or bainitic-martensitic microstructure that allows to gain high strength properties the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 1400 MPa, the tensile yield strength (TYS of 900 MPa and the hardness of up to 400 BHN. The tested material is considered as an alternative to Hadfield cast steel that is currently used for railway frogs.

  17. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of bainitic cast steel used for frogs in railway crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tasak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of sample cast assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossover. Materials used in railway industry for frogs (manganese cast steel and forged pearlitic steel do not fulfil strict conditions of exploitation of railway. One of the solutions is using cast steel with bainitic or bainite-martensite microstructure, what allows to gain high resistance properties (Rm = 1400 MPa, Rp0,2 = 900 MPa, hardness to 400 HBW. The cooling rates of rail type UIC60 shows that it is possible to reach the bainitic microstructure in cast of frog. The microstructure of lower banite should have an advantageous influence on cracking resistance. In order to set the parameters of heat treatment, the critical temperatures were determined by dilatometric methods determined. This heat treatment consisted of normalizing that prepared it to the farther process of resistance welding. Moreover, the CCT diagram of proposed bainitic cast steel was prepared. The exams were done that can be used to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of the sample cast.

  18. Grain refinement by cold deformation and recrystallization of bainite and acicular ferrite structures of C-Mn steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Nedjad, S.; Zahedi Moghaddam, Y.; Mamdouh Vazirabadi, A.; Shirazi, H.; Nili Ahmadabadi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bainite showed weak property improvement after rolling and annealing. → Additions of titanium and titanium oxide stimulated acicular ferrite. → Acicular ferrite obtained by nanoparticles exhibited very high strength. → Rolling and annealing of acicular ferrite gave substantial property improvement. - Abstract: The propensity of bainite and acicular ferrite structures of experimental C-Mn steels for enhanced grain refinement by combining phase transformation and plastic deformation has been investigated. Formation of acicular ferrite structures were stimulated with a small amount of titanium and titanium oxide nanoparticles added into the molten steels of high Mn concentrations. Isothermal transformations into the bainite and acicular ferrite structures were performed for 1.8 ks at 823 K after preliminary austenitization for 1.8 ks at 1523 K. Cold rolling for 50% thickness reduction was conducted on the isothermally transformed structures. Subsequent annealing of the deformed structures was conducted for 3.6 ks at 773, 873 and 973 K. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile test were used for characterization of the studied steels. Cold rolling and annealing of the transformed structures at 873 K resulted in strengthening at the expense of ductility where an initial stage of recrystallization is realized. Acicular ferrite obtained by the addition of titanium into the molten steel exhibited the remarkable improvement of tensile properties. Discontinuous recrystallization of the deformed structures at 973 K leads to the formation of fine grains wherein acicular structures represented more enhanced grain refinement than bainite.

  19. Microstructure and Property of Mn-Nb-B Low Carbon Bainite High Strength Steel Under Ultra-fast Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bing-xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel with the reducing production technology as the research target, the deformation behavior and phase transformation behavior were studied by the thermal simulation testing machine. Combining with the characteristics of the medium and heavy plate production line, the controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology based on ultra-fast cooling were designed to produce low cost high strength construction machinery steel with superior comprehensive mechanical properties. The strengthening mechanisms such as grain refinement strengthening, precipitation strengthening are effective to produce the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel. The yield strength and tensile strength of the product reach to 678MPa and 756 MPa respectively, the elongation A50 is 33% and the impact energy at -20℃ is 261J. The microstructure of the steel is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and lath bainite. A large number of fine, point, granular M/A constituents and dislocation structures dispersively distributed inside the matrix, and also tiny and dispersed (Nb,Ti (C,N precipitates are observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1994-03-08

    This work describes a high strength, high toughness bainitic/ferritic steel alloy comprising about 2.75% to 4.0% chromium, about 2.0% to 3.5% tungsten, about 0.10% to 0.30% vanadium, and about 0.1% to 0.15% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy having been heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled at a rate sufficient to produce carbide-free acicular bainite. 15 figures.

  1. Changing in Fatigue Life of 300 M Bainitic Steel After Laser Carburizing and Plasma Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Antonio J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work 300M steel samples is used. This high-strength steel is used in aeronautic and aerospace industry and other structural applications. Initially the 300 M steel sample was submitted to a heat treatment to obtain a bainític structure. It was heated at 850 °C for 30 minutes and after that, cooled at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Afterwards two types of surface treatments have been employed: (a using low-power laser CO2 (125 W for introducing carbon into the surface and (b plasma nitriding at a temperature of 500° C for 3 hours. After surface treatment, the metallographic preparation was carried out and the observations with optical and electronic microscopy have been made. The analysis of the coating showed an increase in the hardness of layer formed on the surface, mainly, among the nitriding layers. The mechanical properties were analyzed using tensile and fatigue tests. The results showed that the mechanical properties in tensile tests were strongly affected by the bainitic microstructure. The steel that received the nitriding surface by plasma treatment showed better fatigue behavior. The results are very promising because the layer formed on steel surface, in addition to improving the fatigue life, still improves protection against corrosion and wear.

  2. Bainitic steels behavior at different temperatures: study of cementite using neutron and synchrotron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouahab, Razane

    2012-01-01

    The multi-scale experimental characterization of bainitic steels has been the subject of this research. Two two-phase steels ferrite-cementite were chosen: a 16MND5 steel used to design RPW reactors (Reactor Pressurized Water) and a 2C40 steel. In order to study the mechanical behavior of each phase individually, different thermomechanical characterization tools have been considered. The originality of this work comes from the use of two techniques: in situ tensile tests combined to synchrotron radiation and nano indentation. A major interest is given to the behavior of cementite. The stresses reached in this phase were determined by two methods. First, analyzes have been performed in ferritic phase by XRD and a mixture law has been used to estimate the stress values in cementite. Then, analyzes have been carried out directly in each phase using synchrotron radiation. The results show that the mixture law is a good tool to describe the stress distribution in each phase of the studied steels. However, it may be not enough because it doesn't take into account the morphology of the carbide and highly depends on the volume fraction of the cementite: an uncertainty of ± 0.2 % can lead to stress variation of ± 1000 MPa. The local properties of cementite were also analyzed by nano indentation. The primary results have confirmed that the carbide hardness is 2-3 times greater than the hardness of the matrix [fr

  3. Properties and application of new bainitic and martensitic creep resistance steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, J.; Dobrzanski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Supercritical operating parameters of lower emission power units, require novel creep resisting steels to be applied for boiler and pipe systems. Among them are T23 bainitic steels for water walls of boiler combustion chamber and martensitic VM12 steels for superheater coils were tested. RAFAKO S.A. has been co-operating with the Silesian Technical University in Katowice, the Institute of Welding and the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy in Gliwice for several years now, initiating research and development programmes, implementing the new creep-resistant steels and actively participating in European programmes COST522 and COST536. This paper contains selected information and test results before implementation of the new creep-resistant steels, including: evaluation of working parameters, temperature conditions of main boiler components, which influence reliability and safety, selection of steels for furnace chamber components (approx. 2.5 % Cr) and steam superheater components (9-12 % Cr) destination, evaluation of the requested level of welded joints technological and strength properties, measurements and non-destructive examinations, evaluation of welded joints and HAZ structure by means of LM, TEM and SEM methods in the welding technology implementation process, evaluation of corrosion mechanisms and creep-resistance results - loss of service life - for selected evaporator and steam superheater components, as crucial elements in evaluation of reliability and safety of boiler equipment. Such an examination program includes assessment of steel structure stability during operation period in actual operational conditions. It was clearly shown that operation period have little impact on changes occurring in microstructure and other properties of examined steel grades. (author)

  4. Stress distribution in the 16MND5 bainitic steel. Experimental analysis and polycrystalline modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesci, R.; Inal, K.; Berveiller, M.; Masson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The 16MND5 bainitic steel being a two-phase material (ferrite/cementite), the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most efficient tool to determine the stress states into the ferritic phase (sin 2 ψ method). The latter, coupled to the observations realized during tensile tests (specimen surface and facies), have permitted to establish criteria to describe the behavior and the damaging processes of the material on a crystallographic scale, in the lower part of the ductile-to-brittle transition region and at lower temperatures [-196 deg. C;-60 deg. C]. During the loading, the damage is observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope, while the internal stresses are determined by XRD: the stress states are less important in ferrite than in bainite (macroscopic stress), the difference not exceeding 150 MPa. A multi-scale polycrystalline model is developed concurrently with the experimental measurements: a Mori-Tanaka formulation is used to describe the elastoplastic behavior of a ferritic single crystal reinforced by cementite precipitates, while the transition to the polycrystal is achieved by a self-consistent approach. The developed modeling takes into account the temperature effects on the stress states in each phase and includes a cleavage criterion (critical value of the stress normal to [100] planes), which expresses the damage of the material: thus, it enables to predict the actual experimental behavior of the 16MND5 steel in relation to temperature, and to take into account the failure process which is fragile from -120 deg. C. Besides, it is also possible to calculate the strains of the diffracting planes, which can be compared to those measured by XRD: this enables to evaluate the heterogeneity of the strains for each crystallographic orientation. (authors)

  5. Three-dimensional characterization of bainitic microstructures in low-carbon high-strength low-alloy steel studied by electron backscatter diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.S.; Seol, Jae-Bok; Park, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of high strength low alloy steel, Fe–2.0Mn–0.15Si–0.05C (wt.%), by varying the continuous cooling rates from 1 K/s to 50 K/s using three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Granular bainitic microstructure was prevalent under a slow cooling rate of 1–10 K/s, while lath-type bainite was dominant at a high cooling rate of 50 K/s. The acicular ferrite that was the major microstructure under the intermediate ranges of cooling rates between 10 K/s and 30 K/s was tangled with each other, leading to a three-dimensional interwoven structure with highly misoriented grains. Because of the formation of three-dimensional structures, we propose that the terms “acicular ferrite” and “bainitic ferrite,” which are currently used in steel, be replaced by the terms “interwoven acicular bainite” and “lath bainite,” respectively. Moreover, we also confirmed that the cooling rate is an important factor in determining whether bainitic microstructures occur in the form of granular bainite, interwoven bainite, or lath bainite. - Highlights: • The morphology of bainitic grains was characterized by 3D-EBSD. • The ‘interwoven bainite’ and ‘lath bainite’ were suggested. • Interwoven bainite consisted of lenticular plates that were interlinked in 3D regime. • The packets of lath bainite were aligned in a specific direction

  6. Three-dimensional characterization of bainitic microstructures in low-carbon high-strength low-alloy steel studied by electron backscatter diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Jae-Bok, E-mail: j.seol@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Park, C.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of high strength low alloy steel, Fe–2.0Mn–0.15Si–0.05C (wt.%), by varying the continuous cooling rates from 1 K/s to 50 K/s using three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Granular bainitic microstructure was prevalent under a slow cooling rate of 1–10 K/s, while lath-type bainite was dominant at a high cooling rate of 50 K/s. The acicular ferrite that was the major microstructure under the intermediate ranges of cooling rates between 10 K/s and 30 K/s was tangled with each other, leading to a three-dimensional interwoven structure with highly misoriented grains. Because of the formation of three-dimensional structures, we propose that the terms “acicular ferrite” and “bainitic ferrite,” which are currently used in steel, be replaced by the terms “interwoven acicular bainite” and “lath bainite,” respectively. Moreover, we also confirmed that the cooling rate is an important factor in determining whether bainitic microstructures occur in the form of granular bainite, interwoven bainite, or lath bainite. - Highlights: • The morphology of bainitic grains was characterized by 3D-EBSD. • The ‘interwoven bainite’ and ‘lath bainite’ were suggested. • Interwoven bainite consisted of lenticular plates that were interlinked in 3D regime. • The packets of lath bainite were aligned in a specific direction.

  7. Shear-mode Crack Initiation Behavior in the Martensitic and Bainitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fully reversed torsional fatigue tests were conducted to elucidate the behaviour of shear-mode crack initiation and propagation in one martensitic and two bainitic steels. The relationship between the crack initiation site and microstructure was investigated by means of an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD technique. From the S-N diagram, two notable results were obtained: (i the shear-mode crack was initiated on the prior austenitic grain boundary in martensitic steel, while in bainitic steels, the crack was initiated along the {110} plane; one of the slip planes of bcc metals, and (ii the torsional fatigue limit of lower bainitic steel with finer grains was 60 MPa higher than that of upper bainitic steel with coarser grains even though the hardnesses were nearly equivalent. The mechanism determining the torsional fatigue strength in these steels is discussed from the viewpoint of microstructure morphology.

  8. In situ room temperature tensile deformation of a 1% CrMoV bainitic steel using synchrotron and neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisser, M.A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Materials (IMX), CH-1012 Lausanne (Switzerland); Evans, A.D.; Van Petegem, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Holdsworth, S.R. [EMPA Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Van Swygenhoven, H., E-mail: helena.vs@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Materials (IMX), CH-1012 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction spectra have been acquired during room temperature tensile deformation of a creep-resistant bainitic 1% CrMoV steel, in order to study the evolution of internal microstresses and load-sharing mechanisms between the ferrite matrix and the various carbides. Cementite takes load from the plastifying matrix at the onset of macroscopic plasticity resulting in residual interphase stresses. Single peak fitting indicates an elastic anisotropic behaviour of cementite.

  9. Effect of microstructure on the cleavage fracture strength of low carbon Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Young-Roc; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the microstructure on the cleavage fracture strength of low carbon Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels were examined. A four-point bend test and double-notched bend specimens were used to measure the cleavage fracture strength of the alloys and identify the cleavage initiating micro-cracks, respectively. The cleavage fracture strength and DBTT of Mn-Ni-Mo bainitic steels were strongly affected by the alloy carbon content. The decrease in the alloy carbon content resulted in a decrease in the inter-lath cementite-crowded layers and higher cleavage fracture strength. Micro-cracks that formed across the inter-lath cementite-crowded layers were observed to initiate cleavage fracture. The width of these inter-lath cementite-crowded layers was accepted as a cleavage initiating micro-crack size in the micro-mechanical modeling of the cleavage fracture, and the measured cleavage strength values of the bainitic Mn-Ni-Mo steels were well represented by the modified Griffith relationship

  10. Structural characterization of “carbide-free” bainite in a Fe–0.2C–1.5Si–2.5Mn steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Christina, E-mail: christina.hofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Leitner, Harald [Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria); Winkelhofer, Florian [voestalpine Stahl Linz GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4020 Linz (Austria); Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Low-alloyed, low C containing carbide-free bainitic steels are attractive candidates for applications in the automotive industry due to their well-balanced combination of high strength and ductility achieved in an economic way. In this work, their complex microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite, austenite with different morphologies and stabilities, martensite, M/A constituent and a few carbides has been investigated with metallographic and high-resolution techniques. After specific isothermal heat treatments in a dilatometer, a combination of LePera and Nital etching was applied to distinguish between bainite and martensite. Site-specific atom probe tips were prepared by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and focused ion beam, revealing that “carbide-free” bainite consists of C depleted bainitic ferrite, C enriched retained austenite and occasional ε-carbides. Furthermore, it was found that the M/A constituent is highly dislocated and mainly martensitic. Its C content is increased compared to the nominal composition, but below the values obtained for retained austenite, explaining the lower transformation resistance. - Highlights: • Detailed top-down characterization of low C “carbide-free” bainitic steel • APT of all constituents in “carbide-free” bainite • Identification of ε-carbide based on its C content determined by APT • M/A constituent is mainly martensitic with austenitic areas at the boundaries • Lower C content of M/A constituent explains its lower stability.

  11. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  12. Study of overload effects in bainitic steel by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an in-situ characterisation of crack-tip strain fields following an overload by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The study is made on very fine grained bainitic steel, thus allowing a very high resolution so that small changes occurring around the crack-tip were captured along the crack plane at the mid-thickness of the specimen. We have followed the crack as it grew through the overload location. Once the crack-tip has progressed past the overload event there is strong evidence that the crack faces contact in the region of the overload event (though not in the immediate vicinity of the current locations of the crack tip at Kmin even when the crack has travelled 1mm beyond the overload location. It was also found that at Kmax the peak tensile strain ahead of the crack-tip decreases soon after the overload is applied and then gradually recovers as the crack grows past the compressive region created by the overload.

  13. Effect of bainitic transformation during BQ&P process on the mechanical properties in an ultrahigh strength Mn-Si-Cr-C steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Xiaolu [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044, People’ Republic of China (China); Gao, Guhui, E-mail: gaogh@bjtu.edu.cn [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044, People’ Republic of China (China); Guo, Haoran; Zhao, Feifan; Tan, Zhunli [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044, People’ Republic of China (China); Bai, Bingzhe [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Material Science & Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100044, People’ Republic of China (China); Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Material, School of Material Science & Engineering, Beijing 100084, People’ Republic of China (China)

    2017-01-27

    A medium carbon Mn-Si-Cr alloyed steel was treated by a novel bainite-based quenching and partitioning (BQ&P) process: after full austenization, the steel was firstly austempered at 300 °C, 320 °C, 340 °C, 360 °C and 380 °C for 30 min, and then quenched to 120 °C, followed by partitioning at 360 °C for 45 min. The multiphase microstructures containing carbide-free bainite (CFB, bainitic ferrite lath plus filmy retained austenite), martensite and retained austenite were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dilatometer analysis. An optimum combination of strength and ductility was achieved in the BQ&P steel when the bainitic austempering temperature is 360 °C (ultimate tensile strength: 1495 MPa; uniform elongation and total elongation: 26.2% and 31.8%; the reduction of area: 47.9%). Besides the transformation-induced plasticity effect of the retained austenite and the composite effect of the multiphase after BQ&P treatment, the formation of carbide free bainite also plays a significant role on the enhanced mechanical properties. The carbide-free bainite could improve the damage resistance of the multiphase due to the additional strain-hardening capacity within the local plasticity deformation zone near the tip of micro-cracks. In this case, the fraction and distribution of CFB should be controlled properly and the macrosegregation should be avoided.

  14. Effect of Bainitic Microstructure on Ballistic Performance of Armour Steel Weld Metal Using Developed High Ni-Coated Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A. K.; Das, H.; Reddy, G. M.; Ghosh, M.; Nandy, S.; Pal, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    Welding of armour steel has gained significant importance during the past few years as recent civilian and military requirements demand weld metal properties matching with base metal having good ballistic performance along with high strength and toughness at - 40 °C as per specification. The challenge of armour steel welding therefore lies in controlling the weld metal composition which is strongly dependent on welding electrode/consumables, resulting in desired weld microstructure consisting of lower bainite along with retained austenite. The performance of butt-welded armour steel joints produced by the developed electrodes was evaluated using tensile testing, ballistic testing, impact toughness at room temperature and subzero temperature. Microstructures of weld metals are exclusively characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction pattern. Experimental results show that weld metal with relatively lower carbon, higher manganese and lower nickel content was attributed to lower bainite with film type of retained austenite may be considered as a most covetable microstructure for armour steel weld metal.

  15. Effect of Bainitic Microstructure on Ballistic Performance of Armour Steel Weld Metal Using Developed High Ni-Coated Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A. K.; Das, H.; Reddy, G. M.; Ghosh, M.; Nandy, S.; Pal, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Welding of armour steel has gained significant importance during the past few years as recent civilian and military requirements demand weld metal properties matching with base metal having good ballistic performance along with high strength and toughness at - 40 °C as per specification. The challenge of armour steel welding therefore lies in controlling the weld metal composition which is strongly dependent on welding electrode/consumables, resulting in desired weld microstructure consisting of lower bainite along with retained austenite. The performance of butt-welded armour steel joints produced by the developed electrodes was evaluated using tensile testing, ballistic testing, impact toughness at room temperature and subzero temperature. Microstructures of weld metals are exclusively characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction pattern. Experimental results show that weld metal with relatively lower carbon, higher manganese and lower nickel content was attributed to lower bainite with film type of retained austenite may be considered as a most covetable microstructure for armour steel weld metal.

  16. Mathematical modeling of phenomena of dynamic recrystallization during hot plastic deformation in high-carbon bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dembiczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, coefficients were determined in constitutive equations, describing the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in high-carbon bainitic steel during hot deformation. The developed mathematical model takes into account the dependence of changing kinetics in the size evolution of the initial austenite grains, the value of strain, strain rate, temperature and time. Physical simulations were carried out on rectangular specimens measuring 10 × 15 × 20 mm. Compression tests with a plane state of deformation were carried out using a Gleeble 3800.

  17. The potential significance of microalloying with niobium in governing very high cycle fatigue behavior of bainite/martensite multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Cheng, C.; Gao, G.; Hui, W.; Misra, R.D.K.; Bai, B.; Weng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We elucidate here the effect of microalloying with niobium (Nb) on very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior in high-strength C–Mn–Si–Cr bainite/martensite (B/M) multiphase steels studied through ultrasonic fatigue testing. The tensile strength (R_m) and fatigue limit strength after 10"9 cycles (σ_w_9) and in the non-failure condition of the steel microalloyed with Nb were 1640 MPa and 900 MPa, respectively. Thus, the value of σ_w_9/R_m exceeded in comparison to conventional steels and was approximate 0.55. Three types of failure modes were observed in Nb-bearing steels depending on the surface condition, inclusion, and the matrix microstructure, i.e., surface defect-induced failure mode (S-mode), inclusion-induced failure mode (I-mode), and non-inclusion induced failure mode (N-mode). Only two failure modes were observed in Nb-free steels, the S-mode and the N-mode. The study clearly suggests that Nb had a distinct effect on the VHCF properties of B/M steels. The VHCF limit of Nb-bearing steel was enhanced by 200 MPa because of refinement of the microstructure and pinning of dislocations by randomly distributed nanometer-sized Nb(C, N) precipitates. It is underscored that microalloying with Nb is a potential approach to enhance VHCF properties in advanced high-strength steels.

  18. Evolution of microstructure in 100Cr6 steel after cooling from a thixoforming temperature to bainitic transformation ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, Łukasz, E-mail: l.rogal@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korpala, Grzegorz [Institut für Metallformung, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 4 Bernhard-von-Cotta-Straße, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Dutkiewicz, Jan [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-01-29

    A new concept for the isothermal heat treatment of thixo-elements, consisting of controlled cooling from a semi-solid metal processing (SSM) range, was proposed. 100Cr6 steel (0.97% C, 1.4% Cr, 0.4% Si, 0.4% Mn bal. Fe) after forging was used as the starting material. The DSC analysis was used to determine the liquid phase fraction vs temperature in the solidus–liquidus range. The temperatures and kinetics of bainite transformation after cooling the steel in the semi-solid state were calculated based on the Chester and Bhadeshia models. The steel was heated up to 1425 °C in order to obtain about 25% of the liquid fraction. Then it was cooled in oil at three different temperatures: 135 °C, 235 °C and 335 °C, at which the samples were held for 5 h. The microstructure of the samples annealed at 135 °C consisted of globular grains (the average size of 323 µm), where coarse needles of martensite were observed. They were surrounded by an eutectic mixture of chemical composition different from that of the globular grains. The electron diffraction pattern (SAEDP) showed reflections from α′-Fe and from Fe{sub 3}C carbides. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of martensite, austenite and carbides to the amount of 74.5%, 22% and 3.5% respectively. The average hardness of samples was 735HV{sub 10}, while the compression strength attained 3810 MPa at the plastic strain of 8.6%. The samples cooled down to 235 °C also showed globular grains surrounded by the eutectic mixture. The TEM studies allowed researchers to identify lower bainite with a plate thickness of about 500 nm (SAEDP from that area showed reflections from α-Fe and Fe{sub 3}C carbides). X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of 90% ferrite, 6% austenite and 4% carbide. The average hardness of samples annealed at 235 °C decreased to 627HV{sub 10}, while the compression strength decreased to 3100 MPa. The plastic strain increased to 32%. The microstructure of the samples after cooling and

  19. A FIM-atom probe investigation of the bainite transformation in CrMo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the role played by Cr and Mo in the bainite transformation a Field-Ion Microscope - Atom Probe was constructed in order to study the distribution of the alloying elements near various types of boundaries on atomic scale. The distribution of alloying elements measured with this instrument is not so smooth on atomic scale as suggested by microprobe analysis. In a coherent twin boundary, formed during the bainite transformation, a depletion of the substitutionals Cr and Mo and an enhancement of the C content is observed, which is in accordance with the atomic model of a B.C.C. twin. In the twin plane the interstitial sites are even larger than the F.C.C. octahedral sites and this plane can act as an effective sink for the carbon atoms from bainitic ferrite. The depletion of Cr and Mo from the twin plane is due to interface coherency. (Auth.)

  20. Atomic-scale investigation of ε and θ precipitates in bainite in 100Cr6 bearing steel by atom probe tomography and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, W.; Appen, J. von; Choi, P.; Dronskowski, R.; Raabe, D.; Bleck, W.

    2013-01-01

    Carbide precipitation during upper and lower bainite formation in high-carbon bearing steel 100Cr6 is characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The results reveal that both ε and θ carbides precipitate in lower bainite isothermally held at 260 °C and only θ precipitates form in upper bainite isothermally held at 500 °C. ε and θ precipitate under paraequilibrium condition at 260 °C in lower bainite and θ precipitates under negligible partitioning local equilibrium condition in upper bainite at 500 °C. In order to theoretically study ε and θ precipitation and the ε → θ transition in bainite, thermodynamic calculations have been carried out using ab initio techniques. We find that ε and θ carbides in ferrite have almost identical thermodynamic stability, and hence have similar formation probability. In austenite, however, cementite formation is clearly preferred: it is favored by 5 kJ mol −1 at room temperature and still by 4 kJ mol −1 at 500 °C. Hence, the thermodynamic predictions agree well with the atom probe tomography results

  1. Effects of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Yong; Han, Seung Youb; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Chang Gil; Lee, Sunghak

    2009-01-01

    Effects of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels were investigated in this study. Six kinds of steels were fabricated by controlling the amount of Cu and B addition, and their microstructures and tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. Their effective grain sizes were also characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction analysis. The tensile test results indicated that the B- or Cu-containing steels had the higher yield and tensile strengths than the B- or Cu-free steels because their volume fractions of acicular ferrite and martensite were quite high. The B- or Cu-free steels had the higher upper shelf energy than the B- or Cu-containing steels because of their lower volume fraction of martensite. In the steel containing 10 ppm B without Cu, the best combination of high strengths, high upper shelf energy, and low energy transition temperature could be obtained by the decrease in effective grain size due to the presence of acicular ferrite having fine effective grain size.

  2. Comparative Effect of Mo and Cr on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in NbV-Microalloyed Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Kostryzhev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel product markets require the rolled stock with further increasing mechanical properties and simultaneously decreasing price. The steel cost can be reduced via decreasing the microalloying elements contents, although this decrease may undermine the mechanical properties. Multi-element microalloying with minor additions is the route to optimise steel composition and keep the properties high. However, this requires deep understanding of mutual effects of elements on each other’s performance with respect to the development of microstructure and mechanical properties. This knowledge is insufficient at the moment. In the present work we investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of bainitic steels microalloyed with Cr, Mo, Nb and V. Comparison of 0.2 wt. % Mo and Cr additions has shown a more pronounced effect of Mo on precipitation than on phase balance. Superior strength of the MoNbV-steel originated from the strong solid solution strengthening effect. Superior ductility of the CrNbV-steel corresponded to the more pronounced precipitation in this steel. Nature of these mechanisms is discussed.

  3. Effect of Pipe Flattening in API X65 Linepipe Steels Having Bainite vs. Ferrite/Pearlite Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singon Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructure on pipe flattening response was assessed using two different commercially produced U-ing, O-ing, and expansion (UOE pipes from API X65 steels having either a bainitic microstructure (steel B or a ferrite/pearlite microstructure (steel FP. A four-point bending apparatus and distinctive procedure were used to minimize strain localization during flattening. The flattened specimens were sectioned at different positions through the thickness, and tensile tested in both the longitudinal (LD and transverse directions (TD to assess the through-thickness variation in properties. Yield strength (YS distributions in the LD show V-shaped profiles through thickness in both steels, whereas the YS in the TD nearest the outside diameter (OD surface is reduced. These variations in YS are due to the Bauschinger effect associated with the compressive flattening pre-strain. The uniform elongation (UE of steel FP is almost independent of specimen position through the thickness, but for steel B there is a substantial reduction of the UE at both the inside and outside diameter positions and this reduction is greater in the LD. This work confirms that flattened pipe mechanical properties exhibit an important dependence on their microstructure type and it is postulated that the flattening procedure also influences the mechanical properties.

  4. The effect of hot deformation on the bainite transformation of a working tool steel; Efeito da deformacao a quente sobre a transformacao bainitica de um aco ferramenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca Lima, Ricardo F. de; Carvalho, Miguel A.; Nogueira, Marcos A.S. [Acos Villares SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1989-12-31

    The effect of hot deformation of austenite on its isothermal transformation at 400 degrees Celsius for a hot working steel has been investigated. The degrees of transformation was varied and the results were analysed by optical metallography. Increasing the deformation, the bainite nucleation occurs in twins and grain boundaries, and also inside the austenitic grains. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Carbide Precipitation in 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Bainitic Steel: Effect of Heating and Isothermal Tempering Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépinoy, Sylvain; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Urvoy, Stéphane; Roubaud, Justine; Marini, Bernard; Roch, François; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Gourgues-Lorenzon, Anne-Françoise

    2017-05-01

    The effect of the tempering heat treatment, including heating prior to the isothermal step, on carbide precipitation has been determined in a 2.25 Cr-1 Mo bainitic steel for thick-walled applications. The carbides were identified using their amount of metallic elements, morphology, nucleation sites, and diffraction patterns. The evolution of carbide phase fraction, morphology, and composition was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, as well as thermodynamic calculations. Upon heating, retained austenite into the as-quenched material decomposes into ferrite and cementite. M7C3 carbides then nucleate at the interface between the cementite and the matrix, triggering the dissolution of cementite. M2C carbides precipitate separately within the bainitic laths during slow heating. M23C6 carbides precipitate at the interfaces (lath boundaries or prior austenite grain boundaries) and grow by attracting nearby chromium atoms, which results in the dissolution of M7C3 and, depending on the temperature, coarsening, or dissolution of M2C carbides, respectively.

  6. Effect of Strength Coefficient of Bainite on Micromechanical Deformation and Failure Behaviors of Hot-Rolled 590FB Steel during Uniaxial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Shi-Hoon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Il [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The effect of the strength coefficient (K{sub B}) of bainite on micromechanical deformation and failure behaviors of a hot-rolled 590MPa steel (590FB) during uniaxial tension was simulated using the elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM). The spatial distribution of the constituent phases was obtained using a phase identification technique based on optical microstructure. Empirical equations which depend on chemical composition were used to determine the stress-strain relationship of the constituent phases of the 590FB steel. The stress-strain partitioning and failure behavior were analyzed by increasing the K{sub B} of bainite. The elasto-plastic FEM results revealed that effective strain in the ferrite-bainite boundaries, and maximum principal stress in fibrous bainite, were enhanced as the K{sub B} increased. The elasto-plastic FEM results also demonstrated that the K{sub B} significantly affects the micromechanical deformation and failure behaviors of the hot-rolled 590FB steel during uniaxial tension.

  7. The Effects of One and Double Heat Treatment Cycles on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Ferritic-Bainitic Dual Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piri, Reza; Ghasemi, Behrooz; Yousefpour, Mardali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, samples with ferritic-bainitic dual phase structures consisting of 62 pct bainite were obtained from the AISI 4140 steel by applying one and double heat treatment cycles. Microstructural investigations by electron and optical microscopy indicated that the sample heat treated through double cycle benefited from finer ferrite and bainite grains. Additionally, results obtained from mechanical tests implied that the double-cycle heat-treated sample not only has a higher tensile strength as well as ultimate strength but also benefits from a higher ductility along with a higher impact energy than the one-cycle heat-treated sample. Moreover, fractography results showed that the type of fracture in both samples is a combination of the brittle and the ductile fracture. Besides, the ratio of the ductile fracture is higher for the double-cycle heat-treated sample than for the one-cycle sample, due to the lower aggregation of sulfur at grain boundaries.

  8. Effect of the bainitic and martensitic microstructures on the hardening and embrittlement under neutron irradiation of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, B., E-mail: bernard.marini@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette (France); Averty, X. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI (now DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT), F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette (France); Wident, P.; Forget, P.; Barcelo, F. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette (France)

    2015-10-15

    The hardening and the embrittlement under neutron irradiation of an A508 type RPV steel considering three different microstructures (bainite, bainite-martensite and martensite)have been investigated These microstructures were obtained by quenching after autenitization at 1100 °C. The irradiation induced hardening appears to depend on microstructure and is correlated to the yield stress before irradiation. The irradiation induced embrittlement shows a more complex dependence. Martensite bearing microstructures are more sensitive to non hardening embrittlement than pure bainite. This enhanced sensitivity is associated with the development of intergranular brittle facture after irradiation; the pure martensite being more affected than the bainite-martensite. It is of interest to note that this mixed microstructure appears to be more embrittled than the pure bainitic or martensitic phases in terms of temperature transition shift. This behaviour which could emerge from the synergy of the embrittlement mechanisms of the two phases needs further investigations. However, the role of microstructure on brittle intergranular fracture development appears to be qualitatively similar under neutron irradiation and thermal ageing.

  9. Microstructural effects on the yield strength and its temperature dependence in a bainitic precipitation hardened Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kotilainen, H.; Nenonen, P.

    1980-03-01

    The plastic deformation behaviour of a precipitation hardened bainitic Cr-Mo-V steel is analyzed at ambient and low temperatures. The temperature dependent component of the yield strength is composed of the Peierls-Nabarro force and also partly of the strengthening contribution of the lath- and cell boundaries or the solid solution hardening. The temperature dependence below 230 K is in accordance with the models presented by Yanoshevich and Ryvkina as well as Dorn and Rajnak. The temperature independent component can be calculated merely from the dislocation density, which is stabilized by the vanadium-rich carbides. The linear additivity cannot be used for the superposition of the strengthening effects of various strengthening parameters, By using the phenomenological approach starting from the dislocation movement mechanisms upon yielding the laws for the superposition are discussed. (author)

  10. An acoustic emission study of martensitic and bainitic transformations in carbon steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Steel is one of the most commonly used materials today, especially in industrial sectors such as ship building and the automotive industry. In order to meet the requirements for steel applications, new multi-phase steels are being developed. The microstructure of these steels consists of a variety

  11. Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hua

    2017-03-21

    The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223-1423 K and strain rates of 0.01-5 s -1 . The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323-1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06-1 s -1 .

  12. Influence of cold deformation and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement of cold hardening bainitic steel for high strength bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Weijun, E-mail: wjhui@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Yongjian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Shao, Chengwei [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Kaizhong; Sun, Wei; Yu, Tongren [Technical Center, Maanshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Maanshan 243002, Anhui (China)

    2016-04-26

    The influence of cold drawing and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of newly developed cold hardening bainitic steel was investigated by using slow strain rate testing (SSRT) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), for ensuring safety performance of 10.9 class high strength bolts made of this kind of steel against HE under service environments. Hydrogen was introduced into the specimen by electrochemical charging. TDS analysis shows that the hydrogen-charged cold drawn specimen exhibits an additional low-temperature hydrogen desorption peak besides the original high-temperature desorption peak of the as-rolled specimen, causing remarkable increase of absorbed hydrogen content. It is found that cold drawing significantly enhances the susceptibility to HE, which is mainly attributed to remarkable increase of diffusible hydrogen absorption, the occurrence of strain-induced martensite as well as the increase of strength level. Annealing after cold deformation is an effective way to improve HE resistance and this improvement strongly depends on annealing temperature, i.e. HE susceptibility decreases slightly with increasing annealing temperature up to 200 °C and then decreases significantly with further increasing annealing temperature. This phenomenon is explained by the release of hydrogen, the recovery of cold worked microstructure and the decrease of strength with increasing annealing temperature.

  13. Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223–1423 K and strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323–1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06–1 s−1.

  14. Effect of heat treatment and cleanness of ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) steel on its impact toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The small variations in sulphur and carbon concentrations can have a major influence on the impact transition temperature (ITT) of ultra low carbon HSLA-100 steel which has been quenched in water and tempered (WQ and T). Since the average carbon concentration is very low thus sensitivity of ITT to heat treatment parameters depends also on the yield strength increase due to precipitation effect of ε C u phase. The regression analysis has been used to establish equations taking into account those parameters. The properties of a mixed microstructure formed from partially austenitic regions have been also considered. The fine austenitic grains transform into more desirable fine bainitic ferrite phases with lower hardness values and higher toughness. On the other hand, if cooling rate is sufficiently large, then the carbon enriched austenite transforms partially into hard martensite and some of remaining untransformed austenite being retained to ambient temperature. Because hard martensite islands are located in much softer surroundings consisting of tempered ferrite, they do not cause a general reduction in impact toughness tests. Due to further grain refinement of microstructure the measured toughness on Charpy V specimens can be very high at low temperatures. The very detrimental effect of sulphur in ULCB steel has been confirmed by presented results. (author)

  15. Effect of bainitic transformation temperature on the mechanical behavior of cold-rolled TRIP steels studied with in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, W.Y., E-mail: wyyang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, L.F.; Sun, Z.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of bainitic transformation temperature (400 and 450 °C) after intercritical annealing on the mechanical behavior of a low alloyed C–Mn–Al–Si cold-rolled TRIP steel was investigated using the in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that the mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were dominated by the micromechanical behaviors of constituent phases, such as yield strength of each phase and stress partitioning among different phases, as well as the transformation kinetics of retained austenite during plastic deformation. The microstructures obtained at different bainitic transformation temperatures were similar, but exhibited obviously different mechanical behaviors. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 450 °C with lower carbon content and yield strength was less stable and transformed into martensite at a relatively faster speed during deformation leading to a higher ultimate tensile strength but a smaller uniform elongation. In addition, stress partitioning among constituent phases was also obtained for the investigated steels in such a way that the ferrite matrix undertook smaller stresses and the bainitic ferrite, martensite and retained austenite bore larger ones during plastic deformation. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 400 °C with higher carbon content displayed significantly higher strength and relatively stronger work-hardening capabilities during deformation in comparison to those of the sample treated at 450 °C.

  16. The influence of martensite, bainite and ferrite on the as-quenched constitutive response of simultaneously quenched and deformed boron steel – Experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelcik, Alexander; Worswick, Michael J.; Wells, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gleeble tests were conducted to quench and simultaneously deform boron steel. • Different as-quenched vol. fractions of martensite, bainite and ferrite were observed. • Low to int. strain rate tensile tests were conducted on the as-quenched materials. • The presence of ferrite improved the uniform elongation, hardening rate and toughness. • A rate sensitive const. model was developed for varying vol fract. mart/bain/ferrite. - Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between as-formed microstructure and mechanical properties of a hot stamped boron steel used in automotive structural applications. Boron steel sheet metal blanks were austenized and quenched at cooling rates of 30 °C/s, 15 °C/s and 10 °C/s within a Gleeble thermal–mechanical simulator. For each cooling rate condition, the blanks were simultaneously deformed at temperatures of 600 °C and 800 °C. A strain of approximately 0.20 was imposed in the middle of the blanks, from which miniature tensile specimens were extracted. Depending on the cooling rate and deformation temperature imposed on the specimens, some of the as-quenched microstructures consisted of predominantly martensite and bainite, while others consisted of martensite, bainite and ferrite. Optical and SEM metallographraphic techniques were used to quantify the area fractions of the phases present and quasi-static (0.003 s −1 ) uniaxial tests were conducted on the miniature tensile specimens. The results revealed that an area fraction of ferrite greater than 6% led to an increased uniform elongation and an increase in n-value without affecting the strength of the material for equivalent hardness levels. This finding resulted in improved energy absorption due to the presence of ferrite and showed that a material with a predominantly bainitic microstructure containing 16% ferrite (with 257 HV) resulted in a 28% increase in energy absorption when compared to a material condition that was fully bainitic with

  17. Uniaxial low cycle fatigue behavior for pre-corroded 16MND5 bainitic steel in simulated pressurized water reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Ren, Bin; Yu, Dunji; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Gang

    2018-06-01

    The effects of uniaxial tension properties and low cycle fatigue behavior of 16MND5 bainitic steel cylinder pre-corroded in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) were investigated by fatigue at room temperature in air and immersion test system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results indicated that the corrosion fatigue lives of 16MND5 specimen were significantly affected by the strain amplitude and simulated PWR environments. The compositions of corrosion products were complexly formed in simulated PWR environments. The porous corrosion surface of pre-corroded materials tended to generate pits as a result of promoting contact area to the fresh metal, which promoted crack initiation. For original materials, the fatigue cracks initiated at inclusions imbedded in the micro-cracks. Moreover, the simulated PWR environments degraded the mechanical properties and low cycle fatigue behavior of 16MND5 specimens remarkably. Pre-corrosion of 16MND5 specimen mainly affected the plastic term of the Coffin-Manson equation.

  18. The determining impact of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium-niobium ultrahigh strength microalloyed steel: Competing effects of precipitation and bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, V.V.; Challa, V.S.A. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, 500 W. University Avenue, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra2@utep.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, 500 W. University Avenue, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sidorenko, D.M.; Mulholland, M.D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J.E. [ArcelorMittal Global R& D Center, 3001 East Columbus Drive, East Chicago, IN 46312 (United States)

    2016-05-17

    We elucidate here the influence of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties, in an ultrahigh strength titanium-niobium microalloyed steel. The objective was to underscore the impact of coiling temperature on the nature and distribution of microstructural constituents (including different phases, precipitates, and dislocation structure) that significantly contributed to differences in the yield and tensile strength of these steels. Depending on the coiling temperature, the microstructure consisted of either a combination of fine lath-type bainite and polygonal ferrite or polygonal ferrite together with the precipitation of microalloyed carbides of size ~2–10 nm in the matrix and at dislocations. The microstructure of steel coiled at lower temperature predominantly consisted of bainitic ferrite with lower yield strength compared to the steel coiled at higher temperature, and the yield to tensile strength ratio was 0.76. The steel coiled at higher temperature consisted of polygonal ferrite and extensive precipitation of carbides and was characterized by higher yield strength and with yield strength/tensile strength ratio of 0.936. The difference in the tensile strength was insignificant for the two coiling temperatures. The observed microstructure was consistent with the continuous cooling transformation diagram.

  19. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  20. Comparison of the segregation behavior between tempered martensite and tempered bainite in Ni-Cr-Mo high strength low alloy RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an superior fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be obtained by adding Ni and Cr. So several were performed on researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and term of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, the resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement is required. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. We have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment. Then, the the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  1. Strong tough low-carbon bainite structural steels exposed to heat treatment and mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauprecht, W.; Imgrund, H.; Coldren, P.

    1975-01-01

    A review of results of studying the mechanical properties and structure of extremely strong construction low-pearlite and pearlite-free steels subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) is presented. The development of TMP of low-pearlite and pearlite-free steels has led to creation of steel of the following composition: 0.06% of C; 1.8% of Mn; 0.3% of Mo; 0.05-0.09% of Nb. Depending on the kind of TMP the most important parameters of which are the temperature of the termination of rolling and the total deformation below 900 deg C, transformation in these steels occurs partially or completely in the intermediate domain. The increased density of dislocations of beinite structure affects substantially the increase in the yield limit. High degrees of squeezing at temperatures below 870 deg C promote formation of ferrite nuclei. The laboratory rolling demonstrates that by selecting the conditions of TMP one can control the mechanical properties of a steel. The sheets of 13 mm thick allow to obtain the guaranteed values of the yield limit of 70 kgf/mm 2 the transition temperature T 50 = -25 deg C, whereas after rolling under different conditions the low-temperature limit of cold shortness is - 125 deg C, and the yield limit - 45 kgf/mm 2 . As followed from the estimate of numerous industrial experiments, with sheets 20 mm thick in hot-rolled state one can obtain the yield limit no less than 50 kgf/mm 2 . On rolling mills that make possible to produce large deformation at low temperature these values can be increased. For instance, with sheets 30 mm thick one can obtain the yield limit of 56 kgf/mm 2 and the transition temperature of - 60 deg C. The dependence of the yield limit on the holding time in steel tempering is given. The steel possesses a considerable reserve of the increase of strength due to dispersion hardening, which after tempering at 600-625 deg C constitutes 8-12 kgf/mm 2 . Because of low carbon content, this steel is characterized by good

  2. Selective role of bainitic lath boundary in influencing slip systems and consequent deformation mechanisms and delamination in high-strength low-alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Li, X.; Guo, H.; Yang, S.; Wang, X.; Shang, C.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2018-04-01

    We elucidate here the deformation behaviour and delamination phenomenon in a high-strength low-alloy bainitic steel, in terms of microstructure, texture and stress evolution during deformation via in situ electron back-scattered diffraction and electron microscopy. Furthermore, the selective role of bainitic lath boundary on slip systems was studied in terms of dislocation pile-up and grain boundary energy models. During tensile deformation, the texture evolution was concentrated at {1 1 0} and the laths were turn parallel to loading direction. The determining role of lath on the deformation behaviour is governed by length/thickness (l/t) ratio. When l/t > 28, the strain accommodates along the bainite lath rather than along the normal direction. The delamination crack initiated normal to (0 1 1) plane, and become inclined to (0 1 1) plane with continued strain along (0 1 1) plane and lath plane. This indicated that the delamination is not brittle process but plastic process. The lack of dimples at the delaminated surface is because of lack of strain normal to the direction of lath. The delaminated (0 1 1) planes were associated with cleavage along the (1 0 0) plane.

  3. Effect of Pre-strain and High Stresses on the Bainitic Transformation of Manganese-boron Steel 22MnB5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said Schicchi, Diego; Hunkel, Martin

    2018-06-01

    During the last decade, the use of press-hardened components in the automotive industry has grown considerably. The so-called tailored tempering, also known as partial press hardening, employs locally heated tools seeking to obtain bainitic transformations. This leads to (seamless) zones within the formed parts with higher ductility. Due to the intrinsic nature of this process, phase transformations happen under the influence of high loads and in pre-deformed austenite. The austenite pre-strain state and applied stresses affect the kinetics of the bainitic transformation. Moreover, stresses have an additional relevant effect in this process, the so-called transformation plasticity. Linear transformation plasticity models have been successfully used to predict the behavior in the presence of low stresses. Nonetheless, because of the process's severe conditions, these tend to fail. A strong nonlinearity of the transformation plasticity strain is observed for applied stresses above the austenite yield strength. Using thermomechanical tests on sheet specimens of a manganese-boron steel (22MnB5), widely utilized in the industry, the effect on the bainitic transformation of various degrees of deformation in the range of 0 to 18 pct, applied stresses in the range of 0 to 250 MPa and the transformation plasticity effect are investigated in this work.

  4. Fracture Toughness and Strength in a New Class of Bainitic Chromium-Tungsten Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. X.; Sikka, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    This project dealt with developing an understanding of the toughening and stengthening mechanisms for a new class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with Nooter Corporation and other industrial partners. The new steele had 50% higher tensile strength up to 650 degrees Celsius than currently used steels and the potential for not requiring any postweld heat treatment (PWHT) and for reducing equipment weight by 25%. This project was closely related to the Nooter project described in the report Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic steels for Industrial Process Applications (ORNL/TM-2005/82). The project was carried out jointly by the University of Pittsburgh and ORNL. The University of Pittsburgh carried out fracture toughness measurements and microstructural analysis on base metal and welded plates prepared at ORNL. The project focused on three areas. The first dealt with detailed microstructural analysis of base compositions of 3Cr-3WV and 3Cr-3WBV(Ta) in both normalized (N) and normalized and tempered (NT) conditions. The second aspect of the prject dealt with determining tensile properties and fracture toughness values of K{subIC} at room temperature for both 3Cr-3Wv and 3Cr-3WV(Ta) compositions. The third focus of the project was to measure the fracture toughness values of the base metal and the heat-affectged zone (HAZ) of a plate of Fe-3Cr-W(Mo)V steel plate welded by the gas tungsten are (GTA) process. The HAZ toughness was measured in both the as-welded and the PWHT condition.

  5. Impact Toughness of Subzones in the Intercritical Heat-Affected Zone of Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshun Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The subzones of the intercritical heat-affected zone (IC HAZ of low-carbon bainitic steel were simulated by using a Gleeble-3500 simulator to study the impact toughness. The results showed that the IC HAZ is not entirely brittle and can be further divided into three subzones according to the impact toughness or peak welding temperature; the invariant subzone heated between the critical transformation start temperature (Ac1 and 770 °C exhibited unchanged high impact toughness. Furthermore, an extremely low impact toughness was found in the embrittlement subzone, heated between 770 and 830 °C, and the reduction subzone heated between 830 °C and the critical transformation finish temperature (Ac3 exhibited toughness below that of the original metal. The size of the blocky martensite-austenite (M-A constituents was found to have a remarkable level of influence on the impact toughness when heated below 830 °C. Additionally, it was found that, once the constituent size exceeds a critical value of 3.0 µm at a peak temperature of 770 °C, the IC HAZ becomes brittle regardless of lath or twinned martensite constitution in the M-A constituent. Essentially, embrittlement was observed to occur when the resolved length of initial cracks (in the direction of the overall fracture formed as a result of the debonding of M-A constituents exceeding the critical Griffith size. Furthermore, when the heating temperature exceeded 830 °C, the M-A constituents formed a slender shape, and the impact toughness increased as the area fraction of the slender M-A constituents decreased.

  6. Impact Toughness of Subzones in the Intercritical Heat-Affected Zone of Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenshun; Zhao, Xuemin; Shan, Dongri

    2018-06-06

    The subzones of the intercritical heat-affected zone (IC HAZ) of low-carbon bainitic steel were simulated by using a Gleeble-3500 simulator to study the impact toughness. The results showed that the IC HAZ is not entirely brittle and can be further divided into three subzones according to the impact toughness or peak welding temperature; the invariant subzone heated between the critical transformation start temperature ( A c1 ) and 770 °C exhibited unchanged high impact toughness. Furthermore, an extremely low impact toughness was found in the embrittlement subzone, heated between 770 and 830 °C, and the reduction subzone heated between 830 °C and the critical transformation finish temperature ( A c3 ) exhibited toughness below that of the original metal. The size of the blocky martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents was found to have a remarkable level of influence on the impact toughness when heated below 830 °C. Additionally, it was found that, once the constituent size exceeds a critical value of 3.0 µm at a peak temperature of 770 °C, the IC HAZ becomes brittle regardless of lath or twinned martensite constitution in the M-A constituent. Essentially, embrittlement was observed to occur when the resolved length of initial cracks (in the direction of the overall fracture) formed as a result of the debonding of M-A constituents exceeding the critical Griffith size. Furthermore, when the heating temperature exceeded 830 °C, the M-A constituents formed a slender shape, and the impact toughness increased as the area fraction of the slender M-A constituents decreased.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium-carbon bainitic steel by a novel quenching and dynamic partitioning (Q-DP) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiangguo; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang, E-mail: huangwg56@163.com

    2016-04-26

    A novel Quenching and Dynamic Partitioning (Q-DP) process for a 0.3C-1.4Si-1.8Mn-1.3Cr-0.3Mo (wt%) bainitic steel was developed and the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that the microstructure of the Q-DP treated steel consists of bainite, martensite and retained austenite, and it exhibit a better combination of tensile strength (above 1500 MPa), total elongation (above 17%) and impact toughness (above 90 J). Among the different Q-DP process, the sample treated by 250 °C Q-DP process exhibits the best combination of strength (1519 MPa), ductility (21.3%), the product of strength and elongation (PSE, 32.4 GPa%) and maximum impact toughness (108 J) compared to the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process and other Q-DP processes. In addition, the work hardening behaviors of the Q&P and Q-DP samples were investigated. The stress-strain curves show that the Q&P and 250 °C Q-DP treated samples exhibit the larger uniform elongation and the value of n calculated for samples is 0.109 and 0.101 respectively.

  8. Kinetics model of bainitic transformation with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxing; Xu, Guang; Hu, Haijiang; Yuan, Qing; Tian, Junyu

    2018-01-01

    Thermal simulations were conducted on a Gleeble 3800 simulator. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of stress on the kinetics of bainitic transformation in a Fe-C-Mn-Si advanced high strength bainitic steel. Previous studies on modeling the kinetics of stress affected bainitic transformation only considered the stress below the yield strength of prior austenite. In the present study, the stress above the yield strength of prior austenite is taken into account. A new kinetics model of bainitic transformation dependent on the stress (including the stresses below and above the yield strength of prior austenite) and the transformation temperature is proposed. The new model presents a good agreement with experimental results. In addition, it is found that the acceleration degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the stress whether its magnitude is below or above the yield strength of austenite, but the increasing rate gradually slows down when the stress is above the yield strength of austenite.

  9. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on mechanical properties and structure of reduced-activation Cr-W-V steels of bainitic, martensitic, and martensitic-ferritic classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorynin, I.V.; Rybin, V.V.; Kursevich, I.P.; Lapin, A.N.; Nesterova, E.V.; Klepikov, E.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of molybdenum replacement by tungsten in steels of the bainitic, martensitic, and martensitic-ferritic classes containing 2.5%, 8% and 11% Cr, respectively, were investigated. The phase composition and structure of the bainitic steels were varied by changing the cooling rates from the austenitization temperature (from values typical for normalization up to V=3.3 x 10 -2 deg. C/s) and then tempering. The steels were irradiated to a fluence of 4x10 23 n/m 2 (≥0.5 MeV) at 270 deg. C and to fluences of 1.3x10 23 and 1.2x10 24 n/m 2 (≥0.5 MeV) at 70 deg. C. The 2.5Cr-1.4WV and 8Cr-1.5WV steels have shown lower values of the shifts in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) under irradiation in comparison with corresponding Cr-Mo steels. Radiation embrittlement at elevated irradiation temperature was lowest in bainitic 2.5Cr-1.4WV steel and martensitic-ferritic 11Cr-1.5WV steel. The positive effect of molybdenum replacement by tungsten at irradiation temperature ∼300 deg. C is reversed at T irr =70 deg. C

  10. Influence of hot plastic deformation and cooling rate on martensite and bainite start temperatures in 22MnB5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, M.; Naderi, M.; Akbari, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Reduction of cooling rate, can cause to increase or decrease M s and M f . ► 40% hot plastic deformation hindered the martensitic transformation. ► Hot plastic deformation, caused to decrease M f and M s , while B s increased. ► The critical cooling rate increased 40 °C/s due to apply 40% hot deformation. - Abstract: During hot stamping process, hot forming, cooling and phase transformations are performed in a single step. As a matter of fact, multifunctional phenomena happen and affect each other. Among these phenomena, martensitic and bainitic transformations have the greatest importance. In the current research, the start temperatures of martensite and bainite of 22MnB5 boron steel have been measured in undeformed and 40% deformed conditions, and in various cooling rates from 0.4 °C/s to 100 °C/s by means of deformation dilatometer. It is concluded that, reduction of cooling rate, could bring about an increase or decrease in M s and M f , depending on other phases formation before martensite. Also, hot plastic deformation, hindered the martensitic transformation and decreased M f and M s especially at lower cooling rates, while B s increased. Furthermore, the critical cooling rate, increased about 40 °C/s by applying 40% hot plastic deformation.

  11. Microstructure mechanical properties relationship in bainitic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altuna, M. A.; Gutierrez, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructures and their mechanical properties have been studies in different bainitic structures. therefore, different bainitic morphologies have been produced by isothermal treatments carried out at different temperatures. For these steels, 400-450 degree centigree is the optimum range of temperatures in order to obtain bainitic structures. If the Temperature is higher, perlite is also formed and if it is lower, martensite is obtained during quenching. SEM and EBSD/OIM techniques were applied in order to study the microstructure. Tensile tests were carried out for mechanical characterization. (Author) 20 refs

  12. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation, propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix: crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite; crack propagates along the boundary of ferrite朼ustenite in bainitic ferrite laths; crack propagates into bainitic ferrite laths; crack nucleates and propagates in the high carbon brittle plate shape martensite which is transformed from some blocky retained austenite due to plastic deformation. Based on the observation and analysis of microfracture processes, a schematic diagram of the crack nucleation and propagation process of high silicon cast steel is proposed

  13. Influence of hot plastic deformation and cooling rate on martensite and bainite start temperatures in 22MnB5 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikravesh, M., E-mail: nikravesh@yahoo.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, M. [Department of Mining and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbari, G.H. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of cooling rate, can cause to increase or decrease M{sub s} and M{sub f}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 40% hot plastic deformation hindered the martensitic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot plastic deformation, caused to decrease M{sub f} and M{sub s}, while B{sub s} increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical cooling rate increased 40 Degree-Sign C/s due to apply 40% hot deformation. - Abstract: During hot stamping process, hot forming, cooling and phase transformations are performed in a single step. As a matter of fact, multifunctional phenomena happen and affect each other. Among these phenomena, martensitic and bainitic transformations have the greatest importance. In the current research, the start temperatures of martensite and bainite of 22MnB5 boron steel have been measured in undeformed and 40% deformed conditions, and in various cooling rates from 0.4 Degree-Sign C/s to 100 Degree-Sign C/s by means of deformation dilatometer. It is concluded that, reduction of cooling rate, could bring about an increase or decrease in M{sub s} and M{sub f}, depending on other phases formation before martensite. Also, hot plastic deformation, hindered the martensitic transformation and decreased M{sub f} and M{sub s} especially at lower cooling rates, while B{sub s} increased. Furthermore, the critical cooling rate, increased about 40 Degree-Sign C/s by applying 40% hot plastic deformation.

  14. Some aspects of bainite transformation in Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzaki, K.; Maki, T.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the bainite transformation in carbon containing steels was discussed after presenting our recent experimental results; (1) the bainite transformation has its own C-curve, (2) incomplete phenomenon is a general feature of the bainite transformation, (3) bainitic ferrite grows to a limited size, and (4) bainitic ferrite is highly supersaturated with respect to carbon. It was examined what kinds of interphase boundary structures and carbon concentration gradients in the vicinity of the transformation interface are possible to explain the experimental results. It was concluded that the bainite transformation should be regarded as the transformation that occurs by the movement of a glissile interphase boundary and requires diffusion of interstitial carbon atoms at least to a certain extent in the nucleation and growth stages. (orig.)

  15. Literature Review: Impact Toughness of Bainite vs. Martensite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niccols, Edwin

    1976-01-01

    .... Tempered martensite is found to have generally superior mechanical properties for lower (less than .5%) carbon content steels, but two specific bainitic heat treatments are described which may yield optimum properties.

  16. Transferring Nanoscale Bainite Concept to Lower C Contents: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major strengthening mechanisms in bainitic steels arise from the bainitic ferrite plate thickness rather than the length, which primarily determines the mean free slip distance. Both the strength of the austenite from where the bainite grows and the driving force of the transformation, are the two factors controlling the final scale of the bainitic microstructure. Usually, those two parameters can be tailored by means of selection of chemical composition and transformation temperature. However, there is also the possibility of introducing plastic deformation on austenite and prior to the bainitic transformation as a way to enhance both the austenite strength and the driving force for the transformation; the latter by introducing a mechanical component to the free energy change. This process, known as ausforming, has awoken a great deal of interest and it is the object of ongoing research with two clear aims. First, an acceleration of the sluggish bainitic transformation observed typically in high C steels (0.7–1 wt. % transformed at relatively low temperatures. Second, to extend the concept of nanostructured bainite from those of high C steels to much lower C contents, 0.4–0.5 wt. %, keeping a wider range of applications in view.

  17. On the relations between cyclic contraction ratio flowstress and deformation mechanisms in bainitic CrMoV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahka, Klaus

    1987-04-01

    The cyclic diametral strain and stress response of macroscopically untextured (nominally isotropic) bainitc Cr-Mo-V steels has been studied. The total axial strain amplitudes were controlled and chosen so that a range of ratios of plastic and elastic elongations were used extending from 0.04 to 5. The trend of the cyclic diametral strain was sometimes found to drastically deviate from the commonly used Poisson's ratio when the ratio of plastic and elastic elongation was around 3 for the uncycled material. The unusual initial increase in cyclic contraction ratio for these conditions was attributed to strain concentration and the decrease to strain decentration. A condition for these unpredictable macroscopic effects seems to be that the effective strengthening structure should be sufficiently unstable during the cyclic strain applied. At room temperature fatigue slip bands of high local density and number are created in these conditions. At elevated temperature applied strains larger than ∼ 0.3% give rise to an increasing mechanically activated dynamic recovery which operates despite a dense carbide dispersion. The amount of recovery and simultaneous dislocation annihilation increase and act to lower the flow strength with rising strain. Their extent depend on the strain rate. An apparent maximum in dynamic recovery was observed as a minimum in cyclic yield strength at the same strain for which the pronounced unpredictable diametral strain was observed. Similar diametral strain effects in monotonic tension tests on different materials reported in the published literature indicate that the effects are most probably related to the particular dominant mode of slip at strain levels for which the ratio of plastic and elastic strain (e p /e E ) is around three. Slip is then dominantly planar. Careful shape control of the specimen gauge section is necessary for reproducible diametral strain because of the unstable nature of the material in the actual conditions of the

  18. Fatigue crack propagation behavior of stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusko, Chad S.

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steel base and weld metals has been investigated using various fatigue crack growth test procedures, ferrite measurement techniques, light optical microscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. The compliance offset method has been incorporated to measure crack closure during testing in order to determine a stress ratio at which such closure is overcome. Based on this method, an empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been shown to be very successful in overcoming crack closure for all da/dN for gas metal arc and laser welds. This empirically-determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been applied to testing of stainless steel base metal and weld metal to understand the influence of microstructure. Regarding the base metal investigation, for 316L and AL6XN base metals, grain size and grain plus twin size have been shown to influence resulting crack growth behavior. The cyclic plastic zone size model has been applied to accurately model crack growth behavior for austenitic stainless steels when the average grain plus twin size is considered. Additionally, the effect of the tortuous crack paths observed for the larger grain size base metals can be explained by a literature model for crack deflection. Constant Delta K testing has been used to characterize the crack growth behavior across various regions of the gas metal arc and laser welds at the empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60. Despite an extensive range of stainless steel weld metal FN and delta-ferrite morphologies, neither delta-ferrite morphology significantly influence the room temperature crack growth behavior. However, variations in weld metal da/dN can be explained by local surface roughness resulting from large columnar grains and tortuous crack paths in the weld metal.

  19. USE OF HIGH-STRENGTH BAINITIC CAST IRON FOR PRODUCING GEAR WHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages and drawbacks of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure are reviewed basing on the authors’ own experience in the production of critical partsfrom this material and on the analysis of world trends. A possibility of the replacement of alloy steels by bainitic cast iron in manufacturing critical machine parts is discussed.

  20. Influence of quantity of non-martensite products of transformation on resistance to fracture of improving structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Golovanenko, Yu.S.; Zikeev, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    18KhNMFA, low-carbon, alloyed steel and 42KhMFA medium-carbon, alloyed steel have been examined. For the purpose of obtaining different structures in hardening the steel, different cooling rates, different temperatures and isothermal holding times are applied. The following has been shown: on tempering to the same hardness (HV 300), the presence of non-martensite structures in hardened state does not practically influence the standard mechanical properties of steel (sigmasub(B), sigmasub(0.2), delta, PSI). The resistance of steel to the brittle failure is enhanced by the uniform, fine-disperse distribution of the carbide phase in the structure of lower bainite (up to 80 % bainite in martensite for 42KhMF steel to be improved), as well as strongly fragmented packages of rack martensite-bainite (up to 50 % lower bainite in martensite of 18KhNMFA steel). The formation of the upper bainite in the structure of the hardened steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMF results on tempering in the formation of coarse, non-uniform, branched carbide inclusions, and this, in its turn, leads to raising the cold-shortness threshold and to lowering the amount of work as required for propagation of a crack. The presence of ferritic-pearlitic structures in the structural steels hardened to martensite and bainite results in reducing the resistance of steel to the brittle failure; the presence of every 10 % ferritic-pearlitic component in martensite of the structural steels 18KhNMFA and 42KhMFA to be thermally improved, raises T 50 by 8 deg and 20 deg C, respectively

  1. Study of crack propagation velocity in steel tanks of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amzallac, C.; Bernard, J.L.; Slama, G.

    1983-05-01

    Description and results of a serie of tests carried out on crack propagation velocity of steels in PWR environment (pressurized high temperature water), in order to examine the effects of metallurgical parameters such as chemical composition of steel, especially sulfur and carbon content, and steel type (laminate or forged steels), effects of mechanical parameters such as loading ratio, cycle form, frequency and application mode of loads and of chemical parameters (anodal dissolution or fatigue with hydrogen) [fr

  2. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  3. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  4. Fatigue crack propagation in neutron-irradiated ferritic pressure-vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a number of experiments dealing with fatigue crack propagation in irradiated reactor pressure-vessel steels are reviewed. The steels included ASTM alloys A302B, A533B, A508-2, and A543, as well as weldments in A543 steel. Fluences and irradiation conditions were generally typical of those experienced by most power reactors. In general, the effect of neutron irradiation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of these steels was neither significantly beneficial nor significantly detrimental

  5. New experimental evidence of the diffusionless transformation nature of bainite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, F.G.; Miller, M.K.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Cornide, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), lead to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NanoBain. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). ► NanoBain present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels (∼2.5 GPa/40 MPa m 1/2 ). This structure can be produced without any severe heat treatment, without deformation, simply by phase changes occurring slowly at low temperatures. ► The characterization of NanoBain at the atomic scale has led to revealed extremely important detail on the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations which have been controversial for the last seventy years. ► The results reported in this work have proven beyond doubt that the bainite phase change is essentially displacive in nature. -- Abstract: Since the discovery of bainite, research over many decades has revealed a substantial amount of information about the mechanism of the bainite transformation in steels. Elements of the theory are now routinely being used in many parts of the world in the design of novel alloys and in the interpretation of a variety of experimental data. However, current experimental and theoretical understanding is limiting technological progress. The purpose of this atom probe tomography study was to track atom distributions during the bainite reaction in a nanocrystalline steel. The results are providing new experimental evidence on subjects critically relevant to the understanding of the atomic mechanisms controlling bainitic ferrite formation, such as the incomplete transformation phenomenon, the carbon supersaturation of ferrite, and the plastic accommodation of the surrounding austenite

  6. New experimental evidence of the diffusionless transformation nature of bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6136 (United States); Garcia-Mateo, C.; Cornide, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), lead to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NanoBain. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). ► NanoBain present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels (∼2.5 GPa/40 MPa m{sup 1/2}). This structure can be produced without any severe heat treatment, without deformation, simply by phase changes occurring slowly at low temperatures. ► The characterization of NanoBain at the atomic scale has led to revealed extremely important detail on the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations which have been controversial for the last seventy years. ► The results reported in this work have proven beyond doubt that the bainite phase change is essentially displacive in nature. -- Abstract: Since the discovery of bainite, research over many decades has revealed a substantial amount of information about the mechanism of the bainite transformation in steels. Elements of the theory are now routinely being used in many parts of the world in the design of novel alloys and in the interpretation of a variety of experimental data. However, current experimental and theoretical understanding is limiting technological progress. The purpose of this atom probe tomography study was to track atom distributions during the bainite reaction in a nanocrystalline steel. The results are providing new experimental evidence on subjects critically relevant to the understanding of the atomic mechanisms controlling bainitic ferrite formation, such as the incomplete transformation phenomenon, the carbon supersaturation of ferrite, and the plastic accommodation of the surrounding austenite.

  7. Effect of segregations on mechanical properties and crack propagation in spring steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Žužek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made over the last decades to improve performance of spring steels, which would increase the service time of springs and also allow vehicles weight reduction. There are different possibilities of improving properties of spring steels, from modifying the chemical composition of steels to optimizing the deformation process and changing the heat treatment parameters. Another way of improving steel properties is through refining the microstructure and reducing amount of inclusions. Therefore, the focus of the current investigation was to determine the effect of more uniform and cleaner microstructure obtained through electro-slag remelting (ESR of steel on the mechanical and dynamic properties of spring steel, with special focus on the resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Effect of the microstructure refinement was evaluated in terms of tensile strength, elongation, fracture and impact toughness, and fatigue resistance under bending and tensile loading. After the mechanical tests the fracture surfaces of samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the influence of microstructure properties on the crack propagation and crack propagation resistance was studied. Investigation was performed on hot rolled, soft annealed and vacuum heat treated 51CrV4 spring steel produced by conventional continuous casting and compared with steel additional refined through ESR. Results shows that elimination of segregations and microstructure refinement using additional ESR process gives some improvement in terms of better repeatability and reduced scattering, but on the other hand it has negative effect on crack propagation resistance and fatigue properties of the spring steel.

  8. Effect of ausforming on nanobainite steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.; Tomota, Y.; Koo, M.S.; Adachi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ausforming on kinetics, morphology and crystallography of nanobainite steel was examined by electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ausforming has been found to accelerate bainite transformation at 573 K. A characteristic microstructure consisting of blocky bainitic laths and retained austenite is observed in the ausformed bainite steel, where strong variant selection takes place due to the operated slip systems.

  9. Temperature dependency of external stress corrosion crack propagation of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashibara, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Mayuzumi, Masami; Tani, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Temperature dependency of external stress corrosion cracking (ESCC) of 304 stainless steel was examined with CT specimens. Maximum ESCC propagation rates appeared in the early phase of ESCC propagation. ESCC propagation rates generally became smaller as testing time advance. Temperature dependency of maximum ESCC propagation rate was analyzed with Arrhenius plot, and apparent activation energy was similar to that of SCC in chloride solutions. Temperature dependency of macroscopic ESCC incubation time was different from that of ESCC propagation rate. Anodic current density of 304 stainless steel was also examined by anodic polarization measurement. Temperature dependency of critical current density of active state in artificial sea water solution of pH=1.3 was similar to that of ESCC propagation rate. (author)

  10. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness and temper embrittlement of SA508Gr.4N steel for advanced pressure vessel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhengdong; He, Xikou; Qiao, Shibin; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-01-09

    The effect of microstructure on the impact toughness and the temper embrittlement of a SA508Gr.4N steel was investigated. Martensitic and bainitic structures formed in this material were examined via scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis. The martensitic structure had a positive effect on both the strength and toughness. Compared with the bainitic structure, this structure consisted of smaller blocks and more high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). Changes in the ultimate tensile strength and toughness of the martensitic structure were attributed to an increase in the crack propagation path. This increase resulted from an increased number of HAGBs and refinement of the sub-structure (block). The AES results revealed that sulfur segregation is higher in the martensitic structure than in the bainitic structure. Therefore, the martensitic structure is more susceptible to temper embrittlement than the bainitic structure.

  11. Crack initiation and propagation in welded joints of turbine and boiler steels during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Sandstroem, R.; Linde, L.; Henderson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests have been performed at 300 and 565 degrees C on welded joints and on microstructures to be found in or near welded joints in a low alloy ferritic steel 0.5 Cr, 0.5 Mo, 0.25 V. The difference in lifetimes between the 300 degrees C and 565 degrees C tests was small comparing the same microstructures and strain ranges, although the stress amplitude was greater at 300 degrees C. Under constant stress conditions the fatigue life depended on the fatigue life of the parent metal but under constant strain conditions the lifetime was governed by that of the bainitic structures. Strain controlled LCF tests have been performed at 750 degrees C on welded joints in the austenitic steel AISI 316 and on different parent and weld metals used in these joints. In continuously cycled samples all cracks were transgranular and initiated at the surface; hold-time samples displayed internally initiated intergranular cracking in the weld metal. Under constant strain conditions the 316 parent and weld metals exhibited similar lifetimes. When considering a constant stress situation the strength of the microsturctures decreased in the following order: Sanicro weld metal, cold deformed parent metal, undeformed parent metal and weld metal (K.A.E.)

  12. Heat affected zone and fatigue crack propagation behavior of high performance steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Won; Kang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Jong Kwan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of heat affected zone in high performance steel on fatigue crack propagation behavior, which is related to the subsequent microstructure, was investigated. A modified Paris-Erdogan equation was presented for the analysis of fatigue crack propagation behavior corresponding to the heat affected zone conditions. Fatigue crack propagation tests under 0.3 stress ratio and 0.1 load frequency were conducted for both finegrained and coarse-grained heat affected zones, respectively. As shown in the results, much higher crack growth rate occurred in a relatively larger mean grain size material under the same stress intensity range of fatigue crack propagation process for the material.

  13. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  14. Propagation of steel corrosion in concrete: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Otieno, M.; Stang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on experimental and numerical investigations of the propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion to determine anodic and cathodic Tafel constants and exchange current densities, from corrosion current density and corrosion potential measurements. The experimental program includ...

  15. Bainitic transformation behavior studied by simultaneous neutron diffraction and dilatometric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Minseo; Xu, Pingguang; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Bainitic transformation behavior has firstly been observed using in situ neutron diffraction with an angular dispersive method for a hard bainite steel. The dilatometric measurement was carried out simultaneously with the neutron experiment where changes in (1 1 1) austenite and (1 1 0) ferrite diffraction profiles were monitored during heating, cooling and holding at a transformation temperature. The neutron experiments results agree with dilatometry results. They appear to have found that the austenite peak broadening occurs after the onset of bainitic transformation but not before.

  16. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  17. Low temperature fatigue crack propagation in neutron irradiated Type 316 steel and weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.; Walls, J.D.; Gravenor, J.

    1981-02-01

    The fast cycling fatigue crack propagation characteristics of Type 316 steel and weld metal have been investigated at 380 0 C after irradiation to 1.72-1.92x10 20 n/cm 2 (E>1MeV) and 2.03x10 21 n/cm 2 (E>1MeV) at the same temperature. With mill-annealed Type 316 steel, modest decreases in the rates of crack propagation were observed for both dose levels considered, whereas for cold-worked Type 316 steel irradiation to 2.03x10 21 n/cm 2 (E>1MeV) caused increases in the rate of crack propagation. For Type 316 weld metal, increases in the rate of crack propagation were observed for both dose levels considered. The diverse influences of irradiation upon fatigue crack propagation in these materials are explained by considering a simple continuum mechanics model of crack propagation together with the results of control tensile experiments made on similarly irradiated materials. (author)

  18. ON THE PROPAGATION OF OPEN AND COVERED PIT IN 316L STAINLESS STEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stéphane; Robin, Raphaël; Rouillard, Fabien; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The propagation of a single pit was investigated with a flow micro-device. • Both in depth and radial pit propagation were characterized. • The formation of a salt film in the pit was discussed. - Abstract: Pitting corrosion on stainless steel has been widely studied during the last decades, but since it is a stochastic process, it remains difficult to analyze experimentally such a phenomenon. In this work, reproducible single pits were performed on 316L steel by using an experimental setup based on the use of a glass microcapillary to locally supply chloride ions on the steel surface in order to characterize the pit propagation. This original approach allowed obtaining new results about pit propagation. Indeed, it was possible to control the presence of a metallic cap covering the pit by adjusting the experimental parameters (potential – chloride to sulfate ratio – temperature). The presence of this cover was shown to be an important issue concerning the propagation mechanism. It was also possible to study the evolution of both the pit depth and the pit diameter as a function of various parameters. Then, based on the simulation of the current densities at the pit bottom and at the pit aperture, a special attention has been paid for the investigation of the local propagation mechanism.

  19. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagation behavior. The results indicate that the microstructure and phase composition as well as corrosion resistance were influenced by nitriding temperatures.

  20. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia; Kuntz, Matthias; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steelBainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis

  1. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias [Robert-Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering Metals, Renningen, 70465 Stuttgart (Germany); Caballero, Francisca G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steelBainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis.

  2. Experimental study of fatigue crack propagation in type 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.; Vessiere, G.; Hamel, A.; Boivin, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this work, are grouped and compared the crack propagation rates in type 316 austenitic stainless steel in two loading cases: plane strain and plane stress. Plane strain has been obtained on axisymmetric cracked specimens, plane stress on thin notched specimens, subjected to alternative bending. The results show that the crack propagation rate is greater for plane strain, i.e. in the case of the smallest plastic zone. The Elber concept was also used for explaining the different values of the crack propagation rate. It's noteworthy to find out that the Paris' law coefficients for different loading levels and those fo Elber's law are correlated [fr

  3. Analysis of elastic wave propagation through anisotropic stainless steel using elastodynamic FEM and ultrasonic beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seog Je; Jeong, Hyun Jo

    1999-01-01

    The wave propagation problem in anisotropic media is modeled by the Gauss-Hermite beam and tile finite element method and their results are compared. Gauss-Hermite mettled is computationally fast and simple, and explicitly incorporates beam spreading. In the 2-D model problem chosen, the ultrasonic beam leaves a transducer, propagates through a layer of ferritic steel and through a planar interface into a region of columnar cast stainless steel with two directions. After propagation to a reference plane, comparison .if made of the time-domain waveforms predicted by tile two models. The predictions of the two models are found to be in good agreement near the center of the beam, with deviations developing as one moves away from tile central ray. These are interpreted to be a consequence of the Fresnel approximation, made in the Gauss-Hermite model.

  4. Isothermal Bainite Processing of ASTM A723 Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    4 List of Illustrations 1. Photograph of typical cylinders used in the present study ................................. 7 2. CCT diagram for... CCT ) diagram obtained by thermal and magnetic analyses for the high nickel (-3 percent) ASTM A723 steel. The bainite knee for the 2 percent nickel...block. Also shown is the slope giving the average cooling rate in the critical region of the CCT diagram . This average rate happens to approximately

  5. Evaluating Strengthening and Impact Toughness Mechanisms for Ferritic and Bainitic Microstructures in Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Larzabal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon microalloyed steels show interesting commercial possibilities by combining different “micro”-alloying elements when high strength and low temperature toughness properties are required. Depending on the elements chosen for the chemistry design, the mechanisms controlling the strengths and toughness may differ. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the microstructural features of three different microalloyed steels, Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo, is described using mainly the electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The contribution of different strengthening mechanisms to yield strength and impact toughness is evaluated, and its relative weight is computed for different coiling temperatures. Grain refinement is shown to be the most effective mechanism for controlling both mechanical properties. As yield strength increases, the relative contribution of precipitation strengthening increases, and this factor is especially important in the Ti-Mo microalloyed steel where different combinations of interphase and random precipitation are detected depending on the coiling temperature. In addition to average grain size values, microstructural heterogeneity is considered in order to propose a new equation for predicting ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT. This equation considers the wide range of microstructures analyzed as well as the increase in the transition temperature related to precipitation strengthening.

  6. In Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Non-Isothermal Tempering of Bainitic and Martensitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hesamodin Talebi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations during non-isothermal tempering of bainitic or martensitic microstructures obtained after quenching of a medium-carbon low-alloy steel was studied. The microstructures correspond to different locations of an as-quenched large-sized forged ingot used as a die material in the automotive industry. High-resolution dilatometry experiments were conducted to simulate the heat treatment process, as well as to investigate different phenomena occurring during non-isothermal tempering. The microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dilatometry analyses demonstrated that tempering behavior varied significantly from bainitic to martensitic microstructures. Retained austenite, which exists between bainitic ferrite sheaves, decomposes to lower bainite causing a remarkable volume increase. It was found that this decomposition finishes below 386 °C. By contrast, martensite tempering was accompanied with a volume decrease due to the decomposition of medium-carbon martensite to low carbon martensite and carbides.

  7. Role of Austenitization and Pre-Deformation on the Kinetics of the Isothermal Bainitic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, H.-G.; Tschumak, S.; Maier, H. J.; Canadinc, D.

    2009-06-01

    The role of time-temperature path on the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation of low alloy 51 CrV 4 steel was investigated and the corresponding microstructures were analyzed. The important finding is that an incomplete initial austenitization treatment leaves undissolved carbides in the matrix, such that lower carbon and chromium content in the matrix result, eventually accelerating the phase transformation. Furthermore, the residual carbides constitute additional nucleation sites for the bainite plates, speeding up the process even further. Also, both plastic pre-deformation of the supercooled austenite and application of external elastic stresses during the phase transformation lead to transformation plasticity by enhancing the stress fields, providing a driving force for the growth of bainite plates along a preferred orientation. Overall, the current results constitute the first step toward establishing a database for constructing a realistic microstructure-based model for simulating metal forming operations involving austenite-to-bainite phase transformation.

  8. Tempering of Low-Temperature Bainite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Mathew J.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Miller, Mike K.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atom probe tomography have been used to identify the changes which occur during the tempering of a carbide-free bainitic steel transformed at 473 K (200 °C). Partitioning of solute between ferrite and thin-films of retained austenite was observed on tempering at 673 K (400 °C) for 30 minutes. After tempering at 673 K (400 °C) and 773 K (500 °C) for 30 minutes, cementite was observed in the form of nanometre scale precipitates. Proximity histograms showed that the partitioning of solutes other than silicon from the cementite was slight at 673 K (400 °C) and more obvious at 773 K (500 °C). In both cases, the nanometre scale carbides are greatly depleted in silicon.

  9. Low-Temperature Bainite: A Thermal Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santajuana, Miguel A.; Rementeria, Rosalia; Kuntz, Matthias; Jimenez, Jose A.; Caballero, Francisca G.; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    The thermal stability of nanobainitic structures obtained by heat treating two different high-carbon high-silicon steels at temperatures between 200 °C and 600 °C has been investigated by means of three complementary techniques, i.e., field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution dilatometry. Three main stages have been established, each of them characterized by a distinctive microstructure. Furthermore, the nanocrystalline structure generated by the bainite reaction confers the steel with an extraordinary tempering resistance.

  10. Analysis of SCC initiation/propagation behavior of stainless steels in LWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Koichi; Kuniya, Jiro

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to analyze initiation and propagation behavior of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steels on the basis of a new prediction algorithm in which the initiation period and propagation period of SCC under irradiation conditions are considered from a practical viewpoint. The prediction algorithm is based on three ideas: (1) threshold neutron fluence of radiation-enhanced SCC (RESCC), (2) equivalent critical crack depth, and (3) threshold stress intensity factor for SCC (K ISCC ). SCC initiation/propagation behavior in light water reactor (LWR) environments is analyzed by incorporating model equations on irradiation hardening, irradiation-enhanced electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) and irradiation stress relaxation that are phenomena peculiar to neutron irradiation. The analytical method is applied to predict crack growth behavior of a semi-elliptical surface crack in a flat plane that has an arbitrary residual stress profile; specimens are sensitized type 304 stainless steels which had been subjected to neutron irradiation in high temperature water. SCC growth behavior of a semi-elliptical surface crack was greatly dependent on the distribution of residual stress in a flat plane. When residual stress at the surface of the flat plane was relatively small, the method predicted SCC propagation did not take place. (author)

  11. Effects of pulse current stimulation on the thermal fatigue crack propagation behavior of CHWD steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.Q.; Zhao, Y.G.; Gao, Z.M.; Han, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagating behaviors of cast hot working die (CHWD) steel untreated and treated by an electric current in the intermediate stage of thermal fatigue were investigated in the present study. The circle/elliptical heating affected zone (HAZ) was formed ahead of the notch tip on the fatigued specimens after pulse electric current stimulation. Both SEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that pulse electric current stimulation refined grains/subgrains in the HAZs. With the prolonging of discharging duration, the grains/subgrains decreased in size and the dislocation density and microhardness increased gradually. The grain refinement and dislocation density increase played an important role in the material strengthening, which inevitably enhanced the propagation resistance and delayed the propagation of thermal fatigue cracks. Therefore, the pulse electric current stimulation was an effective method to improve the service lifetime of die material

  12. Numerical investigation on the prefabricated crack propagation of FV520B stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyi Pan

    Full Text Available FV520B is a common stainless steel for manufacturing centrifugal compressor impeller and shaft. The internal metal flaw destroys the continuity of the material matrix, resulting in the crack propagation fracture of the component, which seriously reduces the service life of the equipment. In this paper, Abaqus software was used to simulate the prefabricated crack propagation of FV520B specimen with unilateral gap. The results of static crack propagation simulation results show that the maximum value of stress–strain located at the tip of the crack and symmetrical distributed like a butterfly along the prefabricated crack direction, the maximum stress is 1990 MPa and the maximum strain is 9.489 × 10−3. The Mises stress and stress intensity factor KI increases with the increase of the expansion step, the critical value of crack initiation is reached at the 6th extension step. The dynamic crack propagation simulation shows that the crack propagation path is perpendicular to the load loading direction. Similarly, the maximum Mises stress located at the crack tip and is symmetrically distributed along the crack propagation direction. The critical stress range of the crack propagation is 23.3–43.4 MPa. The maximum value of stress–strain curve located at the 8th extension step, that is, the crack initiation point, the maximum stress is 55.22 MPa, and the maximum strain is 2.26 × 10−4. On the crack tip, the stress changed as 32.24–40.16 MPa, the strain is at 1.292 × 10−4–1.897 × 10−4. Keywords: FV520B, Crack propagation, Mises stress, Stress–strain, Numerical investigation

  13. Phase transformations of under-cooled austenite of new bainitic materials for scissors crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pacyna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains CCT diagrams presenting a transformation kinetics of under-cooled austenite from two new bainitic cast steels which the scissors crossovers for heavy-duty railway tracks (min. 230kN/axle at the speed up to 200 km/h are made of. The cooling ranges of UIC60 type railway tracks plot on the CCT diagrams indicate that there is a 100% bainitic structure in the scissors crossovers made of these cast steels as well, but mainly it would be a favourable for cracking resistance lower bainite. The achievable hardness of scissors crossovers made of new materials make it possible to use high–temperature tempering resulting in obtaining of good crack resistance. However one should provide a good quality of castings made.

  14. SPEED DEPENDENCE OF ACOUSTIC VIBRATION PROPAGATION FROM THE FERRITIC GRAIN SIZE IN LOW-CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vakulenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is determining the nature of the ferrite grain size influence of low-carbon alloy steel on the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations. Methodology. The material for the research served a steel sheet of thickness 1.4 mm. Steel type H18T1 had a content of chemical elements within grade composition: 0, 12 % C, 17, 5 % Cr, 1 % Mn, 1, 1 % Ni, 0, 85 % Si, 0, 9 % Ti. The specified steel belongs to the semiferritic class of the accepted classification. The structural state of the metal for the study was obtained by cold plastic deformation by rolling at a reduction in the size range of 20-30 % and subsequent recrystallization annealing at 740 – 750 ° C. Different degrees of cold plastic deformation was obtained by pre-selection of the initial strip thickness so that after a desired amount of rolling reduction receives the same final thickness. The microstructure was observed under a light microscope, the ferrite grain size was determined using a quantitative metallographic technique. The using of X-ray structural analysis techniques allowed determining the level of second-order distortion of the crystal latitude of the ferrite. The speed propagation of acoustic vibrations was measured using a special device such as an ISP-12 with a working frequency of pulses 1.024 kHz. As the characteristic of strength used the hardness was evaluated by the Brinell’s method. Findings. With increasing of ferrite grain size the hardness of the steel is reduced. In the case of constant structural state of metal, reducing the size of the ferrite grains is accompanied by a natural increasing of the phase distortion. The dependence of the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations up and down the rolling direction of the ferrite grain size remained unchanged and reports directly proportional correlation. Originality. On the basis of studies to determine the direct impact of the proportional nature of the ferrite grain size on the rate of propagation of sound

  15. Multiple cracks initiation and propagation behavior of stainless steel in high temperature water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Chiba, Goro; Nakajima, Nobuo; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally assisted crack initiation behavior is greatly affected by applied stress and environmental factors, such as water temperature, contained impurities and so on. On the other hand, crack initiation behavior also influences crack propagation. A typical example of this influence can be observed as the interference effects of multiple cracks, such as the coalescence of approaching crack tips or the arrest phenomena in the relaxation zone of an adjacent crack. To understand these effects of crack initiation on crack propagation behavior is very important to predict the lifetime of components, in which quite a few cracks tend to occur. This study aimed at revealing the crack initiation behavior and the influence of this behavior on propagation. At first, to evaluate the effect of applied stress on crack initiation behavior, sensitized stainless steel was subjected to a four-point bending test in a high temperature water environment at the constant potentials of ECP +50 mV and ECP +150 mV. Secondly, a crack initiation and growth simulation model was developed, in which the interference effect of multiple cracks is evaluated by the finite element method, based on the experimental results. Using this model, the relationship between crack initiation and propagation was studied. From the model, it was revealed that the increasing number of the cracks accelerates crack propagation and reduces life. (author)

  16. Modelling probabilistic fatigue crack propagation rates for a mild structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F.O. Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of fatigue crack growth models based on elastic–plastic stress–strain histories at the crack tip region and local strain-life damage models have been proposed in literature. The fatigue crack growth is regarded as a process of continuous crack initializations over successive elementary material blocks, which may be governed by smooth strain-life damage data. Some approaches account for the residual stresses developing at the crack tip in the actual crack driving force assessment, allowing mean stresses and loading sequential effects to be modelled. An extension of the fatigue crack propagation model originally proposed by Noroozi et al. (2005 to derive probabilistic fatigue crack propagation data is proposed, in particular concerning the derivation of probabilistic da/dN-ΔK-R fields. The elastic-plastic stresses at the vicinity of the crack tip, computed using simplified formulae, are compared with the stresses computed using an elasticplastic finite element analyses for specimens considered in the experimental program proposed to derive the fatigue crack propagation data. Using probabilistic strain-life data available for the S355 structural mild steel, probabilistic crack propagation fields are generated, for several stress ratios, and compared with experimental fatigue crack propagation data. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted probabilistic fields and experimental data is observed.

  17. Initiation and propagation of multiple cracks of stainless steel in high temperature water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Chiba, Goro; Nakajima, Nobuo; Totsuka, Nobuo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Environmentally assisted crack initiation behavior is greatly affected by applied stress and environmental factors, such as water temperature, contained impurities and so on. Crack initiation behavior also influences crack propagation. A typical example of this influence can be observed as the interference effects of multiple cracks, such as the coalescence of approaching crack tips or the arrest phenomena in the relaxation zone of an adjacent crack. To understand these effects of crack initiation on crack propagation behavior is very important to predict the lifetime of components, in which relatively large number of cracks tend to occur. This study aimed at revealing the crack initiation behavior and the influence of this behavior on propagation. At first, to evaluate the effect of applied stress on crack initiation behavior, sensitized stainless steel was subjected to a four-point bending test in high temperature water environment at the constant potentials of +50 mV SHE and +150 mV SHE Secondly, a crack initiation and growth simulation model was developed, in which the interference effect of multiple cracks is evaluated by the finite element method, based on the experimental results. Using this model, the relationship between crack initiation and propagation was investigated, and it was revealed that the increasing number of the cracks accelerates crack propagation and reduces life. (author)

  18. Widening of Laths in Bainite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-11-01

    Units of bainite in Fe-C alloys from the upper temperature range inherit their shape from Widmanstätten plates of ferrite, which are lathlike. The thickness increases by long-range diffusion of carbon and the length by short-range diffusion of carbon from the advancing edge of the tip. Both have been studied extensively and are fairly well understood. Widening growth seems to have been much neglected, but a study of some aspects of widening is now presented. The present report is the last one in a series of four morphological studies of bainite, isothermally formed in Fe-C alloys with 0.3 or 0.7 mass pct carbon, mainly in the upper temperature range. It contains a number of morphological observations made on cross sections of packets of bainite, and it elucidated a number of interesting questions about bainite and resulted in some proposals. The ferrite plates in a packet are nucleated as a group on a grain boundary, not each one separately on the side of a prior plate. Lengthening occurs by advancement of a short edge that is formed in close contact to the grain boundary. Widening of laths does not start spontaneously. It is initiated by a modification of the structure of the long edge of the lath. When it then moves, the lattice of the new ferrite is rotated relative to the ferrite formed by lengthening and the habit plane is different. In a section through the length direction, it is difficult to recognize what part of ferrite has formed by widening growth. Furthermore, it is proposed that the individual plates in a microstructure, previously used to illustrate subunits formed by repeated nucleation, were nucleated on a hidden grain boundary.

  19. An approach to define the effective lath size controlling yield strength of bainite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kangying; Bouaziz, Olivier; Oberbillig, Carla; Huang, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: In this study, we developed a series of fully bainitic microstructures with negligible carbide precipitation in ultra-low carbon steels. Then, we investigated the microstructure by EBSD as well as their mechanical properties. It is found that the yield stress of such bainite is proportional to the inverse lath size defined with low boundary misorientation (2-7 deg.). We explained this by employing a theory which predicts the flow stress of deformed metals, assuming that both lath boundary and dislocation cell boundary have similar capability of being dislocation obstacles. - Abstract: A fully bainitic microstructure with negligible carbide precipitation is obtained in two ultra-low carbon steels. The size and misorientation of bainite laths are analysed by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD). It is found that the yield stress of bainite is proportional to the inverse lath size defined with low boundary misorientation (2-7 deg.). This can be explained by a theory predicting the flow stress of deformed metals, assuming that both lath boundary and dislocation cell boundary have similar capability of being dislocation obstacles.

  20. Fatigue crack propagation behavior and acoustic emission characteristics of the heat affected zone of super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Jae Yoon; Kim, Jin Hwan; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Park, In Duck; Kang, Chang Yong; Nam, Ki Woo

    2002-01-01

    Because duplex stainless steel shows the good strength and corrosion resistance properties, the necessity of duplex stainless steel, which has long life in severe environments, has been increased with industrial development. The fatigue crack propagation behavior of Heat Affected Zone(HAZ) has been investigated in super duplex stainless steel. The fatigue crack propagation rate of HAZ of super duplex stainless steel was faster than that of base metal of super duplex stainless steel. We also analysed acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test with time-frequency analysis method. According to the results of time-frequency analysis, the frequency ranges of 200-400 kHz were obtained by striation and the frequency range of 500 kHz was obtained due to dimple and separate of inclusion

  1. Influence of corrosion environment composition on crack propagation in high-strength martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul'nik, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    The 40 Kh steel is taken as an example to investigate the dependence of electrochemical parameters in the crack tip and characteristics of corrosion static cracking resistance of martensitic steel on the composition of environment. The tests are performed in acidic and alkaline solutions prepared by adding HC or NaOH in distilled water. It is established that growth of pH value of initial solutions trom 0 to 13 brings about linear increase of a threshold stress intensity factor. It is found that acidic medium in the crack tip preserves up to pH 13 of initial medium. The possibility of corrosion crack propagation in alkaline solutions according to the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is proved

  2. Characterization of bainitic/martensitic structures formed in isothermal treatments below the M

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro Lopez, A.; Hidalgo Garcia, J.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia Navarro, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels are generally obtained by applying isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (Ms). Previous investigations have shown that bainitic ferrite can form from austenite in isothermal treatments below Ms, where its

  3. Effect of defect length on rolling contact fatigue crack propagation in high strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to clarify the effect of defect length in depth direction on rolling contact fatigue (RCF crack propagation in high strength steel. RCF test and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro CT imaging were conducted. In the case of the defect with the 15 m diameter, flaking life decreased with increasing defect length. In a comparison of the CT image and the SEM view, the shapes of defects and the locations of the horizontal cracks were almost the same respectively. The mechanism of RCF crack propagation was discussed by finite element (FE analysis. Defects led to higher tensile residual stress than that without defects in the region where the defect exists. The shear stress range at 0.1 mm in depth on the middle line of the defect and the range of mode II stress intensity factor at the bottom of a vertical crack increased with increasing defect length.

  4. High temperature initiation and propagation of cracks in 12%Cr-steel turbine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Foletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the crack propagation in 12%Cr steel for turbine disks. Creep Crack Growth (CCG tests on CT specimens have been performed to define the proper fracture mechanics which describes the initiation of the crack propagation and the crack growth behaviour for the material at high temperature. Results have been used to study the occurrence of crack initiation on a turbine disk at the extreme working temperature and stress level experienced during service, and validate the use of C* integral in correlating creep growth rate on the disk component, in case C* is numerically calculated through FEM analysis or calculated by the use of reference stress concept.

  5. Accurate measurement of the orientation relationship of lath martensite and bainite by electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takayama, N.; Furuhara, T.

    2009-01-01

    A new method to determine the orientation relationship between martensite and bainite with the parent austenite is developed based on electron backscatter diffraction analysis. This method can determine the orientation relationship accurately without the presence of retained austenite, and is applicable to lath martensite and bainite in low-alloyed carbon steels. The angles between close-packed directions are about 3 o for lath martensite regardless of the carbon content, while the angles between close-packed planes become smaller with increasing carbon content.

  6. Modelling of liquid sodium induced crack propagation in T91 martensitic steel: Competition with ductile fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemery, Samuel [Institut PPRIME, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ISAE ENSMA, UPR 3346, Téléport 2, 1 Avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Berdin, Clotilde, E-mail: clotilde.berdin@u-psud.fr [Univ Paris-Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Auger, Thierry; Bourhi, Mariem [Ecole Centrale-Supelec, MSSMat CNRS UMR 8579, F-92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of T91 steel is numerically modeled by the finite element method to analyse experimental results in an axisymmetric notched geometry. The behavior of the material is identified from tensile tests then a crack with a constant crack velocity is introduced using the node release technique in order to simulate the brittle crack induced by LME. A good agreement between the simulated and the experimental macroscopic behavior is found: this suggests that the assumption of a constant crack velocity is correct. Mechanical fields during the embrittlement process are then extracted from the results of the finite element model. An analysis of the crack initiation and propagation stages: the ductile fracture probably breaks off the LME induced brittle fracture. - Highlights: • T91 martensitic steel is embrittled by liquid sodium depending on the loading rate at 573 K. • The mechanical behavior is modeled by a von Mises elastic-plastic law. • The LME induced crack propagates at a constant velocity. • The mechanical state at the crack tip does not explain a brittle crack arrest. • The occurrence of the ductile fracture breaks off the brittle fracture.

  7. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  8. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined

  9. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Metallic Materials. Part III. Hydrogen Entry and Embrittlement in Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    work of Kerns (36)] 29 22 Crack Velocity vs. Stress Intensity for AISI 4340 Steel (Martensitic and Bainitic Structures) in 314 NaCl Solution (pit = 6.0...magnitude greater for 4340 steel with a tempered martensite structure than for the lower bainite structure. Figure 22 shows crack velocity as a function of...applied stress intensity for martensitic and bainitic steels . The dif- ference was attributed to more effective trapping of hydrogen at coher- ently

  10. Comparison of fracture properties for two types of low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreldin, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The fracture properties of two types of low alloy steels used in the pressure vessel and boilers industry were determined. The first type was the steel A533-B which comprised a fully bainitic microstructure. The second one was the C-Mn steel which consisted of ferritic-pearlitic microstructure. The following fracture properties were determined using instrumented impact testing: the total fracture energy, the crack initiation and propagation energies, the brittleness transition temperature and the local fracture stress. The steel A533-B showed better fracture properties at high testing temperatures, while the C-Mn steel displayed higher resistance to brittle fracture at low testing temperatures. The results were discussed in relation to the difference in microstructure and fracture surface morphology for both steels

  11. Analysis of the resistance to the stable propagation of fissures in structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Villar, Nelson; Aquino, Daniel; Aguera, Francisco; Fierro, Victor; Ansaldi, Andrea; Chomik, Enrique; Iorio, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanic (LEFM) is applied to the analysis of highly resistant materials, with correction for plasticity. For moderately ductile materials, structural analysis and design methodologies based on Elastoplastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) still have to be developed. The J integral is used in EPFM as a parameter to characterize tenacity to the fracture, following the ASTM standard. It is important to obtain J-Resistant curves, since the use of the stable propagation initiation value (J IC ) as failure criteria, leads to results that are too conservative in most design situations. The application of direct methods allows for results under conditions where the standard methods for obtaining the J-Resistant curve are not applicable. This work analyzes the application of direct methods that are alternatives for the standard, in ferritic-perlitic steels used in gas transport pipes. Experimental results are presented with numerical analysis (FEA) for the adjustment of J-Resistant curves (au)

  12. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kee; Nam, Ki Woo; Kang, Chang Yong; Do, Jae Yoon

    2000-01-01

    On this study, the fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel is investigated in conditions of various volume fraction of austenite phase by changing heat treatment temperature. And we analysed acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test by time-frequency analysis methods. As the temperature of heat treatment increased, volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen heat treated at 1200 deg. C had longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. As a result of time-frequency analyze of acoustic emission signals during fatigue test, main frequency was 200∼300 kHz having no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and 500 kHz was obtained by dimple and separate of inclusion

  13. Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Denis, E-mail: thibault.denis@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Bocher, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.bocher@etsmtl.ca [Ecole de technologie superieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 1K3 (Canada); Thomas, Marc, E-mail: marc.thomas@etsmtl.ca [Ecole de technologie superieure, 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 1K3 (Canada); Lanteigne, Jacques, E-mail: lanteigne.jacques@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Hovington, Pierre, E-mail: hovington.pierre@ireq.ca [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Robichaud, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.robichaud@riotinto.com [Centre de recherche et de developpement Arvida (CRDA), 1955, boul. Mellon, Jonquiere, Quebec, G7S 4K8 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Reformed austenite in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel transforms during fatigue crack growth. {yields} Low cycle fatigue tests showed that this transformation to martensite is gradual. {yields} XRD spectrums obtained on the fracture surface and have been correlated to LCF results. - Abstract: In the as-quenched state, 13%Cr-4%Ni martensitic stainless steels are essentially 100% martensitic. However, a certain amount of austenite is formed during the tempering of this alloy. This reformed austenite is thermally stable at room temperature but can transform to martensite under stress. This transformation is known to happen during impact testing but it has never been established if it occurs during fatigue crack propagation. This study presents the results of X-ray diffraction measurements of reformed austenite before and after crack growth testing. It has been found that reformed austenite does transform to martensite at the crack tip and that this transformation occurs even at a low stress intensity factor. Low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted to verify austenite transformation under cyclic straining. It was found that reformed austenite transforms only partially during the first strain reversal but that essentially all austenite has disappeared after 100 cycles. The relation between austenite transformation under low-cycle fatigue and its transformation during crack growth is also discussed.

  14. Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, Denis; Bocher, Philippe; Thomas, Marc; Lanteigne, Jacques; Hovington, Pierre; Robichaud, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Reformed austenite in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel transforms during fatigue crack growth. → Low cycle fatigue tests showed that this transformation to martensite is gradual. → XRD spectrums obtained on the fracture surface and have been correlated to LCF results. - Abstract: In the as-quenched state, 13%Cr-4%Ni martensitic stainless steels are essentially 100% martensitic. However, a certain amount of austenite is formed during the tempering of this alloy. This reformed austenite is thermally stable at room temperature but can transform to martensite under stress. This transformation is known to happen during impact testing but it has never been established if it occurs during fatigue crack propagation. This study presents the results of X-ray diffraction measurements of reformed austenite before and after crack growth testing. It has been found that reformed austenite does transform to martensite at the crack tip and that this transformation occurs even at a low stress intensity factor. Low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted to verify austenite transformation under cyclic straining. It was found that reformed austenite transforms only partially during the first strain reversal but that essentially all austenite has disappeared after 100 cycles. The relation between austenite transformation under low-cycle fatigue and its transformation during crack growth is also discussed.

  15. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzweissig, M.J., E-mail: martinh@mail.upb.de [University of Paderborn, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Canadinc, D., E-mail: dcanadinc@ku.edu.tr [Koc University, Advanced Materials Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Maier, H.J., E-mail: hmaier@mail.upb.de [University of Paderborn, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  16. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: ► Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. ► The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. ► Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  17. Propagation of crevices in stainless steel AISI304L in conditions of hydrogen chemistry (HWC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F.; Castano M, V.

    2006-01-01

    Crevice growth velocities in samples of AISI 304L stainless steel thermally welded and sensitized were obtained by the Rising displacement method or of growing displacement. It was used a recirculation circuit in where the operation conditions of a BWR type reactor were simulated (temperature of 288 C and a pressure of 8 MPa) with the chemistry modified by the addition of hydrogen with and without the addition of impurities of a powerful oxidizer like the Cu ++ ion. CT pre cracked specimens were used and each rehearsal stayed to one constant displacement velocity of 1 x 10 -9 m/s (3.6 μm/hr), making a continuous pursuit of the advance of the crack by the electric potential drop technique. To the end of the rehearsal it was carried out the fractographic analysis of the propagation surfaces. The values of the growth velocities obtained by this methodology went similar to the opposing ones under normal conditions of operation; while the fractographic analysis show the cracks propagation in trans and intergranular ways, evidencing the complexity of the regulator mechanisms of the one IGSCC even under controlled ambient conditions or with mitigation methodologies like the alternative hydrogen chemistry. (Author)

  18. Crack propagation in stainless steel AISI 304L in Hydrogen Chemistry conditions (HWC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F.; Castano M, V.

    2006-01-01

    Velocities of crack growth in samples type CT pre cracking of stainless steel AISI 304l solder and sensitized thermally its were obtained by the Rising Displacement method or of growing displacement. It was used a recirculation circuit that simulates the operation conditions of a BWR type reactor (temperature of 280 C and a pressure of 8 MPa) with the chemistry modified by the addition of hydrogen with and without the addition of impurities of a powerful oxidizer like the Cu + ion. In each essay stayed a displacement velocity was constant of 1x10 -9 m/s, making a continuous pursuit of the advance of the crack by the electric potential drop technique. Contrary to the idea of mitigation of the crack propagation velocity by effect of the addition of the hydrogen in the system, the values of the growth velocities obtained by this methodology went similar to the opposing ones under normal operation conditions. To the finish of the rehearsal one carries out the fractographic analysis of the propagation surfaces, which showed cracks growth in trans and intergranular way, evidencing the complexity of the regulator mechanisms of the IGSCC like in mitigation conditions as the alternative Hydrogen Chemistry. (Author)

  19. Effect of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack propagation in some steels during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, S.; Fujino, M.; Maruyama, S.

    Temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation in steels was examined, and compared with the temperature dependence of tensile ductility. Microcracks initiate and affect the propagation behavior of the main crack at elevated temperatures. Factors found to be elucidated include initiation rate of microcracks, reduction of ductility of the material in the vicinity of the main crack tip, and relaxation of concentrated strain by multi-cracks. It was found that during a strain controlled low cycle fatigue test at 1 cpm, the rate of crack propagation is largest at the blue-brittleness temperature range (200 to 300 0 C) in a low carbon steel. On the other hand, it is largest at above 700 0 C in austenite stainless steels. The temperature dependence of the rate of fatigue crack propagation is opposite to that of tensile ductility. Microcracks formed in the vicinity of the main crack tip were calculated, by considering the strain concentration and strain cycles imposed. Then, the local fracture strain was evaluated. Good correlation was found between the rate of crack propagation and the local fracture strain. (U.S.)

  20. Criterion of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in a nuclear PWR vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, Amaury

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this PhD thesis is to understand physical mechanisms of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in the 16MND5 PWR vessel steel and to propose a robust predicting model based on a brittle fracture experimental campaign of finely instrumented laboratory specimens associated with numerical computations. First, experiments were carried out on thin CT25 specimens at five temperatures (-150 C, -125 C, -100 C, -7 C, -50 C). Two kinds of crack path, straight or branching path, have been observed. To characterize crack propagation and to measure crack speed, a high-speed framing camera system was used, combined with the development of an experimental protocol which allowed to observe CT surface without icing inside the thermal chamber and on the specimen. The framing camera (520 000 fps) has allowed to have a very accurate estimation of crack speed on the complete ligament of CT (∼ 25 mm). Besides, to analyse experiments and to study the impact of viscosity on the mechanical response around the crack tip, the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the ferritic steel has been studied up to a strain rate of 104 s -1 for the tested temperatures.The extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) was used in CAST3M FE software to model crack propagation. Numerical computations combine a local non linear dynamic approach with a RKR type fracture stress criterion to a characteristic distance. The work carried out has confirmed the form of the criterion proposed by Prabel at -125 C, and has identified the dependencies of the criterion on temperature and strain rate. From numerical analyzes in 2D and 3D, a multi-temperature fracture stress criterion, increasing function of the strain rate, was proposed. Predictive modeling were used to confirm the identified criterion on two specimen geometries (CT and compressive ring) in mode I at different temperatures. SEM observations and 3D analyzes made with optical microscope showed that the fracture mechanism was the cleavage associated

  1. Numerical generation and study of synthetic bainitic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, N.; Gourgues-Lorenzon, A.F.; Cailletaud, G.; Diard, O.; Marini, B.

    2006-01-01

    Models classically used to describe the probability of brittle fracture in nuclear power plants are written on the macroscopic scale. Its is not easy to surely capture the physical phenomena in such a type of approach, so that the application of the models far from their identification domain (temperature history, loading path) may become questionable. To improve the quality of the prediction of resistance and life time, microstructural information, describing the heterogeneous character of the material and its deformation mechanisms has to be taken into consideration. This paper is devoted to 16MND5 bainitic steel. Bainitic packets grow in former austenitic grains, and are not randomly oriented. Knowing the macroscopic stress is thus not sufficient to describe the stress-strain state in ferrite. An accurate model must take into account the actual microstructure, in order to provide realistic local stress and strain fields, to be used as inputs of a new class of cleavage models based on the local behavior. The paper shows the approach used to generate a synthetic microstructure and demonstrates that the resulting morphologies present a quantitative agreement with the experimental images. (authors)

  2. Stable and unstable fatigue crack propagation during high temperature creep-fatigue in austenitic steels: the role of precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.; Wareing, J.

    1979-01-01

    The distinction between stable and unstable fatigue crack propagation during high temperature creep-fatigue in austenitic stainless steels is introduced. The transition from one class of behavior to the other is related to the precipitate distribution and to the nature of the prevailing crack path. It is shown by reference to new studies and examples drawn from the literature that this behavior is common to both high strain and predominantly elastic fatigue in austenitic stainless steels. The relevance of this distinction to a mechanistic approach to high temperature plant design is discussed

  3. The fatigue-crack propagation behavior of ASTM A533-B steel tested in vacuo at LWR operating temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fatigue-crack propagation (FCP) behavior of ASTM A533-B-1 steel was characterized in vacuo at 288 0 C. Tests were conducted at two stress ratios: R = 0.05 and R = 0.7. Results of these tests were compared with results from previous studies for the same type of steel tested in an air environment, and FCP rates in vacuo were generally lower than those in air. Stress ratio effects in vacuo were not as great as those in air, and both stress ratio effects and environmental effects are discussed from the standpoint of crack closure concepts

  4. Numerical modeling of hydrogen diffusion in structural steels under cathodic overprotection and its effects on fatigue crack propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Diniz, D.; Almeida Silva, A. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB (Brazil); Andrade Barbosa, J.M. [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife-PE (Brazil); Palma Carrasco, J.

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a numerical simulation of the effect of hydrogen atomic diffusion on fatigue crack propagation on structural steels. The simulation was performed with a specimen type CT of API 5CT P110 steel, loaded in the tensile opening mode, in plane strain state and under the effects of a cyclic mechanical load and the hydrogen concentration at the crack tip. As hydrogen source, a cathodic protection system was considered, commonly used in subsea pipelines. The equations of evolution of variables at the crack tip form a non-linear system of ordinary differential equations that was solved by means of the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The solid-solid diffusion through the lattice ahead of the crack tip was simulated using the finite difference method. The simulations results show that under these conditions, the fatigue crack evolution process is enhanced by the hydrogen presence in the material, and that the start time of the crack propagation decreases as its concentration increases. These results show good correlation and consistency with macroscopic observations, providing a better understanding of hydrogen embrittlement in fatigue crack propagation processes in structural steels. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The crack propagating behavior of composite coatings prepared by PEO on aluminized steel during in situ tensile processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhitong; Li Guang; Wu Zhenqiang; Xia Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Composite coatings on the aluminized steel were prepared by the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique, which comprised of Fe-Al layer, Al layer and Al 2 O 3 layer. → The evaluation method of the crack critical opening displacement δ c was introduced to describe quantitatively the resistance of Al layer to the propagation behavior of cracks and evaluate the fracture behavior of composite coatings. → The crack propagating model was established. - Abstract: This paper investigates the in situ tensile cracks propagating behavior of composite coatings on the aluminized steel generated using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique. Cross-sectional micrographs and elemental compositions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The composite coatings were shown to consist of Fe-Al, Al and Al 2 O 3 layers. The cracks propagating behavior was observed in real-time in situ SEM tensile test. In tensile process, the cracks were temporarily stopped when cracks propagated from Fe-Al layer to Al layer. The critical crack opening displacement δ c was introduced to quantitatively describe the resistance of the Al layer. There was a functional relation among the thickness ratio t Al /t Al 2 O 3 , the δ c of composite coatings and tensile cracks' spacing. The δ c increased with the increasing of the thickness ratio (t Al /t Al 2 O 3 ). The high δ c value means high fracture resistance. Therefore, a control of the thickness ratio t Al /t Al 2 O 3 was concerned as a key to improve the toughness and strength of the aluminized steel.

  6. Effect of the isothermal transformation temperature on the fine structure of steel-12Kh1MF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, I.I.; Berezina, T.G.; Lanskaya, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    For detailed analysis of bainite and pearlite in steel 12Kh1MF, homogeneous structures were obtained by isothermal annealing at 350, 450, 500, and 650 0 for 1 h. Isothermal transformation of austenite leads to the formation of bainite at 350-500 0 and pearlite at 650 0 . The austenitizing temperature was 980 0 for both types of samples, with holding for 20 min. For comparison, the plates were quenched from 980 0 and 1050 0 in ice-cold brine. The investigation was conducted with use of light and electron microscopes and x-ray analysis. The long-term strength was also determined. Isothermal treatment of steel 12Kh1MF at 350-500 0 C leads to the formation of a structure consisting of upper and lower bainite. At 500 0 the structure consists primarily of upper bainite, and at 350 0 of lower bainite. With tempering of the steel with a structure of upper and lower bainite at 730 0 for 3 h the dislocations undergo redistribution of the polygonization type within ferrite needles, with development of a cellular substructure. The acicular structure of the matrix is retained in this case. The density and evenness of the distribution of carbides is higher in upper bainite than in lower bainite. Steel 12Kh1MF with a structure of upper bainite is more susceptible to recrystallization as compared with a structure of lower bainite, which is responsible for the higher heat resistance of the latter

  7. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation in steels exposed to inert and corrosive environments. Final report, May 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youseffi, K.; Finnie, I.

    1978-02-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life of AISI 1018 steel was investigated using compact tension specimens having sharp notch root radii. The data were analyzed using two methods for predicting initiation in strain cycling experiments. Also, another approach in which initiation is related to the stress intensity factor was developed. The next phase, that of propagation, was studied using AISI 1018 steel and a new high strength steel HY-180. The crack propagation data obtained for both steels tested in air can be described accurately by the power law first suggested by Paris, da/dN = C(..delta..K)/sup n/, where a is the crack length, N the number of cycles, and C and n are material constants. However, the exponent n was found to be two times larger for AISI 1018 steel than HY-180 steel.

  8. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation in steels exposed to inert and corrosive environments. Final report, May 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youseffi, K.; Finnie, I.

    1978-02-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life of AISI 1018 steel was investigated using compact tension specimens having sharp notch root radii. The data were analyzed using two methods for predicting initiation in strain cycling experiments. Also, another approach in which initiation is related to the stress intensity factor was developed. The next phase, that of propagation, was studied using AISI 1018 steel and a new high strength steel HY-180. The crack propagation data obtained for both steels tested in air can be described accurately by the power law first suggested by Paris, da/dN = C(ΔK)/sup n/, where a is the crack length, N the number of cycles, and C and n are material constants. However, the exponent n was found to be two times larger for AISI 1018 steel than HY-180 steel

  9. Theoretical design and advanced microstructure in super high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, F.G.; Santofimia, M.J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Chao, J.; Garcia de Andres, C.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical design procedure based on phase transformation theory alone has been successfully applied to design steels with a microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Using thermodynamics and kinetics models, a set of four carbide free bainitic steels with a 0.3 wt.% carbon content were designed and manufactured following a thermomechanical treatment consisting of hot rolling and two-step cooling. The designed steels present significant combinations of strength and ductility, with tensile strengths ranging from 1500 to 1800 MPa and total elongations over 15%. However, a carbon content of 0.3 wt.% is still high for in-use properties such as weldability. In this sense, a reduction in the average carbon content of advanced bainitic steels was proposed. Improved bainitic steels with a carbon content of 0.2 wt.% reached combinations of strength and ductility comparable to those in TRIP assisted steels.

  10. In situ TEM study of the effect of M/A films at grain boundaries on crack propagation in an ultra-fine acicular ferrite pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Xiao Furen; Zhang Jingwu; Shan Yiyin; Wang Wei; Yang Ke

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural refinement of structural materials generally improves their tensile properties but deteriorates their fatigue properties. However, pipeline steels with ultra-fine acicular ferrite (UFAF) possess not only high strength and toughness, but also a low fatigue-crack-growth rate (FCGR) and long fatigue-propagation life. In this paper, the micro-fracture mechanisms of an UFAF pipeline steel are investigated by in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that a grain-boundary-film structure composed of martensite/austenite could significantly influence the crack propagating behavior in the UFAF steel, consequently lowering the FCGR by enhancing roughness-induced crack closure during cyclic loading

  11. A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Hüter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

  12. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal; Ismail Elya Atikah; Zainuddin Azman; Hussain Patthi

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagat...

  13. Monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using guided waves and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.

  14. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  15. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Potential Monitoring and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy during Corrosion Initiation and Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Mason, Thomas O.; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    wires. The wires can act as both reference and counter electrode during EIS and, thus, no external electrode is required. The defined geometry solves reproducibility problems involved with application of an external reference electrode for EIS. Changes of the electromotive force (EMF) between rebar...... and titanium wires can be monitored immediately after preparation. The wire arrangement also allows investigation of local changes in the bulk mortar by EIS or by measuring the potential development of the titanium wires versus an external standard electrode. The specimen design was evaluated...... in an investigation on the effect of the steel quality and the steel surface properties on initiation and propagation of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Besides untreated (as received) carbon rebars and stainless rebars, selected surface treatments and galvanization were investigated. The surface treatments...

  16. The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ''critical'' concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors

  17. Results of neutron propagation in steel sodium mixtures with various source spectra on Harmonie and Tapiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamand, D.; Desprets, A.; Rancurel, H.

    1977-01-01

    The first results of a joint CEA/CNEN neutron propagation program conducted on the source reactors HARMONIE and TAPIRO are presented. In both cases, a buffer zone representative of the blanket of a commercial fast power reactor is interposed between the source reactor and the medium in which neutron propagation is measured. This buffer zone provides a realistic source spectrum to be propagated. Experimental results are compared to older results obtained without the buffer zone. The effect of the source spectrum on neutron propagation is discussed, as well as the coherence of the results obtained with the two installations

  18. Crack propagation behaviour in stainless steel AISI 316L at elevated temperatures under static and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental investigations of crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions are presented. The experiments were performed with the austenitic steel AISI 316L, that will be used in fast breeder reactors. A comparison of crack propagation behaviour at temperatures of T = 550deg C and T = 700deg C in common through-thickness cracked specimens and in plates containing surface cracks is carried out by application of several fracture mechanics parameters. The quantitative description of crack initiation times and crack velocities is persued particularly. The propagation rate of one-dimensional cracks under cyclic loading conditions at T = 550deg C is also treated with fracture mechanical methods. The influence of the hold periods on crack speed is discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Normalizing effect on fatigue crack propagation at the heat-affected zone of AISI 4140 steel shielded metal arc weldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vargas-Arista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughness and critical crack length, and a transgranular brittle final fracture with an area fraction of dimple zones connecting cleavage facets. A fractographic analysis proved that as the normalizing time increased the crack length decreased. The increase in the river patterns on the fatigue crack propagation in zone II was also evidenced and final brittle fracture because of transgranular quasicleavage was observed. Larger grains induced a deterioration of the fatigue resistance of the HAZ.

  20. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel with dispersed structure and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Kang, Chang-Yong; Do, Jae-Yoon; Ahn, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Kee

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel was investigated for the effect of various volume fractions of the austenite phase by changing the heat treatment temperature. We also analyzed acoustic emission signals obtained during the fatigue crack propagation by the time-frequency analysis method. As the temperature of the heat treatment increased, the volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen treated at 1200 had a longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. Results of time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test showed the main frequency of 200-300 kHz to have no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and the 500 kHz signal to be due to dimples and separation of inclusion.

  1. Influence of isothermal thermomechanical treatment on structure and properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Kaletin, A.Yu.; Schastlivthev, V.M.; Kaletina, Yu.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made into the structure and mechanical properties of steel 35KhGSA and 37KhN3A after isothermal hardening resulting in bainitic structure formation as well as after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTMT) combining the plastic deformation at the temperature of bainitic transformation and subsequent isothermal hardening. It is shown that LTTMT permits and essential enhancement of strength properties in steel 35KhGSA, high plasticity and impact strength being reserved. This is associated with bainitic structure refinement. In steel 37KhN3A the process of carbide formation takes place along with bainitic transformation, and LTTMT results in lesser strengthening. LTTMT is fount to not practically affect the tendency of structural steels to bainitic brittleness. This treatment promotes some shift of brittleness manifestation to lower temperatures

  2. Influence of two different heat treatment procedures on mechanical and fracture properties of 65 Si 7 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustaic, D.; Cajner, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of investigations of two different heat treatment procedures and their influence on some mechanical properties as well as on the magnitude of some fracture mechanics parameters for a particular type of steel. The experimental investigations were performed on the specimens made of 65Si7 steel. The processes occurring by tempering of two different microstructures of the steel, i. e. martensite and lower bainite were investigated. An advantage of austempering over hardening and tempering is in obtaining the bainite microstructure. Steel of bainite microstructure has a greater toughness, ductility, contraction, fatigue strength and a better fracture toughness than a tempered martensite of the same type of steel. A bainite microstructure also gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue in comparison with martensite microstructure. The above mentioned improved values of mechanical properties refer to the untempered state of bainite. (author)

  3. Effects of laser peening treatment on high cycle fatigue and crack propagation behaviors in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Kiyotaka; Ochi, Yasuo; Matsumura, Takashi; Ikarashi, Takaaki; Sano, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Laser peening without protective coating (LPwC) treatment is one of surface enhancement techniques using an impact wave of high pressure plasma induced by laser pulse irradiation. High compressive residual stress was induced by the LPwC treatment on the surface of low-carbon type austenitic stainless steel SUS316L. The affected depth reached about 1mm from the surface. High cycle fatigue tests with four-points rotating bending loading were carried out to confirm the effects of the LPwC treatment on fatigue strength and surface fatigue crack propagation behaviors. The fatigue strength was remarkably improved by the LPwC treatment over the whole regime of fatigue life up to 10 8 cycles. Specimens with a pre-crack from a small artificial hole due to fatigue loading were used for the quantitative study on the effect of the LPwC treatment. The fracture mechanics investigation on the pre-cracked specimens showed that the LPwC treatment restrained the further propagation of the pre-crack if the stress intensity factor range ΔK on the crack tip was less than 7.6 MPa√m. Surface cracks preferentially propagated into the depth direction as predicted through ΔK analysis on the crack by taking account of the compressive residual stresses due to the LPwC treatment. (author)

  4. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2008-01-01

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  5. Effect of Nickel Contents on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties for Low-Carbon Bainitic Weld Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gaojun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Xili; Yuan, Junjun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jianhong

    2017-05-01

    Multi-pass weld metals were deposited on Q345 base steel using metal powder-flux-cored wire with various Ni contents to investigate the effects of the Ni content on the weld microstructure and property. The types of the microstructures were identified by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and micro-hardness tests. As a focusing point, the lath bainite and lath martensite were distinguished by their compositions, morphologies, and hardness. In particular, a number of black plane facets appearing between lath bainite or lath martensite packets were characterized by laser scanning confocal microscope. The results indicated that with the increase in Ni contents in the range of 0, 2, 4, and 6%, the microstructures in the weld-deposited metal were changed from the domination of the granular bainite to the majority of the lath bainite and/or the lath martensite and the micro-hardness of the weld-deposited metal increased. Meanwhile, the average width of columnar grain displays a decreasing trend and prior austenite grain size decreases while increases with higher Ni content above 4%. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease, while the reduction in fracture area increases with the decreasing Ni mass fraction and the increasing test temperature, respectively. And poor yield strength in Ni6 specimen can be attributed to elements segregation caused by weld defect. Finally, micro-hardness distribution in correspondence with specimens presents as a style of cloud-map.

  6. Effect of yield strength on stress corrosion crack propagation under PWR and BWR environments of hardened stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, M.L.; Garcia, M.S.; Diego, G. de; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Nuclear Fission Department, Structural Materials Program, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels (SS) and to quantify the effect on the crack propagation rate, an experimental research program was performed using cold and warm worked 304, 316L and 347 SS. Stress corrosion crack growth rate tests, under BWR and PWR environments have been carried out. The results obtained have permitted to determine the yield strength effect in the crack propagation of austenitic stainless steels in PWR and BWR conditions. In addition, similarities on cold work and radiation hardening in enhancing the yield strength and the stress corrosion cracking propagation at high temperature water have been evaluated. (authors)

  7. Formulary for neutron propagation in sodium-steel media for the fast reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteau, F.; Caumette, P.; Khairallah, A.; Oceraies, Y.; Devillers, C.

    1975-01-01

    The simplified calculational tool (''formulary'') for neutron propagation in the shields of fast reactors, being developed at CEA, has two objectives: to reduce the cost of the major part of design calculations, without a significant loss of accuracy; to facilitate the adjustment of the calculational tool with the results of the program of integral propagation experiments, which is conducted in parallel with the development of the calculational method. The version 0 (i.e. before any adjustment) of the formulary and a first test of its validity as compared to the results of integral measurements are presented [fr

  8. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  9. Effect of Microstructure on HIC Susceptibility of API X70MS Linepipe Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Joon-Ho; Sim, Ho-Seop; Park, Byung-Gyu [Dongkuk Steel R and D Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Mox [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The resistance of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) was investigated with different microstructures of API X70MS steel. Ferrite/acicular ferrite (F/AF), deformed ferrite/acicular ferrite, ferrite/bainite (F/B) and single acicular ferrite (AF) were obtained by thermo-mechanical controlled process (TMCP) with changing rolling and cooling conditions. HIC resistance was found to be affected by the type as well as morphology of the microstructure, and thus the behavior of crack initiation and propagation could be analyzed. It was found that single AF and deformed F/AF with uniformly distributed dislocation reduced HIC initiation. Banded microstructure with a hardness value below 250 HV, such as AF, showed good HIC propagation resistance due to high toughness. AF generally exhibited excellent crack initiation and propagation resistance, namely the best HIC susceptibility performance. AF might redeem the HIC resistance for the banded microstructure also.

  10. Crack closure in near-threshold fatigue crack propagation in railway axle steel EA4T

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Pavel; Vojtek, Tomáš; Náhlík, Luboš; Hutař, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, NOV (2017), s. 2-19 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack propagation * crack closure * EA4T * Railway axle Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering , reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  11. Characteristics of SCC crack propagation in 22Cr-5. 5Ni-3Mo duplex stainless steel weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Choong Un; Kang, Choon Sik

    1988-02-01

    The characteristics of SCC crack propagation in duplex stainless steel weldment made by SMAW, GTAW and GMAW processes were investigated in 42% MgCl/sub 2/ 142 deg C boiling solution. From these experiments, it could be concluded that the structure anisotropy of ..gamma.. phase as well as the phase ratio played an important role in SCC resistance. GTA and GMA weld metal showed higher SCC resistance than base metal because of randomly distributed ..gamma.. phase. The crack in weld metal had same opportunity of receiving keying effect as that in base metal, but it had less possibility of intersecting ..gamma.. phase. The SCC resistance of the SMA weld metal and the HAZ was lower than that of the base metal because their phase ratio deviated from the proper phase ratio.

  12. The effect of crack propagation mechanism on the fractal dimension of fracture surfaces in steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Strnadel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 726-738 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0646; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low-alloyed steel * fracture surface * fractography Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2008

  13. Effect of microalloying elements on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered constructional steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingshen; Huang, Leqing; Di, Guobiao; Wang, Yanfeng; Yang, Yongda; Ma, Changwen

    2017-09-01

    The effects of microalloying elements Nb, V and Ti on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered steel were studied. Results showed that the addition of microalloying elements led to the formation of bainite and increased strength, while the austenization and ferrite transformation temperature was barely affected, i.e. 10°C. Microalloying elements shortened the incubation time for bainite transformation by refinement of austenite grain, and decreased the hardenability by forming carbides and therefore reducing the carbon content of super-cooled austenite. Either of them promoted the bainite transformation. The better tempering stability was ascribed to the as hot-rolled bainite microstructure and secondary carbide precipitation during tempering.

  14. Effect of constraint on fatigue crack propagation near threshold in medium carbon steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Seitl, Stanislav; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, 1-2 (2006), s. 51-57 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/03/0331; GA ČR GP101/04/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue crack propagation rate * Constraint * Two-parameter fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.104, year: 2006

  15. Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Kuběna, Ivo; Ševčík, Martin; Šmíd, Miroslav; Kruml, Tomáš; Náhlík, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 452, 1-3 (2014), s. 370-377 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-28685P Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : oxide dispersion strengthened steel * small fatigue crack * J-integral * fatigue life prediction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  16. Prediction of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in a nuclear pressure vessel steel (16MND5) under thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this PhD study is to predict the propagation and arrest of cleavage cracks in a French PWR vessel steel (16MND5). This is accomplished through use of a local criterion based on the critical stress calculated ahead of crack tip. Previous work has shown that fracture mechanism was cleavage associated with the ductile shear zone between the different planes of cracking. Thus, the critical stress at crack tip depends on stain rate. This thesis consists of numerical optimization, identification and validation of a local criterion based on experiments which have complex thermomechanical loads. The criterion accounts for various crack paths, deepening the knowledge about micro mechanisms during crack propagation in order to justify the established criterion. Criterion identification was carried out by using numerical simulations of tension tests performed on CT (Compact Tension) specimens at four different temperatures (-150 C, -125 C, -100 C and -75 C). The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) was used in CAST3M FE software to model dynamic crack propagation and arrest. The analysis results in 2D and 3D showed that the critical stress at crack tip increased with the inelastic strain rate. Therefore, a criterion based on the critical stress was established. An analytical model was developed to justify the identified criterion. The critical stress given by the local criterion was considered as the sum of the critical cleavage stress and the stress generated by the deformation of ligaments behind the crack tip. In order to quantify this phenomenon, measurements of ligaments' characteristics have been performed on fracture surfaces and on cross-sections of the specimens. The stress profile of the crack lips generated by ligaments was calculated by modeling of multi-cracks on specimen's cross-section. The contribution of stress generated by ligaments to the critical stress at crack tip was obtained with this method, and then the analytical model of

  17. Formation of bainite below the MS temperature: Kinetics and crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Santigopal; Biswas, Pinaki; Giri, Sushil; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kundu, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal transformation below the M S temperature has been reported quite some time ago and has been confirmed in the present work. The nature of the transformation product and the mechanism of the transformation have been debated in literature. It has been inferred using existing models of isothermal martensite transformation that the product forming below M S cannot be martensite. The product has been identified as bainite. It has further been shown that the diffusion-controlled growth rate of bainite at such a low temperature is too slow to explain the observed transformation kinetics. On the other hand, the kinetics of isothermal transformation below M S has been shown to be consistent with the model based on the formation of bainite by displacive mechanism. Detailed analysis of crystallographic features of mixed martensite and bainite microstructure was done using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and mathematical modelling. It has been shown that the crystallographic features of martensite and the bainite formed below M S are exactly the same; these include orientation relationship, habit planes, displacement directions and the shape deformation. It has also been shown that bainite poles can get shifted due to plastic accommodation of austenite caused by martensite laths. The shift was predicted accurately using crystal plasticity and theory of variant selection. All these results lead to the conclusion that bainite forms by a displacive mechanism of transformation.

  18. Simulation of crack propagation in steel plate with strain softening model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.B.; Elwi, A.E.; Grondin, G.Y.

    2006-05-15

    A new material model for simulating the fracture behaviour of structural steel was presented. Recent research on crack initiation and continuum damage mechanics was presented. A modified continuum damage model was also evaluated. Strain softening elements were then used to simulate material cracks in a steel structure. The analysis then compared load versus displacement and load versus clip-gauge displacement curves from various different experimental and numerical studies. A finite element analysis technique was used to simulate the fracture behaviour of 3-points bending specimens. Results of the analysis showed that the model predicted 90 per cent of the load and stress intensity factor at fracture initiation. A BE 365 electric shovel boom was used in the study to simulate fracture behaviour. Coupon test specimens were used to validate analysis predictions. It was concluded that the model was able to reduce the stiffness of the boom when the softening element reached yield strength limits during fracture initiation. 29 refs., 12 tabs., 58 figs.

  19. A stress-based fracture criteria validated on mixed microstructures of ferrite and bainite over a range of stress triaxialities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.golling@ltu.se [Luleå University of Technology, SE 971 87 Luleå (Sweden); Östlund, Rickad [Gestamp HardTech, Ektjärnsvägen 5, SE 973 45 Luleå (Sweden); Oldenburg, Mats [Luleå University of Technology, SE 971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

    2016-09-30

    Hot stamping is a sequential process for formation and heat-treatment of sheet metal components with superior mechanical properties. By applying different cooling rates, the microstructural composition and thus the material properties of steel can be designed. By controlling the cooling rate in different sections of a blank, the material properties can be tailored depending on the desired toughness. Under continuous cooling, various volume fractions of ferrite and bainite are formed depending on the rate of cooling. This paper focuses on the ductile fracture behavior of a thin sheet metal made of low-alloyed boron steel with varying amounts of ferrite and bainite. An experimental setup was applied in order to produce microstructures with different volume fractions of ferrite and bainite. In total, five different test specimen geometries, representing different stress triaxialities, were heat treated and tensile tested. Through full-field measurements, flow curves extending beyond necking and the equivalent plastic strain to fracture were determined. Experimental results were further investigated using a mean-field homogenization scheme combined with local fracture criteria. The mean-field homogenization scheme comprises the influence of microstructure composition and stress triaxiality with usable accuracy, connoting auspicious possibilities for constitutive modeling of hot-stamped components.

  20. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  1. An experimental assessment of hysteresis in near-threshold fatigue crack propagation regime of a low alloy ferritic steel under closure-free testing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Near-threshold fatigue crack propagation behavior of a high strength steel was investigated in laboratory air under closure-free testing conditions at R = 0.7 (= R eff ), and at two different K-gradients. Depending on the criterion assumed, the threshold value differed; the criterion of non-propagation gave a lower threshold value than that assumed by the propagation criterion. Nevertheless, the subsequent propagation following a load increase was discontinuous in both the cases, and da/dN vs ΔK curves obtained on the same specimen during the K-decreasing and the K-increasing test were not necessarily identical in the threshold regime. This behavior, hysteresis, is analyzed mainly from the experimental viewpoint, and it is shown that hysteresis is not an artifact. (orig.) With 13 figs., 3 appendices [de

  2. S-N Fatigue and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behaviors of X80 Steel at Room and Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae-Ho; Kwon, Jae-Ki; Woo, Nam-Sub; Kim, Young-Ju; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Sangshik

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, the S-N fatigue and the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of American Petroleum Institute X80 steel were examined in the different locations of the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM), and heat-affected zone (HAZ) at 298 K, 223 K, and 193 K (25 °C, -50 °C, and -80 °C). The resistance to S-N fatigue of X80 BM specimen increased greatly with decreasing temperature from 298 K to 193 K (25 °C to -80 °C) and showed a strong dependency on the flow strength (½(yield strength + tensile strength)). The FCP rates of X80 BM specimen were substantially reduced with decreasing temperature from 298 K to 223 K (25 °C to -50 °C) over the entire ∆ K regime, while further reduction in FCP rates was not significant with temperature from 223 K to 193 K (-50 °C to -80 °C). The FCP rates of the X80 BM and the WM specimens were comparable with each other, while the HAZ specimen showed slightly better FCP resistance than the BM and the WM specimens over the entire ∆K regime at 298 K (25 °C). Despite the varying microstructural characteristics of each weld location, the residual stress appeared to be a controlling factor to determine the FCP behavior. The FCP behaviors of high strength X80 steel were discussed based on the microstructural and the fractographic observations.

  3. Effect of free Cr content on corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels in a CO2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Lining; Qiao, Lijie; Li, Jinxu

    2017-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels with three microstructures (martensite, bainite, combined ferrite and pearlite) in simulated oil field formation water with a CO2 partial pressure of 0.8 MPa was investigated. The relationships between Cr concentrations in corrosion scales and corrosion rates were studied. The precipitated phases that contained Cr were observed in steels of different microstructures, and free Cr content levels were compared. The results showed that steel with the martensite microstructure had the highest free Cr content, and thus had the highest corrosion resistance. The free Cr content of bainite steel was lower than that of martensite steel, and the corrosion rate of bainite steel was higher than that of martensite steel. Because large masses of Cr were combined in ferrite and pearlite steel, the corrosion rates of ferrite and pearlite steel were the highest. Free Cr content in steel affects its corrosion behavior greatly.

  4. Intrinsic Mechanisms of Ductile-brittle Transition for F460 Steel Welding Coarse Grained Heat Affected Zones with Different Heat Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coarse grain heat affected zone (HAZ of F460 steel was simulated by a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructure, critical event of the HAZ formed at various heat inputs (E were characterized and determined by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, and cleavage fracture stress σf was also calculated by ABAQUS software. Based on above systematic analysis, the intrinsic mechanism of ductile-brittle transition for F460 steel heat affected zones with different heat inputs were revealed. The results indicate that:with the improvement of heat input, the microstructures in sequence are a minority of lath martensite and massive fine lath bainite, more lath bainite with less granular bainite, more granular bainite with less lath bainite, bulky of granular bainite; and the maximum size of the original austenite grain and bainite packet becomes bigger with the improvement of heat input. The size of bainite packet is critical event of the cleavage fracture for coarse grain heat affected zone specimens with various heat inputs by comparing the relationships among residual crack length, original austenite grain size and bainite packet size. With the decreasing of the bainitic packet, the ductile to brittle transition temperature decreases. In addition, cleavage fracture stress σf is also calculated by ABAQUS software, σf gradually decreases with the increase of the heat input, which can explain the intrinsic mechanism of ductile to brittle transition temperature Tk with the change of the heat input.

  5. Study on Characteristics of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation for Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Uh Joh; Kim, Bu Ahn

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the corrosion fatigue cracking of both TIG weld heat affected zone and base metal for austenitic stainless steel were investigated under the environments of various specific resistance and the air. The corrosion fatigue crack initiation sensitivity was quantitatively investigated for SUS 304 weldments in the various specific resistances. Also, the characteristics of corrosion fatigue cracking for the weldments were investigated from mechanical, electrochemical, and microstructural point of view. Main results obtained are as follows: (1) The corrosion fatigue crack initiation sensitivity on the base metal and weld hea affected zone increases as the specific resistance of corrosion environment decreases, and the sensitivity of the weld heat affected zone appears increasing more than that of the base metal. (2) The corrosion potentials of various specific resistances are almost constant in initial corrosion fatigue cracking, but the corrosion potential becomes less noble promptly with the corrosion fatigue crack growth as the specific resistances decrease. (3) The corrosion fatigue crack growth of the weld heat affected zone rapid than that of the base metal, because of the softening and the less noble potential caused by welding heat cycle

  6. Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

    2014-04-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

  7. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  8. Bainitic high-strength cast iron with globular graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.; Kamynin, V. V.; Zentsova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    Special features of formation of bainitic structures in grayed cast irons are considered. The influence of the graphite phase and of the special features of chemical composition of the iron on the intermediate transformation in high-carbon alloys is allowed for. The range of application of high-strength cast irons with bainitic structure is determined. The paper is the last and unfinished work of G. I. Silman completed by his disciples as a tribute to their teacher.

  9. Nanoscale microstructural characterization of a nanobainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timokhina, I.B., E-mail: ilana.timokhina@eng.monash.edu.au [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Beladi, H. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Xiong, X.Y. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hodgson, P.D. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    A 0.79 C-1.5 Si-1.98 Mn-0.98 Cr-0.24 Mo-1.06 Al-1.58 Co (wt.%) steel was isothermally heat treated at 200 deg. C for 10 days and 350 deg. C for 1 day to form a nanoscale bainitic microstructure consisting of nanobainitic ferrite laths with high dislocation density and retained austenite films. The microstructures of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Despite the formation of nanoscale bainite with a high volume fraction of retained austenite in both steels, the ductility of both steels was surprisingly low. It is believed that this was associated with the formation of carbon-depleted retained austenite after isothermal transformation at 200 deg. C due to the formation of high number of Fe-C clusters and particles in the bainitic ferrite laths and carbon-enriched austenite after isothermal transformation at 350 deg. C.

  10. COMMERCIAL SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT PROGRAM. PHASE II-C REPORT. HIGH STRENGTH STEEL EVALUATION FOR SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JET TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, *AIRFRAMES, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, STEEL , STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, FRACTURE(MECHANICS), FATIGUE(MECHANICS), STRESS CORROSION...MICROPHOTOGRAPHY, HIGH TEMPERATURE, NICKEL ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, CARBON, BAINITE , COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

  11. Bainitic transformation in steel under continuous cooling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Cobos, Oscar Fabián; Tristancho Reyes, José Luís; Flórez García, Luís Carlos

    2007-01-01

    En esta investigación se evalúo el cambio microestructural que presenta el acero AISI –SAE 4140 al ser sometido a condiciones de enfriamiento continuo con el fin de analizar la transformación bainítica. Se determinó que la microestructura a distancias de 0.2 a 2mm es martensítico y a distancias mayores de 30mm se observó un comportamiento bainítico. El tipo de bainita encontrada fue del tipo nodular o globular. In this research were evaluates the change microestructural that presents the ...

  12. Refinement of grain structure in 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Zou Min

    1997-04-01

    The size of prior austenite grains and bainitic colonies of 20 MnNiMo (SA508C) steel (a reactor pressure vessel steel) after normal heat treatment is measured and its controlling factors are discussed. Results show that low aluminium content can induce serious mixed structure with fine and coarse grains in prior austenite. Fast cooling rate can promote refinement of bainitic colonies. Further refinement of grains can be obtained by inter-critical quenching. (5 figs., 1 tab.)

  13. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  14. Corrosion Effects on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of Giga-Grade Steel and its Heat Affected Zone in pH Buffer Solutions for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation test was conducted of giga-grade steel and its heat affected zone in pH buffer solutions, and the results were compared with model predictions. Pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation, particularly, in corrosive environment was evaluated by means of the modified Forman equation. As shown in results, the average corrosion rate determined from the ratio of pure corrosion induced crack length to entire crack length under a cycle load were 0.11 and 0.37 for base metal and heat affected zone, respectively, with load ratio of 0.5, frequency of 0.5 and pH 10.0 environment. These results demonstrate new interpretation methodology for corrosion fatigue crack propagation enabling the pure corrosion effects on the behavior to be determined.

  15. Creep-fatigue propagation of semi-elliptical crack at 650 deg. C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtit, F.

    2000-01-01

    This study realised in LISN Laboratory of CEA Saclay, deals with the creep fatigue propagation of semi elliptical crack at the temperature of 650 deg C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints. A vast majority of the studies on creep fatigue propagation models are based on specimen (CT) especially designed for crack propagation study. The PLAQFLU program performed in LISN laboratory deals with the application and adaptation of these models to complex crack shape, which are more representative of the cracks observed in industrial components. In this scope, we use propagation tests realised at the temperature of 650 deg C with wide plates containing semi elliptical defects. For some of them, the initial defect is machined in the middle of a welded joint, which constitute a privileged site for the crack initiation. The approach used in this study is based on global parameters of fracture mechanics. At first, tests on CT specimen are used in order to determine the propagation laws correlating the crack growth rate to the global parameters K or C * . These laws are then supposed to be intrinsic to our materials and are used to analysed the semi elliptical crack propagation. The analysis of the comportment of the crack during the hold time demonstrates the possibility to establish a correlation between the crack propagation both in the deepest and the surface point and the local value of C * . These correlations are coherent in the different points of the crack front for the different applied hold times, and they present a reasonably good agreement with the creep propagation law identified on CT specimen. The simulation of test performed on based metal specimen with a model of summation of both creep and pure fatigue crack growth gives acceptable results when the calculus of the simplified expression of C * s considers a continuous evolution of creep deformations rate during the all test. (author)

  16. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat-treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of experimental high strength Fe--4Cr--0.4C steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, B.V.; Miller, R.W.; Thomas, G.

    1975-12-01

    The treatments involve high temperature (1100 0 C) austenitizing during the first solution treatment followed by either interrupted quenching (Ms-Mf range) or isothermal transformation to produce lower bainite. Finally, the steels are given a 900 0 C grain refinement treatment. Lower bainite was obtained by isothermally transforming austenite just above the Ms temperature. Tempering after the martensitic and bainitic treatments was also done in an attempt to improve the toughness of the material. The strength and toughness properties of as-quenched martensitic structures are somewhat superior while these properties of lower bainitic structures are comparable to those of a plain 0.4C steel. The properties of the nearly 100 percent bainite structure were unaffected by the cooling rate from the transformation temperature. Elimination of intergranular cracking produced toughness properties in quenched and tempered martensites which are far superior to those of lower bainite at the same strength level. It has also been shown that the toughness properties of as-quenched double-treated steels are superior to single treated steels. The chromium appeared to have a strong influence on the nature and morphology of carbides, as the bainitic as well as the martensitic structures showed marked temper resistance in the tempering range 200 to 500 0 C

  18. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior of thermomechanically controlled processed high strength ordnance steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.S.; Ghosh, S.K.; Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2013-01-01

    A new low carbon titanium and niobium microalloyed steel has been thermomechanically processed in a pilot plant unit. Phase transformation phenomenon of the above steel during continuous cooling has been assessed. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties has also been studied at different finish rolling temperatures. A mixture of intragranular ferrite with granular bainite and bainitic ferrite along with inter-lath and intra-lath precipitation of (Ti, Nb)CN particles are the characteristic microstructural feature of air cooled steel. However, mixture of lower bainite and lath martensitic structure along with similar type (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is observed in water quenched steel. High yield strength (896–948 MPa) with high tensile strength (974–1013 MPa) has been achieved with moderate ductility (16–17%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature for air cooled steel. However, the water quenched steel yields higher yield strength (1240–1260 MPa) as well as higher tensile strength (1270–1285 MPa) but with lower ductility (13–14%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature. Fairly good impact toughness values in the range of 50–89 J are obtained for the air cooled steel which are marginally higher than those of water quenched steel (42–81 J). - Highlights: ► New high strength steel has been processed in a pilot plant scale. ► Primarily granular bainite and bainitic ferrite are obtained in air cooled steel. ► Mixture of lower bainite and lath martensite is obtained in water quenched steel. ► (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is obtained for both air cooled and water quenched steels. ► Highest strength with reasonable ductility has been achieved after water quenching

  19. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior of thermomechanically controlled processed high strength ordnance steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.S. [Ordnance Development Centre, Metal and Steel Factory, Ishapore 743 144 (India); Ghosh, S.K., E-mail: skghosh@metal.becs.ac.in [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India); Kundu, S.; Chatterjee, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2013-02-15

    A new low carbon titanium and niobium microalloyed steel has been thermomechanically processed in a pilot plant unit. Phase transformation phenomenon of the above steel during continuous cooling has been assessed. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties has also been studied at different finish rolling temperatures. A mixture of intragranular ferrite with granular bainite and bainitic ferrite along with inter-lath and intra-lath precipitation of (Ti, Nb)CN particles are the characteristic microstructural feature of air cooled steel. However, mixture of lower bainite and lath martensitic structure along with similar type (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is observed in water quenched steel. High yield strength (896–948 MPa) with high tensile strength (974–1013 MPa) has been achieved with moderate ductility (16–17%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature for air cooled steel. However, the water quenched steel yields higher yield strength (1240–1260 MPa) as well as higher tensile strength (1270–1285 MPa) but with lower ductility (13–14%) for the selected range of finish rolling temperature. Fairly good impact toughness values in the range of 50–89 J are obtained for the air cooled steel which are marginally higher than those of water quenched steel (42–81 J). - Highlights: ► New high strength steel has been processed in a pilot plant scale. ► Primarily granular bainite and bainitic ferrite are obtained in air cooled steel. ► Mixture of lower bainite and lath martensite is obtained in water quenched steel. ► (Ti, Nb)CN precipitate is obtained for both air cooled and water quenched steels. ► Highest strength with reasonable ductility has been achieved after water quenching.

  20. Scientific and Technological Principles of Development of New Cold-Resistant Arc-Steels (Steels for Arctic Applications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, O. V.; Khlusova, E. I.; Yashin, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of quantitative analysis of C, Mn, Ni and Cu content on strength and cold-resistance of rolled plates. Relations between the ferritic-bainitic structure morphology and anisotropy and steel performance characteristics have been established. Influence of thermal and deformation rolling patterns on steel structure has been studied. The steel chemical composition has been improved and precision thermomechanical processing conditions for production of cold-resistant Arc-steel plates have been developed.

  1. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  2. Effect of oxidation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Z3CN20.09M dyplex stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huan Chun; Yang, Bin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Chen, Yue Feng; Chen, Xu Dong [Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack propagation behaviors of Z3CN20.09M duplex stainless steel (DSS) were investigated by studying oxide films of specimens tested in 290°C water and air. The results indicate that a full oxide film that consisted of oxides and hydroxides was formed in 290°C water. By contrast, only a half-baked oxide film consisting of oxides was formed in 290°C air. Both environments are able to deteriorate the elastic modulus and hardness of the oxide films, especially the 290°C water. The fatigue lives of the specimens tested in 290°C air were about twice of those tested in 290°C water at all strain amplitudes. Moreover, the crack propagation rates of the specimen tested in 290°C water were confirmed to be faster than those tested in 290°C air, which was thought to be due to the deteriorative strength of the oxide films induced by the mutual promotion of oxidation and crack propagation at the crack tip. It is noteworthy that the crack propagation can be postponed by the ferrite phase in the DSS, especially when the specimens were tested in 290°C water.

  3. The lack of penetration effect on fatigue crack propagation resistance of atmospheric corrosion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Geraldo de Paula; Cimini Junior, Carlos Alberto; Godefroid, Leonardo Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    The welding process introduces defects on the welded joints, as lack of fusion and penetration, porosity, between others. These defects can compromise the structures or components, relative to the crack propagation. This engagement can be studied by fatigue crack propagation tests. The efficiency of the structure, when submitted to a cyclic loading can be evaluated by these tests. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of welded joints containing defects as lack of penetration at the root or between welding passes relative to crack propagation resistance properties, and to compare these properties with the properties of the welded joints without defects. This study was accomplished from fatigue crack propagation test results, in specimens containing lack of penetration between welding passes. With the obtained results, the Paris equation coefficients and exponents that relate the crack propagation rate with the stress intensity cyclic factor for welded joints with and without defects were obtained. (author)

  4. Influence of stress relieve heat treatment on fatigue crack propagation in structural steel resistant to atmospheric corrosion welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Geraldo de Paula; Villela, Jefferson Jose; Rabello, Emerson Giovani [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: gpm@cdtn.br; jjv@cdtn.br; egr@cdtn.br; Cimini Junior, Carlos Alberto[Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cimini@demet.ufmg.br; Godefroid, Leonardo Barbosa [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia]. E-mails: leonardo@demet.em.ufop.br

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the influence of stress relieve heat treatment (SRHT) on the fatigue crack propagation in USI-SAC 50 structural welded joints at the heat affected zone (HAZ) region was studied. Hardness measurements before and after the SRHT were made and crack propagation tests in specimens as welded (AW) and in specimens that were submitted to SRHT, which were accomplished. A reduction in hardness at the regions of HAZ and melted zone (MZ) after the SRHT were observed. It were also verified that the crack propagation rates (da/dN) versus DK on the specimens AW presented regions of retardation on the crack propagation rate, and in the specimens that were submitted to SRHT the crack propagation rate were homogeneous. (author)

  5. Effect of austenitization conditions on kinetics of isothermal transformation of austenite of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, E.V.; Bayazitov, V.M.; Abramov, O.V.; Kozlova, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of austenization of kinetics of pearlite and bainite transformations for steels with different carbon content differing by alloying character and degree has been investigated. Austenization temperature increase is shown to leads to retardation of ferrite-pearlite transformation in low- and medium-carbon alloyed steels. Step-like holding in the region of austenite stable state (850, 950 deg) after high-temperature heating (1100 deg C) increases the rate of transformation partially recovering its kinetics and decomposition velocity after low-temperature heating in steels alloyed advantageously with carbide-forming elements (08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3) and does not affect kinetics in the 35Kh, 30KhGSN2A, 45N5 steels. Increase of heating temperature and growth of an austenite grain cause considerable acceleration of bainite transformation, increase of the temperaure of bainite transformation beginning and increase of the transformation amplitude in the 08Kh2G2F, 30Kh3 steels and affect weakly kinetics in steels with mixed alloying (30KhGSN2A) or low-alloy one (35Kh). The bainite transformation rate in the 45N5 steelite does not depend on austenization. The effect of additional acceleration of bainite transformation as a result holding after high-temperature heating in those steels, where activation of transformation occurs with increase of heating temperature

  6. Mechanism of MnS-mediated pit initiation and propagation in carbon steel in an anaerobic sulfidogenic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, R.; Davis, B.H.; Wolfenden, M.L.; Beech, I.B.; Lucas, K.; Paul, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •In carbon steel, pits are initiated in the immediate surroundings of MnS inclusions. •Unlike stainless steel, MnS inclusions do not dissolve during pit initiation. •The presence of biofilms accelerates pit growth and development. -- Abstract: In a saline anaerobic sulfidogenic environment, pitting on 1018 carbon steel was initiated within a 20–30 nm zone at the MnS inclusion boundary. Nanoscale analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy and a scanning Auger nanoprobe. The pitting was more pronounced in the presence of a biofilm of sulfate-reducing bacteria than in abiotic sulfide medium. It is proposed that initiation of an anodic reaction leading to dissolution of Fe matrix and subsequent pitting of steel in MnS inclusion boundary regions is due to disorder and strain exerted on the Fe matrix by MnS contamination of the interface from metallurgical processes

  7. A comparison of etchants for quantitative metallography of bainite and martensite microstructures in Fe-C-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shui, C.K.; Reynolds, W.T. Jr.; Shiflet, G.J.; Aaronson, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative metallography is the most reliable method available for evaluating isothermal transformation kinetics in steel. However, the accuracy of this method depends on the metallographer's ability to reveal the microstructural constituents of a specimen with sufficient contrast to allow rapid identification either by manual techniques or through the use of an automatic image analyzer. Many of the reagents commonly employed to etch steels do not consistently expose all orientations of ferrite and are thus unsatisfactory for quantitative metallographic studies. Recent research on the kinetics of the bainite reaction in Fe-C-Mo alloys has led to the development of reliable methods for etching microstructures consisting of bainite andor ferrite and various proportions of martensite. This article compares a number of reagents used in studying Fe-C-Mo alloys, having carbon contents ranging from 0.08 to 0.27 wt% and molybdenum contents from 0.25 to 4.28 wt%. These alloys are isothermally reacted at temperatures ranging from slightly above that of the bay in the TTT curve for initiation of transformation down nearly to the M/sub s/. The authors evaluate their suitability for quantitative metallography

  8. Microstructure evolution of Fe-based nanostructured bainite coating by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanbing; Li, Zhuguo; Yao, Chengwu; Zhang, Ke; Lu, Fenggui; Feng, Kai; Huang, Jian; Wang, Min; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The laser cladding and isothermal holding are used to fabricate nanobainite coating. • Fine prior austenite is obtained to accelerate the bainite transformation. • Low transformation temperature results in fine bainite ferrite and film austenite. • Retained austenite volume fraction in bainite coating is determined by XRD. • Evolution of carbon content in austenite and ferrite is analyzed. - Abstract: A Fe-based coating with nano-scale bainitic microstructure was fabricated using laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatment. The microstructure of the coating was observed and analyzed using optical microscope (OM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that nanostructured bainitic ferrite and carbon-enriched retained austenite distributed uniformly in the coating. Blocky retained austenite was confined to the prior austenite grain boundaries resulting from the elements segregation. The bainitic microstructure obtained at 250 °C had a finer scale compared with that obtained at 300 °C. The volume fraction of austenite increased with increasing transformation temperature for the fully transformed bainitic coating. The bainitic transformation was accelerated as a result of the fine prior austenite generated during the laser cladding. The evolution of the carbon contents in bainitic ferrite and retained austenite revealed the diffusionless mechanism of the bainitic transformation

  9. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanbing [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Min [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  10. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanbing; Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhuguo; Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Austempered Medium-Carbon Spring Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Ho; Bae, Chul-Min; Lee, Jae Sang; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2018-03-01

    Changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of medium-carbon spring steel during austempering were investigated. After austempering for 1 h at 290 °C or 330 °C, the bainite transformation stabilized austenite, and microstructure consisting of bainitic ferrite and austenite could be obtained after final cooling; the retained austenite fraction was smaller in the alloy austempered at 290 °C because carbon redistribution between bainitic ferrite and austenite slowed as the temperature decreased, and thereby gave persistent driving force for the bainite transformation. The products of tensile strength and reduction of area in the austempered alloy were much larger in the austempered steel than in quenched and tempered alloy, mainly because of significant increase in reduction of area in austempered alloy.

  12. Propagation of semi-elliptical surface cracks in ferritic and austenitic steel plates under thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1989-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of crack growth under thermal and thermomechanical fatigue loading are presented. The experiments were performed with a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and an austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 18 11. A plate containing a semi-elliptical surface crack is heated up to a homogeneous temperature and cyclically cooled down by a jet of cold water. On the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics stress-intensity factors are calculated with the weight function method. The prediction of crack growth under thermal fatigue loading using data from mechanical fatigue tests is compared with the experimental result. (orig.) [de

  13. Unstable propagation behavior of a ductile crack in SUS-304 stainless steel under high compliance tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    In relation to the safe maintenance of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to prevent reactor coolant pipings from burst type failure caused by the unstable propagation of defects and cracks, such as stress corrosion cracking and fatigue cracks. In ductile materials, crack propagation is stable in tensile loading under fixed grip condition, when a specimen is controlled to deform in proportion to the increase of tensile load. However, it has been known that the instability of ductile cracks occurs after tensile load reached the maximum, especially under constant loading condition arising in the loading devices with high compliance or low tensile rigidity. In order to confirm the reliability of SUS 304 stainless pipes subjected to SCC, the crack propagation behavior was examined with the specimens having center cracks, using both testing machines with high compliance and low compliance. The instability of ductile cracks and the propagation velocity of unstable cracks were analyzed, and the calculated results were compated with the experimental results. Not only the compliance of testing machines but also the conditions of specimens affected the propagation of cracks. (Kako, I.)

  14. Metal magnetic memory technique used to predict the fatigue crack propagation behavior of 0.45%C steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongchong, Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); National Key Lab for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Lihong, Dong, E-mail: lihong.dong@126.com [National Key Lab for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Haidou, Wang [National Key Lab for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guolu, Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Binshi, Xu [National Key Lab for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring fatigue crack propagation behavior of ferromagnetic components is very important. In this paper, the tension–tension fatigue tests of center cracked tension (CCT) specimens were carried out; the variation regularity of both tangential and normal components of magnetic signals during fatigue process were investigated. The results showed that the initial abnormal signals which appeared at the notch were reversed after cyclic loading. The abnormal magnetic signals became more significant with the increase of fatigue cycles and reversed again after failure. The characteristic parameters, i.e., the peak value of tangential component, B{sub tp}, and maximum gradient value of normal component, K{sub m}, showed similar variation trends during the fatigue process, which can be divided into three different stages. An approximate linear relationship was found between the characteristic parameters and fatigue crack length 2a. The feasibility of predicting the fatigue crack propagation using the abnormal magnetic signals was discussed. What's more, the variation and distribution of the magnetic signals were also analyzed based on the theory of magnetic charge. - Highlights: • A novel and passive NDT method, i.e. MMMT method, is proposed. • Both tangential and normal components of magnetic signals were investigated. • The prediction of crack propagation by abnormal magnetic signals was discussed. • A linear relationship was found between the parameters and fatigue crack length 2a. • The parameters can be potentially used to evaluate the crack propagation state.

  15. Effect of High-Temperature Thermomechanical Treatment on the Brittle Fracture of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, M. A.; Pyshmintsev, I. Yu.; Varnak, O. V.; Mal'tseva, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) on the brittleness connected with deformation-induced aging and on the reversible temper brittleness of a low-carbon tube steel with a ferrite-bainite structure has been studied. When conducting an HTMT of a low-alloy steel, changes should be taken into account in the amount of ferrite in its structure and relationships between the volume fractions of the lath and the acicular bainite. It has been established that steel subjected to HTMT undergoes transcrystalline embrittlement upon deformation aging. At the same time, HTMT, which suppresses intercrystalline fracture, leads to a weakening of the development of reversible temper brittleness.

  16. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonne, V.

    2001-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  17. Thermal fatigue of a 304L austenitic stainless steel: simulation of the initiation and of the propagation of the short cracks in isothermal and aniso-thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddar, N.

    2003-04-01

    The elbow pipes of thermal plants cooling systems are submitted to thermal variations of short range and of variable frequency. These variations bound to temperature changes of the fluids present a risk of cracks and leakages. In order to solve this problem, EDF has started the 'CRECO RNE 808' plan: 'thermal fatigue of 304L austenitic stainless steels' to study experimentally on a volume part, the initiation and the beginning of the propagation of cracks in thermal fatigue on austenitic stainless steels. The aim of this study is more particularly to compare the behaviour and the damage of the material in mechanic-thermal fatigue (cycling in temperature and cycling in deformation) and in isothermal fatigue (the utmost conditions have been determined by EDF for the metal: Tmax = 165 degrees C and Tmin = 90 degrees C; the frequency of the thermal variations can reach a Hertz). A lot of experimental results are given. A model of lifetime is introduced and validated. (O.M.)

  18. A study on low temperature transformation ferrite in ultra low carbon IF steels (I) - effects of manganese and annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Chang; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jin, Young Sool

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of Mn content and annealing conditions on the formation of the low temperature transformation products in ultra low carbon interstitial free steels. With increasing the Mn content, yield and tensile strengths increased, but yield ratio decreased. The Mn was found to be effective to decrease the yield point elongation, causing continuous yielding in 3% Mn steel. Low temperature transformation ferrites such as quasi-polygonal ferrite, granular bainitic ferrite, and bainitic ferrite more easily formed with higher Mn content, higher annealing temperature, longer annealing time, and faster cooling rate. Polygonal ferrite grain was readily identified in the light microscope and was characterized by the polyhedral and equiaxed shape while quasi-polygonal ferrite showed the irregular changeful grain boundaries. It was found that both granular bainitic and bainitic ferrites revealed some etching evidence of substructures in the light microscope

  19. Mechanistic dissimilarities between environmentally-influenced fatigue-crack propagation at near-threshold and higher growth rates in lower-strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, S.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1981-11-01

    The role of hydrogen gas in influencing fatigue crack propagation is examined for several classes of lower strength pressure vessel and piping steels. Based on measurements over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, crack propagation rates are found to be significantly higher in dehumidified gaseous hydrogen compared to moist air in two distinct regimes of crack growth, namely (i) at the intermediate range of growth typically above approx. 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle, and (ii) at the near-threshold region below approx. 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle approaching lattice dimensions per cycle. Both effects are seen at maximum stress intensities (K/sub max/) far below the sustained-load threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-assisted cracking (K/sub Iscc/). Characteristics of environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth in each regime are shown to be markedly different with regard to fractography and the effect of such variables as load ratio and frequency. It is concluded that the primary mechanisms responsible for the influence of the environment in each regime are distinctly different. Whereas corrosion fatigue behavior at intermediate growth rates can be attributed to hydrogen embrittlement processes, the primary role of moist environments at near-threshold levels is shown to involve a contribution from enhanced crack closure due to the formation of crack surface corrosion deposits at low load ratios.

  20. Plasticity and fracture modeling of quench-hardenable boron steel with tailored properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eller, Tom; Greve, L; Andres, M.T.; Medricky, M; Hatscher, A; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a constitutive model for quench-hardenable boron steel is presented. Three sets of boron steel blanks are heat treated such that their as-treated microstructures are close to fully martensitic, bainitic and ferritic/pearlitic, respectively. Hardness measurements show that the

  1. Effects of the phase fractions on the carbide morphologies, Charpy and tensile properties in SA508 Gr.4N High Strength Low Alloy RPV Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Wee, Dang Moon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To improve the strength and toughness of RPV (reactor pressure vessel) steels for nuclear power plants, an effective way is the change of material specification from tempered bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel into tempered martensitic/bainitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. It is known that the phase fractions of martensitic/bainitic steels are very sensitive to the austenitizing cooling rates. Kim reported that there are large differences of austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations in RPV due to its thickness of 250mm. Hence, the martensite/bainite fractions would be changed in different locations, and it would affect the microstructure and mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. These results may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics after austenitizing. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite/bainite fractions on microstructure and mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined. The changes in phase fractions of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel with different cooling rates were analyzed, and then the phase fractions were correlated with its microstructural observation and mechanical properties

  2. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting t...

  3. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  4. Comparison of SA508 Gr.3 and SA508 Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, B. S

    2009-12-15

    The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel and SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel were investigated. The differences in the stable phases between these two low alloy steels were evaluated by means of a thermodynamic calculation using ThermoCalc. They were then compared to microstructural features and correlated with mechanical properties. Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel shows the upper bainite structure which has the coarse cementite in the lath boundaries. However, Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel shows the mixture of lower bainite and tempered martensite structure that homogeneously precipitates the small carbides such as M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} due to an increase of hardenability and Cr addition. In the mechanical properties, Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has higher strength and toughness than Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Ni and Cr additions increase the strength by solid solution hardening. Besides, microstructural changes from upper bainite to tempered martensite improve the strength of the low alloy steel by grain refining effect. And the changes in the precipitation behavior by Cr addition improve the ductile-brittle transition behavior along with a toughening effect of Ni addition.

  5. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  6. Effects of deformation and boron on microstructure and continuous cooling transformation in low carbon HSLA steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, D.H. [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K.B. [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgpark@postech.ac.kr

    2006-04-25

    The continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram and continuous cooled microstructure were investigated for low carbon (0.05 wt.% C) high strength low alloy steels with/without boron. Microstructures observed in continuous cooled specimens were composed of pearlite, quasi-polygonal ferrite, granular bainite, acicular ferrite, bainitic ferrite, lower bainite, and martensite depending on cooling rate and transformation temperature. A rapid cooling rate depressed the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite, which resulted in higher hardness. However, hot deformation slightly increased transformation start temperature, and promoted the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite. Hot deformation also strongly promoted the acicular ferrite formation which did not form under non-deformation conditions. Small boron addition effectively reduced the formation of pearlite and quasi-polygonal ferrite and broadened the cooling rate region for bainitic ferrite and martensite.

  7. Ageing phenomena in ULCB-NiCu steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Wieczorek, P.

    1999-01-01

    Effect od ageing time and temperature on microstructure development, precipitation of ε C u, advancement of recrystallization process and their influence on yield strength and fracture toughness properties K IC as well as high Charpy V impact energy CVN = 84 J at 120 o C of ultra low carbon bainitic copper bearing steels have ben discussed. (author)

  8. C-Curves for Lengthening of Widmanstätten and Bainitic Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Leach, Lindsay; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-09-01

    Widmanstätten ferrite and bainitic ferrite are both acicular and their lengthening rate in binary Fe-C alloys and low-alloyed steels under isothermal conditions is studied by searching the literature and through new measurements. As a function of temperature, the lengthening rate can be represented by a common curve for both kinds of acicular ferrite in contrast to the separate C-curves often presented in time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams. The curves for Fe-C alloys with low carbon content show no obvious decrease in rate at low temperatures down to 623 K (350 °C). For alloys with higher carbon content, the expected decrease of rate as a function of temperature below a nose was observed. An attempt to explain the absence of a nose for low carbon contents by an increasing deviation from local equilibrium at high growth rates is presented. This explanation is based on a simple kinetic model, which predicts that the growth rates for Fe-C alloys with less than 0.3 mass pct carbon are high enough at low temperatures to make the carbon pileup, in front of the advancing tip of a ferrite plate, shrink below atomic dimensions, starting at about 600 K (323 °C).

  9. SNPDL work in support of collaborative programmes to study fatigue crack propagation in light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMinn, A.

    1981-07-01

    Work performed at Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories (SNL) in support of United Kingdom and international cooperative groups is described. For the UK collaborative group crack growth tests have been performed on A533-B pressure vessel steel in air at 1 Hz, and in a simulated PWR environment at 1 Hz and 0.0167 Hz, all tests being at a stress ratio (R) of 0.7. Tests were performed at SNL at ambient temperature and pressure. The results showed that enhancements in crack growth rates were obtained because of the aqueous environment and the lower cyclic frequency. Good inter-laboratory agreement was obtained for the air test, indicating that there was little variation in the mechanical control between laboratories. There was also good agreement between the results from laboratories where tests were performed under high temperature wet conditions at 1 Hz. SNL room temperature data demonstrated an effect of temperature, as the crack growth rates found were up to a factor of four lower than the high temperature data. Although crack growth could be maintained at 0.0167 Hz and low cyclic stress intensity levels at ambient temperature, this was not found to be possible by the laboratories performing the test at 288 0 C. The first international 'round robin' test at R = 0.2 and 0.0167 Hz (1 cycle/min) in an aqueous environment gave a significant amount of scatter in the results. (author)

  10. Fatigue-crack propagation behavior of steels in vacuum, and implications for ASME Section 11 crack growth analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1985-08-01

    Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the analysis of structures for which cracks or crack-like flaws have been discovered during inservice inspection. The Code provides rules for the analysis of both surface flaws as well as flaws that are embedded within the wall of the pressure vessel. In the case of surface flaws, the Code provides fatigue crack growth rate relationships for typical nuclear pressure vessel steels (e.g., ASTM A508-2 and A533-B) cycled in water environments typical of those in light-water reactors (LWR). However, for the case of embedded cracks, the Code provides crack growth relationships based on results from specimens that were cycled in an elevated temperature air environment. Although these latter relationships are often referred to as applying to ''inert'' environments, the results of this paper will show that an elevated temperature air environment is anything but inert, and that use of such relationships can result in overly pessimistic estimates of fatigue-crack growth lifetimes of embedded cracks. The reason, of course, is that embedded cracks grow in an environment that is probably much closer to a vacuum than an air environment

  11. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Tsuchida, Y [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S; Yoshinari, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.

  14. The Crack Initiation and Propagation in threshold regime and S-N curves of High Strength Spring Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubeljak, N; Predan, J; Senčič, B; Chapetti, M D

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fracture mechanics approach is proposed to account for the estimation of the fatigue resistance of component. Applications, estimations and results showed very good agreements with experimental results. The model is simple to apply, accounts for the main geometrical, mechanical and material parameters that define the fatigue resistance, and allows accurate predictions. It offers a change in design philosophy: It could be used for design, while simultaneously dealing with crack propagation thresholds. Furthermore, it allows quantification of the material defect sensitivity. In the case of the set of fatigue tests carried out by rotational bending of specimens without residual stresses, the estimated results showed good agreement and that an initial crack length of 0.5 mm can conservatively explain experimental data. In the case of fatigue tests carried out on the springs at their final condition with bending at R = 0.1 our data shows the influence of compressive residual stresses on fatigue strength. Results also showed that the procedures allow us to analyze the different combinations of initial crack length and residual stress levels, and how much the fatigue resistance can change by changing that configuration. For this set of tests, the fatigue resistance estimated for an initial crack length equal to 0.35 mm, can explain all testing data observed for the springs. (paper)

  15. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz Hazza F; Adesta, Erry Y T; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models

  16. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  17. Internal defect propagation studies in carbon steel in H2S-H2O system (Pre print No. MI-1C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, M.S.; Kini, R.A.; Tangri, V.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    Carbon steel is the material of construction for major equipment of heavy water plant using H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process for production of heavy water. The main corrosion product in this system is iron sulphide and hydrogen which is liberated in nascent form. It is known that such hydrogen liberated in-situ in the equipment has tendency to penetrate in the metal, giving rise to phenomena of embrittlement. Similarly, if parent metal has internal defect then this nascent hydrogen gets trapped in them and gets converted to diatomic form and consequent rise in pressure. This leads to the spread of the defect and can lead to severe loss in the strength of metal. This phenomena was studied on the walls of an autoclave used in a corrosion test assembly for simulated investigation of material of construction for H 2 S-H O exchange process. These studies indicate that internal defect propagation and generation definitely takes place in the system. However, no failures were encountered. These studies have been very qualitative in nature but showed the importance of this aspect of corrosion in H 2 S-H 2 O system and is a subject matter for further studies. It also implies that intial testing of plates for internal defects is very important. (author). 3 figs

  18. Microstructure evolution in TRIP-aided seamless steel tube during T-shape hydroforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Provence (China); Zhang, Zicheng, E-mail: zhangzicheng2004@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Provence (China); Manabe, Ken-ichi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Li, Yanmei [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Provence (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 44130 Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Transformation-induced plasticity aided seamless steel tube comprising of ferrite, bainite, and metastable austenite was processed through forging, piercing, cold-drawing, and two-stage heat treatment. T-shape hydroforming is a classic forming method for experimental research and practical production. The current work studied austenite-to-martensite transformation and microcrack initiation and propagation of the tube during T-shape hydroforming using electron backscattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The strain distribution in the bcc-phase and fcc-phase was studied by evaluating changes in the average local misorientation. Compared to the compressive stress, metastable austenite with similar strain surrounding or inside the grains transformed easier under tensile loading conditions. The inclusions were responsible for microcrack initiation. The propagation of the cracks is hindered by martensite/austenite constituent due to transformation induced plasticity effect. The volume fraction of untransformed retained austenite decreased with increase in strain implying transformation-induced plasticity effect. - Highlights: • Hydroformed tubes processed via TRIP concept • EBSD provided estimate of micro local strain. • Retained austenite hinders propagation of microcracks.

  19. Crack propagation at stresses below the fatigue limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. C.; Hyler, W. S.; Marschall, C. W.

    1967-01-01

    Crack propagation for stainless steel and Ti alloy at stresses below fatigue limit, noting of alternating stress cycles crack propagation for stainless steel and Ti alloy at stresses below fatigue limit, noting role of alternating stress cycles

  20. The influence of isothermal ageing and subsequent hydrogen charging at room temperature on local mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of martensitic-bainitic weldments for power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falat L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of high temperature expositions and subsequent cathodic hydrogen charging of dissimilar martensitic/bainitic weldment on its local mechanical properties and fracture behaviour at room temperature. Circumferential welded joint under investigation was produced by tungsten inert gas welding of X10CrWMoVNb9-2 martensitic and 7CrMoVTiB10-10 bainitic steels tubes with Ni-based filler metal and the application of subcritical postweld heat treatment. Hardness profile measurements revealed pronounced hardness peaks in over-heated regions of the individual steels heat-affected zones which remained preserved also during subsequent expositions at 600°C for up to 5000 hours. Gradual microstructural degradation of these regions included precipitate coarsening and the formation of new secondary phases during thermal exposure. The combined effects of thermal and hydrogen embrittlement of the studied weldment resulted in deleterious effects on its tensile and fracture behaviour.

  1. Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, A Model for the Microstruc- ture of Some Advanced Bainitic Steels , Mater. Trans., 1991, 32, p 689–696 19. G.J. Davies and J.G. Garland...REPORT Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding Report Title ABSTRACT A fully coupled (two-way

  2. A Study of the Effect of Interrupted Quenches on a Thermomechanically Processed High Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    steel . Successful martempering requires a cooling rate sufficient to avoid the nose of the C- curve and thus prevent significant bainite formation. When...STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INTERRUPTED QUENCHES ON A THERMONECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH CARBON STEEL by Steven A. Barton October 1982 Thesis Advisor: T.R...unlimited. A Study of the Effect of Interrupted Quenches on a Thermomechanically Processed High Carbon Steel by Steven A. Barton Lieutenant, United

  3. Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukawa, K.; Kumagai, I.; Takezawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  4. The role of silicon, vacancies, and strain in carbon distribution in low temperature bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampath, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Rementeria, R. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Huang, X. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Poplawsky, J.D. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6064, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, F.G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Janisch, R., E-mail: rebecca.janisch@rub.de [Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the phenomenon of carbon supersaturation and carbon clustering in bainitic ferrite with atom probe tomography (APT) and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show a homogeneous distribution of silicon in the microstructure, which contains both ferrite and retained austenite. This distribution is mimicked well by the computational approach. In addition, an accumulation of C in certain regions of the bainitic ferrite with C concentrations up to 13 at % is observed. Based on the DFT results, these clusters are explained as strained, tetragonal regions in the ferritic bainite, in which the solution enthalpy of C can reach large, negative values. It seems that Si itself only has a minor influence on this phenomenon. - Highlights: • Atom-probe tomography shows supersaturation of bainitic ferrite with C. • Ab initio calculations show that Si has negative influence on C solubility. • Combination of tetragonality of the lattice and strain can explain C accumulation.

  5. Site-specific atomic-scale characterisation of retained austenite in a strip cast TRIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Z.P.; Saleh, A.A.; Marceau, R.K.W.; Taylor, A.S.; Stanford, N.E.; Kostryzhev, A.G.; Pereloma, E.V.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of carbon content in retained austenite (RA) with different neighbouring phases is essential to understand the chemical stability of RA, which is useful for microstructure tuning of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. The present study investigates different morphologies and chemical compositions of RA by correlating electron backscattering diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The effect of neighbouring phases, such as polygonal ferrite, bainitic ferrite lath, ferrite in granular bainite and carbides, on the carbon content in the RA is investigated. The results reveal that the film RA morphology does not always have a higher carbon content than the blocky RA; as coarse RA sometimes displays a higher carbon content than the fine RA films or islands depending on the neighbouring phases. The diffusion of carbon and manganese between austenite and ferrite in bainitic ferrite/granular bainite has been explained according to either diffusionless and/or diffusional mechanism of bainitic ferrite formation followed by tempering. -- Highlights: •The effect of neighbouring phases on retained austenite (RA) features was investigated. •A lower carbon content in fine/film RA compared to coarse/blocky RA was experimentally demonstrated. •At least locally controlled diffusion of substitutional solutes across the RA/bainitic ferrite lath interface was suggested.

  6. Magnetic flux gradient observation during fatigue crack propagation: A case study of SAE 1045 carbon steel used for automotive transmission parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the application of the metal magnetic memory (MMM technique for investigations on fatigue crack propagation in a ferromagnetic material. Fatigue failure caused by stress concentration is serious in practical engineering. However, early fatigue damages cannot be detected by using traditional nondestructive testing (NDT methods. Therefore this paper study about NDT method called metal magnetic memory (MMM that has potentials for evaluating the fatigue damage at the early damage and critical fracture stages. While its capacity to evaluate the distribution of self-magnetic leakage field signals on the component’s surface is well-established, there remains a need to scrutinize the physical mechanism and quantitative analysis aspects of this method. To begin with, a fatigue test involving a loading of 7kN was conducted on a SAE 1045 carbon steel specimen. This material is frequently used in the manufacturing of automotive transmission components that include the axle and spline shaft. MMM signals were measured along a scanning distance of 100 mm and analysed during the propagation stage. Other than revealing that the value of the magnetic flux gradient signals dH(y/dx increased in tandem with the crack length, the results also led to the detection of the crack growth location. It was anticipated that the dH(y/dx value will also exhibit an upward trend with a rise in the fatigue growth rate of da/dN. A modified Paris equation was utilized to correlate dH(y/dx with da/dn through the replacement of the stress intensity factor range ΔK. This resulted in the log-log plot of da/dN versus dH(y/dx portraying an inclination similar to the log-log plot of da/dN versus ΔK. A linear relationship was established between dH(y/dx and ΔK with the R2 value as 0.96. Players in the automotive industry can benefit from the disclosure that dH(y/dx can effectively replace ΔK for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth

  7. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  8. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstraße 8 – 9, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Kannengiesser, Thomas [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Materials and Joining Technology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitetsplatz 2, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results.

  9. Development of low-chromium, chromium-tungsten steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    High-chromium (9-12% Cr) Cr-Mo and Cr-W ferritic steels are favored as candidates for fusion applications. In early work to develop reduced-activation steels, an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C steel (designated 2.25Cr-2WV) had better strength than an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel (compositions are in weight percent). However, the 2.25Cr-2WV had poor impact properties, as determined by the ductile-brittle transition temperature and upper-shelf energy of subsize Charpy impact specimens. Because low-chromium steels have some advantages over high-chromium steels, a program to develop low-chromium steels is in progress. Microstructural analysis indicated that the reason for the inferior impact toughness of the 2.25Cr-2WV was the granular bainite obtained when the steel was normalized. Properties can be improved by developing an acicular bainite microstructure by increasing the cooling rate after austenitization. Alternatively, acicular bainite can be promoted by increasing the hardenability. Hardenability was changed by adding small amounts of boron and additional chromium to the 2.25Cr-2WV composition. A combination of B, Cr, and Ta additions resulted in low-chromium reduced-activation steels with mechanical properties comparable to those of 9Cr-2WVTa. (orig.)

  10. Crack growth in an austenitic stainless steel at high temperature; Propagation de fissure a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvora, J.P

    1998-12-31

    This study deals with crack propagation at 650 deg C on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17-12 (316L(NN)). It is based on an experimental work concerning two different cracked specimens: CT specimens tested at 650 deg C in fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue with load controlled conditions (27 tests), tube specimens containing an internal circumferential crack tested in four points bending with displacement controlled conditions (10 tests). Using the fracture mechanics tools (K, J and C* parameters), the purpose here is to construct a methodology of calculation in order to predict the evolution of a crack with time for each loading condition using a fracture mechanics global approach. For both specimen types, crack growth is monitored by using a specific potential drop technique. In continuous fatigue, a material Paris law at 650 deg C is used to correlate crack growth rate with the stress intensity factor range corrected with a factor U(R) in order to take into account the effects of crack closure and loading ratio R. In pure creep on CT specimens, crack growth rate is correlated to the evolution of the C* parameter (evaluated experimentally) which can be estimated numerically with FEM calculations and analytically by using a simplified method based on a reference stress approach. A modeling of creep fatigue growth rate is obtained from a simple summation of the fatigue contribution and the creep contribution to the total crack growth. Good results are obtained when C* parameter is evaluated from the simplified expression C*{sub s}. Concerning the tube specimens tested in 4 point bending conditions, a simulation based on the actual A 16 French guide procedure proposed at CEA. (authors) 104 refs.

  11. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws; Fissuration des aciers a haute temperature: effet de la geometrie sur la transferabilite des lois de propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, M.R

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C{sup *} and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C{sup *} parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C{sup *} parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q{sup *}, is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C{sup *} parameter (da/dt - C{sup *}), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C{sup *} type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C{sup *}), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical

  12. Microstructure-properties correlation in fiber laser welding of dual-phase and HSLA steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D.C., E-mail: dcsaha@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Westerbaan, D.; Nayak, S.S. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Biro, E. [ArcelorMittal Global Research, 1390 Burlington Street East, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3J5 (Canada); Gerlich, A.P.; Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Similar and dissimilar welds of dual-phase (DP) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels were made by fiber laser welding (FLW). The welds were characterized with respect to microstructure, micro- and nano-hardness, and tensile properties. The fusion zone (FZ) in the DP welds consisted of fully martensitic structure; whereas HSLA and dissimilar weld FZ microstructure were mixture of martensite and bainite. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed bainite structures containing bainitic ferrite laths with intralath and interlath cementite. Precipitation of single variant carbides inside the bainitic ferrite laths were confirmed by measuring the interplanar spacing. The cooling rate in the FZ, estimated using Rosenthal equation, and continuous-cooling-transformation diagrams corroborated the microstructure formed. Nanoindentation was used to verify the hardness of these individual microconstituents, since a much lower nano-hardness for bainite (4.11 GPa) was observed compared to martensite (6.57 GPa) phase. Tensile failure occurred in the tempered area of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in the DP steel welded, which was confirmed by typical cup-like dimple fracture; likewise failure in the HSLA base metal, which occurred in dissimilar and HSLA welds, indicated distinctive dimple and shear dimple ductile morphology.

  13. On the transition of short cracks into long fatigue cracks in reactor pressure vessel steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajwinder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Short fatigue cracks, having dimension less than 1 mm, propagate at much faster rates (da/dN even at lower stress intensity factor range (da/dN as compared to the threshold stress intensity factor range obtained from long fatigue crack growth studies. These short cracks originate at the sub-grain level and some of them ultimately transit into critical long cracks over time. Therefore, designing the components subjected to fatigue loading merely on the long crack growth data and neglecting the short crack growth behavior can overestimate the component’s life. This aspect of short fatigue cracks become even more critical for materials used for safety critical applications such as reactor pressure vessel (RPV steel in nuclear plants. In this work, the transition behaviour of short fatigue crack gowth into long fatigue crack is studied in SA508 Grade 3 Class I low alloy steel used in RPVs. In-situ characterization of initiation, propagation and transition of short fatigue cracks is performed using fatigue stage for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM in addition to digital microscopes fitted over a servo-hydraulic fatigue machine and correlated with the microtructural information obtained using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD. SA508 steel having an upper bainitic microstructure have several microstructural interfaces such as phase and grain boundaries that play a significant role in controlling the short fatigue crack propagation. Specially designed and prepared short fatigue specimens (eletro-polished with varying initial crack lengths of the order of tens of microns are used in this study. The transition of such short initial cracks into long cracks is then tracked to give detailed insight into the role of each phase and phase/grain boundary with an objective of establishing Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram for the given RPV steel. The behavior of the transited long cracks is then compared with the crack propagation behavior obtained using

  14. Creep-fatigue propagation of semi-elliptical crack at 650 deg. C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints; Propagation de fissures semi-elliptiques en fatigue-fluage a 650 deg. C dans des plaques d'acier 316L(N) avec ou sans joints soudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtit, F

    2000-07-01

    This study realised in LISN Laboratory of CEA Saclay, deals with the creep fatigue propagation of semi elliptical crack at the temperature of 650 deg C in 316L(N) stainless steel plates with or without welded joints. A vast majority of the studies on creep fatigue propagation models are based on specimen (CT) especially designed for crack propagation study. The PLAQFLU program performed in LISN laboratory deals with the application and adaptation of these models to complex crack shape, which are more representative of the cracks observed in industrial components. In this scope, we use propagation tests realised at the temperature of 650 deg C with wide plates containing semi elliptical defects. For some of them, the initial defect is machined in the middle of a welded joint, which constitute a privileged site for the crack initiation. The approach used in this study is based on global parameters of fracture mechanics. At first, tests on CT specimen are used in order to determine the propagation laws correlating the crack growth rate to the global parameters K or C{sup *}. These laws are then supposed to be intrinsic to our materials and are used to analysed the semi elliptical crack propagation. The analysis of the comportment of the crack during the hold time demonstrates the possibility to establish a correlation between the crack propagation both in the deepest and the surface point and the local value of C{sup *}. These correlations are coherent in the different points of the crack front for the different applied hold times, and they present a reasonably good agreement with the creep propagation law identified on CT specimen. The simulation of test performed on based metal specimen with a model of summation of both creep and pure fatigue crack growth gives acceptable results when the calculus of the simplified expression of C{sup *}{sub s} considers a continuous evolution of creep deformations rate during the all test. (author)

  15. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in SA508 Gr4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minchul; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The microstructure of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel is a mixture of tempered martensite and tempered lower bainite and that of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel is predominantly tempered upper bainite. Higher strength and toughness steels are very attractive as an eligible RPV steel, so several researchers have studied to use the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel for the NPP application. Because of the thickness of reactor vessel, there are large differences in austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations of thickness in RPV. Because the cooling rates after austenitization determine the microstructure, it would affect the mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, and it may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics when the commercial scale of RPV is fabricated. In order to apply the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel to RPV, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite and bainite fractions on mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined by controlling the cooling rate after austenitization. First of all, continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagram was established from the dilatometric analyses. Then, the phase fractions at each cooling rate were quantitatively evaluated. Finally, the mechanical properties were correlated with the phase fraction, especially fraction of martensite in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel.

  16. Effect of Welding Heat Input on the Microstructure and Toughness in Simulated CGHAZ of 800 MPa-Grade Steel for Hydropower Penstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Ding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate welding heat input for simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ of 800 MPa-grade steel used in hydropower penstocks, the microstructural evolution, hardness, and 50% fraction appearance transition temperature (50% FATT were investigated. The results indicated that when the cooling rate (heat input is reduced (increased, the impact toughness at −20 °C and hardness of the simulated CGHAZ decreased. When the heat input increased from 18 to 81 kJ/cm, the 50% FATT increased from −80 °C to −11 °C. At 18 kJ/cm, the microstructures consisted of lath bainite and granular bainite, but lath bainite decreased with increasing heat input. The increase in the 50% FATT was attributed mainly to an increase in the austenite grain size and effective grain size, and a decrease in lath bainite and the fraction of HAGBs (misorientation: ≥15°.

  17. Dislocation structures in 16MND5 pressure vessel steel strained in uniaxial tension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Robertson, Ch.; Marini, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 342, - (2005), s. 35-41 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bainitic steels * dislocation structure * low temperature deformation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  18. Heat affected zone structure in welded joints of 15Kh1M1FL, 25Kh2NMFA and 20KhN2MFA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenberg, N.E.; German, S.I.; Fomina, O.P.; Netesa, E.M.; Tsaryuk, A.K.; Kornienko, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Heat affected zone (HAZ) structure of thick-walled, nature joints of 15Kh1M1FL steel for block structure of power reactors and 25Kh2NMFA and 20KhN2MFA steels for rotors - is investigated. Multi-layer arc welding is performed under conditions being created for standard components of turbines. Thermokinetics diagrams of austenite decomposition are built, phase composition and character of the structure forming at HAZ in the process of welding with preheating are studied. It is shown that at HAZ in joints of the steels under consideration in the process of welding with preheating is formed a structure of a grained bainite which is uniform in its structure and phase composition. Small volumes of round and elongated forms consisting of martensite and residual austenite are distributed in α-solid solution of the bainite. The bainite of the HAZ in welded joints possesses high hardness and great stability in the process of tempering

  19. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF. Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6 and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10. After tempering the cast steels were characterized by a structure of tempered lower bainite with numerous precipitations of carbides. Performed research of mechanical properties has shown that high temperatures of tempering of bainitic structure do not cause decrease of mechanical properties beneath the required minimum.oo It has also been proved that high-temperature tempering (>720 oC ensures high impact energy at the 20% decrease of mechanical properties.

  20. Simulation Kinetics of Austenitic Phase Transformation in Ti+Nb Stabilized IF and Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit; Dasharath, S. M.; Mula, Suhrit

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the influence of cooling rates (low to ultrafast) on diffusion controlled and displacive transformation of Ti-Nb IF and microalloyed steels has been thoroughly investigated. Mechanisms of nucleation and formation of non-equiaxed ferrite morphologies (i.e., acicular ferrite and bainitic ferrite) have been analyzed in details. The continuous cooling transformation behavior has been studied in a thermomechanical simulator (Gleeble 3800) using the cooling rates of 1-150 °C/s. On the basis of the dilatometric analysis of each cooling rate, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams have been constructed for both the steels to correlate the microstructural features at each cooling rate in different critical zones. In the case of the IF steel, massive ferrite grains along with granular bainite structures have been developed at cooling rates > 120 °C/s. On the other hand, a mixture of lath bainitic and lath martensite structures has been formed at a cooling rate of 80 °C/s in the microalloyed steel. A strong dependence of the cooling rates and C content on the microstructures and mechanical properties has been established. The steel samples that were fast cooled to a mixture of bainite ferrite and martensite showed a significant improvement of impact toughness and hardness (157 J, for IF steel and 174 J for microalloyed steel) as compared to that of the as-received specimens (133 J for IF steel and 116 J for microalloyed steel). Thus, it can be concluded that the hardness and impact toughness properties are correlated well with the microstructural constituents as indicated by the CCT diagram. Transformation mechanisms and kinetics of austenitic transformation to different phase morphologies at various cooling rates have been discussed in details to correlate microstructural evolution and mechanical properties.

  1. Simulation of Structural Transformations in Heating of Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    Amathematical model for computer simulation of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the conditions of the thermal cycle of multipass welding is presented. The austenitic transformation under the heating and the processes of decomposition of bainite and martensite under repeated heating are considered. Amethod for determining the necessary temperature-time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are processed and the results used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics of alloy steels. The method developed is used in computer simulation of the process of multipass welding of pipes by the finite-element method.

  2. Transformation kinetics of selected steel grades after plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawulok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the impact of previous plastic deformation on the kinetics of transformations of four selected steels. The research was conducted with use of the universal plastometer GLEEBLE 3800, when Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT and Deformation Continuous Cooling Transformation (DCCT diagrams of selected steels were constructed on the basis of dilatometric tests. The research confirmed that the strain accelerates the particularly the transformations controlled by diffusion. Bainitic transformation was accelerated in three of the four steels. In the case of martensitic transformation the effect of the previous deformation was relatively small, but with clearly discernible trend.

  3. Low alloy steel versus ADI – differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparison between the microstructure of selected bainitic low alloy steel and austempered ductile iron ADI are presented. The aim of the comparison was to find out differences and similarities existing in these iron carbon commercial alloys. In this paper our own results on ADI structure and literature data were used. It follows from discussion presented here that both microstructure and properties of ADI are very close that which are observed in low alloy carbon steel. Moreover, we suggest that there is no so doubt to treat ADI mechanical properties as steel containing nodular inclusions of graphite.

  4. Mixed structures in continuously cooled low-carbon automotive steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.A.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed microstructures have been studied in low- carbon microalloyed steels suitable for automotive applications, after continuous cooling from the hot-rolled condition. Microstructural features such as polygonal ferrite, bainitic and acicular ferrite and microphase constituent are identified using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of these mixed structures on the tensile strength, impact toughness and fracture behaviour is examined. It is found that improvements in impact toughness as compared with microalloyed medium- carbon ferrite/pearlite steels can be achieved from these predominantly acicular structures developed by controlling alloy composition and continuous cooling of these lower carbon steels. (orig.)

  5. SCC propagation and cessation behavior near the fusion boundary of dissimilar weld joint with Ni-based weld metal and low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, Makoto; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the following items focused on the microstructure near the fusion boundary of dissimilar weld joint with Ni-based weld metal and low alloy steel; (1) Microstructural characteristics near the fusion boundary, (2) Dominant factor that makes crack retardation near the fusion boundary. Main conclusions can be summarized as follows; (1) From the results of CBB tests, it has been understood that the low alloy steel has no SCC susceptibility and that there is a difference in oxidation behavior between high and low sulfur containing low alloy steel, (2) In Alloy182/LAS sample, most of crack tips were located at the fusion boundary. It has been thought that crack become less active when crack reach at fusion boundary, (3) It has been suggested that the dominant factor of crack retardation is low SCC susceptibility of low alloy steel in high temperature water. (author)

  6. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  7. High Yield Strength Cast Steel With Improved Weldability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Transformation ( CCT ) diagram presented in Figure 25. It is clear that these low carbon steels generally will produce martensite and~or bainite over a very wide...microstructure. The CCT diagram developed from the Gleeble evaluations appears to indicate a martensite start (MJ temperature of approximately 800° F...Regardless of the exact identity of the transformation products, the CCT diagram contains the features desired for the experimental alloy system

  8. Analysis of acoustic emission signals at austempering of steels using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarska, Malgorzata; Wozniak, Tadeusz Z.; Ranachowski, Zbigniew; Trafarski, Andrzej; Domek, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    Bearing steel 100CrMnSi6-4 and tool steel C105U were used to carry out this research with the steels being austempered to obtain a martensitic-bainitic structure. During the process quite a large number of acoustic emissions (AE) were observed. These signals were then analysed using neural networks resulting in the identification of three groups of events of: high, medium and low energy and in addition their spectral characteristics were plotted. The results were presented in the form of diagrams of AE incidence as a function of time. It was demonstrated that complex transformations of austenite into martensite and bainite occurred when austempering bearing steel at 160 °C and tool steel at 130 °C respectively. The selected temperatures of isothermal quenching of the tested steels were within the area near to MS temperature, which affected the complex course of phase transition. The high activity of AE is a typical occurrence for martensitic transformation and this is the transformation mechanism that induces the generation of AE signals of higher energy in the first stage of transition. In the second stage of transformation, the initially nucleated martensite accelerates the occurrence of the next bainitic transformation.

  9. Structure and delayed failure behaviour of 0.25C-Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.H.; Maeng, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Delayed failure behaviour of the different transformation structures of 0.25C-2.5Ni-2.5Cr-0.5Mo-0.1V low alloy steel has been studied. The studied microstructures are martensite, lower bainite, and mixed structure of 50% martensite and 50% lower bainite. All these structures have been tempered at 450 deg C for 40 min to have the same tensile strength level of 143 kg/mm 2 . Delayed failure testing has been carried out with cantilever bend tester, in distilled water at 25 deg C. By comparing K 1 sub(scc) values, lower bainitic structure has shown the highest value, although it is only slightly higher than that of the martensitic structure. Mixed structure has the lowest resistance to delayed failure. The fracture modes of both martensitic and mixed structures have been observed as intergranular. In the martensitic structure, however, it is noticeable that there is a larger amount of ductile tearing between intergranular facets. The fracture mode of lower bainitic structure is the mixed topography of microplastic tearing and microvoid coalescence. The above experimental results are discussed in terms of Oriani's decohesion theory of hydrogen embrittlement. The lowest resistance of the mixed structure to delayed failure may be due to the enhanced decohesion by hydrogen at the phase boundaries of martensite and lower bainite. (author)

  10. The Effect of Two-Step Heat Treatment Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 42SiMn Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kučerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Medium-carbon steel 42SiMn (0.4C-0.6Mn-2Si-0.03Nb was used for a two-step heat treatment consisting of a soaking hold and an annealing hold at bainite transformation temperature. Various heating temperatures, cooling rates, and bainitic hold temperatures were applied to the steel to obtain microstructures typical for TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity steels. TRIP steels utilize the positive effects of a multiphase microstructure with retained austenite, creating a good combination of strength and total elongation and an excellent deep-drawing ability. Typical microstructures consist of ferrite, bainite, and 10–15% of retained austenite. In this work, tensile strengths in the region of 887–1063 MPa were achieved with total elongation A5mm of 26–47%, and the final microstructures contained 4–16% of retained austenite. The most suitable microstructure and the best combination of high strength and total elongation were achieved for the processing with intercritical heating temperature of 850 °C and cooling at 30 °C/s to the bainitic hold of 400 °C. Very fine pearlite persisted in the microstructures, even after applying a cooling rate of 50 °C/s, however these small areas with extremely fine laths did not prevent the retention of up to 16% of retained austenite, and high total elongation A5mm above 40% was still reached for these microstructures.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL WIRE FOR METAL CORD AND RVD AFTER PATENTING IN CONDITIONS OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kurenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of microstructure, quantity, character of bainite allocation at lowering of the lead melt temperature is revealed as a result of investigations of microstructure of the samples of steel 80K after isothermal breakdown of austenite in temperature range 610–400 °C.

  12. Response of ferritic steels to nonsteady loading at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature operating experience is lacking in pressure vessel materials that have strength levels above 586 MPa. Because of their tendency toward strain softening, we have been concerned about their behavior under nonsteady loading. Testing was undertaken to explore the extent of softening produced by monotonic and cyclic strains. The specific materials included bainitic 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a micro-alloyed version of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel containing vanadium, titanium, and boron, and a martensitic 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel. Tests included tensile, creep, variable stress creep, relaxation, strain cycling, stress cycling, and non-isothermal creep ratchetting experiments. We found that these steels had very low uniform elongation and exhibited small strains to the onset of tertiary creep compared to annealed 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel. Repeated relaxation test data also indicated a limited capacity for strain hardening. Reversal strains produced softening. The degree of softening increased with increased initial strength level. We concluded that the high strength bainitic and martensitic steels should perform well when used under conditions where severe cyclic operation does not occur

  13. Influence of austenitisation temperature on the structure and properties of weather resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.N.; Mediratta, S.R.; Sarma, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of austenitisation temperature on the structure and properties of three experimental weather resistant steels has been studied. All these steels contain 1% Mn, 0.3% Ni, 0.47% Cr and 0.47% Cu. In addition, steel no. 1 has 0.1% C, 0.1% P, steel no. 2 has 0.1% C, 0.05% P and 0.024% Nb while steel 3 has 0.2% C, 0.054% Nb and 0.046% V. It has been found that the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength do not change significantly with austenitisation temperature over the range 900-1200 deg. C for steel no. 1 but they increase considerably when austenitised above 1000 deg. C for steels 2 and 3. Similarly, the ductility decreases with increasing temperature of austenitisation. All the steels austenitised up to 1000 deg. C exhibit sharp yield points. None of these steels shows sharp yield point after 1200 deg. C. At 1100 deg. C, however, sharp yield points were observed in steels 1 and 2. There has been a noticeable change in optical microstructure. In steels 2 and 3 the pearlite is gradually replaced by granular bainite when austenitised above 1000 deg. C. The transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the granular bainite consists of acicular ferrite and martensite/austenite constituent

  14. Survey of the effect of heat-to-heat variations upon the fatigue-crack propagation behavior of types 304 and 316 stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1975-05-01

    The fatigue-crack growth behavior of four heats of annealed Type 304 stainless steel and three heats of annealed Type 316 stainless steel were studied at elevated temperature using the techniques of linear-elastic fracture mechanics. It is estimated that a factor of 1.5 applied above and below the mean line would provide upper and lower bounds that would account for heat-to-heat variations. In addition, the three heats of Type 316 represented three different melt practices: air-melt, vacuum-arc-remelt, and double-vacuum-melt processes. No effect on fatigue-crack growth behavior was noted due to melt practice. (U.S.)

  15. The effect of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a niobium–titanium microalloyed steel processed via thin slab casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, V.S.A.; Zhou, W.H.; Misra, R.D.K.; O'Malley, R.; Jansto, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the influence of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties, especially toughness, in a low carbon niobium microalloyed steel processed via thin slab casting. The objective is to elucidate the impact of coiling temperature on the nature and distribution of microstructural constituents (including different phases, precipitates, and dislocations) that contribute to variation in the strength–toughness relationship of these steels. In general, the microstructure primarily consisted of fine lath-type bainite and polygonal ferrite, and NbC, TiC and (Nb, Ti)C precipitates of size ∼2–10 nm in the matrix and at dislocations. However, the dominance of bainite and distribution of precipitates was a function of coiling temperature. The lower coiling temperature provided superior strength–toughness combination and is attributed to predominantly bainitic microstructure and uniform precipitation of NbC, TiC, and (Nb, Ti)C during the coiling process, consistent with continuous cooling transformation diagrams

  16. The effect of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a niobium–titanium microalloyed steel processed via thin slab casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challa, V.S.A.; Zhou, W.H. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); O' Malley, R. [Nucor Decatur Sheet Mill, 4301 Iverson Blvd., Trinity, AL 35673 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [CBMM North America, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We describe here the influence of coiling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties, especially toughness, in a low carbon niobium microalloyed steel processed via thin slab casting. The objective is to elucidate the impact of coiling temperature on the nature and distribution of microstructural constituents (including different phases, precipitates, and dislocations) that contribute to variation in the strength–toughness relationship of these steels. In general, the microstructure primarily consisted of fine lath-type bainite and polygonal ferrite, and NbC, TiC and (Nb, Ti)C precipitates of size ∼2–10 nm in the matrix and at dislocations. However, the dominance of bainite and distribution of precipitates was a function of coiling temperature. The lower coiling temperature provided superior strength–toughness combination and is attributed to predominantly bainitic microstructure and uniform precipitation of NbC, TiC, and (Nb, Ti)C during the coiling process, consistent with continuous cooling transformation diagrams.

  17. Influence of cooling rate on the structure and mechanical properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of cooling rate on the structure and properties of G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF cast steel. The material for research was a section taken out from an outer cylinder of a steam turbine body after about 250 000 hours of operation at the temperature of 535°C and pressure 9 MPa. The investigated cast steel was subjected to heat treatment which consisted in cooling at the rates corresponding to the processes, such as: bainitic hardening, normalizing and full annealing. Tempering after the process of cooling from austenitizing temperature was carried out at the temperatures of: 700, 720 and 740°C. Performed research has proved that structures obtained after bainitic hardening and normalizing are characterized by a large strength margin which allows to apply high temperatures of tempering. It has been shown that the cast steel of bainitic structure, with similar mechanical properties as the cast steel of bainitic – ferritic structure, is characterized by almost twice as high impact energy. Full annealing and tempering of the examined cast steel ensures only the required impact strength, with mechanical properties comparable to those after service.

  18. Effects of Nb on microstructure and continuous cooling transformation of coarse grain heat-affected zone in 610 MPa class high-strength low-alloy structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Q.; Zhang, H.Q.; Liu, W.M.; Hou, H.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of the coarse grain heat-affected zone and microstructure after continuous cooling were investigated for 610 MPa class high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) structural steels with and without niobium. For the steel without Nb, grain boundary ferrite, degenerate pearlite and acicular ferrite are produced at slower cooling rates. Bainite phase is formed at faster cooling rates. However, for the steel with Nb, granular bainite is dominant at a large range of cooling rates. At cooling rates 32 K/s, Nb addition has no obvious influence on transformation start temperature, but it influences microstructure transformation significantly. Martensite is observed in steel with Nb at faster cooling rates, but not produced in steel without Nb

  19. Mid-thickness studies of the stress intensity factor in the bulk of bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims at estimating the stress intensity factor deep inside the bulk from elastic strain data measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Key features affecting the evaluation of the stress intensity factor are the number of terms in the analytical model describing the crack tip field, the extension and position of the area of interest of the experimental data, the effect of the experimental data collected within the plastic zone and the number of elastic strain data points used. Here a parametric study of these features is presented in terms of their influence for the stress intensity factor determination. It was found that 3 or 4 terms in Williams’ expansion is often sufficient; the data should be collected from across the full range of angles around the crack tip; and the number of points/number of terms should be greater than 40.

  20. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Structure In X37CrMoV5-l Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the thermal stability of the nanostructure produced in X37CrMoV5-1 tool steel by austempering heat treatment consisted of austenitization and isothermal quenching at the range of the bainitic transformation. The nanostructure was composed of bainitic ferrite plates of nanometric thickness separated by thin layers of retained austenite. It was revealed, that the annealing at the temperature higher than temperature of austempering led to formation of cementite precipitations. At the initial stage of annealing cementite precipitations occurred in the interfaces between ferritic bainite and austenite. With increasing temperature of annealing, the volume fraction and size of cementite precipitations also increased. Simultaneously fine spherical Fe7C3 carbides appeared. At the highest annealing temperature the large, spherical Fe7C3 carbides as well as cementite precipitates inside the ferrite grains were observed. Moreover the volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and of freshly formed martensite increased in steel as a result of retained austenite transformation during cooling down to room temperature.

  1. Influence of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon High Silicon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaksha, P. A.; Ravishankar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of austempering heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon high silicon steel was evaluated. The test specimens were machined from the as-received steel and were first austenitised at 900 °C for 45 minutes, followed by austempering heat treatment in salt bath at various temperatures 300 °C, 350 °C and 400 °C for a fixed duration of two hours, after that those specimens were air-cooled to room temperature. The characterization studies were carried out using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and then correlated to the hardness and tensile properties. Results indicate that, the specimens austempered at lower temperature i.e. at 300 °C, which offered high hardness, tensile strength and lower ductility (1857 MPa and 13.3 %) due to the presence of acicular bainite i.e. lower bainite and also some martensite in the microstructure. At 350 °C, reduction in the tensile strength and hardness was observed, but comparatively higher ductility, which was favored by the presence of bainite laths i.e. upper bainitic structure along with higher retained austenite content. Finally at 400 °C, reduction in both ductility and tensile strength was observed, which is due to the precipitation of carbides between the banite laths, however good strain hardening response was observed at austempering temperatures of 350 °C and 400 °C.

  2. Heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of a C–Mn–Al–P hot dip galvanizing TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wei [School of Material and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Bayan Obo multimetallic resource comprehensive utilization Key lab, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Hedström, Peter [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Li, Yan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Bayan Obo multimetallic resource comprehensive utilization Key lab, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Heat treatments of a hot dip galvanizing TRIP (Transformation induced plasticity) steel with chemical composition 0.20C-1.50Mn-1.2Al-0.07P(mass%) were performed in a Gleeble 3500 laboratory equipment. The heat treatment process parameters were varied to investigate the effect of intercritical annealing temperature as well as isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperature and time, on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, while mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. Furthermore, to generate a better understanding of the phase transformations during heat treatment, dilatometry trials were conducted. The desired microstructure containing ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite was obtained after the heat treatments. It was further found that the IBT is critical in determining the mechanical properties of the steel, since it controls the fraction of bainite. With increasing bainite fraction, the fraction of retained austenite increases while the fraction of martensite decreases. The mechanical properties of the steel are excellent with a tensile strength above 780 MPa (expect in one case) and elongation above 22%.

  3. Heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of a C–Mn–Al–P hot dip galvanizing TRIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wei; Hedström, Peter; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Heat treatments of a hot dip galvanizing TRIP (Transformation induced plasticity) steel with chemical composition 0.20C-1.50Mn-1.2Al-0.07P(mass%) were performed in a Gleeble 3500 laboratory equipment. The heat treatment process parameters were varied to investigate the effect of intercritical annealing temperature as well as isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) temperature and time, on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, while mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. Furthermore, to generate a better understanding of the phase transformations during heat treatment, dilatometry trials were conducted. The desired microstructure containing ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite was obtained after the heat treatments. It was further found that the IBT is critical in determining the mechanical properties of the steel, since it controls the fraction of bainite. With increasing bainite fraction, the fraction of retained austenite increases while the fraction of martensite decreases. The mechanical properties of the steel are excellent with a tensile strength above 780 MPa (expect in one case) and elongation above 22%.

  4. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  5. Development of fully dense and high performance powder metallurgy HSLA steel using HIP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Pang, Xinkuan; Ma, Yunzhu; Cai, Qingshan; Zhu, Wentan; Liang, Chaoping

    2018-05-01

    In order to solve the problem that the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (P/M) steels are much lower than those of traditional cast steels with the same composition due to their porosity, a high–strength–low–alloy (HSLA) steel with fully dense and excellent mechanical properties was fabricated through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) using gas–atomized powders. The granular structure in the P/M HIPed steel composed of bainitic ferrite and martensite–austenite (M–A) islands is obtained without the need of any rapid cooling. The P/M HIPed steel exhibit a combination of tensile strength and ductility that surpasses that of conventional cast steel and P/M sintered steel, confirming the feasibility of fabricating high performance P/M steel through appropriate microstructural control and manufacture process.

  6. The influence of thermo-mechanical processing on the microstructure of steel 20MoCrS4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Meyer, L.W.; Masek, B.; Novy, Z.; Kesner, D.; Motycka, P

    2003-05-25

    The influence of thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 0.22%C-0.87%Mn-0.73Cr-0.40Mo steel was investigated. The transformation CCT diagram and CCCT diagram were determined by dilatometric measurements. Hot deformation before austenite decomposition slightly accelerates ferritic transformation, retards bainitic reactions and decreases the bainite start temperature. Special methods of TMP were performed consisting of hot and/or warm compression deformations and dwell at an elevated temperature. The microstructure was studied using metallography and transmission electron microscopy. The compression deformation results in a remarkable refinement of the microstructure and an improvement of mechanical properties. Warm deformation followed by dwell at 470 deg. C was found to be suitable for an increase of tensile strength and notch toughness; the corresponding microstructure is a fine lath-like bainitic microstructure with a relatively homogeneous distribution of carbide particles.

  7. Synchrotron analysis of toughness anomalies in nanostructured bainite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, L.C.D.; Jones, N.G.; Walsh, J.; Van Boxel, S.; Blackmur, M.S.; Lee, P.D.; Withers, P.J.; Stone, H.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to characterise the notch root regions of Charpy impact test specimens of a superbainitic steel, both before and after loading. The changes in the volume fraction of austenite induced by the application of a three-point-bending load were quantified. Analysis of diffraction peak shifts revealed the extent of residual tensile and compressive strains present due to both machining and an applied load. The results lend support to the hypothesis that the comparatively low energies absorbed during Charpy impact testing of superbainitic steels, <7 J, are due to the formation of stress-induced martensite at the notch root, prior to crack initiation.

  8. Propagation of crevices in stainless steel AISI304L in conditions of hydrogen chemistry (HWC); Propagacion de grietas en acero inoxidable AISI304L en condiciones de quimica de hidrogeno (HWC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Castano M, V. [IFA-UNAM, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico)]. e-mail: ads@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Crevice growth velocities in samples of AISI 304L stainless steel thermally welded and sensitized were obtained by the Rising displacement method or of growing displacement. It was used a recirculation circuit in where the operation conditions of a BWR type reactor were simulated (temperature of 288 C and a pressure of 8 MPa) with the chemistry modified by the addition of hydrogen with and without the addition of impurities of a powerful oxidizer like the Cu{sup ++} ion. CT pre cracked specimens were used and each rehearsal stayed to one constant displacement velocity of 1 x 10{sup -9} m/s (3.6 {mu}m/hr), making a continuous pursuit of the advance of the crack by the electric potential drop technique. To the end of the rehearsal it was carried out the fractographic analysis of the propagation surfaces. The values of the growth velocities obtained by this methodology went similar to the opposing ones under normal conditions of operation; while the fractographic analysis show the cracks propagation in trans and intergranular ways, evidencing the complexity of the regulator mechanisms of the one IGSCC even under controlled ambient conditions or with mitigation methodologies like the alternative hydrogen chemistry. (Author)

  9. Crack propagation in stainless steel AISI 304L in Hydrogen Chemistry conditions (HWC); Propagacion de Grietas en Acero Inoxidable AISI 304L en Condiciones de Quimica de Hidrogeno (HWC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico -Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Mexico (Mexico); Castano M, V. [Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, UNAM, Km 15.5 Carretera Queretaro-San Luis Potosi, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico)]. e-mail: ads@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Velocities of crack growth in samples type CT pre cracking of stainless steel AISI 304l solder and sensitized thermally its were obtained by the Rising Displacement method or of growing displacement. It was used a recirculation circuit that simulates the operation conditions of a BWR type reactor (temperature of 280 C and a pressure of 8 MPa) with the chemistry modified by the addition of hydrogen with and without the addition of impurities of a powerful oxidizer like the Cu{sup +} ion. In each essay stayed a displacement velocity was constant of 1x10{sup -9} m/s, making a continuous pursuit of the advance of the crack by the electric potential drop technique. Contrary to the idea of mitigation of the crack propagation velocity by effect of the addition of the hydrogen in the system, the values of the growth velocities obtained by this methodology went similar to the opposing ones under normal operation conditions. To the finish of the rehearsal one carries out the fractographic analysis of the propagation surfaces, which showed cracks growth in trans and intergranular way, evidencing the complexity of the regulator mechanisms of the IGSCC like in mitigation conditions as the alternative Hydrogen Chemistry. (Author)

  10. Propagation of thermal neutrons in mock-up screw-shaped steel elements with water protection; Propagation des neutrons thermiques dans des fausses cartouches d'acier en helice dans une protection d'eau. Programme tournesol 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, C L; Lanore, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report treats the streaming of thermal neutrons in a cylindrical duct in light water. The duct contains a spiral iron shield. Transmission and reflection matrices are used to describe the probabilities for the thermal neutrons to be absorbed or to be scattered on the surfaces. The neutron paths across the void are represented by geometrical matrices. The numerical resolution is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport on traite un probleme de fuites de neutrons thermiques dans un canal cylindrique plonge dans l'eau et obture par un ecran helicoidal en acier. On utilise des matrices de transmission-reflexion pour decrire les probabilites d'absorption et de diffusion des neutrons sur les parois et l'helicoide et des matrices de correspondance geometrique pour representer la propagation dans le vide. La resolution numerique se fait par une methode de Monte-Carlo. (auteur)

  11. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature; Propagation de fissure par fatigue dans les aciers austeno-ferritiques moules: influence de la microstructure, du vieillissement et de la temperature d'essai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, V

    2001-07-15

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  12. Manganese partitioning in low carbon manganese steel during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, J.; Lis, A.; Kolan, C.

    2008-01-01

    For 6Mn16 steel experimental soft annealing at 625 deg. C for periods from 1 h to 60 h and modeling with Thermo-Calc were performed to estimate the partitioning of alloying elements, in particular Mn, between ferrite, cementite and austenite. Using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysis it was established that the increase of Mn concentration in carbides to a level 7%-11.2% caused a local decrease of the Ac 1 temperature and led to the presence of austenite around the carbides. Thus, after cooling, small bainite-martensite or bainite-martensite-retained austenite (BM-A) islands were observed. A dispersion of carbides and a coarsening process were observed. The measured amount of Mn in the carbides was in good agreement with theoretical predictions

  13. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail: vitoon.uth@kmutt.ac.th

    2016-06-14

    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  14. Investigations On Crack Propagation Under Cyclical Isothermal And Thermo-mechanical Loadings For A Type 304-L Stainless Steel Used For Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Cédric

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of structures exhibiting flaws in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR has to be assessed to meet safety criteria. This paper deals with crack-propagation under cyclic thermo-mechanical loadings, as encountered in class I austenitic pipes of PWR’s. To have a conservative and reliable assessment of the crack propagation due to the in-service loading, various codes and standards use simplified method. For example, the RSE-M Code introduces a plastic correction depending on the proportion of the mechanical loading. An improvement of the current method requires additional investigations. Moreover, components loaded with transient or thermal fluctuations are not really in loadcontrolled conditions. To this end, a device called PROFATH was designed. The specimen is a pre-cracked thick-walled tube undergoing a set of thermal cycles and loaded with a static mechanical force. During the first part of the thermal cycle, a high frequency induction coil heats the external wall of the tube. Then, the heating system stops and the specimen is cooled down by running water inside the tube. Finite element calculations show that only a region half-way along the tube should be heated to ensure adequate structural effect. In the heated zone, the machining of a sharp circumferential groove ensures the propagation of a unique crack. An electro-mechanical jack controls the level of the mechanical static load. Tests have been carried out, and these tests allow having an evaluation of the pertinence of the correction proposed by the RSE-M Code for a significant plasticity.

  15. The Effect of Stepped Austempering on Phase Composition and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured X37CrMoV5-1 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies of X37CrMoV5-1 steel subjected to quenching processes with a one-step and a two-step isothermal annealing. The TEM observation revealed that steel after one-step treatment led is composed of carbide-free bainite with nanometric thickness of ferrite plates and of high volume fraction of retained austenite in form of thin layers or large blocks. In order to improve the strength parameters an attempt was made to reduce the austenite content by use of quenching with the two-step isothermal annealing. The temperature and time of each step were designed on the basis of dilatometric measurements. It was shown, that the two-step heat treatment led to increase of the bainitic ferrite content and resulted in improvement of steel's strength with no loss of steel ductility.

  16. MANGO PROPAGATION

    OpenAIRE

    ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO; VICTOR GALÁN SAÚCO; SISIR KUMAR MITRA; FRANCISCO RICARDO FERREIRA

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud) as well as the main asexual propagation methods...

  17. Effects of boron addition on tensile and Charpy impact properties in high-phosphorous steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Junghoon [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyong Su [Next Generation Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a new possibility for improving the steel-making productivity by fabricating plain carbon steels containing high phosphorous (P), effects of microstructures on tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated in this study. Nine plain carbon steels were fabricated by controlling the addition of P and boron (B), and isothermal or quench heat-treatments were conducted on these steels to make ferrite–bainite-based or martensite-based microstructures. The addition of B positively influenced the grain refinement and the formation of bainites, thereby leading to the increase in strength. The upper shelf energy (USE) decreased with increasing P content, while the energy transition temperature (ETT) increased, in all the steels. The B addition beneficially affected both the USE and ETT as the dimpled ductile fracture mode prevailed in the B-added steels. This was because B preferentially covered grain boundaries, which reduced the grain boundary segregation of P. Thus, it effectively suppressed the intergranular fracture due to the segregation of P. According to the fractographic results, the increased tendency of intergranular fracture mode was observable in the 20-ppm-B-added steels rather than in the 10-ppm-B-added steels. When an excess amount of B, e.g., 20 ppm of B, was added, the severe segregation of B on grain boundaries occurred, and led to the precipitation of boro-carbides, which could act as intergranular crack initiation sites.

  18. Results from Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants - Irradiation Embrittlement of RPV Steels -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Onizawa, Kunio; Katsuyama, Jinya; Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Iwata, Tadao; Katano, Yoshio; Sekimura, Naoto; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Tamura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    As one of the NISA Project on Enhancement of Aging Management and Maintenance in Nuclear Power Plants, we have performed research on the irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, especially focusing on irradiation embrittlement on heat affected zone (HAZ) and on applications of ion beams to deduce fundamental insights irradiation-induced embrittlement. The results obtained from the project are summarized as follows. In order to obtain the technical basis to judge the necessity of surveillance specimens from HAZ, the neutron irradiation program was performed at JRR-3, JAEA. The samples were carefully designed based on the insights from finite element analysis, metallography, 3D atom probe and positron annihilation methods, and were fabricated so as to simulate both heat treatment history and microstructure for typical HAZ from as-fabricated RPV steels which also have variation of impurity levels. The fracture toughness of the unirradiated HAZ specimens was equivalent to or better than that of base metals. Irradiation embrittlement and hardening were roughly identical to those of base metals, while some of the fine-grained HAZ microstructure was susceptible to it. The probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis was applied to the structural integrity assessment taking into account the heterogeneous microstructure as well as susceptibility for irradiation embrittlement of each HAZ microstructure under the variation of welding parameter and PTS condition. It was shown that crack propagation at the fine-grained HAZ, but the discontinuous distribution of the microstructure retards the further propagation. For the precise correlation of irradiation embrittlement of RPV steels for the long term operations, accumulations of high-dose data are required. Ion beam irradiation is one of the solutions for the regime and for mechanism-based descriptions. Another interest of ours was to describe irradiation hardening and embrittlement in terms of

  19. Phase evolution and mechanical behavior of 0.36 wt% C high strength TRIP-assisted steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Phase evolution in a 0.36 wt% C steel has been studied by thermodynamic calculation and dilatometric analysis with an aim to achieve high strength TRIP-assisted steel with bainitic microstructure. The equilibrium phase fraction calculated as the function of temperature indicated the formation of {delta}-ferrite ({approx}98%) at 1417 C. In contrast, similar calculation under para-equilibrium condition exhibited transformation of {delta}-ferrite to austenite at the temperature below 1300 C. During further cooling two-phase ({alpha}+{gamma}) microstructure has been found to be stable at the intercritical temperature range. The experimentally determined CCT diagram has revealed that adequate hardenability is achievable in the steel under continuous cooling condition at cooling rate >5 C s{sup -1}. In view of the aforesaid results, the steel has been hot rolled and subjected to different process schedule conducive to the evolution of bainitic microstructure. The hot rolled steel has exhibited reasonably good tensile properties. However, cold deformation of the hot rolled sample followed by intercritical annealing and subsequent isothermal bainitic transformation has resulted in high strength (>1000 MPa) with attractive elongation due to the favorable work hardening condition during plastic deformation offered by the multiphase microstructure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Creep and microstructural processes in a low-alloy 2.25%Cr1.6%W steel (ASTM Grade 23)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchařová, Květa; Sklenička, Václav; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, NOV (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bainitic steel * Low-alloy steel * Creep strength * Microstructural changes * Carbide precipitation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2015

  1. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate Characteristics for Weldable Ship and Offshore Steels with Regard to the Influence of Loading Frequency and Saltwater Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Marek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After Vosikovsky (1975, the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (CFCGR characteristics have been divided into three regions. The region-III rates are very close to mechanical fatigue crack growth rates. CFCGR formulae, including the long-crack length effect (in region I only, the loading frequency effect (in region II only, and the saltwater temperature effect, have been proposed. It has been assumed that CFCGR is proportional to f-k, where f is the loading frequency and k is a constant. The averaged k-value for all steels of yield stress (YS below 500 MPa, usually with ferrite-pearlite microstructures, is higher than that for YS > 500 MPa, usually with quenched and tempered microstructures. The temperature effect does not appear in region I below room temperature. In the remaining cases, that is, in region I for elevated temperatures and in region II for both low and elevated temperatures, the CFCGR increases with increasing temperature. Under a potential of -0.8 V, a long-crack-length effect, qualitatively similar to analogous effect for free corrosion conditions, appears.

  2. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  3. Microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Li, Shengli, E-mail: lishengli@sdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Xinde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ao, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Research Center of Large Size Alloy Structural Steel Bars of Shandong Province, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to further reveal the microstructural characterization and formation mechanism of abnormal segregation band of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, the microstructure of this type steel was intensively studied with Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), etc. The results show that severe C–Mn segregation exists in the abnormal segregation band region at the center of hot rolled ferrite/pearlite steel, which results from the Mn segregation during solidification process of the continuous casting slab. The C–Mn segregation causes relative displacement of pearlite transformation curve and bainite transformation curve of C curve in the corresponding region, leading to bay-like shaped C curve. The bay-like shaped C curve creates conditions for the transformation from supercooling austenite to bainite at relatively lower cooling rate in this region. The Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone (FASZ) caused by C–Mn segregation can powerfully retard the atomic motion, and increase the lattice reconstruction resistance of austenite transformation. These two factors provide thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the bainite transformation, and result in the emergence of granular bainitic abnormal segregation band at the center of steel plate, which leads to lower plasticity and toughness of this region, and induces the layered fracture. - Highlights: • Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) is applied in the fracture analysis. • The abnormal segregation band region appears obvious C–Mn segregation. • The C–Mn segregation leads to bay-like shaped C curve. • The C–Mn segregation leads to Fe–Mn–C Atomic Segregation Zone.

  4. Absence of External Electric-Field Effects on Transformations in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    12 2. Approximate CCT diagram for the high nickel composition used in the present measurements ...................................... 13 3...Main features of CCT diagram for 02 tool steel ........................ 14 4. DTA and THA data for the 3569C isothermal bainite transformation with...on the continuous-cooling-transformation ( CCT ) diagram obtained by examining transfor- mations in a 3.0 weight percent (wt.%) nickel specimen at

  5. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Lee, Weng Lan [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  6. Effect of Austempering Time on the Microstructure and Carbon Partitioning of Ultrahigh Strength Steel 56NiCrMoV7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanshun Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh strength steel 56NiCrMoV7 was austempered at 270 °C for different durations in order to investigate the microstructure evolution, carbon partitioning behaviour and hardness property. Detailed microstructure has been characterised using optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. A newly developed X-ray diffraction method has been employed to dissolve the bainitic/martensitic ferrite phase as two sub-phases of different tetragonal ratios, which provides quantitative analyses of the carbon partitioning between the resultant ferrites and the retained austenite. The results show that, a short-term austempering treatment was in the incubation period of the bainite transformation, which resulted in maximum hardness being equivalent to the oil-quenching treatment. The associated microstructure comprises fine carbide-free martensitic and bainitic ferrites of supersaturated carbon contents as well as carbon-rich retained austenite. In particular, the short-term austempering treatment helped prevent the formation of lengthy martensitic laths as those being found in the microstructure of oil-quenched sample. When the austempering time was increased from 20 to 80 min, progressive decrease of the hardness was associated with the evolution of the microstructure, including progressive coarsening of bainitic ferrite, carbide precipitating inside high-carbon bainitic ferrite and its subsequent decarbonisation.

  7. Microstructural aspects of crack formation and propagation in the austenitic steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under low cycle fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppa, E.; Kohler, C.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the crack initiation mechanisms and crack growth in apparently monolithic materials like X6CrNiNb18-10 stainless steel under cyclic loading requires the explicit analysis of the phenomena underlying fatigue on both atomistic and microscopic levels. The permanent delivery of mechanical energy through cyclic loading evokes changes in the microstructure that can lead to a martensitic transformation. The transformation of a metastable cubic face centered austenite and formation of a cubic body centered α'-martensite under cyclic loading at room temperature was found, both, in the experiment and in molecular dynamics simulations. The martensite nucleates prevalently at grain boundaries, triple points and at the specimen free surface and forms small (∝ 1 μm) differently oriented grains, also in the same parent austenitic grain. By a combination of interrupted low cycle fatigue tests (LCF) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements the martensitic transformation and subsequent fatigue crack formation were observed at the same area in the microstructure at different stages of the specimen lifetime. The EBSD measurements showed the following crack initiation scenarios: Cracks started (a) at the phase boundary between austenite and α'-martensite, (b) inside fully martensitic areas in the matrix, (c) at broken or debonded coarse NbCs. It is obvious that formation of a hard α'-martensite in a ductile and soft austenite and forming two-phase material causes a heterogeneous stress and strain distribution on the microscopic level. α'-martensite enhances locally the stress amplitude whereas in a soft austenite the plastic strain amplitude increases. Strain concentration in the austenite along the phase boundary is connected with a stress increase along the interface and can initiate fatigue crack there. Also at the crack tip, a permanent martensitic transformation occurs, so that the growth of the fatigue cracks at room temperature seems

  8. Microstructural aspects of crack formation and propagation in the austenitic steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under low cycle fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, E.; Kohler, C.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    The understanding of the crack initiation mechanisms and crack growth in apparently monolithic materials like X6CrNiNb18-10 stainless steel under cyclic loading requires the explicit analysis of the phenomena underlying fatigue on both atomistic and microscopic levels. The permanent delivery of mechanical energy through cyclic loading evokes changes in the microstructure that can lead to a martensitic transformation. The transformation of a metastable cubic face centered austenite and formation of a cubic body centered α'-martensite under cyclic loading at room temperature was found, both, in the experiment and in molecular dynamics simulations. The martensite nucleates prevalently at grain boundaries, triple points and at the specimen free surface and forms small (∝ 1 μm) differently oriented grains, also in the same parent austenitic grain. By a combination of interrupted low cycle fatigue tests (LCF) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements the martensitic transformation and subsequent fatigue crack formation were observed at the same area in the microstructure at different stages of the specimen lifetime. The EBSD measurements showed the following crack initiation scenarios: Cracks started (a) at the phase boundary between austenite and α'-martensite, (b) inside fully martensitic areas in the matrix, (c) at broken or debonded coarse NbCs. It is obvious that formation of a hard α'-martensite in a ductile and soft austenite and forming two-phase material causes a heterogeneous stress and strain distribution on the microscopic level. α'-martensite enhances locally the stress amplitude whereas in a soft austenite the plastic strain amplitude increases. Strain concentration in the austenite along the phase boundary is connected with a stress increase along the interface and can initiate fatigue crack there. Also at the crack tip, a permanent martensitic transformation occurs, so that the growth of the fatigue cracks at room

  9. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to ∼14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with ∼25% δ-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature

  10. Structure of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus-steel blades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical composition, structure, and hardness of samples of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus steels), namely, an Anosov bulat blade (1841), Obukhov bulat blade (1859), and a Shvetsov forged bulat-steel blank (crucible steel) have been investigated. The Anosov bulat possesses all signs of the classical Damascus steel; this is a hypereutectoid carbon steel with a structure formed from chains of carbides against the background of fine pearlite (troostite). A banded pattern is revealed on the surface of the blade. The Obukhov blade cannot be referred to classical Damascus steel. The pattern on the surface of the blade is absent, despite the fact that the initial steel is hypereutectoid. The structure of the blade does not correspond to the structure of classical Damascus steel; this is bainite with numerous cementite particles. The Shvetsov sample cannot be regarded as Damascus steel since it is made from a hypereutectoid steel alloyed by managanese and tungsten. The pattern on the surface of the metal is a consequence of the dendritic structure of the ingot which is developed during forging. The structure of this pattern differs from classical damascene pattern, since the latter is formed due to a specific arrangement of a variety of carbide particles against the pearlitic or some other background obtained during heat treatment.

  11. Effect of Al and N on the toughness of heavy section steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutake, Tetsuo; Tokunaga, Yoshikuni; Nakao, Hitoji; Ito, Kametaro; Takaishi, Shogo.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of Al and N on the notch toughness and tensile strength of heavy section pressure vessel steel plates is investigated. Notch toughness of steel A533B (Mn-Mo-Ni), which has mixed microstructure of ferrite and bainite, is drastically changed by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al. With metallurgical observations, it is revealed that AlN morphology is influenced by the ratio of sol.N/sol.Al through the level of solute Al(C Al ). At the heat treatment of heavy section steel plate, AlN shows OSTWALD ripening and its speed depends upon C Al . When Al is added (Al ≥ 0.010%) in steel and sol.N/sol.Al ≤ 0.5, C Al remains low. This prevents AlN ripening, and brings fine austenite grain size and high toughness. On the other hand, when sol.N/sol.Al Al becomes high and this gives poor toughness through coarse AlN precipitates and coarse austenite grain. Therefore, controll of sol.N/sol.Al over 0.5 is favorable to keep high toughness in A533B steel. In steel A387-22 (Cr-Mo) which has full bainitic microstructure, too fine austenite grain brings about poor hardenability, and polygonal ferrite, which brings about both poor strength and tughness, appears in microstructure. Then sol.N/sol.Al < 0.5 is better to give high hardenability in steel A387-22. (author)

  12. Microstructural Evolution of AerMet100 Steel Coating on 300M Steel Fabricated by Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Jia; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Huaming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the process of coating AerMet100 steel on forged 300M steel with laser cladding was investigated, with a thorough analysis of the chemical composition, microstructure, and hardness of the substrate and the cladding layer as well as the transition zone. Results show that the composition and microhardness of the cladding layer are macroscopically homogenous with the uniformly distributed bainite and a small amount of retained austenite in martensite matrix. The transition zone, which spans approximately 100 μm, yields a gradual change of composition from the cladding layer to 300M steel matrix. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) can be divided into three zones: the sufficiently quenched zone (SQZ), the insufficiently quenched zone (IQZ), and the high tempered zone (HTZ). The SQZ consists of martensitic matrix and bainite, as for the IQZ and the HTZ the microstructures are martensite + tempered martensite and tempered martensite + ferrite, respectively. These complicated microstructures in the HAZ are caused by different peak heating temperatures and heterogeneous microstructures of the as-received 300M steel.

  13. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B.; Pineau, A.

    1998-01-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc..) along prior γ grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate (V c ) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50 C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees; Pineau, A. [CNRS, Evry (France). Centre de Materiaux

    1998-11-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc..) along prior {gamma} grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate (V{sub c}) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50 C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed. (orig.) 11 refs.

  15. MANGO PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud as well as the main asexual propagation methods their uses and practices. Finally, pattern and quality of graft mangos and their commercialization aspects will be discussed in this Chapter.

  16. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  17. Real time neutron transmission investigation of the austenite-bainite transformation in grey iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggers, Kay; Priesmeyer, Hans G.; Trela, Walter J.; Bowman, Charles D.; Dahms, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The first successful application of a new method to investigate phase transformations in real time, like the decomposition of austenite into bainite in grey iron, is described. During the ongoing transformation, transmission spectra of thermal neutrons, which contain Bragg edges corresponding to the crystal structure of the transforming phases, are recorded. By evaluating the height of these Bragg edges, which is a measure of the volume fraction of the phase, at different transformation times, the transformation can be followed in-situ in a time resolved manner. The method is compared to other previously used methods (micrographs, dilatometry, diffraction techniques); also a summary and an outlook are given. ((orig.))

  18. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  20. A Weakest-Link Approach for Fatigue Limit of 30CrNiMo8 Steels (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    34Application of a Weakest-Link Concept to the Fatigue Limit of the Bearing Steel Sae 52100 in a Bainitic Condition," Fatigue and Fracture of...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4206 A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) S. Ekwaro-Osire and H.V. Kulkarni Texas...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT

  1. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Hong, Jun-Hwa; Kuk, Il-Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the unirradiated and irradiated microstructure. Microvickers hardness, indentation, and miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were 2 irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7x10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg. C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Band-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural. state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation(VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by

  2. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl. 3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kuk, Il Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Ban-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by conventional TEM. (author)

  3. Processing of a new high strength high toughness steel with duplex microstructure (Ferrite + Austenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martis, Codrick J.; Putatunda, Susil K.; Boileau, James

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This new steel has exceptional combination of high strength and fracture toughness. ► Austempering treatment resulted in a very fine scale bainitic ferrite microstructure. ► As the austempering temperature increases yield strength and toughness decreases. ► Maximum fracture toughness of 105 MPa √m is obtained after austempering at 371 °C. ► A relationship between fracture toughness and the parameter σ y (X γ C γ ) 1/2 was observed. - Abstract: In this investigation a new third generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) has been developed. This steel was synthesized by austempering of a low carbon and low alloy steel with high silicon content. The influence of austempering temperature on the microstructure and the mechanical properties including the fracture toughness of this steel was also examined. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile specimens were prepared from a low carbon low alloy steel and were initially austenitized at 927 °C for 2 h and then austempered in the temperature range between 371 °C and 399 °C to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography. Test results show that the austempering heat treatment has resulted in a microstructure consisting of very fine scale bainitic ferrite and austenite. A combination of very high tensile strength of 1388 MPa and fracture toughness of 105 MPa √m was obtained after austempering at 371 °C

  4. Study on the welding continuous cooling transformation and weldability of SA508Gr4 steel for nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Chen, Zhongyi

    2017-01-01

    SA508Gr4 is a newly developed high-strength steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Its welding characteristics remain largely unexplored. In this work, the simulated heat affected zone continuous cooling transformation (SH-CCT) diagram of SA508Gr4 steel was constructed and the high-temperature cooling phase compositions and the properties of the heat affected zone (HAZ) were characterized using dilatometry and microscopic tests. The results show that the phase transformation in the HAZ was divided into bainite and martensite transformation stages. When 4.6 ≤ t_8_/_5 (the HAZ cooling time from 800 C to 500 C) ≤ 15 s, lath-shaped martensite was fully developed, resulting in extensive hardening and cold cracking in the HAZ, while the cooling time required to form the bainite completely exceeds 1 200 s. Thus, to improve weld quality, preheating to 196 C or higher is recommended.

  5. Study on the welding continuous cooling transformation and weldability of SA508Gr4 steel for nuclear pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Chen, Zhongyi [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Material and Metallurgy; Kang, Xiaolan [Baotou Vocational and Technical College (China)

    2017-02-15

    SA508Gr4 is a newly developed high-strength steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Its welding characteristics remain largely unexplored. In this work, the simulated heat affected zone continuous cooling transformation (SH-CCT) diagram of SA508Gr4 steel was constructed and the high-temperature cooling phase compositions and the properties of the heat affected zone (HAZ) were characterized using dilatometry and microscopic tests. The results show that the phase transformation in the HAZ was divided into bainite and martensite transformation stages. When 4.6 ≤ t{sub 8/5} (the HAZ cooling time from 800 C to 500 C) ≤ 15 s, lath-shaped martensite was fully developed, resulting in extensive hardening and cold cracking in the HAZ, while the cooling time required to form the bainite completely exceeds 1 200 s. Thus, to improve weld quality, preheating to 196 C or higher is recommended.

  6. Ferrite morphology and residual phases in continuously cooled low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted on the isothermal transformation products of medium to high carbon hardenable steels, relatively little has been reported for transformation of low carbon structural steels under continuous cooling conditions. The trend towards reduced carbon levels (less than about 0.1 wt% C) has been driven by demands for formability and weldability, challenging steel designers to maintain strength by microalloying and/or thermomechanical controlled processing. Although control of the ferritic products formed in low carbon steels after hot rolling, normalising and welding is essential in order to ensure adequate strength and toughness, understanding of the microstructures formed on continuous cooling is still limited. In addition, transformation mechanisms remain controversial because of polarisation of researchers into groups championing diffusional and displacive theories for the transformation of austenite over a wide range of cooling rates. The present review compares and draws together the main ferrite classification schemes, and discusses some critical issues on kinetics and mechanisms, in an attempt to rationalise the effects of cooling rate, prior austenite structure and composition on the resulting ferrite structure and its mechanical properties. It is concluded that with increasing cooling rate the ferritic product becomes finer, more plate-like, more dislocated, more carbon supersaturated, more likely to be formed by a displacive mechanism, harder and stronger. Other conclusions are that: (i) 'bainitic ferrite', which is a pervasive form of ferrite in continuously cooled low carbon steels, is different from the conventional upper and lower bainites observed in higher carbon steels, insofar as the co-product 'phase' is typically martensite-austenite islands rather than cementite; and (ii) low carbon bainite rather than martensite is the dominant product at typical fast cooling rates (<500K/s) associated with commercial

  7. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  8. Dual-phase ULCB steels thermomechanically processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.

    2001-01-01

    The design philosophy of the processing of dual-phase (D-P) ultra low carbon steels (ULCB) by thermomechanical treatment has been briefly discussed. Modelling of the structure evolution during thermomechanical rolling of ULCB steel was based upon the established empirical equations for yield flow at different conditions of: deformation temperatures, strain rates and stresses for applied amount of deformation during hot deformation compression tests. The critical amount of deformation needed for the occurrence of dynamic or static recrystallization was determined. The dependence of grain refinement of the acicular bainitic and polygonal ferrite of the accelerated cooling and amount of stored energy of deformation in steel has been evaluated. Effect of the decreasing of the finishing temperature of thermomechanical processing on the increase of the impact toughness of dual-phase microstructure consisted of the bainitie-martensite islands in the ferrite matrix has been shown. The effect of ageing process after thermomechanical rolling of heavy plates on fracture toughness values of J 0.2 for ULCB-Ni steels has been established from cod tests measurements. New low cost technology of rolling of ULCB steels dual-phase is proposed. (author)

  9. Partial transformation of austenite in Al-Mn-Si TRIP steel upon tensile straining: an in situ EBSD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Nybo; Adachi, Y.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite in an Al–Mn–Si transformation-induced plasticity steel was investigated with in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements under tensile straining. The visualisation of the microstructure upon straining allows for an investigation...... to be more stable than large grains, while austenite grains located beside bainitic ferrite are the most stable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that austenite grains transform gradually...

  10. Crack Resistance of Welded Joints of Pipe Steels of Strength Class K60 of Different Alloying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld. The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system.

  11. FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL INTENDED FOR COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gejza Rosenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work, there are presented measured tension and fatigue properties of eight low-carbon steels moulded in form of 20 kg ingots that were processed by controlled regime of rolling /cooling and then exposed to simulated effect of two coiling temperatures. The experimental results presented in the work show, that steels with ferrite-martensite or ferrite-bainitic microstructure have in comparison to ferrite-pearlitic or ferrite-carbidic microstructure better strength-plastic properties, but worse resistance to cyclic loading.

  12. Evaluation of factors affecting the edge formability of two hot rolled multiphase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Monideepa; Tiwari, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of various factors on the hole expansion ratio and hence on the edge formability of two hot rolled multiphase steels, one with a ferrite-martensite microstructure and the other with a ferrite-bainite microstructure, was investigated through systematic microstructural and mechanical characterization. The study revealed that the microstructure of the steels, which determines their strain hardening capacity and fracture resistance, is the principal factor controlling edge formability. The influence of other factors such as tensile strength, ductility, anisotropy, and thickness, though present, are secondary. A critical evaluation of the available empirical models for hole expansion ratio prediction is also presented.

  13. Laser cut hole matrices in novel armour plate steel for appliqué battlefield vehicle protection

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    During this research, experimental rolled homogeneous armour steel was cast, annealed and laser cut to form an appliqué plate. This Martensitic–Bainitic microstructure steel grade was used to test a novel means of engineering lightweight armour. It was determined that a laser cutting speed of 1200 mm/min produced optimum hole formations with limited distortion. The array of holes acts as a double-edged solution, in that they provide weight saving of 45%, providing a protective advantage and i...

  14. Hot working effect on austenite transformations in structural steel in continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajmovskij, V.A.; Kisteh, N.V.; Samedov, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    Austenite transformations in 40, 40Kh, 40KhN and 40KhNMA steels under hot working at 900 deg C with 20% reduction degree and continuous cooling with 1,7-16 0 /s are investigated. Changing of cooling rate in various ways affects the temperature range of austenite transformation in pearlite and bainite regions. Regulating the cooling rate after hot working one can essentially change the impact strength and steel ductility as a result of high temperature thermomechanical treatment effect

  15. Effect of Morphological Differences on the Cold Formability of an Isothermally Heat-Treated Advanced High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißensteiner, Irmgard; Suppan, Clemens; Hebesberger, Thomas; Winkelhofer, Florian; Clemens, Helmut; Maier-Kiener, Verena

    2018-04-01

    Steel sheets of Fe-0.2C-2Mn-0.2Si-0.03Ti-0.003B (m%) for the automotive industry were isothermally heat-treated, comprising austenitizing and subsequent isothermal annealing at temperatures between 300°C and 500°C. As a consequence, microstructures ranging from granular bainite over lower bainite to auto-tempered and untempered martensite were obtained. In tensile, hole expansion and bending tests, the performances in different forming conditions were compared and the changes of microstructure and texture were studied by complementary electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Samples with granular bainitic microstructures exhibited high total elongations but lower hole expansion ratios; in subsequent EBSD and texture analyses, evidence for inhomogeneous deformation was found. In contrast, the lath-like bainitic/martensitic microstructure showed higher strength and lower elongation to fracture. This results in a reduced bendability, but also in a high tolerance against damage induced by the shearing of edges, and, thus, allows homogeneous deformation to higher strains in the hole expansion test.

  16. Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

  17. The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Carpenter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nb on the hardenability of ultra-thin cast strip (UCS steels produced via the unique regime of rapid solidification, large austenite grain size, and inclusion engineering of the CASTRIP© process was investigated. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams were constructed for 0, 0.014, 0.024, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 wt% Nb containing UCS steels. Phase nomenclature for the identification of lower transformation product in low carbon steels was reviewed. Even a small addition of 0.014 wt% Nb showed a potent effect on hardenability, shifting the ferrite C-curve to the right and expanding the bainitic ferrite and acicular ferrite phase fields. Higher Nb additions increased hardenability further, suppressed the formation of ferrite to even lower cooling rates, progressively lowered the transformation start and finish temperatures and promoted the transformation of bainite instead of acicular ferrite. The latter was due to Nb suppressing the formation of allotriomorphic ferrite and allowing bainite to nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries, a lower energy site than that for the intragranular nucleation of acicular ferrite at inclusions. Strength and hardness increased with increasing Nb additions, largely due to microstructural strengthening and solid solution hardening, but not from precipitation hardening.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical characterization of friction stir welded high strength low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, R., E-mail: rameshsmit@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, Tamilnadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006, Gauteng (South Africa); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Akinlabi, E.T., E-mail: etakinlabi@uj.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006, Gauteng (South Africa)

    2017-02-27

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technique to join HSLA steels without the problems encountered during fusion based welding processes. In the present work, 3 mm thick HSLA plates were successfully welded using FSW. A tool made of tungsten-rhenium alloy was used in this work. The relationship between microstructure and tensile strength was studied under various welding conditions i.e. change in traverse speed (57–97 mm/min). The microstructure of the weld nugget revealed the presence of upper bainite and fine ferrite phases. The amount of upper bainite reduced with increase in traverse speed. EBSD images showed a reducing trend for grain size. The details of hardness, tensile strength and bending test were reported.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical characterization of friction stir welded high strength low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Dinaharan, I.; Kumar, Ravi; Akinlabi, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technique to join HSLA steels without the problems encountered during fusion based welding processes. In the present work, 3 mm thick HSLA plates were successfully welded using FSW. A tool made of tungsten-rhenium alloy was used in this work. The relationship between microstructure and tensile strength was studied under various welding conditions i.e. change in traverse speed (57–97 mm/min). The microstructure of the weld nugget revealed the presence of upper bainite and fine ferrite phases. The amount of upper bainite reduced with increase in traverse speed. EBSD images showed a reducing trend for grain size. The details of hardness, tensile strength and bending test were reported.

  20. Multiphase Microstructure in a Metastability-Assisted Medium Carbon Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Cui, Xixi; Yang, Chen

    2018-05-01

    A medium carbon alloy steel is processed by austenizing at 900 °C for 30 min, then rapid quenching into a patented quenching liquid and holding at 170 °C for 5 min, finally isothermally holding at 250 °C for different times. The morphology and mechanical properties are performed by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A multiphase microstructure characterized by a mixture of lenticular prior martensite (PM), fine needle bainitic ferrite and filmy retained austenite (RA) is obtained. It is found that the PM formed firstly upon quenching can accelerate the subsequent bainitic transformation and promote refinement of multiphase colonies. The results show that an optimum mechanical property of a 4000.9 MPa bending strength and a 2030 MPa tensile strength is achieved at 250 °C for 120 min, which is attributed to the multiphase microstructural characteristics and a high product of the volume fraction of RA and the carbon content of austenite.

  1. Application of Moessbauer effect to the study of austenite retained in low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de; Silva, E.G. da

    1979-01-01

    Moessbauer effect measurements were performed in two samples of low carbon, low alloy steels, one with a bainite granular microstructure and the other a martensitic one. The concentration of the retained austenite was determined in both samples by Moessbauer spectrometry and X radiation, a very good agreement for the sample with a greater austenite content having been observed. From the assumption that the carbon atoms in the f.c.c. matrix repel one another due to Coulomb interactions, giving origin to quadrupolar interactions, it was possible to determine carbon concentration in the MA (Martensite Austenite) components of bainite, the results being in good agreement with the one obtained from metallographic considerations. (I.C.R.) [pt

  2. Microstructure–hardness relationship in the fusion zone of TRIP steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.S.; Baltazar Hernandez, V.H.; Okita, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fusion zone of TRIP steels in resistance spot welding was analyzed. ► Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for characterizing microstructure. ► Fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on the chemistry. ► Hardness values were in accordance with the microstructural constituents in the fusion zone. - Abstract: Fusion zone of three TRIP steels, categorized as AT: C–Mn–Al, AST: C–Mn–Al–Si and ST: C–Mn–Si, in resistance spot welding was characterized with respect to microstructure, phase analysis, and hardness. The fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on chemistry: (i) AT steel contained ferrite phase surrounded by bainite and martensite regions, (ii) AST steel showed a bainite structures along with martensite laths and interlath retained austenite, whereas (iii) ST steel constituted single phase martensite laths with interlath austenite. X-ray diffraction study indicated that retained austenite fraction in the fusion zone increases with increase in Si content in it. The AST fusion zone hardness lies between those of the AT and ST steels; the ST fusion zone hardness was higher than that of AT steel because of the single phase martensite microstructure. Comparison of fusion zone microstructure and hardness to earlier study on laser welding of the TRIP steels with similar chemistries revealed that higher cooling rate in resistance spot welding led to higher fusion zone hardness compared to laser welding; which was attributed either to decrease in softer ferrite phase (AT steel) in the microstructure or refinement of martensite laths (ST steel).

  3. Coupled gamma/alpha phase transformations in low-carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yasushi

    Since steels have been the most prevalently utilized materials for many years, the desire for steels with low alloying components with a well-balanced combination of high strength and toughness is increasing. Low carbon steels consisting of bainitic microstructures are ideally suited to meeting such technological and economic requirements. Thus it is extremely important to fully clarify the mechanism of bainite formation in order to produce this type of engineering steel by optimized alloy and process design. This research focuses on understanding the mechanism of coupled displacive/diffusional gamma/alpha transformation in low-carbon steels including bainitic and martensitic transformation, and establishing a more comprehensive and physically rational computational model for predictive control of coupled gamma/alpha transformation phenomena. Models for coupled gamma/alpha phase transformation proposed in this study are based on a mechanistic and unified theory and the following assumptions: (1) The energy dissipation due to interface motion can be linearly combined with the energy dissipation due to carbon diffusion. (2) The carbon concentrations at the interface in both gamma and alpha phases are constrained by an interface solute trapping law. (3) Interface motion during nucleation is also governed by the carbon diffusion field velocity. (4) The response function of glissile interface motion can be expressed in the form of thermally activated dislocation glide. In contrast to the conventional semi-empirical models of the previous literature, the computational model proposed in this study is demonstrated to successfully provide a comprehensive and quantitative prediction of the effects of temperature, composition, microstructure, and the interactions among them. This includes the effects of substitutional solutes, morphology of the parent gamma phase, density of nucleation sites, temperature dependent variation of flow stress of matrix, and dynamic recovery of

  4. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  5. Effect of cooling conditions on the magnetic properties of bainite transformation in an Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, S.; Akturk, S.; Talas, S.; Aktas, H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cooling conditions on the magnetic properties of bainitic reaction in Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Cr alloy have been investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy. Results showed that the bainite phase is magnetically ordered and the amount of magnetic bainite increases by decrease in grain size or increase in cooling rate. It is also shown that the retained austenite has paramagnetic behavior. The morphology of the alloy has been analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in heat-treated specimens at different cooling rates. In addition, the bainite start (B s ) and finish (B f ) temperatures and reverse transformation start (A s ) and finish (A f ) temperatures have been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system for different heat treatment conditions

  6. Phase Transformations During Cooling of Automotive Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Matthew C.

    This thesis explores the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and phases in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the manufacturing of automobiles, the primary joining mechanism for steel is resistance spot welding (RSW), a process that produces a high heat input and rapid cooling in the welded metal. The effect of RSW on the microstructure of these material systems is critical to understanding their mechanical properties. A dual phase steel, DP-600, and a transformation induced plasticity bainitic-ferritic steel, TBF-1180, were studied to assess the changes to their microstructure that take place in controlled cooling environments and in uncontrolled cooling environments, i.e. resistance spot welding. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were developed using strip specimens of DP-600 and TBF-1180 to determine the phase transformations that occur as a function of cooling rate. The resulting phases were determined using a thermal-mechanical simulator and dilatometry, combined with light optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The resulting phases were compared with RSW specimens where cooling rate was controlled by varying the welding time for two-plate welds. Comparisons were drawn between experimental welds of DP-600 and simulations performed using a commercial welding software. The type and quantity of phases present after RSW were examined using a variety of techniques, including light optical microscopy using several etchants, hardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction (XRD).

  7. A Critical Analysis of Grain-Size and Yield-Strength Dependence of Near-Threshold Fatigue-Crack Growth in Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-15

    of high-strength steel ), and a host of microstructural types (ferritic, martensitic, pearlitic, bainitic , austenitic). Accession For NTIS GRA&l DTIC...IN STEELS , : RPRNGO.RPRTNMR 1~A Tw.R CONTRACT OA4A&XMUt8~ G/~ ! R./koderl L.A./Cooleyad T.W./Crooker 2 .{I 9PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND A10R4SI...growth Steels Microstructure Ferrous alloys Structure-sensitive crack growth 20 ABSTRACT (Con~tinue an r*,er.. side it necesar and Identity by black

  8. Effect of high-temperature water and hydrogen on the fracture behavior of a low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Seifert, H.-P.; Spätig, P.; Que, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is critical for safety and lifetime. Possible degradation of fracture resistance of RPV steel due to exposure to coolant and hydrogen is a concern. In this study tensile and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) tests in air (hydrogen pre-charged) and EFPM tests in hydrogenated/oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) was done, using a low-alloy RPV steel. 2–5 wppm hydrogen caused embrittlement in air tensile tests at room temperature (25 °C) and at 288 °C, effects being more significant at 25 °C and in simulated weld coarse grain heat affected zone material. Embrittlement at 288 °C is strain rate dependent and is due to localized plastic deformation. Hydrogen pre-charging/HTW exposure did not deteriorate the fracture resistance at 288 °C in base metal, for investigated loading rate range. Clear change in fracture morphology and deformation structures was observed, similar to that after air tests with hydrogen. - Highlights: • Hydrogen content, microstructure of LAS, and strain rate affects tensile properties at 288 °C. • Strength affects hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility to a greater extent than grain size. • Hydrogen in LAS leads to strain localization and restricts cross-slip at 288 °C. • Possible hydrogen pickup due to exposure to 288 °C water alters fracture surface appearance without affecting fracture toughness in bainitic base material. • Simulated weld heat affected zone microstructure shows unstable crack propagation in 288 °C water.

  9. Effect of high-temperature water and hydrogen on the fracture behavior of a low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, S., E-mail: sroy27@gmail.com [Paul Scherrer Institut, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland); Materials Processing & Corrosion Engineering Division, Mod-Lab, D-Block, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Seifert, H.-P.; Spätig, P.; Que, Z. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    Structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is critical for safety and lifetime. Possible degradation of fracture resistance of RPV steel due to exposure to coolant and hydrogen is a concern. In this study tensile and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) tests in air (hydrogen pre-charged) and EFPM tests in hydrogenated/oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) was done, using a low-alloy RPV steel. 2–5 wppm hydrogen caused embrittlement in air tensile tests at room temperature (25 °C) and at 288 °C, effects being more significant at 25 °C and in simulated weld coarse grain heat affected zone material. Embrittlement at 288 °C is strain rate dependent and is due to localized plastic deformation. Hydrogen pre-charging/HTW exposure did not deteriorate the fracture resistance at 288 °C in base metal, for investigated loading rate range. Clear change in fracture morphology and deformation structures was observed, similar to that after air tests with hydrogen. - Highlights: • Hydrogen content, microstructure of LAS, and strain rate affects tensile properties at 288 °C. • Strength affects hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility to a greater extent than grain size. • Hydrogen in LAS leads to strain localization and restricts cross-slip at 288 °C. • Possible hydrogen pickup due to exposure to 288 °C water alters fracture surface appearance without affecting fracture toughness in bainitic base material. • Simulated weld heat affected zone microstructure shows unstable crack propagation in 288 °C water.

  10. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  11. Effect of liquid metal embrittlement on low cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior of a modified 9Cr–1Mo ferritic–martensitic steel in an oxygen-controlled lead–bismuth eutectic environment at 350 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xing, E-mail: gongxingzfl@hotmail.com [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Box 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Marmy, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.marmy@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Qin, Ling, E-mail: Ling.Qin@mtm.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Box 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Verlinden, Bert, E-mail: Bert.Verlinden@mtm.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Box 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Wevers, Martine, E-mail: Martine.Wevers@mtm.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Box 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Seefeldt, Marc, E-mail: Marc.Seefeldt@mtm.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Box 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2014-11-17

    The low cycle fatigue properties of a modified 9Cr–1Mo ferritic–martensitic steel (T91) have been tested in stagnant liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) with oxygen concentrations ranging from 1.16×10{sup −6} to 6.0×10{sup −10} wt% at 350 °C. The effect of liquid metal embrittlement (LME) on fatigue endurance, fatigue crack propagation modes and secondary cracking has been studied. The results showed that the fatigue lives of T91 steel in a low oxygen concentration LBE were drastically reduced compared to those in vacuum due to the presence of LME. The microstructural observations on the fatigue crack propagation modes revealed that fatigue cracks in LBE mainly propagate across prior-austenite grain boundaries and then cut through martensitic lath boundaries, simultaneously leaving a few plastic flow traces and characteristic brittle features. Intergranular and interlath cracking occurred occasionally and their occurrence depended on the orientation of the boundaries relative to the stress axis. The complexity of the LME-induced fracture features can be attributed to a mixture of the multiple failure modes. No obvious plastic shear strain localization was present around the crack tips when LME occurred. However, using a high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique, highly localized plastic shear strain was observed in the vicinity of the crack tips in vacuum, manifested by the presence of very fine subgrains along the crack walls. A qualitative mechanism was proposed to account for the LME phenomenon in the T91/LBE system. In addition, the secondary cracking at fatigue striations was different in the presence of LBE compared to vacuum. This phenomenon was elucidated by taking into account the influence of the LME on the fatigue crack propagation rate.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, I.

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design. (Author)

  13. Effect of microstructure on the sulphide stress cracking susceptibility of a high strength pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)], E-mail: ggonzalez@uaem.mx; Torres-Islas, A.; Serna, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Campillo, B. [Intituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Facultad de Quimicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Dominguez-Patino, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Juarez-Islas, J.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The sulphide stress cracking (SSC) susceptibility of a newly developed high strength microalloyed steel with three different microstructures has been evaluated using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. Studies were complemented with potentiodynamic polarization curves and hydrogen permeation measurements. Material included a C-Mn steel having Ni, Cu, and Mo as main microalloying elements with three microstructures: martensitic, ferritic and ferritic + bainitic. Testing temperatures included 25, 50, 70 and 90 deg. C. Detailed SEM observations of the microstructure and fracture surfaces were done to identify possible degradation mechanisms. The results showed that in all cases, the corrosion rate, number of hydrogen atoms at the surface and the percentage reduction in area increased with temperature. The steel with a martensitic microstructure had the highest SSC susceptibility at all temperatures, whereas the ferritic steels were susceptible only at 25 deg. C, and the most likely mechanism is hydrogen embrittlement assisted by anodic dissolution.

  14. Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600 0 C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity

  15. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels. The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.

  16. Thermal stability of retained austenite in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, N.H. van; Butt, A.M.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S.E.; Wright, J.P.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2005-01-01

    We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements at a synchrotron source in order to study the thermal stability of the retained austenite phase in transformation induced plasticity steels during cooling from room temperature to 100 K. A powder analysis of the diffraction data reveals a martensitic transformation of part of the retained austenite during cooling. The fraction of austenite that transforms during cooling is found to depend strongly on the bainitic holding time and the composition of the steel. It is shown that that austenite grains with a lower average carbon concentration have a lower stability during cooling

  17. Effects of retained austenite volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content on strength and ductility of nanostructured TRIP-assisted steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.F., E-mail: shenyf@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), Northeastern University, 3 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110004 (China); Qiu, L.N. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), Northeastern University, 3 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110004 (China); Sun, X. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Zuo, L. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), Northeastern University, 3 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 8, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-06-11

    With a suite of multi-modal and multi-scale characterization techniques, the present study unambiguously proves that a substantially-improved combination of ultrahigh strength and good ductility can be achieved by tailoring the volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of the retained austenite (RA) in a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel with the nominal chemical composition of 0.19C–0.30Si–1.76Mn–1.52Al (weight percent, wt%). After intercritical annealing and bainitic holding, a combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1100 MPa and true strain of 50% has been obtained, as a result of the ultrafine RA lamellae, which are alternately arranged in the bainitic ferrite around junction regions of ferrite grains. For reference, specimens with a blocky RA, prepared without the bainitic holding, yield a low ductility (35%) and a low UTS (800 MPa). The volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of RA have been characterized using various techniques, including the magnetic probing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-backscatter-diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interrupted tensile tests, mapped using EBSD in conjunction with the kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis, reveal that the lamellar RA is the governing microstructure component responsible for the higher mechanical stability, compared to the blocky one. By coupling these various techniques, we quantitatively demonstrate that in addition to the RA volume fraction, its morphology and carbon content are equally important in optimizing the strength and ductility of TRIP-assisted steels.

  18. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  19. Unirradiated cladding rip-propagation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.; Hunter, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    The size of cladding rips which develop when a fuel pin fails can affect the subassembly cooling and determine how rapidly fuel escapes from the pin. The object of the Cladding Rip Propagation Test (CRPT) was to quantify the failure development of cladding so that a more realistic fuel pin failure modeling may be performed. The test results for unirradiated 20% CS 316 stainless steel cladding show significantly different rip propagation behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, the rip growth is stable as the rip extension increases monotonically with the applied deformation. At 500 0 C, the rip propagation becomes unstable after a short period of stable rip propagation. The rapid propagation rate is approximately 200 m/s, and the critical rip length is 9 mm. At test temperatures above 850 0 C, the cladding exhibits very high failure resistances, and failure occurs by multiple cracking at high cladding deformation. 13 figures

  20. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  1. Fatigue crack propagation behavior under creep conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Kiyotsugu; Kubo, Shiro

    1991-01-01

    The crack propagation behavior of the SUS 304 stainless steel under creep-fatigue conditions was reviewed. Cracks propagated either in purely time-dependent mode or in purely cycle-dependent mode, depending on loading conditions. The time-dependent crack propagation rate was correlated with modified J-integral J * and the cycle-dependent crack propagation rate was correlated with J-integral range ΔJ f . Threshold was observed in the cycle-dependent crack propagation, and below this threshold the time-dependent crack propagation appeared. The crack propagation rates were uniquely characterized by taking the effective values of J * and ΔJ f , when crack closure was observed. Change in crack propagation mode occurred reversibly and was predicted by the competitive damage model. The threshold disappeared and the cycle-dependent crack propagation continued in a subthreshold region under variable amplitude conditions, where the threshold was interposed between the maximum and minimum ΔJ f . (orig.)

  2. Microstructure and wear behavior of austempered high carbon high silicon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Palaksha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the influence of austempering temperature and time on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of high silicon steel was studied. The test specimens were initially austenitised at 900°C for 30 minutes, thereafter austempered at various temperatures 280°C, 360°C and 400°C, for varying duration from 30 to 120 minutes. These samples after austempering heat treatment were subsequently air cooled to room temperature, to generate typical ausferritic microstructures and then correlated with the wear property. The test outcomes demonstrate the slight increase in specific wear rate with increase in both austempering temperature and time. Specific wear rate was found to be minimum at an austempering temperature of 280°C, that exhibits lower bainite microstructure with high hardness, on the other hand specific wear rate was found to be slightly high at increased austempering temperatures at 360°C and 400°C, due to the upper bainite structure that offered lower hardness to the matrix. The sample austempered at 280°C for 30 minutes offered superior wear resistance when compared to other austempering conditions, mainly due to the presence of fine acicular bainitic ferrite along with stabilized retained austenite and also some martensite in the microstructure.

  3. Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.F., E-mail: shenyf@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Y.D. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Sun, X. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Wang, Y.D.; Zuo, L. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C–0.30Si–1.76Mn–1.52Al (weight percentage, wt%) have been treated by intercritical annealing and austempering process. The microstructures of the obtained samples consist of the ferrite, the bainite and the retained austenite phase. The volume fractions of the bainite and the retained austenite gradually increase with increasing the temperature of the intercritical annealing. Consequently, significantly different mechanical properties have been observed. The sample annealed at 820 °C (for 120 s) and partitioned at 400 °C (for 300 s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, ∼682 MPa) and elongation to failure (∼70%) with about 26% of bainitic ferrite plates and 17% retained austenite in its microstructure. The retained austenite has a lamella morphology with 100‒300 nm in thickness and 2‒5 µm in length. On the contrary, the sample annealed at the same temperature without the partitioning process yields much lower UTS and elongation to failure.

  4. Orientation relationship in Eurofer martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, F.; De Carlan, Y.; Bechade, J.L.; Fournier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Both TEM and SEM/EBSD orientation measurements are carried out on a Eurofer97 martensitic steel. The influence of the prior austenitic grain size is studied using dedicated heat treatments. The intra laths misorientation is estimated by TEM. SEM/EBSD orientation mapping enable to study the actual orientation relationship (OR) between the parent austenitic phase and the martensitic phase. Neither the Nishiyama-Wasserman nor the Kurdjumov-Sachs OR is able to account for both the misorientation angle distributions, the pole figure and the misorientation axes measured. The mixed OR recently proposed by Gourgues et al. (Electron backscattering diffraction study of acicular ferrite, bainite, and martensite steel microstructures, Mater. Sci. Tech. 16 (2000), p. 26-40.) and Sonderegger et al. (Martensite laths in creep resistant martensitic 9-12% Cr steels - Calculation and measurement of misorientations, Mater. Characterization (2006), in Press.) seems to be able to account for most of these results. Based on this OR, a new angular criterion is proposed to detect blocks of laths. (authors)

  5. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung, E-mail: shirimp@kaist.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang [Nuclear Materials Research Division, KAERI, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Wee, Dang-Moon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T{sub 0} determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  6. Perspectives of using Q&P-heat treatment process for improving complex of mechanical properties of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Георгійович Єфременко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign publications on the influence of modes Q&P (quenching and partitioning heat treatment on mechanica